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Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design Page 1 of 10

Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design


An oil reservoir has been discovered in the North Sea. A vertical well has been drilled, a test string
inserted and flow characteristics measured. Fluid properties at stock tank and laboratory conditions
have been obtained. Reservoir simulations have been performed to predict the change in watercut
over the field life. The reservoir pressure will be maintained by water injection and the preference
is to avoid the use of artificial lift methods. The engineer is asked to perform the following tasks:

l Develop a blackoil model to match the laboratory data. It is necessary to develop a method
of predicting the fluid physical properties so that the pressure losses and heat transfer
characteristics can be calculated.
l Develop a well inflow performance model applicable throughout field life. This provides a
relationship between the reservoir pressure, the flowing bottom hole pressure and flowrate
through the formation.
l Select a suitable tubing size for the production string.
l Engineering data.

Task 1. Develop a Calibrated Blackoil Model


No analysis work can be carried out until a blackoil fluid model has been developed. This allows all
of the fluid physical properties to be estimated over the range of pressures and temperatures
encountered by the fluid. These physical properties are subsequently used to determine the phases
present, the flow regime, the pressure losses in single and multiphase flow regions, and the heat
transferred to or from the surroundings. The following steps are to be carried out:

l Obtain a partially calibrated blackoil model using the stock tank and bubble point properties.
l Plot the partially calibrated oil formation volume factor (OFVF) over a range of pressures and
temperatures to identify any differences between the measured and the predicted
properties. Any discrepancies will lead to fluid flow modelling errors.
l Apply calibration to the OFVF above the bubble point pressure and observe how the property
curves are corrected.
l Apply calibration to the OFVF below the bubble point pressure and observe how the property
curves are corrected.
l Apply calibration to the oil viscosity using first the measured dead oil data and then further
tuning with live oil data.
l Apply calibration to the gas viscosity and the gas compressibility.

1. After starting PIPESIM use the <File/new/well> menu to open a new well performance
model and save this in your training directory (for example, c:\training\...).
2. Use the <Setup/blackoil...> menu to enter the stock tank oil properties and the bubble point
properties given at the end of the case study. Help on the definitions and valid ranges of
these stock tank properties can be obtained by selecting the button from the dialog
header bar and clicking on the relevant data entry field.
3. Press the OKbutton and save the model.
4. Use the <Setup/blackoil/advanced calibration data>menu and press the plot PVT
data...button. (Note: do not enter the advanced calibration data at this stage).
5. Use the <Series> menu to plot the oil formation volume factor on the y axis.

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The following plot should be obtained:

The partially calibrated curve for a temperature of 210 °F shows that the predicted OFVF is higher
than the measured value both above and below the bubble point pressure. At 4,269 psia the
predicted value is 1.52 compared to the measured value of 1.49 and at 2,000 psia the predicted
value is 1.41 compared to the measured value of 1.38. Therefore further calibration is required.

Calibration
1. Apply OFVF calibration above the bubble point pressure. The measured value is 1.49 @
4,269 psia and 210 °F. The following plot should be obtained:

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2. Apply OFVF calibration below the bubble point pressure. The measured value is 1.38 @
2,000 psia and 210 °F. The following plot should be obtained:

Calibration of the oil viscosity requires two dead oil data points. The uncalibrated default
approach is to use the Beggs and Robinson correlation which gives values of 1.561 cP @

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200°F and 23.27 cP @°70°F. The Beggs and Robinson correlation uses the oil API gravity to
predict two dead oil data points based upon data obtained from around 2,000 data points
from 600 oil systems.
3. Plot the uncalibrated oil viscosity. The following plots should be obtained:

In this case it can be seen that the predicted oil viscosity value at a temperature of 70°F and
14.7 psia is 23.27 cP as specified by the Beggs & Robinson correlation. This is significantly
different from the measured dead oil data and would lead to errors in the prediction of
pressure loss.
4. Open the <Setup/blackoil/viscosity data>menu and select the correlation option "user data".
Enter the two measured values of 0.31 cP @ 200°F and 0.8 cP @ 70°F. The following plot
should be obtained:

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It can be seen that the predicted oil viscosity value at a temperature of 70°F and 14.7 psia
is 0.8 cP consistent with the laboratory dead oil data.
5. Open the <setup/blackoil/advanced calibration data>menu and enter the live oil calibration
data of 0.29 cP@ 2,000 psia and 210°F. The following plot should be obtained:

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It can be seen that the predicted oil viscosity value at a temperature of 210°F and 2000 psia
is 0.29 cP consistent with the laboratory live oil data.
6. Proceed to calibrate the gas viscosity and the gas compressibility using the calibration data
given earlier.

Task 2. Develop a Well Inflow Performance Model


A straight line productivity index (PI) method is considered adequate in this case because the fluid
flows into the completion at a pressure considerably above the bubble point and no gas comes out
of solution at this stage. This applies throughout field life and the productivity index is not expected
to change. The PI will not be affected by changes to the reservoir pressure because the reservoir
pressure is to be maintained by water injection. The PI will not be affected by changes to the
watercut through field life because the oil and water have similar mobilities in this reservoir
structure. The following step is to be carried out:

l Use the drill string test data to obtain a representative productivity index.

First it is necessary to add a vertical completion to the model. This is done by pointing and clicking
on the vertical completion button at the top of the screen and then pointing and clicking in the
work area. A vertical completion appears asshown below.

vertical completion button vertical completion


Double click on the vertical completion in the work area to enter data relevant to that item. Enter
the static reservoir pressure of 4,269 psia and the reservoir temperature of 210°F. Press the
"calculate/graph..." button and enter the drill string test data given below. Press the "plot IPR"
button and this will calculate a productivity index to be used throughout the analysis work.

Task 3. Select a Tubing Size for the Production String


Find the smallest tubing size that will allow this production plan to be met on the basis that the
production string will not be replaced during field life. The tubing sizes available are 31/2", 41/2" or
51/2" for which the I.D.'s are 2.992", 3.958" and 4.892".
This can be determined as follows:

l Use the systems analysis operation to generate a plot of oil flowrate against watercut for
each of the three tubing sizes.
l Overlay the production plan data and identify the smallest size that allows this plan to be
met.

First it is necessary to extend the model to include a tubing string.

1. Add a boundary node to the model by pointing and clicking on the boundary node button at
the top of the screen and then pointing and clicking in the work area:

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boundary node button boundary node

2. Then use the tubing button to connect the well to the boundary node: tubing button

Completed Model

Note that the red outline indicates that essential data is missing for that component. Double click
on the tubing to enter the well depth and the tubing thickness, roughness, overall heat transfer
coefficient and ambient thermal gradient.

1. Select the <Operations/systems analysis> menu and setup the operation so that the
calculated variable is liquid rate. The x axis variable is watercut with values of 0, 12, 20,35,
40, 47, 54 and 60%, representing the various stages of field life. The sensitivity variable is
tubing I.D. with values of 2.992", 3.958" and 4.892".
2. Configure the output to give the water cut against the stock-tank oil rate at the outlet (this
is achieved using the series option of PSPLOT):

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It can be seen that 41/2" tubing is the smallest size that will satisfy all of the production plan
conditions.
Note: Don't forget to now set the tubing ID to 3.958 to reflect the 41/2" tubing for all subsequent
simulations.

Data Available
Reservoir Conditions

Reservoir pressure
4,269 psia
Reservoir temperature
210°F

Stock Tank Oil Properties


Watercut 0%, GOR 892 scf/STB, Gas SG 0.83, Water SG 1.02,API 36.83

Bubble Point Properties


Pressure 2,647 psia, Temperature 210°F, Solution Gas 892scf/STB

Blackoil Calibration Data

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OFVF (above bubble point pressure)


1.49 @ 4,269 psia and 210°F
OFVF (below bubble point pressure)
1.38 @ 2,000 psia and 210°F
Dead oil viscosities
0.31 cP @ 200°F and 0.8 cP @ 70°F
Live oil viscosity
0.29 cP @ 2,000 psia and 210°F
Gas viscosity
0.019 cP @ 2,000 psia and 210°F
Gas compressibility (Z)
0.85@ 2,000 psia and 210°F

Deviation Survey
The well is vertical from the well head on the sea bed. Mid perforations are at a depth of 9,500 ft
from the well head. The ambient temperature varies linearly between 210°F at mid perforations
and 60°F at the wellhead. The minimum casing inner diameter is 10". The generally accepted
overall heat transfer coefficient of 2 BTU/hr/ft2/°F for well bores can be used throughout.

Minimum Pressure Allowed at the Wellhead


300 psia

Multiphase flow correlation


Beggs & Brill revised
Production Strings Available:

I.D. (") Wall thickness (") Roughness (")


2.992 0.5 0.001
3.958 0.5 0.001
4.892 0.5 0.001

Drill String Test


Oil Flowrate (Q), sbbl/d Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure (P wf
), psia
2,000 4,186
3,000 4,152
4,000 4,106
5,000 4,072

Production plan obtained from reservoir simulation


Year Watercut (%) Oil Flowrate, sbbl/d
0 0 12,000
4 12 10,500

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5 20 9,400
6 35 7,500
7 40 7,000
8 47 6,000
9 54 5,000
10 60 4,300

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