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TOPIC/ LESSON NAME How Society is Organized

1. Groups within Society: Primary and Secondary

2. In – groups and Out – groups
3. Reference groups
4. Networks
CONTENT STANDARDS The learners demonstrate an understanding of cultural, social, and political institutions as sets of
norms and patterns of behavior that relate to major social interests
PERFORMANCE STANDARD At the end of the chapter, the learners will be able to:
1. Analyze aspects of social organization
2. Identify one’s role in social groups and institutions
3. Recognize other forms of economic transaction such as sharing, gift exchange, and retribution
in his/her own society
LEARNING COMPETENCIES A. How Society is Organized
1. Trace kinship ties and social networks
2. Describe the organized nature of social life and rules governing behavior
3. Compare different social forms of social organization according to their manifest and latent
4. Analyze social and political structures
SPECIFIC LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the lesson, the learners are expected to do the following:
1. Explain what is a social group
2. Differentiate the different types of social groups
3. Evaluate how these groups relate from one another
MATERIALS Graphic Organizers, books, illustration, worksheet, projector, manila paper, marker, book, laptop


1. Introduction/ Review: Group discussion and sharing of concepts about

2. Motivational Activity
3. Instruction/ Delivery
4. Practice
5. Enrichment
6. Evaluation
Introduction/ Motivation

Activity 1: My Social Groups

Directions: Identify the groups that you are a part of and assign this on the drawing below according
The students will identify the groups where they
belong. Then the students will answer the process


Process Questions
1. Who/ what group(s) is/are the closest to you?
2. Who/ what group(s) is/are farthest from you?
4. Are some group(s) that are connected with each other? What are they?
5. What are the factors that you consider when identifying a group’s proximity to you?
Instruction/ Delivery
Society is made up of social groups. A social group consists of two or more people who identify with
and interact with one another. People who make up a group share experiences, loyalties, and interests. Teacher may also use picture as a means of delivery
Examples of social groups are couples, families, circles of friends and barkada, churches, clubs,
businesses, neighborhoods, and large organizations (Macionis 2012: 146).

According to Macionis (2012), there are two types of social groups. The primary group is a small
social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships. These personal and tightly Some video clips can even show conflicts that take
integrated groups are among the first groups an individual experiences in life. The most important place in different social groups.
primary group in any society is the family. Friends who shape an individual’s attitudes, behavior, and
social identity also form one’s primary group.

The secondary group is a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or
activity. Unlike the primary group which is defined according to who they are in terms of family ties
or personal qualities, membership in secondary groups is based on what people can do for each other.

Over time, a group may transform from secondary to primary, as with classmates or neighbors who
develop closer relationships. Moreover, while it is possible to identify some groups as either primary
or secondary, most social groups actually contain elements of both. For example, a student
organization may be larger and more anonymous, but its members may identify strongly with one
another and provide mutual support.

Through socialization, individuals develop the need to conform. To assess one’s own attitudes and
behaviors, individuals use a reference group, a social group that serves as a point of reference in
making evaluations and decisions (Macionis, 2012). Reference groups can be primary or secondary, as
well as groups that we do not belong to, as in the case of a person following fashion styles described
in a fashion magazine.

Besides reference groups, there is also the opposition of in-groups and out-groups. An in-group is a
social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty, while an group is a social group
toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition (Macionis, 2012).

As groups grow beyond three people, they become more stable and capable of withstanding the loss of
one or more members. At the same time, increases in group size reduce the intense personal
interaction possible only in the smallest groups. Larger groups are based less on personal attachment
and more on formal rules and regulations (Macionis, 2012).

A network is group containing people who come into occasional contact but who lack a sense of
boundaries and belonging (Macionis, 2012). Some scholars claim that networks are nonhierarchical,
value-free, and structure-less organizations, and that they are composed of people working on similar
tasks without necessarily knowing each other. This is illustrated by social networking sites such as

Activity 2: “Group Matrix”

Directions: Complete the table/matrix below by citing examples of various kinds of groups in the
Philippine context. Why do You Think So?

Examples Explanation
Using a group matrix, learners will write down
1. Primary Group examples of social groups and they will explain,
afterwards they will share their insights in the class.

2. Secondary Group

3. In – Group

4. Out – Group

5. Networks

Activity 3. “Barangay Mo! Bisita Mo!

1. Identify the various social groups in your respective barangay. The students will make a survey on the different
2. On a sheet of paper, map out these groups. Use symbols to indicate the relationship between two or social groups in their respective barangay.
more groups (example: arrow/straight line for network, broken line for out-group, etc).


Write an essay about how the different groups relate from one another.
Teacher provides a rubric for the essay

Make a genealogy of your family from your great grand parents.



Paper has a very clear introduction Paper has an intro, body and Paper has an unclear intro, body, and
body and conclusion. The purpose of conclusion, The purpose of the paper conclusion. The purpose of the paper
the paper is clear from the very becomes clear. is unclear.
The totality of the paper shows The paper shows few to several There is no relevance to the given
Relevance relevance to the given topic. misinformation about the given topic.
The paper submitted on time. The paper was submitted late one The paper was submitted late two
Meet Requirements
day after the deadline. days and above after the deadline.