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IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)

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A Publisher for Research Motivation ........
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-5976

K.Srinivasan1, Dr.N.R.AnanthaNarayanan2 and Dr.S.K.Srivatsa3
Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science Engineering,
SCSVMV,Enathur,Kanchipuram 631 561.
Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science and Applications,
SCSVMV,Enathur,Kanchipuram 631 561
Senior Professor (Retired),Anna University, Chennai, South India,

Image Segmentation plays an important role in image processing and also for recognizing images. This paper focus on Indian
based temples. Broken sculpture and ruined images in the temples are to be restored. Sculpture images are taken through
photographs it is compared with similar type of images using adaptive segmentation along with machine learning. To train the
datasets and make decisions without complete knowledge, of all influencing elements action to reach a specific goal and adopts
statistical learning approach. By using this method similar set of images can be identified. Algorithm used for image
segmentation and machine learning gives the good result.
Keywords: Adaptive Segmentation, Threshold, Machine Learning, Naïve Bayesian

This work is based on Indian Temples. Ancient kings ruled our country promote the Indian Culture by constructing
temples and conduct festivals. Vidhyadara who designed the planning of temples. Every temple covers with elaborate
sculpture and ornament that form a fundamental conception. Due to natural calamities and poor maintenance
sculptures in the temple ruined. Due to the lack of skilled labor it is unable to identify the correct form of image.
Digital image processing used to identify the similar type of images for reconstruction of work.
1.1 Objective of study
1. To identify similar images
2. To train the images using machine learning

According to
1. Xin Zhen, Qinyi lei, Run yao et al in their work “ Image segmentation based on adaptive K-means algorithm they worked
segmentation using adaptive k-means method which generates accurate segmentation and results with simple operation.
2. Oliva, Diego,Abd Elaziz et al presented their work for meta-heuristic algorithm, segmentation work is done along with
thresholding. Using segmentation reduce redundant information and extract structural information.
3. Pei-Gee, Peter Ho represented their work in “Image Segmentation” using region based and edge based they used machine
learning such as support vector machine for classification of images.
4.K.Srinivasan,Dr.N.R.AnanthaNarayanan,Dr.S.K.Srivatsa et al discussed their work in “Multi-Scale Methods Using Beamlet to
identify and make similarity between images” used multi-scale beamlet transform for edge detection fuzzy c-means algorithm used
for identifying images.

3. Methodology
3.1. Segmentation
Image segmentation plays a vital role in image processing. It is a process of partitioning an image into different regions (or)
segments. Dividing image into different types of regions then the region corresponds to the part of the object. [1] Segmentation
precedes semantic analysis of image. Thresholding is a method used to segment an image. There are three types of thresholding used
1. Simple form 2. Planar 3. Adaptive. Simple form uses a global threshold for all pixels. Planar forms a thresholding plane for the
original image. Adaptive threshold dynamically changes the threshold according to pixels and surroundings.

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 1

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)
Web Site:
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-5976

Above figure (i) and (ii) shows original form fig(iii) shows the combination of two images fig(iv) indicates the segmentation of an

Figure 5 (a) Normal image (b)Simple (c)Planar (d) Adaptive threshold

In the simple thresholding operation of pixels, the value of pixel should be greater than the threshold value. In adaptive
thresholding the threshold value will be calculated for smaller regions of an image. There will be different values in the different
type of regions.
Image segmentation is one of the tools in numerous image processing and computer vision. In Image processing segmentation is the
process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments. Segmentation is a process of grouping together pixels which has
similar type of attributes. It is also a partitioning an image into non intersecting regions which is homogeneous. Adaptive
segmentation provides a segmented image that can be used at the initial level of processing vision to perform feature extraction.
The data are available using this segmentation it is passed to the object recognition where the region of interest can be identified.
The segmentation algorithm is integrated with machine learning it is able to change the image characteristics. A closed loop of
image segmentation was proposed in this work for identifying and optimizing the correct image.

Figure 6 Closed Loop of Image Segmentation System

From the above figure Image segmentation is calculated for two images. First image is segmented with second image which is
shown in the fig(iii) and fig(iv) show the image segmentation which background is dilated. Partition an image into region pixels
belongs to that region must be similar to the pixels belonging to other regions.

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 2

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)
Web Site:
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-5976
The mathematical formulation of image I applying image segmentation , different non-overlapping regions are obtained {s1,s2…}
by combining the pixels
Si = I where Si is a connected region where I = 1,2,…n and Si ∩Sj = ᶲ ..(1)
3.2. Region of Interest
Investigation of a specific area within the image known as Region of Interest. Spatial coordinates of the image is needed they are
categorized as image geometry operations. The image is cropped from the original image and it is helpful for visual analysis of the

Figure 7 ROI of damaged image Figure 8 ROI of original image

ROI of two images indicates that the head of the original image can be fixed into the damaged image. For further investigation it
was examined through the machine learning.
3.3. Image Threshold
Threshold is a method used in image segmentation. Color images are converted into gray scale images and it can be used to create
binary images. Comparing the white and black pixels with image intensity. Simple threshold value is calculated by using the
Tnew = (m1 +m2)/2 ..(2) where m1,m2 are the average of two mean values.
Adaptive threshold takes a grayscale image and output a binary image representing for segmentation. Planar threshold is used for
finding edges of an image.
3.4. Machine Learning
Machine Learning can be categorized into supervised and unsupervised learning. In this work unsupervised learning datasets are
used for pattern matching k-means algorithm is used for the unsupervised learning. Taking the image in binary value initialize to k
points and categorizes it to the closest mean and updating the mean repeating the process until the cluster which comes closer.

Figure 9 k-means unsupervised learning Figure 10 Graphical representation of Original

and decoded-image

Figure 11shows the similarity between Figure 10 Figure 12 shows the dissimilarity
Between two images

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IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)
Web Site:
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-5976

Figure 13 Indicates that Data are well trained

Above graph indicates that the train and test data gives the equal type of values in the figure 11 and figure 12 shows that there is no
similarity between the two images. From the Figure 13 it was inferred that the image data set are well trained and the two nandhi
images are equally same from the k-means algorithm of machine learning the original image of nandhi can be restored in the
damaged one.

3.5 Statistical Methods

Statistical methods are used for this problem since it is a combinatorial problem involving to find a group of objects to satisfy the
certain constraints. Images are converted into binary a set of values are taken to generate a neighbor state and it is probabilistically
accept the solution for this Naïve bayes classifier it is simple probabilistic classifier applying on bayes theorem with strong
assumption between features.
Table(i) shows the Training and Testing Accuracy of images using naïve bayesian
Training Accuracy of Testing Accuracy of
images images
1 5.5 0.007
2 10.5 0.012
3 15.5 0.014
4 20.5 0.02
5 30.0 0.05
6 40.5 0.07
7 50.0 0.022

Figure 15 Graph shows the Training and Test Values

The above graph indicates that using naïve Bayesian the accuracy of training and testing remains same which means that the time
taken for training data set is same as time taken for test data set
4. Conclusion
The proposed which uses adaptive segmentation and machine learning with stochastic process based on the higher accuracy and less
error prone. The proposed algorithm gives accuracy and classification with other images. The time complexity of proposed
algorithm is also performed.

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 4

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)
Web Site:
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-5976

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