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INTERNSHIP REPORT 2018-19

CHAPTER 1
ABOUT THE COMPANY/ ORGANIZATION

PUBLIC WORKS, PORTS AND IWT DEPARTMENT (PWP AND


IWTD)

1.1 INTRODUCTION:
This Citizens Charter represents the commitment of the Department towards
standard quality, time frame, transparency and accountability of the Public Works
Department to the people of Karnataka.

1.2 COMMITMENT:
To Plan, Design, Construct and Maintain the Public Buildings, Roads &
Bridges, Minor Ports, Coastal Protection and providing Ferry Services.

1.3 VISION:
"An excellent core road network for socio-economic growth, an effective
infrastructure for Government functioning, ports facility and prevention of sea erosion".

1.4 MISSION:
 Plan, design, construct and maintain a safe and cost effective core road network
on par with National Highways
 Standards for uninterrupted flow of traffic with better safety features.
 Enhanced connectivity to remote and far flung and isolated areas with Major
District Roads and construction of bridges.
 Evolving policies for development of Highways through PPP with toll
collection.
 Utilization of natural resources viz; solar energy, rainwater harvesting etc; in the
public and residential buildings to minimize power consumption.
 Adoption of modern technology for roads, buildings and ports.
 Redress the grievances received from the citizens directly or through the
Humble Chief Minister's Grievance Redressed Cell.
 Furnishing information to Public under Right to Information Act, 2005.

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Jain college of engineering
Belagavi
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1.5 ORGANISATION:
For administrative reasons, Public Works, Ports & IWT Department is having
the following zones under the control of Principal Secretary, Public Works, Ports &
IWT Department;
™ The Chief Engineer (Communications & Buildings), South Zone,
Bangalore.
™ The Chief Engineer (Communications & Buildings), North Zone,
Dharwad.
™ The Chief Engineer (National Highways), Bangalore.
™ Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project, Bangalore headed by the
Chief Project Officer of IAS cadre.
™ Karnataka Road Development Corporation headed by the Managing
Director of IAS cadre.

™ Principal Chief Architect, Bangalore.


1.6. Functions:
1. Development & maintenance of National Highways, State Highways & Major
District Roads.
2. Construction and maintenance of Office accommodations and residential
quarters.
3. Preparation of Schedule of Rates of buildings, roads & bridges to enable all
government departments & local bodies in the preparation of DPRs, payment of
bills etc.
4. Serving a repository to technical information & database of traffic details on
State Highways & Major District Roads.
5. Implementation of Karnataka Highways Act-1964.
6. Providing technical and engineering suggestion/solutions to the needy
departments.
7. Framing of Road policy and Toll policy.
8. Development of web based Road Information System.
9. Formulation of Karnataka Road Fund for resource mobilization
Detail traffic survey on State Highways & Major District Roads.

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10. Construction and maintenance of 10 minor ports at Karwar, Belikeri, Tadri,


Honnavara, Bhatkala, Kundapura, Hangarakatta, Malpe, Padubidri and old
Mangalore Ports.
11. Providing ferry service in reservoir and sea backwaters.

1.7. Department’s website (http://www.kpwd.gov.in/)


The Department website has been launched during 2007 to facilitate the public to
have access to the Departmental activities. The website provides information about the
organization, Administrative setup, projects, road network, web based RIS maps, Acts &
Documents & Tenders floated under e-portal system & Citizen Charter.

1.8. SERVICES:
1.8.1. Registration as contractors:-
The interested public, firms, agencies & companies can Register as PWD contractors
for taking up departmental Civil & Electrical works including supplies if any, fulfilling
the prescribed conditions stipulated for the same.

Prevailing classes of Registration: The Department provides Registration from class I to


class IV subject to the fulfillment of conditions for each category of Registration. The
registration can be done in the South & North Zone offices headed by the Chief Engineers
for Class-I & II, in respective Circles headed by the Superintending Engineers for Class-
III and in the respective Divisions headed by the Executive Engineers of for Class-IV
depending on their financial capacity, experience etc. The details of documents required
for registration is available in Annexure-II. The confirmation of registration or rejection
of the application will be intimated within 30 days from the receipt of all the relevant
documents
1.9 Details of key technical and management persons involved in SH-134 contract:
NAME OF PERSON QUALIFICATION
C.M.Nagargoji (contractor) B.E. (civil engineer)
Ram.Salunke(site engineer) M.Tech
Vasant Horatti B.E.( civil engineer)
Kiran. V. Yaragoppa Diploma
Akshaya .M. Manawadi B.E. (civil engineer)
Shivadas. M. Manwadi PUC

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Belagavi
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Siddappa .B. Gokavi SSLC


Kempanna Bakari PUC
Dundappa .Y. Udikeri Diploma

CHAPTER 2

ABOUT THE DEPARTMENT


2.1 The flow chart of Company.

Fig2.1 Flow chart of Organization

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Belagavi
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Construction work requires a strict chain of command to create accountability for managers
in project management and workplace safety. A proper hierarchy allows clear roles for each
individual, which makes it possible for construction jobs to be completed on schedule without
compromising the budget or safety of on-site workers.

2.2 Departments in Company

The construction company organizational chart is a graphical depiction of the roles and
structure within the organization. Using an org chart, staffs and stakeholders can clearly recognize
the operational relationships and reporting structures, so that they know how does the company work.

Generally, a construction company contains basic function units including:

HR, Purchasing, Project, Engineering, Financial, QS, QC and Safety.

2.2.1 Human Resource Dept.

Construction companies have a host of human resource challenges specific to the industry,
not least of which is trying to kind skilled craftsmen from a lean talent pool. An understanding of
recruitment, training and retention are basic requirements for an effective human resource department
in the construction industry.

2.2.2 Purchasing Dept.

Most major companies and even some government organizations have a purchasing or
procurement department as part of everyday operations. These departments provide a service that is
the backbone of many manufacturing, retail, military and other industrial organizations. Many
individuals, even some who work for these companies, are unaware of what the purchasing
department does, why it exists or what purposes it serves. To understand better what the role of the
purchasing department is, consider some functions it performs.

2.2.3 Project Department.

The duties and responsibilities for a construction project Dept. run the gamut from hiring the
contractors to responding to citizen calls concerning the project's compliance with zoning laws. An
experienced and well-educated professional, the construction project manager is well-equipped to
deal with these and other issues.

2.2.4 Engineering Department.

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A Engineering Department will have to fulfill a variety of specific duties on a daily basis.
Prior to even thinking about starting a construction project, the construction engineer will have to
survey the area. In conjunction with this they will need to produce reports and environmental
statements detailing how the project will be done and what areas it will affect. During the pre-
construction phase, the construction engineer will prepare diagrams, charts and surveys showing
specific information about the area and the desired project.

Once the reports, charts and data have been compiled, the Engineering Department will then
need to discuss such items with related parties such as builders, environmental agencies and local,
state and federal entities. These items may also have to be made available to the general public for
their objections to be heard.

The Engineering Department must also inspect the site to ensure that the building which will
be taken place can be accommodated by that area. Tests will be performed relating to the ground and
water level. The construction engineer may also have to determine the grade and elevation levels of
the area.

Some Engineering Department must determine the costs of their construction projects. This is
done by proposing bids and determining the costs of labor and materials to ensure that the project can
be carried through in keeping with the budget that has been set aside. This will be estimation on the
part of the construction engineer but it must be as close to the true number as possible.

The Engineering Department must also provide technical advice to all parties involved with
the project. This may relate to any number of topics including the construction of the site to abiding
by certain laws, codes and regulations. A construction engineer is something of a jack of all trades in
many respects and therefore will be consulted on a number of issues.

2.2.5 Financial Department.

A Finance Department manages a firm's long-term and day-to-day monetary operations and
strategy. Finance groups oversee incoming and outgoing payments, budget creation, cash
management (treasury), accounting, financial reporting and many other tasks related to the finances
of the company. Its size varies based upon total company-wide head count, company revenue,
industry, and overall business strategy.

2.2.6 Quantity Survey Department.

Quantity surveyors are responsible for the cost of any building project - from initial estimates,
right through to the final acquisition of materials. Surveying jobs and their associated roles are varied

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- but focused on providing clients value for money while adhering to the strict regulations which
govern every aspect of the construction industry.

2.2.6.1 Services provided by a quantity surveyor may include:

 Cost planning and commercial management throughout the entire life cycle of the project
from inception to post-completion

 Value engineering

 Risk management and calculation

 Procurement advice and assistance during the tendering procedures

 Tender analysis and agreement of the contract sum

 Commercial management and contract administration

 Assistance in dispute resolution

 Asset capitalization.

 Interim valuations and payment assessment

 Cost management process

2.2.7 Quality Control Dept.

Quality assurance managers play a crucial role in business by ensuring that products meet
certain standards of quality. They plan, direct or coordinate quality assurance programs and formulate
quality control policies. They also work to improve an organization's efficiency and profitability by
reducing waste.

2.2.8 Safety Dept.

A construction safety officer ensures that construction workers are following established
policies and safety regulations. A construction safety officer may take on additional roles and
responsibilities, but their primary job is helping to create safer construction sites. Construction safety
officers work closely with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

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CHAPTER 3
TASK PERFORMED
3.1 Project details
The project contains construction of concrete road by widening state highway Badami-
Godachi-Gokak falls road SH-134 from Km 114.95 to 115.75 and 116.90 to 117.50 in Gokak Taluk
of Belagavi district under HOA:5054-03-337-0-17154(plan) SH improvement-appendix-E-2016-17.
The Project involves reconstruction of 2-lane standard, on design, Build, Finance, Operate,
Maintain and Transfer the Existing State Highway of total length 120km (SH134) from Badami to
Gokak falls in the State of Karnataka.

3.2 Salient Features of Project


Table 3.1. Salient features of projects
Name of work Widening and constructing of c.c pavement
state highway Badami-godachi-gokak falls
road SH-134
Length of road 107.937 Kms
Cost of the project 970 Lakhs
Name of concessionaire C.M.Nagargoji
Independent engineer Ram.Salunke
Starting date of construction 5-1-2018
Finishing date of construction 4-12-2018
Construction period 11months
Operation and maintenance period 5years

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Concession period 6years

3.3 Geometrical Details of Concrete Road


The geometric design of the project corridor is based upon future traffic and soil
characteristics. On basis of estimated traffic volume and CBR value from collected Subgrade soil
sample, provided by consultancy firm, thickness of each layer is calculated. Width of the road is
based upon estimated traffic capacity and these width are decided as per IRC. According to the
rainfall data and type of surface course, camber slope is fixed as 2%. Adopted values of width and
depth of various layers are as follows.

Table 3.2. Designed Pavement Schedule

Description Width(m) Depth(mm)

Sub grade 21.9 250

Granular Sub-Base 18.8 100

GSB (Shoulder) 7.7 100

DLC 18.6 150


PQC 18 280
Camber slope 2%

3.4 Typical cross section of c.c road


Existing cross section of bituminous road at chainage 114.95 to 115.82m

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Fig.3.1 existing cross section of bituminous road at chainage


114.95 to 115.82m

Proposed cross section of concrete road at chainage 114.95 to 115.825m

Fig 3.2 cross section at chainage 114.95 to 115.825m

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3.5 Field Work

State highway work


Preparation of following layers with designed camber by centerline shifting, Sectioning,
peg marking, preparing, dip checking and final level checking.
1. Sub grade/Embankment
2. Sub base (Granular sub base)
3. Base (Dry lean concrete)
4. Pavement quality concrete (PQC)

3.5.1 Sub grade Preparation


The work shall consist of construction of embankment with material obtained from Approved
borrow areas or suitable material obtained from roadway excavation and drain
Excavation.

Material:
The material used in sub grade shall be soil, moorum, gravel, a mixture of these or any
Other material approved by the Engineer. It shall be free from logs, stumps, roots, rubbish & any
other material detrimental to the stability of Embankment. The material for Embankment shall be
obtained from the approved source with preference to the material available from nearby
roadway excavation or any other excavation under this contract.

Spreading and compacting:


1. Soil to be used for subgrade shall be tested for its suitability and only the material approved
shall be used for construction.
2. The limits of Subgrade shall be marked by fixing batter pegs on both sides at regular intervals
as guides before commencing the earth work.
3. The subgrade shall be built sufficiently wider than the design dimension so that the surplus
material may be trimmed, ensuring that the remaining material is to the desired density and in
position specified and conforms to the specified side slopes.

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4. The subgrade material shall be spread in layers of uniform thickness not exceeding 200mm
compacted thickness over the entire width by mechanical means, finished by motor grader
and compacted with the help of vibratory roller of 80 to 100KN static weight.
5. Compaction shall be done as per the requirement given in MORTH table 300-2. Compaction/
moisture content of each layer shall be checked as per frequency and the details shall be
recorded.
6. Any deficiency in compaction / moisture content requirement shall be corrected as per the
direction of engineer in charge.

3.5.2Granular Sub Base Layer (GSB) Preparation


This work shall consist of laying and compacting well graded material on prepared sub-grade
in accordance with the requirements of these specifications

Setting out:
The limit of GSB shall be marked by fixing pegs on both sides at regular intervals. The
Chainage boards and working benchmark shall be set outside the limits of construction area.

Construction Operations:
Immediately prior to laying of the granular sub Base, the sub grade final layer already got
approved shall be prepared by removing all vegetation & other extraneous matter lightly
sprinkled with water of necessary & rolled with two passes of 8 -10 KN smooth wheeled roller
wherever required.

Spreading & Compacting:


1. Granular sub base shall be spread with the grader or other suitable equipment
approved by the engineer to the required loose thickness to get 100 mm thick layer
after compaction as established in the trial stretch moisture content shall be checked &
adjusted to the required range either by the addition of the moisture in case of the
less water or allowed to loose the excess water by leaving it spread in case of high
percentage of moisture content as required in the trial.
2. Once correct percentage of the moisture content including the allowance for
evaporation is achieved material shall be mixed using rotators, harrowing or grading
until the layer is informally wet.

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3. Immediately thereafter rolling shall start, using 80 - 100 kN weight smooth wheel
roller at the speed not exceeding 5 km per hour with vibration on till the density obtained is
98% of the modified proctor. Rolling shall commence at the lower edge and proceed
toward the upper edge longitudinally for the highway and each pass of the roller shall
uniformly overlap not less than one third of the track made in the proceeding pass.
4. During rolling the grade and cross fall. It Shall be checked and any high spot and
depression, which become apparent shall be corrected by removing or adding fresh
material. The surface after completion of compaction shall be well closed, free from
movement under compaction equipment and from compaction plans, ridges, cracks or
loose materials.
5. All loose segregated or otherwise defective areas shall be made good to the full thickness of
the layer and re-compacted.

Fig.3.3 Prepared GSB Layer

3.5.3. Dry Lean Concrete (DLC) preparation


The work shall consist of construction of dry lean concrete (Zero slump) subbase for cement
concrete pavement in accordance with requirement of the specifications.

Materials
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The cement to be used may preferably obtain in bulk form. It shall be stored in accordance
with stipulations captained in clause 1014 and shall be subjected to acceptance test prior to its
immediate use, shall be conforming to IS: 8112, IS: 1489-Part1. Aggregates for lean concrete shall be
natural material complying with IS: 383. The coarse aggregate shall comply with clause 602.2.4.2.
The fine aggregate shall comply with clause 602.2.4.3. The material after blending shall conform to
the grading as indicated in table 600-1. The minimum cement content in the concrete shall not less
than 150kg/cu.m. of concrete. The average compressive strength of each consecutive group of 5
cubes made in accordance with clause 903.5.1.1 shall not be less than 10MPaat 7 days.

Spreading & Compacting:


1. DLC shall be laid on the prepared GSB by paver with electronic sensor. The equipment shall
be capable of laying the material in one layer in an even manner without segregation. The
laying of two lane road subbase is done by lane wise. Preferably the lean concrete shall be
placed and compacted across the full width of road.
2. The compaction shall be carried out immediately after the material is laid and leveled. Double
drum smooth wheeled vibratory rollers of minimum 80 to 100KN static weight are considered
to be suitable for rolling dry lean concrete. The minimum dry density obtained shall be 98%.
3. Curing shall be done by covering the surface by gunny bags/hessian, which shall be kept
continuously moist for 7 days by sprinkling water.

Fig.3.4 Prepared DLC Layer

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3.5.4 Pavement quality concrete (PQC):


The Construction work shall consists of construction of unreinforced, dowel jointed, plain
cement concrete pavement in accordance with the requirements of the specifications.

Materials:
Cement to be used may preferably be contained in bulk form. Admixtures conforming to IS:
1903 shall be permitted to improve workability of the concrete or extension of setting time.
Aggregates for pavement concrete shall be natural material complying with IS: 383. Steel for dowel
bars and tie bars shall conform to the requirements of IS: 432, IS: 1139 and IS:1786 as relevant. The
dowel bars shall conforms to IS:1786 and grade of Fe 500.A separation member impermeable plastic
sheeting of 125microns is used between concrete slab and subbase
.

Spreading and compacting:


1. The cement pavement shall be laid over the sub base constructed in accordance with
specifications. A separation member is laid flat without creases. all side forms shall be of mild
steel of depth equal to the thickness of pavement, the forms can be placed on series of steel
packing plates to take care of irregularity of subbase.
2. The concrete shall be placed with an approved fixed form or slip paver with independent
unit. Freshly mixed concrete from the central batching and mixing plant shall be transported
to the paver site by means of trucks/tippers of sufficient capacity and approved design.
3. The slip from paving train shall consist of power machine which spreads, compacts & finishes
the concrete in a continuous operation, the slip from paving machine shall compact the
concrete by internal vibration and shape it between the side forms with either a conforming
plate or by vibrating & oscillating finishing beams. The concrete shall be deposited without
segregation in front of slip from paver across the whole width and to height which at all times
is in excess of required surcharge.
4. The Surface of concrete slab shall be brush-texture in a direction at right angles to the
longitudinal axis of the carriageway. The brushed surface texture shall be applied evenly
across the slab in one direction by the use of wire brush not less than 450mm wide.
5. Curing shall be done by covering the surface by gunny bags which shall kept continuously
moist for 7 days by sprinkling water.

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Fig.3.5 Spreading of PQC layer

Fig.3.6 Spreading of PQC layer

Fig.3.7 Brush textured surface of PQC


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Fig.3.8 Prepared PQC

3.6 LIST OF EQUIPMENTS USED:


SL ITEM OF EQUIPMENTS NO CAPACITY
NO
1 Excavators 2 Doosam 225 1cum , L&T 130 0.9cum
2 Tippers 4 Ashok Leyland 8.5cum
Tata motors 8.5cum
Benz 15.5cum
3 Transit mixer 3 7.0cum
4 Vibratory road roller 2 Case new Holland 11tonne
Ingersoll rand 11tonne
5 Batching plant 1 21cum/hr
6 Groove cutting machine 1 Ashok trading co.
7 Hot mix plant 1 Vishvakarma asphalt drum mix plant 40-
65TPH
8 Mechanical concrete paver 1 Unisteel engineering works
9 Mechanical floater 1 Anugraha construction
10 Mechanical paver finisher 1 Vishvakarma mechanical asphalt paver
finisher
11 Mechanical sprayer 1 Vishvakarma mechanical asphalt sprayer

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12 Water tanker 2 3500litre

Fig.3.9 Mechanical concrete paver Fig.3.10 Batching plant

3.7 Mix designs for concrete:


Concrete mix design is process of preparation of concrete with suitable proportion of
ingredients to meet the required strength and durability of concrete structure. Every ingredient of
concrete consists different properties so it is not an easy task to get economical and good concrete
mix. The designed concrete mix does not contain any specified ranges in proportions. The design is
done according to the requirements of concrete strength. So, we can achieve the desirable properties
of concrete either it is in fresh stage or in hardened stage.The fresh concrete properties like
workability, setting time and hardened concrete properties like compressive strength, durability etc.
are attained surely by using additives like admixtures, retarders etc. other than basic ingredients are
used to improve the properties of mix.

Table no 3.3 Concrete mix design for DLC

Materials proportion Quantity Unit


Water 5.5% of total 136 Kg/cu.m
Cement (OPC 43 grade birla shakti ) 1 160 Kg/cu.m

Fine aggregate (cr.sand) 2.175 348 Kg/cu.m

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Fine aggregate (natural sand) 2.175 348 Kg/cu.m


Coarse aggregate (25mm down) 5.075 812 Kg/cu.m
Coarse aggregate (12.50mm down) 5.075 812 Kg/cu.m
Total aggregates (cement & agg) T 2480 Kg/cu.m

Table no 3.4 Concrete mix designs for PQC


Materials required per bag of cement by weight for recommended mix
Materials Weight
Cement 50kg
River sand 43
Crushed sand 43
Coarse aggregate (25mm) 81.50
Coarse aggregate (12.5mm) 58
Water 20
Super plasticizer % by wt of cement 1.00% (Master Rheobuild)

3.8 Tests to be conducted:


1. Grading analysis for coarse aggregate:

A sieve analysis (or gradation test) is a practice or procedure used (commonly used in civil
engineering) to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material by allowing the material to
pass through a series of sieves of progressively smaller mesh size and weighing the amount of
material that is stopped by each sieve as a fraction of the whole mass.

The size distribution is often of critical importance to the way the material performs in
use. A sieve analysis can be performed on any type of non-organic or organic granular materials
including sands, crushed rock, clays, granite, feldspars, coal, soil, a wide range of manufactured
powders, grain and seeds, down to a minimum size depending on the exact method. Being such a
simple technique of particle sizing, it is probably the most common.

Table no 3.5

Total weight of samples: 10000gms

Sl no Sieve Wt of Wt Cum % % of Grade 1 Grade2 Grade 3

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size sample retained retained passing


retained in gm
in gms

1 75mm 0 0 0 100 100% - -

2 53mm 0 0 0 100 80- 100% -


100%

3 26.50 3320 33.20 33.20 66.80 55-75% 50-80% 100%

4 4.75 4490 78.10 78.10 21.90 10-30% 15-35% 25-45%

5 75micron 1930 97.40 97.40 2.60 0-10% 0-10% 0-10%

6 Pan 260 100 100 0

Fig.3.11 Grading test on aggregate

2. Compressive strength test of concrete cubes:

Compressive Strength of concrete is defined as the Characteristic strength of 150mm size concrete
cubes tested at 28 days. With the growth of construction industry there is need to give quality in it.
Many of the projects fail in construction field because of improper results and improper testing on

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site. One of the basic and important tests is compressive test which should be done carefully since it
is taken as the backbone of all tests of civil engineering related to concrete. Compression test is
required almost in every project since it gives us a brief idea of the grade and type of concrete. Many
of them do small mistakes in these which include the different exclusion of different parameters of
concrete, improper procedure for filling and compacting concrete, wrong methods of testing of
concrete and many more.

Tabular column: 3.6


Sl L*B*H ARE VOLUME WEIGHT DENSITY MAXIM COMPRESSIV AVG
no A(in (in cc) UM E STRENGTH STREN
cm) (in gm) (gm/cc) LOAD GTH(N/
(in KN) (N/mm^2) mm^2)
1 70*15* 1050 15750 41270 2.62 45 7.99
15
2 40020 2.54 30 5.33 6.51
3 38860 2.46 35 6.21
4 70*15* 1050 39770 2.52 40 7.10
15
5 40710 2.58 46 8.17 7.63
6 41500 2.63 43 7.64
7 70*15* 1050 40130 2.59 35 6.21 6.92
15
8 40690 2.58 39 6.93

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Fig.3.12 Compressive test on concrete cube

3. Sand patch test:


This test method is suitable for field tests to determine the average macro texture depth of a pavement
surface. The knowledge of pavement macro texture depth serves as a tool in characterizing the
pavement surface texture. It uses a volumetric approach of measuring pavement macro texture. The
test is carried out on a dry pavement surface by pouring a known quantity of sand onto the surface
and spreading it in a circular pattern with a straightedge. As the sand is spread, it fills the low spots in
the pavement surface. When the sand cannot be spread any further, the diameter of the resulting
circle is measured. This diameter can then be correlated to an average texture depth, which can be
correlated to skid resistance. A texture depth of about 1.5 mm (0.06 inches) is normally required for
heavily trafficked areas.

Fig.3.13 sand patch test

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4. Slump test:
The slump test is a means of assessing the consistency of fresh concrete. It is used, indirectly, as a
means of checking that the correct amount of water has been added to the mix. The steel slump cone
is placed on a solid, impermeable, level base and filled with the fresh concrete in three equal layers.
Each layer is tamped 25 times to ensure compaction. The third layer is finished off level with the top
of the cone. The cone is carefully lifted up, leaving a heap of concrete that settles or ‘slumps’
slightly. The upturned slump cone is placed on the base to act as a reference, and the difference in
level between its top and the top of the concrete is measured and recorded to the nearest 10mm to
give the slump of the concrete.

When the cone is removed, the slump may take one of three forms. In a true slump the
concrete simply subsides, keeping more or less to shape. In a shear slump the top portion of the
concrete shears off and slips sideways. In a collapse slump the concrete collapses completely. Only a
true slump is of any use in the test. If a shear or collapse slump is achieved, a fresh sample should be
taken and the test repeated. A collapse slump will generally mean that the mix is too wet or that it is a
high workability mix, for which the flow test is more appropriate.

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Fig.3.14 Slump test

CHAPTER 5

REFLECTION NOTES
The past 4 weeks of my internship have been very instructive for me. PWP & IWTD offered
me opportunities to learn and develop myself in many areas. I gained a lot of experience, especially
in the site work. I worked under site engineer throughout my training period. At the beginning, he

Department of Civil Engineering,


Jain college of engineering,Belagavi
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INTERNSHIP REPORT

started teaching me how actually the field works to be carried out. And how to maintain the accuracy
on field. Then started giving me works like,

 Survey work using Auto Level


 Peg markings, Dip checking
 Writing level sheets

Non-Technical Outcomes
Engineers are expected to have a high level of technical skills and knowledge. However, now
engineers are to play a role of managing teams and interacting with customers, suppliers and
colleagues of varying ages. So the need to know how to lead, communicate and co-operate with
diverse teams is a necessary for a long successful career.
Communication skills:
During the internship period I came in contact with various individuals from different parts of
the country and the ability to communicate clearly and confidence in different situations is important.
A breakdown in communication between individuals and various departments could be disturbing
and cost heavily. Communication need not only be words and sentences, it also includes being a good
listener, expressing oneself and understanding the other person and being understood in the same
consent professionally.
Flexibility:
Engineering is a field that is rapidly changing and reshaping with new technology. It’s
necessary for engineers to keep changing with updated technology. This will enable to adopt new
methods and alternative ways of accomplishing objectives. This in turn helps to develop new skills
and leads to creativity.

OBESERVATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS


.
The main objective of the industrial training is to provide an opportunity to
undergraduates to indentify, observe and practice how engineering is applicable in real industry. It is
to only get experience on technical practice but also to observe management practices and to interact
with on field workers. It is easy to work with sophisticated machines, but not with the people. The
only chance that an undergraduate has to have this experience is the industrial training period. I feel I
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Jain college of engineering,Belagavi
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INTERNSHIP REPORT

got maximum out of that experience. Also I learned the way of work in an organization, the
importance of being punctual, the importance of maximum commitment and importance of team
spirit. The training program having three destinations was a lot more useful than staying at one place
throughout the whole six months. I my opinion I have gained lots of knowledge and experience need
to be successful in a great engineering challenge, as my opinion, engineering is after all challenge,
and not a job.

Department of Civil Engineering,


Jain college of engineering,Belagavi
Page 26
INTERNSHIP REPORT

Department of Civil Engineering,


Jain college of engineering,Belagavi
Page 27

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