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;f]nv ' D' a'df 36]sf] Ps 36gfnfO{ lng ;lsG5 . x'g ;Sb}gg, x'bF f klg xf]Ogg . xfdL
;fdflhs ;+hfn ttfPsf] 5 eg] u[xdGqLsf] s8f cfnf]rgf ePsf]
g]kfnL xf} / xfdL;Fu g]kfnL gful/Qmf
;f]n'v'Da'df *–!) hgf gful/s /fqLsflng 5 . ;k|df0f k'¥ofP/ xfdLn] j+zhsf] 5 . s] hgtfsf] kIfdf ;+3if{ cfGbf]ng ubf{ hgtfsf] kIfdf af]Nbf
cfwf/df g]kfnL gful/Qmf lnPsf] xf] .
;dodf rf}sLsf] af6f] lxF8\bf k|x/Ln] rf}sL g} afbnn] h;/L cfh ljb]zLnfO{ gful/Qmf /fli6«o :jfwLgtfsf] kIfdf af]Nbf hgtfsf] d'lQm nflu n8bf
5f8]/ g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{n] cfqmd0f ug{ cfPsf] afl9/x]sf 5g\ xfdLn] To;/L gful/Qmf
lnPsf] klg xf]Og . a? e'k' afbn cfh cft+ssf/L xf]OG5 < cgful/s xf]OG5 eg] lxhf] afbn cfkm}
;dfrf/ ;k|i] f0f u¥of] . u[x k|zf;gn] klg ;TotYo cgful/s ePsf 5g\ . cft+ssf/Lsf gfOs] lyP pgL Tolt a]nf s'g b]zsf gful/s lyP <
lsg ls h;n] of] b]zsf] lxt eGbf
ga'em] / g} x]lnsK6/ dfk{mt\ To;tk{m k|x/L kl/rfng aflx/ /x]/ hgtfsf] OR5f / DofG8]6 Tof] g]kfnL hgtf cfh hfGg rfxfG5g .
eGbf aflx/ uP/ lab]zL bnfnx¿sf]
u¥of] . /fHosf] rf}yf] c+u xf} eg]/ 8'qmg], ;"rgf / tn'jf rf6b} cfˆg' b]zsf gful/s dfyL )))))
;~rf/sf] 7]sf lnPsf] atfpg] ldl8ofx¿n] g} r/d bdg u5{, To:tf e|i6 bnfn h;n] xhf/f}+ xhf/ ad k8sfpg] lgb]{zg lbP, xhf/f}+ ad la:kmf]6gsf
ljb]zL Ph]G6x¿ rflx jf:tljs ¿kdf
;TotYo ga'em] / ;dfrf/ k|jfx ul//x] . o;/L x]bf{ g]kfnL gful/s x'g ;Sb}gg\ . tL / To:tf lhDdf lnP, !& xhf/ dfG5]x¿sf] alnbfg u/fP . clg cfh To;
e|i6 zf;s cyf{t hf] l; cfO P /
jt{dfg cj:yfdf b]zsf s'g} klg c+ux¿ r':t /c sf] Ph]G6 eGb} g]kfnL hgtfsf] alnbfgaf6 k|fKt ;Dk'0f{ pknlAw / clwsf/x¿ k|ltlqmofjfbLnfO{ a]r]/
b'?:t 5}gg . ;a} a]nufd 5g\ . o;/L x]bf{ b]zdf d'lQm / :jfwLgtfsf] cfGbf]ng bafpg cfTd;dk{0f u/]/ e|i6 bnfn ;fd' 3'F9f 6]s]/ ;lxbsf] alnbfg /
tlNng x'G5g xf] To:tf /fi63ftL
qmflGtsf] ljsNk gePsf] k|i6 x'G5 . bnfnx¿ r} cgful/s x'G5g\ . 3fOt]sf] /ut a]kQf kl/jf/sf] cfz'df df]hd:tL ub}{ lxF8g]n] s;/L
cfh afbn olta]nf of] b]zsf]
t;y{ b]znfO{ o:tf] bnbnaf6 kf/ nufpg tyfslyt u[xdGqL ePsf 5g\ . ;fob
g]kfnL gful/snfO{ cgful/s eGg] x}l;ot /fVof] < Tof] clwsf/
ljKnjn] g]t[Tj u/]sf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{n] To;}sf] pkh cfh kl/jt{gsf/L Gofo sxfFaf6 s;n] lbof] o;sf] hjfkm lbg' k5{ .
k|d] L gful/snfO{ cgful/s eGb}5g .
sDd/ s;]sf] 5 . b]z / hgtfnfO{ jt{dfg af:tjdf cfh pgL Jofaxfl/s ¿kdf 6]s/] ;lxbsf] alnbfg / 3fOt]sf] /ut xf] eg]/ ca xfdLn] z+sf ug{' kb}g{ , o;f] ug{ ;s]gf} eg] lolgx¿n] c?
g]kfnL xf]Ogg . pgL t ef/taf6 a]kQf kl/jf/sf] cfz'df df]hd:tL ub}{ ultnf] k|df0f olx xf] . pgL l;lSsdsf xhf/f}+ nfvf}n
+ fO{ o;/L g} cgful/s
bnbnaf6 kf/ nufpg p;n] PsLs[ t kl/rflnt 5g\ . To;}n] pgn] tkfO{+ lxF8g]n] s;/L g]kfnL gful/snfO{ n]08'k bf]h{] aGg] ;kgf b]Vb}5g . of] agfpb} xTof ug]{ 5g\ . of] s'/f xfdL
xfdL cfd gful/snfO{ cgful/s cgful/s eGg] x}l;ot /fVof] < Tof] cfd g]kfnL hgtfn] a'em]sf] s'/f xf] . g]kfnL gful/sn] uDeL/tfk"j{ s dgg
hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzf cufl8 ;f/]sf] 5 . h;nfO{ eGb}5g t/ xfdLnfO{ cgful/s eGg] clwsf/ sxfFaf6 s;n] lbof] o;sf] t;y{ o:tf n]08'kx¿nfO{ xfdLn] u/]/ oL u2f/ / jf:tljs cgful/snfO{
k|ToIf ¿kdf g]kfnsf ;r]t gful/s, a'l4hLjL, clwsf/ pgnfO{ s:n] lbof] < cfd g]kfnL
hgtfn] k|Zg ul//x]sf 5g\ .
hjfkm lbg' k5{ .
km]l/ xfdL g]kfnL gful/s xf]Ogf}
;Qfdf /fvL /xg' eg]sf] cfˆg} v'§fdf
cfkm}n] aGr/f] xfGg' xf] . o:tfnfO{
;Qfaf6 s7fnf] ;dft]/ hgtfsf]
cbfntdf pkl:yt u/fP/ plrt
slj, snfsf/, dfgj clwsf/sdL{, pBf]u, afbn cfkm} xf]Og lxhf] k|r08nfn eg] xfdL s'g b]zsf gful/s xf} t unTofP/ of] b]zaf6 nv]6g] ' k5{ / xfdL ;hfo lbg' k5{ . of] cfd;r]t
u2f/ eP logsf] dxndf ad xfGg' k5{ k|df0f ;lxt k'li6 ug{k' 5{ . olb To;f] g]kfnLn] cyf{t jf:tljs gful/sn] of] gful/ssf] lhDd]jf/L / st{Jo xf] .
Jofkf/Ln] k|z+;f u/L PSoj4tf hgfPsf 5g\
eg] k/f]If ¿kdf ;]gf, k|x/L / sd{rf/Ln] ;d]t k|wfgdGqLsf] ljb]z df]x
;dy{ g hgfO{ / x] s f 5g\ . g] s kfsf] oxL
hg;dy{gsf] nx/ b]v/] ;/sf/nfO{ cf}8fxf ePsf]
5 . To;}n] ;/sf/ of] jf Tof] axfgfdf g]skfdfly
!% dlxgfdf ( k6s ljb]z e|d0f
sf7df8f}+ . s]kL zdf{ cf]nLn] leotgfd / SofDaf]l8ofsf] e|d0f lkmlnk;Fu e]6jftf{ ug]{ 5g\ . g]kfn zflGt ljZjljBfnosf] dfgfy{
k|wfgdGqLsf] afu8f]/ ;Dxfn]sf] !% u/]sf k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] ef]lnb]lv / k| m fG;aLr s' 6 gLlts ;DaGw ljBfjfl/wL pkflw u|x0f u/]sf lyP .
k|ltaGw nufP/ p;sf] g]tf sfo{stf{ dfly bdg dlxgf kf/ ePsf] 5 . o;aLrdf o'/f]kn
] L d'ns
' :jLh/Nof08, a]nfot :yfkgfsf] &) cf}+ jif{ufF7 dgfO/xFbf j}zfv @^ b]lv #) ut];Dd
pgn] ( k6s ljb]z e|d0f ul/;s]sf / k|mfG;sf] e|d0f ub}{ 5g\ . ;a}eGbf k|wfgdGqL cf]nL k|mfG; k'Ug nfu]sf leotgfd / sDaf]l8of e|d0f u/]sf
ub} { 5 . ;/sf/sf] oxL /j} o fsf sf/0f 5g\ . o;} qmddf k|wfgdGqL cf]nL k'/fgf] s'6gLlts ;DaGw ePsf] x'g\ . e|d0f qmddf k|mfG; ;/sf/;Fu k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] cl3Nnf] jif{sf]
zlgaf/ o'/f]k ofqfsf] nflu lgl:sPsf a]nfotdf g]kfnaf6 !& jif{kl5 ;]So'l/6L k|;
] / :of6nfO6;Fu ;DalGwt r}t @# b]lv @% ut];Dd ef/t
cfdhgtfsf] ;xfg'el" t g]skfdfly a9\b} uPsf] 5g\ . cf]nLsf] o'/f]k ofqf h]7 #@ k|wfgdGqL:t/Lo e|d0f xf] . ;Demf}tf x'g ;Sg] atfOPsf] 5 . e|d0f u/]sf lyP . @)&% sf] c;f/
5 . o;sf/0f ;/sf/n] b]znfO{ åGåaf6 arfpg ut];Dd rNg] 5 . o'/f]k ofqfsf] h]7 @& ut] g} a]nfot k'Ug] k|wfgdGqLn] cf]nLn] :jLh/Nof08sf] bf];f| ] ;ftf rLg uPsf k|wfgdGqL
qmddf cf] n L @^ / @& ut] k|wfgdGqLn] ;f]xL lbg cS;kmf]8{ e|d0f % dlxgfdf bf];f| ] k6s ug{ nfu]sf s]xL lbgcl3 ef/tLo ;dsIfL g/]Gb|
b'O{ ltxfO{sf] bDe 5fl8 g]skfsf] Ph]08fdf ;xdt :jL6\h/Nof08df /xg] / pgn] @& ljZjljBfnodf cfof] h gf x' g ] x'g\ . o;cl3 pgn] df3 bf];f| ] ;ftf df]bLsf] ;ky ;df/f]xdf ;xeflu x'g
ut] h]ge] fdf cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7g sfo{qmddf gful/ssf] hLjg:t/df 8fef];df cfof]lht ljZj cfly{s lbNnL k'us ] f lyP . k|wfgdGqLsf]
x'gs' f] ljsNk 5}g . b]z / hgtfsf] cfjfhnfO{ -cfO{Pncf]_sf] ztjflif{sL ;df/f]xnfO{ kl/jt{g Nofpg ;Sg] nf]stGqaf/] d~rsf] a}7sdf efu lnPsf lyP . ljb]z cf]xf]/–bf]xf]/nfO{ ;/sf/sf]
a'nGb kfb}{ ;+3if{df plqPsf] g]skfnfO{ b'O{ ltxfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ / s]xL pRr clwsf/L;Fu
e]63f6 ug]{ atfOPsf] 5 .
wf/0ff /fVg] 5g\ . k|wfgdGqLn] h]7
@* ut] a]nfotsL k|wfgdGqL 6]/];f
o:t}, k|wfgdGqL cf]nL c;f]h klxnf]
;ftf ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3sf] &# cf}+
s'6gLlts ;kmntf;Fu hf]8g\ ] ul/P
klg a]nfot e|d0fn] nfdf] ;dob]lv
ax'dtsf] andf bafp5' eGg' …;"on { fO{ xTs]nfn] cf]nL k|wfgdGqL ePsf] !% dlxgf d];Fu e]6jftf{ ug]{ 5g\ . h]7 @( dxf;efdf efu lng cd]l/sf uPsf hf/L /x]sf] uf]vf{ ;}lgs;Fu ;DalGwt
lat]sf] 5 . o;aLrdf ef/t, rLg, b]lv #! ut];Dd k|mfG; e|d0f ug]{ lyP . cd]l/sfaf6} sf]:6fl/sf uPsf ljjfb cGTo ug{ ;Snf–g;Snf
5]S5'Ú eGg] h:t} xf] . r]tgf eof . cd]l/sf, sf]:6fl/sf, :jLh/Nof08, k| w fgdGqLn] ;dsIfL Obf] j f8{ pgn] ;fg xf]hl] :yt ;+oQ ' m /fi6«;3+ Lo eGg]df clws rf;f] 5 .
@)&^ ;fn h]7 @^ ut] cfOtaf/ 3

lgb]l{ zt k|ltaGw / pT;fxk"0f{ k|ltjfb


s] k L zdf{ cf] n L g] t [ T jsf] ;f/tM of] 7"nf] l8hfOgcGt/ut ePsf] lbg–k|ltlbg c;kmn / lgsDdf x'bF } :jfy{;d"xåf/f 3]l/g'ePsf cf]nLn] k|ltaGwn] l;h{gf u/]sf] cljZjf; / sfo{qmd, leQ]nv ] g, ;flxlTos–;f+:s[lts
;/sf/n] @)&% kmfu'g @* ut] 5 . /fhgLlts ljZn]ifsx¿ of] klg uPkl5 To;nfO{ ljifofGt/0f ug'{ cfˆg} kf6L{kª\lStleq ;j{;Qfjfb cftª\ssf aLraf6 u'lh|/x]sf] 5 . sfo{qmddfly c3f]lift k|ltaGw t lgs}
dª\unaf/ ck/fGx $ ah]b]lv ;fFem eGb5g\ ls cf]nL / k|r08sf aLr b'O{ pgLx¿sf nflu clgjfo{ / afWofTds nfb\g klg s]xL g s]xL pkb|j ug{ ;f/tM of] k|ltaGwn] ;Qf?9 36sdf cl3b]lv g} nufOPsf] lyof], clxn] t
^ ah];Dd a;]sf] dlGqkl/ifb\ a}7sn] s'/fdf n]gb]g eof] . l;s] /fptk|lt aGb} uO/x]sf] lyof] . k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] h?/L lyof] . k|wfgdGqL cf]nLåf/f cljZjf; / lj36gsf] aLp /f]k]sf] To;n] cf}krfl/stf kfPsf] dfq xf] .
ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] g]kfn sDo'lg:6 cf]nL c;fWo} cg'bf/ x'gx' G' Yof] eg] l;s] /fpt;Fusf] sfo{qmddf g]skf / k|ltalGwt ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]skfnfO{ 5 eg] k|ltalGwt g]skfdf pT;fx g]tf–sfo{stf{sf] t s'/} 5f]8f}ÙF ;fdfGo
kf6L{dfly k|ltaGw nufpg] lg0f{o ljKnjk|lt k|r08 TolQs} cg'bf/ . oxfF d'Vo g]tfsf] gfd} ls6]/ lgn{Hh / u}/– xltof/ a'emfO{ jftf{df cfpg kmfu'g k}bf u/]sf] 5 . slj, n]vs, lzIfs, Jofkf/L, kqsf/nfO{
u¥of] . pSt dlGqkl/ifb\ a}7sdf of] s'/f klg :d/0fLo x'G5 ls ljKnjb]lv /fhgLlts efiffdf …n'6/] f ;d"xÚ sf] ;+1f #) ut] cf}krfl/s ¿kdf #% lbg] ljKnj / pxfFn] g]tT[ j ug'e { Psf] hxfF kfof], ToxL :ofnn] s'v/' f 5fk];/L
ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]skfdfly k|ltaGw k|r08nfO{ 8/, k|r08b]lv s]kL cf]nLnfO{ o;} lbOPsf] lyPg . cf]nL ;/sf/n] …clN6d]6dÚ lbg'sf] leqL p2]Zo cfˆg} g]skfnfO{ k|ltaGwn] vf;} c;/ u/]sf] 5f]Kg] qmd tLj| ePsf] 5 . sfg'gljb\x¿
nufpg] k|:tfj s]kL zdf{ / k|r08sf] 8/ eO/x] s } cj:yfdf klZrdf :jtGq dw]; dfu ub}{ k[ystfjfbL kf6L{sf g]tf–sfo{stf{sf] k|lt/f]wL / u/]sf] b]lv+bg} . pSt kf6L{sf] lgoldt s] klg eGb5g\ eg] lgjf{rg cfof]udf
vabf/L dfgl;stfdfly k|xf/ ug'{ a}7s, /fhgLlts, j}rfl/s sfd btf{ g} gePsf] kf6L{nn] fO{ ;/sf/n] s]sf
v]d yklnof lyof] . To;}u/L, k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] eO/x]sf 5g\ . k|ltaGwn] kf6L{nfO{ cfwf/df k|ltaGw nufof] < of] k|ltaGw
r}t !! ut] kf6L{ ;+;bLo bnsf] ´g\ ;'b[9, ´g\ Pstfa4, ´g\ g} cj} w flgs 5 . o;sf/0f of]
ljleGg u'6. pku'6 / a} 7 sdf af] N b} ljKnj g] t [ T jsf] xflb{stfk"j{s / ´g\ ¿kfGt/0fsf k|ltaGwnfO{ g} k|ltaGw nufpg'kb{5 .
g]skfsf cltjfbL / ljWj+;fTds ;fy cufl8 a9\g ;xof]u u/]sf] km]l/ ljb|fx] L zlStnfO{ k|rlnt sfg'g /
:jfy{;d"xåf/f 3]l/g'ePsf lqmofsnfk r}t dlxgfleq lgoGq0f b]lvG5 . a? k|ltaGwaf6 pSt kf6L{df To;sf bkmf–pkbkmf ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo
cf]nLn] cfˆg} ul/;Sg] bfaL ug' { klg g] k fnL ;fk]lIft ¿kdf Pp6f 5'§} xf};nf, g} x'bF g} . To;f] eP ;/sf/ s]sf cfwf/df
hgtfsf] dgf]lj1fgdfly …y|6] Ú l;h{gf Pp6f 5'§} pT;fx b]vfk/]sf] 5 . oL ;a ul/Psf] 5 t < o;sf] 7f];
kf6L{kª\lStleq ug'{ lyof] . ;fy}, k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] cGgk"0f{ kf]:6 b}lgsdf cGtjf{tf{sf pQ/ ;/sf/n] clxn];Dd lbg ;s]sf]
;j{;Qfjfb nfb\g klg ;/sf/sf] s'/f gdfg] ljKnjnfO{ qmddf pSt kf6L{ s f dxf;lrj 5}g . To;sf/0f of] /fhgLlts d'2f xf] .
h]ndf sf]lrlbg] pb\3f]if ug'{ klg ljKnjn] eGg' e Psf] 5, æof] /fhgLlts d'2fsf] xn /fhgLlts
s]xL g s]xL pkb|j ug{ pxfF s f] cfˆg} kf6L{ s f g] t fx¿ k|ltaGwnfO{ ;f/f /fhgLlts kf6L{, clwsf/ / /fhgLlts :jtGqtfaf6
h?/L lyof] . k|wfgdGqL ´ngfy vgfn, dfwjs'df/ g]kfn, a'l4hLjL, gful/s ;dfh, sfg'gljb\, dfq ;Dej x'G5 . To;sf/0f of]
cf]nLåf/f k|ltalGwt eLd /fjn / k|r08x¿nfO{ klg dfgjclwsf/jfbL / ljleGg k|ltaGwnfO{ tTsfn x6fpg'kb{5 .
ysf{pg' lyof] . ;ª\3;+:yfn] v'n/] lj/f]w u/]sf 5g\ . cGoyf, /fhgLlts k|ltaGwnfO{ sfg'gL
ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] k| w fgdGqL s] k L cf] n Ln] s]kL ;/sf/ PlSnPsf] 5 . xfd|f] dfu pkrf/ vf]Hg' eg]sf] cf]nL ;/sf/sf]
g]skfnfO{ xltof/ a'emfO{ ljKnjx¿nfO{ r} t dlxgfleq 5– s]kL ;/sf/n] of] k|ltaGw lkmtf{ …Nxf;f hfg] s'tLsf] af6f]Ú eg]h:t} xf] .
l;WofpF5' eg]sf] klg j}zfv dlxgf lng'k5{ .Æ === ;/sf/n] xfdLnfO{ cGTodf,
jftf{df cfpg kmfu'g #) klg ;lsP/ h] 7 dlxgf cl3 cflwsfl/s 9ª\un] jftf{df af]nfPsf] rf}tkmL{ c;kmntfsf] 3]/df k/]sf]
ut] cf}krfl/s ¿kdf #% al9;s]sf] 5 t/ ljKnjnfO{ h]ndfsf] xf]Og, To; cy{df jftf{df cfPg eGg cf] n L ;/sf/ ljKnj g] t [ T jsf]
sf]lrlbg] cf]nLsf] …bDek"0f{Ú efsf ldn]g . jftf{af6 t xfdL kmls{b+ 5 } f}F . g]skfdf ljefhg Nofpg rfXGYof],
lbg] ‘clN6d]6d’ lbg'sf] cnkqdf k/] s f] 5 . g] k fnL hlta]nf;Dd jftf{af6 hgclwsf/ To;df klg pm c;kmn eof] .
leqL p2]Zo cfk\mg} kf6L{sf g]tf–sfo{stf{sf] k|lt/f]wL / vabf/L dfgl;stfdfly /fhgLltdf k| l taGwkl5sf / b]zsf k|:tfjx¿ kf; xf]nfg\ eGg] k| l taGwaf/] ;/sf/sf] rf} t kmL{
36gfqmdn] s] b]vfpF5 eg] ;/sf/L lyof], To;a]nf;Dd t k|r08x¿;lxt cfnf]rgf / c;Gt'li6 JoSt ePsf]
k|xf/ ug'{ lyof] . To;}u/L, k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] r}t !! ut] kf6L{ ;+;bLo ;'/Iff ;+oGq / sfg'gL sf/afxLsf] xfdL jftf{d} lyof}F . === t/ ha 5 . a? k|ltalGwt g]skfdfly g}
bnsf] a}7sdf af]Nb} ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]skfsf cltjfbL / ljWj+;fTds bfo/f / kx'Fraf6 ljKnj / pxfFn] jftf{sf gfddf hgo'4sf ;f/f k|:tfj ;b\efj / ;xfg'e"lt b]vfk/]sf] 5 .
g]tT[ j ug'e{ Psf] kf6L{nfO{ vf;} k|efljt / pknlAwnfO{ v/fgL kfg{ yflnof], o;aLrdf g] s kfn] r/0fa4
lqmofsnfk r}t dlxgfleq lgoGq0f ul/;Sg] bfaL ug'{ klg g]kfnL hgtfsf] u/]sf] b]lvPg . ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] b] z nfO{ k/fwLg / hgtfnfO{ cfGbf] n gsf] 3f] i f0ff;F u }
dgf]lj1fgdfly ‘y|6] ’ l;h{gf ug'{ lyof] . ;fy}, k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] ;/sf/sf] kf6L{ s f g] t f tyf sfo{ s tf{ n fO{ clwsf/ljxLg agfpg yflnof], ta g]kfnaGb;Ddsf] sfo{qmd ;DkGg
w/ks8 ug],{ lx/f;tdf /fVg], h]ndf g xfdLn] ljb|fx] u/]sf xf}F . cfh klg ul/;s] s f] 5 . o;aLrdf
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g]tfx¿ ´ngfy vgfn, dfwjs'df/ g]kfn, eLd /fjn / k|r08x¿nfO{ klg ;f]r]eGbf lgs} sd Iflt ePsf] qmflGtn] p7fPsf ljifonfO{ ;dfwfg l3ld/]sf] xTof ul/Psf] 5 . To;sf]
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tYofª\ssf] cfwf/df klg :yfoL ;ldlt k| l talGwt g] s kfn] cf] n L kf6L{ å f/f cfof] l ht kl5Nnf]
)))) ;b:o ;'bz{g;lxt sl/a % ;o ;/sf/åf/f nufOPsf] /fhgLlts g] k fnaGbsf qmddf pkTosfdf
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sfo{stf{ k|x/L lx/f;tdf k'¥ofOPsf nflbPsf] kmfl;jfbL xs{tsf ¿kdf 5 . ´G8} cfwfbh{g o'jfx¿ uDeL/
c;/ u/]sf] u/]sf] b]lv+b}g . pSt kf6L{sf] lgoldt a}7s, 5g\ . o;aLrdf sltkodfly sfg'gL a'´s ] f] 5 . k|ltaGwkl5 /IffTdsh:tf] 3fOt] x'g'x'G5, t/ klg k|ltaGwsf]
/fhgLlts, j}rfl/s sfd eO/x]sf 5g\ . k|ltaGwn] kf6L{nfO{ sf/afxL rnfOPsf] 5 eg] sltko / k|ltalGwt g]skf cfqmfdsh:tf] k|ltjfb /f]lsPsf] 5}g . k|wfgdGqL
cbfntsf] cfb]zdf w/f}6Ldf 5'6]sf b]lvg yfn]sf] 5 . cfh g]kfndf hf] cf]nL hfg'ePsf lhNnfx¿sf] aGb
´g\ ;'b[9, ´g\ Pstfa4, ´g\ xflb{stfk"j{s / ´g\ 5g\ . aGbL k|ToIfLs/0f l/6 lgj]bgsf] sf]xLn] klg ;/sf/ cf/fhgLltsh:tf] ug]{ sfo{qmd klg eO/x]sf 5g\ .
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5'6s ] fnfO{ klg k'gM lx/f;tdf lnOPsf] cg'ej ug{ ;Sb5g\ . ;/sf/ Go"gtd k|ltjfb eO/x]sf] 5 . k|ltalGwt
k|ltaGwaf6 pSt kf6L{df ;fk]lIft ¿kdf Pp6f 5'§} xf};nf, 5 . t/ klg k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] ¿kdf ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]skfnfO{ kf6L{sf g]skfsf] hLjgdf kl5Nnf] r/0ffdf
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g]sksf] k|;ª\u l´Sg 5f]8g\ e ' Psf] btf{ gePsf]n] ;d"x elgPsf] ;/sf/L b]vfk/]sf] 5 . a? ;Qf?9 36s /
))))) 5}g . nfU5, k|wfgdGqL cf]nLnfO{ kIfsf] bfjL 5 . of] xbbhf{ s f ltgsf] g]t[Tjdf /x]sf] ;/sf/df
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g]tT[ j ug'e { Psf] g]skf g} ePsf] 5 . sfof{non] …ljKnj ;d"xsf sfo{stf{nfO{ b]lvg yfn]sf 5g\ . ;QfOt/sf
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pQ/ ;/sf/n] clxn];Dd lbg ;s]sf] 5}g . To;sf/0f of] /fhgLlts d'2f gug'{ u/]kl5 x'g] o:t} o:t} t xf] . cfb]zcg';f/ d'ns ' e/sf o'lg6nfO{ kqsff/, sfg'gljb\, a'l4hLjLnufot
xf] . /fhgLlts d'2fsf] xn /fhgLlts clwsf/ / /fhgLlts :jtGqtfaf6 cGttM of] lgb]{lzt k|ltaGw ;Qf?9 kl/kq u/]sf] b]lvG5 . oxfF klg ;d"x ;r] t 7" n f] kª\ l Stn] v' n dv' n f
kf6L{ / ljz]iftM :jod\ k|wfgdGqL g} elgPsf] 5 . ;/sf/L /j} o fsf] s8f k| l tjfb
dfq ;Dej x'G5 . To;sf/0f of] k|ltaGwnfO{ tTsfn x6fpg'kb{5 . cGoyf, cf]nLnfO{ dxª\uf] kb}{ uPsf] b]lvG5 . ;+;bLo kf6L{x¿ cfkm}nF ] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] ul//x]sf 5g\ . of] k|ltjfb cGt/f{li6«o
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a]nf a]nf ;/sf/sf s]xL dfG5]n] clwsf/nfO{ df}lns clwsf/df /fv]sf] k|r08 g]tT[ jdf /x]sf] kf6L{df uDeL/
hfg] s'tLsf] af6f]’ eg]h:t} xf] . nfrf/Lk"0f{ jftf{sf] s'/f ul//x]sf] 5 . ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !&-@_ df dte] b a9\ b } hfg' / ;/sf/sf]
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lgb]z{ gdf :jod\ u[xdGqL /fdaxfb'/ zlSts]Gb|n] k|r08dfkm{t l;s] /fptnfO{ cfGbf]ng ul//x]sf l;s] /fpt;Fu !! jftf{sf] s'/} gu/]sf] k|ltalGwt x'g kfpg] clwsf/sf lj?4 cf]nL hfg'n] cf]nL ;/sf/sf] zd{gfs
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;s]gg\ lsgeg] Pp6f sDo'lg:6 b'js
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kf6L{n] csf]{ sDo'lg:6 kf6L{dfly km/s_ pxL /x]sf] cj:yfdf tL nufOPsf] k|ltaGwsf cg]sg sf/0f ;dfKt ePsf] s'/f g} ;xL 7x5{ . 5 . p8fg :ylut eP;Fu} lgudsf] nflu klg of] ckm l;hg ePsf] sf/0f
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p8fgsf nflu ut df3df lgudn] l;hg ;'? x'g] ePsfn] cu:6sf]
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of] s'/f ;To ;fljt eof], ha o;sf ePsf] n]gb]gdf g]kfnL /fhgLltsf] lrlgofFlj?4sf] 3]/f alnof] agfpg c;fWo} a9L cljZjf; k|wfgdGqL cf]nL af6 ljdfg ;~rfngsf] cg'dlt k|df0f– u/] . hfkfg p8fgsf] cg'dlt kfpg
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ljefuLo lhDd]jf/Lsf] lx;fan] cg';f/ Pg;]nnufotsf k|s/0f t k'g?TyfgjfbL / k|ltufdLx¿nfO{ ;a}eGbf a9L ljKnjaf6 g} cftª\lst /fpG8 p8fg ug]{ u/L cf];fsfl:yt Aoj:yfkgsf sf/0f To;} klg w/fzfoL
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;xof]4f ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]skfdfly a]nf nufgL ;Dd]gg klg glhs} w|a' Ls/0fnfO{ /f]Sg' of] k|ltaGwsf] csf]{ Jojxf/af6 ;lhn} a'‰g ;lsG5 . lbPsf] lyof]/ . lgudsf k|jQmf gj/fh cfzf u/]sf] yk gofF uGtAodf p8fg
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sf7df8f}F . dflg;x?nfO{ df]6f]kgsf] ;d:ofn] v'a} ;tfpg yfn]sf] 5 .
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lgl:sPsf] x'G5 . x'g t 3/df cfdfafaf 5f]/f] of 5f]/L df]6fP eg]/ v'zL
gf/LnfO{ b]jLsf] k|tLs dflgPsf] 5 . ;d:of cflb OTofbLsf] af]em x'bF fx'bF } /fd|/L k9fpg klg ufx|f] 5 . cem d :jo+ gf/L ePsf] gftfn] gf/Lsf] x'Fbfx'g\ t/ o;n] ljleGg k|sf/sf /f]unfO{ ;d]t lgDtf] lbG5 . To;}n] k]6
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cfˆgf] aRrfnfO{ >[Ëf/n] sfo{ klg bf]xf]l/g] lyPg xf]nf . slxn] anfTsf/ kfOG5 . olt dfq sxFf xf] / bfOhf] gf/Ldfly ePsf] cTofrf/, lx+;f, sfutL kfgLaf6 ug{x' f];\ lbgsf] ;'?jft– lbgsf] ;'?jft sfutL kfgLaf6
ub{l5g\ . cfˆgf] aRrfsf] v'zL x]bf{ t slxn] d/Ggf;Gg x'gu] l/ s'6lk6, ltl/;s]kl5 klg 5f]/LnfO{ ;'v 5}g . zf]if0f cflbsf] lj¿4df xfdL ;Dk"0f{ ug{'xf];\ . k]6df hDdf ePsf] cltl/Qm af];f] sd ug{ of] 3/]n' pkfo
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ctM gf/Ln] o; ;+;f/df /rgf cyf{t eO/x]sf 5g\ . ug'{kb{5 . a]nf cfPsf] 5 . 3/ 3/df o:tf laxfg ;]jg ug{'xf];\ . o;af6 tkfO{+sf] d]6faf]lnhd b'?:t /xG5 / tf}n
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gf/L ;fRr} g} dxfg x'lG5g\ . pgs} >Ldfg 8f=;lrtfgGbn] lbgx'h
F ;f] dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ x'g] cfh c¿;Fu 36]sf] 5 eg] ef]nL v}/f] rfdnsf] eft vfg'xf];\ – olb tkfO{+ eft vfgdf ;f]lvg x'g'x'G5
xfd|f] lkt[;QfTds jf k'¿if k|wfg d/Ggf;Gg x'gu] l/ s'6lk6 ug'{ / u/]sf 5g\ . Totflt/sf 36gfx¿ xfdL;Fu klg 36\g ;S5 . To;sf/0f eg] ;]tf] rfdnaf6 6f9f /xg'xf];\ / To;sf] :yfgdf v}/f] rfdnsf] eft
;dfhn] gf/Lsf] ;fx;, ;Ifdtf / c:ktfndf d[To" x'g' tyf l;/xfsf] Tolt ;fj{hlgs x'Fb}g . kxf8df To:tf ;fdflhs ck/fwLx¿nfO{
of]ubfgnfO{ /lQe/ klg ;/fxgf sNof0fk'/df s+rg d08nnfO{ lhpFb} ;aeGbf a9L k|tfl8t 5g\ dlxnfx¿ a]nd} f va/bf/ ug'k{ b{5 . :jo+ gf/Ln]
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kb xfl;n ub{}df ;Dk"0f{ gf/Lsf] 36gfx¿ pbfx/0fx¿ 5g\ . cem sltko dlxnfx¿n] csfnd} gf/L ;xglzntfsf] cem k/LIff
kl/j]znfO{ cf}Nofpg ;lsGg . s]xL lgd{nf kGtsf] anfTsf/ kl5 xTofn] Hofg;d]t u'dfpg] u/]sf] 36gfx¿ gn]p eg]/ ;a}nfO{ xf]l;of/ ug{'
gf/Lx¿n] cfˆgf] ;xL d"Nofs+gsf] t emg\ ddf{lxt t'NofPsf] 5 . oL klg aflx/ cfPs} 5g\ . To:t} , kb{5 . t;y{, ;dod} gf/L lx+;fsf]
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eGb}df ;Dk"0f{ gf/LnfO{ dfkg ug{ k/Dk/fsf pkhx¿ 5g\ . a]tnaL u/] s f 5g\ . To:tf ;fdflhs ljs[tLsf] af6f]df k'uL /f]uL x'g]5 .
sbfkL ldNb}g . cem klg xfd|f] gf}s/sf] ¿kdf gf/LnfO{ lng] k|of; ck/fwLx¿nfO{ s8feGbf s8f ;hfo ;DalGwt kIfx¿, h;n] gf/L lx+;fsf]
;dfhdf gf/Lsf] cj:yf bogLo 5 . ul/Psf] 5 . lbgel/ sfd ug{] t/ lbg' kb{5 . /f]syfddf cfˆgf] of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf
xfd|f] ;dfh gf/L lx+;fn] u|l;t 5 . vfgf vfg] a]nfdf ;a}eGbf kl5 dlxnf lx+ ; flj¿4 g] k fnsf] 5g\ . ltgLx¿sf] klg plts} vfFrf]
gf/Ln] kfpg] clwsf/ / ;Ddfgdf vfg'kg{] /], slxn];Dd gf/LnfO{ lyr]/ ;+ljwfgdf klg s8f sfg"gx¿ 5g\ . 5 . xfd|f] ;/sf/n] klg s8feGbf
cem klg sdL sdhf]/Lx¿ 5g\ . /fVg] xf] of] ;dfh < gf/LnfO{ t'R5 t/ s] tL sfg"g cfO;Sbf klg dlxnf s8f sfg'gsf] Joj:yf u/L gf/L
dlxnf cf/If0f lbFb}df gf/LnfO{ 7fGg] /f]uL ;dfhnfO{ h/}bl] v pvfn]/ lx+;f Go"gLs/0f ePsf] 5 t < lsg lx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ /f]Sg] k|of;
d" n k| j fxdf ;dfj] z Ls/0f ug{ kmfNg'kb{5 . ;+j}wflgs clwsf/ dlxnfn] pkof]u ug'{kg{] b]lvG5 . x'g t ;/sf/n]
;lsGg . s] x LnfO{ ;lsPnf t/ t/fO{ dw]zdf vf;u/L lbgx'F ug{ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\ < af]S;Lsf] gfddf dlxnf lx+;fsf lj¿4 sfg"gx¿
;Dk"0f{nfO{ sbfkL xf]Og . dlxnfnfO{ dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ aflx/ dlxnfdfly lx+;f ug]{nfO{ sfg"gL gNofPsf] xf]Og, t/ tL sfg"gx¿
cf/If0f xf]Og, cj;/ rflxG5 . dlxnf cfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . t/fO{ dw]zdf sf/afxL x'g] elgPsf] 5 t/ lsg ;zQm¿kdf sfof{Gjog ePsf] 5}g .
k'¿ifeGbf sd Ifdtfjfg x'Fb}gg\ . bfOhf] k| d ' v sf/ssf] ¿kdf eO/x]sf] 5}g < sfg"g h:tf];s ' } cfPklg sfof{Gjog vfg'xf];\ . o;sf cnfjf cfˆgf] vfgfdf a|fpg a|]8, cf]6\;h:tf vfB kbfy{
dlxnfnfO{ cf/If0fdf dfq ;Lldt ug'{ b]lvPsf] 5 eg] kxf8df klg ljleGg of] PSsfO;f}+ ztfAbLdf dlxnf / geP;Dd To;sf] s'g} dxTj x'Fb}g . ;fd]n ug{x' f];\ . v}/f] rfdnsf] eft eg] g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df Tolt ;Dej gx'g
eg]sf] dlxnfleqsf] IfdtfnfO{ phfu/ lsl;dsf dlxnf k|tf8gfx¿ x'G5g\ . k'¿if, 5f]/f / 5f]/LaLrsf] e]befj t;y{ , gf/Lsf] ljleGg ¿kx¿ klg ;S5 . u'lnof]af6 6f9f /xg'xf];\ olb tkfO{+ k]6sf] af];f] sd xf];\ eGg]
gug'{ xf] . dlxnfO{ cf/If0fsf] ;f6f] dw]zdf dlxnf lx+;fsf] k|dv ' sf/0f clxn] klg ;dfKt x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g x'G5g\ . ;Ddfg ug]{ afgL a;fnf}+ . - rfxg'xG' 5 eg] ld7fO{af6 6f9f /xg'xf];\ .
cfTdlge{ / agfpg] l t/ vfnsf bfOhf] k|yfnfO{ dfGg ;lsG5 . : . Gff/L k'¿ifeGbf klg a9L ;Ifd n]lvsf dlxnf clwsf/sdL{ x'g\_ - ld7fO{ tyf t}nLo kbfy{af6 6f9f /xg'xf];\ – o:tf vfB kbfy{n] z/L/df
of]hgfx¿ Nofpg'k5{ . t/fO{lt/ of] ;d:of a9L b]Vg x'lG5g\ eGg] s'/f lj1fgn] klg ;fljt dw]z bk{0f lkmr/ ;]jf_ cltl/Qm af];f] hDdf u5{ . o:tf] af];f] k]6, lt3|fh:tf z/L/sf ljleGg

c:ktfn wfpg'kg]{ jfWotfaf6 d'Qm x'g] eP


efudf hDdf x'g] u5{g\ .
kfgL w]/} lkpg'xf];\ – k]6sf] af];f] sfd ug{ w]/} kfgL lkpg'xf];\ . of] lgs}
nfebfoL x'g]5 . lgoldt cGt/fndf kfgL lkpgfn] d]6faf]lnhd a9\5 /
z/L/af6 ljiffn' kbfy{ aflx/ lg:sgdf d2t u5{ . o;af6 z/L/ :j:y
sf7df8f}+ . g]kfnL ;dfhdf Pp6f xfdL /f]uL x'G5f}+ . ha /f]un] ufFHg yfN5, cfpg ;S5 . ToxL sf/0f /f]u nfUof] . p7]/ of]u u/f}+ . dlg{ª jfs u/f}+ . /xG5 .
/dfOnf] k|;u+ 5 . ha sf]xL kmnkm"n ta dfq cfˆgf] hLjgz}nL kl/jt{g ynf kl/of] . cf}ifwL ug{k' g]{ eof] . Jofofd u/f}+ . Wofg u/f}+ . lbge/ klg sf“rf] n;'g vfg'xf];\ – laxfg sfFrf] n;'g vfg] afgL ug{'xf];\ . o;n]
af]s/] lxFl8/x]sf x'G5g\ . l5d]sLn] ug]{ cEof; u5f}+{ . /f]uL eP/ pkrf/ c:ktfn wfpg'kg]{ eof] . cf}ifwL– zf/Ll/s ¿kdf s]xL g s]xL u/f}+ . ;lqmo z/L/nfO{ lgs} kmfObf klg u5{ . laxfg n;'gsf] b'O{ of tLg kf]6L rkfPkl5
;f]W5g, …xf]Og, sf]xL la/fdL 5 <Ú ug{' pko'Qm ls /f]u nfUg} glbg' < pkrf/df k};f ;lsof] . lg/f]uL hLjgz}nL ckgfcf}+ . dgsf] z'l4s/0f tftf]kfgLdf sfutL xfn]/ lkpgfn] af];f] 36fpg d2t u5{ . o;af6
l5d]sLn] lsg klg o:tf] cfz+sf u/] kSs} klg tkfO{s + f] dgn] bf];f| ] ljsNk cj:yfdf, zf/Ll/s ¿kn] tGb'?:t u/f}+ . dgsf] ljsf/n] tgnfO{ c;/ df]6f]kgf 36\g] k|lqmof b'O u'gfn] x'G5 . o;af6 z/L/sf] /Qmk|jfx klg
eg] tkfO{n + ] kmnkm"n af]Sg'ePsf] 5 . ;jf]Q{ d dfGg]5 . t/, tkfO{s + f] hLjgz}nL ePsf] a]nf xfdLn] z/L/nfO{ /f]u u5{ . z/L/ / dgsf] ;DaGw gª / ;'rf? x'G5 .
cyf{t xfdL 3/df sf]xL la/fdL k/] klxnf] ljsNkd} clNemPsf] 5 . cyf{t k|lt/f]wfTds agfpg ;S5f}+ . o;sf df;'sf] h:t} x'G5 . ha tkfO{+ dfgl;s df+;fxf/af6 6f9} /xg'xf];\ – df+;fxf/L ef]hgdf af];f]sf] dfqf lgs}
kmnkm"n VjfpF5f} . sf]xL cfkmGt, ha /f]un] RofK5, tadfq pkrf/sf] nflu s]xL ug{ kb}g{ . s]jn hLjgz}nL ¿kn] tgfjdf x'gx' G' 5, To;sf] c;/ x'G5 . of] af];f] z/L/df hDdf x'G5, h;af6 :jf:Yo;DaGwL ;d:ofx?
;fyLefO{, l5d]sL c:ktfndf egf{ eP vf]hLdf bf}8g'xG' 5 . ;f]Rg'xf];\ t, tkfO{+ :j:Yo / ;Gt'lnt /fv] k'U5 . o:tf] d'6d' f k5{ . ha tkfO{+ eoflet x'gx' G' 5, pTkGg x'G5g\\ . olb jf:tjd} tkfO{+ tf}n sd ug{ rfxg'xG' 5 eg] df+;fxf/
eg] pgnfO{ e]6g\ hfFbf kmnkm"n, h'; Ps hgfnfO{ /f]u nfU5 . t/, To;n] vfgfkfg u/f},+ h;n] kfrg oGqnfO{ 8/sf] cj:yfdf x'gx' G' 5, tgfjsf]
5f8]/ zfsfxf/L ef]hg ug{'xf];\ . w]/} ;fu;AhL vfg'xf];\ vfgfdf kmn /
jf :j:Yoj4{s vfg]s/' f af]S5f} . ha tkfO{+ PSnf]nfO{ dfq b'Mv lbFbg} . ;a} ;xh agfpF5 . ;lhn} kR5 . ;fy;fy} cj:yfdf x'gx' G' 5, d'6s ' f] ult a9\5 .
;fu;AhL ;fd]n ug{x' f];\ .
xfdL c:ktfn wfpF5f}+ l5d]sLn] nv 3/–kl/jf/n] tgfj em]Ng'k5{ . 3/df z/L/nfO{ kf]if0f klg cfk"lt{ u5{ . :jf;k|Zjf; k|lqmof clgoldt x'G5 .
laxfg a]n'sL Ps srf}/f kmn / ;fu;AhL vfg' :jf:Yosf nflu
sf6\5g\, …kmnfgf] la/fdL eP5g\ .Ú rfx] s'g} ;b:o lj/fdL eP ;Dk"0f{ kl/jf/sf] ;Gt'lnt / ;'kfRo vfg]s/' f ;]jg u/f}+ . o;n] ubf{ z/L/sf] sfd lgoldt /
kmfObfhgs x'G5 . o;af6 tkfO{s + f] k]6 el/G5 / PG6LclS;8]G6, ldg/N;
:jf:Yo k/LIf0f ug{ xf];\ jf s'g} k/fdz{sf dgl:ytL af]lemnf] x'G5 . s;}n] klg vfgf vfg] ;do lgoldt u/f}+ . yf]/} r':t x'bF g} . /f]un] cfqmd0f u5{ . To;}n]
/ le6fldg klg k|fKt x'G5 .
nflu, c:ktfn wfpg yfn]kl5 …kmnfgf] pd+udo 9+un] cfˆgf] sfd ug{ ;Sb}g . yf]/} t/ w]/} k6s vfg] afgL u/f}+ . z/L/nfO{ ;lqmo /fVg], vfgkfg ;Gt'lnt
/f]uL eP5Ú eGg yflnG5 . sf]xL ha csf]l{ t/ tkfO{s + f] b}lgsL k|efljt x'G5 . laxfg rf8} p7\g,] rf8} ;'Tg] u/f}+ . / ;'kfRo ug]{ ;fy;fy} dgnfO{ zfGt, vfgf ksfpg] tl/sf kl/jt{g ug{x' f];\ – vfgf ksfpFbf tf}n a9fpg]
dlg{ª jfsdf lg:sg yfN5g\ . Jofofd eg]h:tf] jf ;f]r]h:tf] sfd ug{ ;'Tg] / p7\g] tflnsf lgoldt u/f}+ . ;sf/fTds klg /fVg] . o; lsl;dsf] vfnsf d;nf klg k|of]u gug{'xf];\ . bfn rLgL, cb'jf tyf dl/rsf] k|of]u
ug{ yfN5g\ . b]Vg]x¿ eG5g, …kmnfgf]nfO{ kfpg'xG' g . c:ktfn wfpg], k/LIf0f ug],{ /ftdf sDtLdf ;ft jf cf7 306f d:t hLjgz}nLn] xfdLnfO{ c:ktfn wfpg'kg]{ vfgfdf clgjfo{ ?kdf ug{'xf];\ . oL d;fnf :jf:Yosf nflu kmfObfhgs
kSs} dw'dx] jf pRr /Qmrfkn] 5f]P5 .Ú pkrf/ ug],{ cf}ifwL ;]jg ug]{ rSs/df ;'tf}+ . ;lqmo lbgrof{ ckgfcf}+ . laxfg jfWotfaf6 d'Qm u5{ . x'G5 . o;n] tkfO{+sf] OG;'lng Ifdtf a9fpF5 / lrgLsf] dfqf klg sd
o;af6 xfd|f] ;dfhsf] df]6fdf]6L tkfO{+ uNb} / yfSb} hfg'xG' 5 . otf u5{ .
dgf]lj1fg s] kfOG5 eg], la/fdL ePkl5
kmnkm"n vfg'k5{ . o;/L a'emf},+ kmnkm"n
cfly{s af]em klg ylkG5 . Psflt/
tkfO{+ cfocfh{gsf] sfddf ;xefuL
cfn' csf/sf] xf]6n
] Û abfdsf] k|of]u ug{x' f];\ – abfddf le6fldg O tyf k|fl] 6gsf cnfjf
kmfOa/sf] dfqf clws dfqfdf x'G5 . o;sf] ;]jgn] k]6 nfdf];do;Dd
eg]sf] s'/f lj/fdL jf /f]uL ePkl5 x'ge' Psf] 5}g . kl/jf/sf nflu To;}klg sf7df8f}+ . cd]l/sfsf] Obfxf]df ljzfn cfn'sf] csf/ lbP/ nUh/L xf]6n] el/Psf] cg'e"lt x'G5 . o;df Sofnf]/Lsf] dfqf a9L ePklg df]6fO{ eg]
vfg] lrh x'g\ . kmnkm"n vfg', Jofofd af]em eof] . csf]l{ t/ tkfO{s + f] pkrf/sf agfOPsf] 5 . oxfF /ft latfpgsf nflu dflg;x¿ nfvf}F ¿k}ofF vr{ ub{5g\ . a9fpFb}+g .
ug{,' bf}8g', lgoldt :jf:Yo k/LIf0f nflu nfUg] vr{n] Jofoef/ a9fOlbG5 . cfn'sf] cfsf/df lgld{t of] xf]6nsf] tf}n ^ 6g 5 . of] cfn' xf]6n
] leq l5bf{
ug]{ cfjZoQmf To;a]nf dfq b]V5f},+ ha
z/L/df /f]un] …xfO cn6{Ú hf/L u5{ .
/f]u nflu ;s]kl5sf] cj:yfdf
s;/L tkfO{+ / ;du| tkfO{s + f] kl/jf/n]
hf] sf]xL klg b+u kg]{ ub{5g\ . of] xf]6]ndf Ps /ft a:gsf nflu @ ;o $&
8n/ ltg{' kb{5 . of] cfn' xf]6]ndf Ps k6sdf dfq b'O{ hgf kfx'gf a:g
;Sb5g\ . lgs} ;'Gb/ OG6]l/o/ l8hfOg ul/Psf] Po/ slG8;g;lxtsf] cfn'
n]v, /rgf;DaGwL ;"rgf
cyf{t zf/Ll/s ¿kdf :j:Yo x'bF fx'bF } kL8f em]Ng'k5{ eGg] s'/fsf] pbfx/0f
klg tkfO{n + ] o; lsl;dsf] lbgrof{ dfq xf] of] . t/, o:tf ;+efljt vt/faf/] xf]6ndf kfx'Fgfx¿sf nflu vfg] / a:g] /fd|f] ;'ljwf 5 . o; ;fKtflxsdf k|sfzgfy{
ckgfpg' eof] eg], cg'dfg ul/G5 ls x]Ssf x'bF f x'bF } klg xfdL v/fa hLjgz}nL
tkfO{d+ f s'g} /f]u 5 . /f]u nfu]kl5 g} ckgfpF5f}+ . h'g vfg gx'g] xf], ToxL /fli6«o÷cGt/f{li6«o dxTjsf n]v,
kmnkm"n vfg'k5{, c:ktfn hfg'k5{, vfG5f}+ . h] gug{k' g]{ xf], ToxL u5f}+{ .
dlg{ª js ug{k' 5{ eGg] ;f]r
xfdL /f]uL x'bF 5
+ s} sf/0f
} f}+ . ha;Dd /f]u nfUb}g,
xfdL dgnfUbf] 9+un] ofjt\ s'/f u5f}+{ /
bf]if rflx /f]u jf z/L/nfO{ lbG5f}+ .
/rgf / tl:j/x¿ pknAw u/fO{
:j:Yo hLjgz}nL ckgfpg] cfjZoQmf
b]Vb}gf}+ . kmnkm"n vfg], Jofofd ug]{ tkfO{s
/f]u To;} nfu]sf] xf]Og . To;df
+ f] sdhf]/L cfjZo 5 . tkfO{n + ]
;xof]u k'¥ofpg' x'g ;DalGwt
h?/t 7fGb}gf} . o;af6 k|i6 s] x'G5
eg], h'g 9+usf] hLjgz}nL ckgfpg'kg]{
/f]u k|lt/f]wfTds z/L/ lgdf{0fsf nflu
s'g} k|of; ug{e' Psf] lyof] <
;a}df cg'/f]w ul/G5 .
xf], To;sf] l7s ljkl/t plePsf 5f}+ . ;'kfRo / ;Gt'lnt ef]hg ug{e' Psf]
cyf{t kmnkm"n ;]jg ub}g{ f}+ . Jofofd lyof] < lgoldt Jofofd ug{e' Psf] lyof] <
ub}g{ f}+ . dlg{ª jfsdf lg:sb}gf} . lgoldt
:jf:Yo k/LIf0f ub}{gf} . dgnfUbf]
;sf/fTds ;f]r + sf] ljsf; ug{e' Psf]
lyof] < ;lqmo hLjgz}nL ckgfpg'ePsf]
If]Kof:q ;fKtflxs
hLjgz}nL ckgfpF5f}+ . dgnfUbf] vfG5f}+ . lyof] < yfkfufp“, sf7df8f},+ kmf]gM (*$!$)#*%!
dgnfUbf] ;'Tg]–p7\g] u5f}+{ . olx sf/0f oL k|Zgx¿sf] hjfkm gsf/fTds E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com
@)&^ ;fn h]7 @^ ut] cfOtaf/ 5

g]kfnsf ;'Gb/ / /d0fLo ko{6sLo uGtJo


sf7df8f}+ . ko{6g uGtJodf vKt8 hfgsf] nflu r}t / j}zfv prfOdf /x]sf] 5 . cGgk"0f{ kbdfu{ cjnf] s g ug{ s f nflu pko' Q m
u9LdfO{sf bz{gfyL{nfO{ ;f:tL Û
sf7df8f}+ . x/]s kfFr jif{df nfUg] af/fsf] u9LdfO d]nf o; jif{ d+l;/
dlxgfdf nfUb}5 . wfld{s ko{6s leq\ofpg] ultnf] cfwf/sf ¿kdf /x]sf]
g]kfn ljZjs} pTs[i6 b]zsf] ;"rL tyf c;f]h–sflQs dlxgf pko'Qm If]qsf] Pp6f d'Vo efusf] ¿kdf dflgG5 . u9LdfOdf bz{gfyL{sf] a;f]af;, kfgL, zf}rfno, wfld{s sfo{:yn tyf
leq kg]{ ub{5 . k|fs[lts ljklQ / sf] z L 6Kk' ;~rf/nufotsf k"jf{wf/ gx'bF f eQmhgx¿nfO{ ;d:of k/]sf] 5 . o; dlGb/sf]
cGo sf/0fn] cf]/fnf] nfu]sf a]nfdf sf]zL 6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If0f bz{g u/L b]jLnfO{ k|;Gg agfP OR5fOPsf] sfdgf k'/f x'g] ljZjf;df oxfF
ljZjsf rlr{t uGtJodf g]kfn s] G b| n fO{ nf] G nL Knfg] 6 n] r/f o:tf] 3'Or
F f] nfUg] ub{5 . qm'/ aln lbg] k|rngsf] lj/f]w ePkl5 rf}tkmL{
kl//xg'n] oxfFsf] ko{6g k|j4{gdf cjnf]sgsf] nflu pTs[i6 uGtJo
;xof]u k'¥ofpg] lglZrt 5 . xf],
3'Dgsf nflu pko'Qm df};d 5gf]6 /x]sf] k'glxndf #) j6f xf]6n 5g\ .
ug{'xf];\ . g hf8f], g t udL{] o:tf] ;f] If]qdf Ps /ftdf & xhf/ ko{6s
df};dnfO{ 3'd3fdsf] l;hg eGbf x'g] nf]GnL Knfg]6n] hgfPsf] 5 . /fVg ;Sg] Ifdtf 5 .
klg x'G5 . g]kfnsf ;'Gb/ / /d0fLo kl5Nnf] ;do g]kfn ko{6g af]8{ tyf Onfd
ko{6sLo uGtJoaf/] xfdL tkfO{+nfO{ ko{6g Joj;foL ;+:yfx¿n] vKt8 g] k fnsf] k" j L{ If] q df /x] s f] ePsf] pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . ! ;o &%
hfgsf/L lbFb} 5f}+, tf ls labfsf] hfgsf] nflu :jb]zL tyf ljb]zLsf Onfdsf] d'Vo cfsif{0f eg]sf] lrof ju{lsnf]ld6/ If]qkmndf km}lnPsf]
;do 3'd]/ ;b'kof]u ug{'xf];\ . nflu Kofs]h;d]t 3f]if0ff u/]sf 5g\ . aufg xf] . /d0fLo :yfgdf /x]sf] sf]zL6Kk' ;'g;/L, ;Kt/L / pbok'/
;u/dfyf cGgk" 0 f{ kbdfu{ lhNnfdf km}lnPsf] 5 . o; cf/Ifdf
g]kfn cfpg] ko{6ssf] k|d'v ljZjsf] rlr{t kbdfu{dWo] Ps ljleGg $*( k|hfltsf r/f, @!(
/f]hfOdf kg]{ :yfgdWo] Ps xf], xf], cGgk"0f{ kbdfu{ . ljZjsf pTs[i6 sf] ;+Vofdf b'n{e cgf{ / b'n{e
;u/dfyf /fli6«o lgs'~h ofqf cyf{t\ bz kbdfu{leq kg]{ ePsf]n] of] 8lNkmg;d]t kfOG5 . ;f] If]q e|d0f
;u/dfyf kbofqf . of] kbofqfdf ug{sf] nflu klg ko{6g Joj;foLx¿n] ljZje/ rrf{df cfPsf] o; kL7df kz'anL r9fPsf] /utdf lemFuf gnfUg',
a;]l{ g xhf/f}s
+ f] ;+Vofdf ko{6s cfpg] ljleGg Kofs]h laqmL ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . aln ;'? x'gk' j" { lbof]df cfk¿kL aQL cfkm} aNg' / dfgj;lxt k~ralndf
u5{g\ . sf]xL ljZjsf] ;jf]{Rr lzv/ aufgn] :jb] z L tyf ljb] z L kflye/f ;]tf] d';f cfkm}F pkl:yt x'gn ' fO{ ;fIfft b]jLsf] ¿kdf lnOFb} cfOPsf] 5 . t/
;u/dfyf cf/f]x0fsf nflu g]kfn ko{6snfO{ cfslif{t ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . tfKn]hª' lhNnfdf /x]sf] kflye/f eQmhgsf] nflu af; uf;sf] k|aGw gx'bF f xtf/xtf/df k"hf u/]/ kmls{xfNg'kg]{
cfpF5g\ eg] sf]xL ;u/dfyfsf] cfwf/ Onfddf lrof aufgsf] ;fy} lkslgs dlGb/ g]kfnsf ;fy} ef/tsf wfld{s afWotf 5 . ;/sf/n] o; If]qsf] ljsf;sf nflu vf;} rf;f] gb]vfPsf]
:k6 tyf ;fO6 l;gsf] nflu cfsif{s ko{6sdfem klg rlr{t 5 . of] bz{gfyL{ atfpF5g\ . wd{zfnf, ljjfx d08k, xf]6n, nh zf}rfno, tyf kmf]xf]/
kbdfu{ ljZje/ kl/lrt 5 . of] :yfg 5g\ . Onfd hf c;f]h, sflQs, Joj:yfkgsf] ;d:of 7"nf] 68\sf/f]sf ¿kdf b]lvPsf] 5 .
kbdfu{ g]kfn cfpg] ljb]zL ko{6ssf] d+l;/ tyf kmfu'g, r}t / j}zfv u9LdfO dlGb/ ;~rfng tyf ljsf; ;ldltsf ;lrj df]tLnfn s'zjfx
klxnf] /f]hfOdf kg]{ u5{ . ndh'ªsf] pko'Qm dflgG5 . ;/sf/L lgsfosf] j]jf:tfsf sf/0f ;ldltdf !% cfF} jif{ a:bf;d]t k|ult
a]+;L;x/nfO{ cGgk"0f{ kbdfu{sf] alb{ o f /fli6« o lgs' ~ h gePsf] u'gf;f] u5{g . p;f] t o; If]qsf] ljsf;sf] nflu a[xt ul9dfO{sf]
lzlj/;Dd kbofqf u/] / kms{ g ] k|jz] åf/ elgG5 . a];+ L;x/ x'bF } v'bL, alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~h g]kfnsf] u'?of]hgf ag]sf] ;d]t bzf} aif{ eO;Sof] dlGb/kl/;/sf tdfd ;d:of
u5{g\ . of] If]qdf g]kfnLeGbf ljb]zL e'ne'n], :ofFu], hut x'Fb} dgf8 dWo tyf ;'b/" klZrddf If]qdf /x]sf] dlGb/df jif]{lg nfvf}+ eQmhg bz{g Ho"FsfTo""F 5g\ . u9LdfO{sf d'n k'hf/L d+un rf}w/L cfh;Dd u9LdfO{nfO{
ko{6sx¿ a9L hfg] u5{g\ . t/, lhNnfsf] tfn, au/5fk,rfd] , 5 . alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hn] sl/a ug{ cfpg] u5{g\ . kflye/f dlGb/ ;Dem]/ efsn u/]sf] x/]ssf] OR5f k"/f ePsf] u9LdfO{sf] bz{g ug{ ef/tLo,
kl5Nnf] ;do g]kfnL ko{6sx¿ ;d]t yf]/ªkf; x'bF } dgfª k'uk] l5 cGgk"0f{ (^* ju{ lsnf]ld6/ If]qkmn cf]u6]sf] ;d'b|L ;txaf6 # xhf/ & ;o ($ g]kfnL afx]s ljb]zL ko{6s;d]t 3'Dg cfpg] u/]sf] atfpF5g\ . cyfx
pNn]vgLo ¿kdf cfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . kbdfu{ ;lsG5 . ld6/ pfrfOdf 5 . s'Des0f{ lxdfn ko{6sLo ;+efjgf af]ss ] f] o; If]qsf] ljsf; ug{sf] nflu :yfgLo / s]lGb|o
;u/dfyf If]qdf ljleGg kbdfu{ eP nfª6fª x]g{ klg kflye/f pko'Qm uGtJo xf] . ;/sf/n] kxn ug{'kg]{ b]lvG5 .
klg ljz]if u/L ;u/dfyfnfO{ cfFv} /;'jfsf] ;f}Gbo{ lxdfn, tfn, c;f]h–sflQs dlxgfdf df};d ;kmf ljZjd} ;a}eGbf a9L kz'anL lbOg] zlQmkL7 dflgPsf] af/fsf] u9LdfO{
cufl8af6 x]g{] xf] eg] ;a}eGbf pko'Qm tftf]kfgL, y/Ly/Lsf jg:klt, xfa|], x'g] ePsfn] klg olta]nf lxdfn x]g{] k"jf{wf/ljxLg h:t} ag]sf] 5 . g]kfn / ef/taf6 b}lgs xhf/f}+ bz{gfyL{
:yn xf] sfnfkTy/ . h'g ;d'b|L lxdfnog yf/, nfª6fª lxdfn -& pko'Qm ;do xf] . cfpg] u9LdfO{sf] k"jf{wf/ ljsf;df /fHon] rf;f] glbFbf ;d:of ePsf] 5 .

5f]/f;/x Dofgkfj/n] ‘Ph]G6’ /fVg gkfpg]


;txaf6 % xhf/ % ;o %% ld6/ 5 . lgs'~h g]kfnsf] klZrddf
prfOdf 5 . of] g} ljZjsf] ;jf]R{ r s0ff{nL gbLsf] k"jl{ t/sf] t/fO{ k|bz
] df
lzv/ ;u/dfyfnfO{ glhsaf6 cjl:yt 5 . ;g\ !(^* df zfxL sf7df8f}+ . j}bl] zs /f]huf/ ljefun] j}bl] zs /f]huf/Ldf k7fpg] ;DaGwL
cjnf]sg ug]{ pko'Qm 7fpF xf] . lzsf/ cf/Ifsf] ¿kdf :yfkgf ul/P sfdsf nflu ca Dofgkfj/ sDkgLn] s'g} klg Ph]G6 v8f ug{ gkfpg]
sfnfkTy/af6 #^) l8u|Ldf lxdfn
x]g{ ;lsG5 . t/, s'g lxdfn xf] eg]/ xhf/ @ ;o $% ld6/_ / u0f]z
klg ;g\ !(^& df sl/a #^*
ju{ l snf] l d6/ If] q kmnsf] pQm
5f]/LnfO{ atfPsf] 5 . j}b]lzs /f]huf/ P]g @)^$ sf] bkmf &$ sf] pkbkmf @ df
ul/Psf] ;+zf]wg;Fu} of] Ph]G6 /fVg kfpg] ljut Joj:yf vf/]h ePsf]
s'g} klg hfgsf/L gx'bF f ko{6sx¿
cndndf ;d]t kg]{ u5{g\ .
lxdfn >[+vnf clg lxpFdf /dfpg]
If]q nfª6fª xf] . sf7df8f}a+ f6 ! ;o
cf/If0fnfO{ zfxL s0ff{nL jGohGt'
cf/Ifsf] ¿kdf 3f]if0ff ul/of] . pQm :s'n j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefun] hgfPsf] xf] . o;;+u} ca Dofgkfj/ sDkgLx¿n]
cfˆgf sd{rf/Lafx]s t];f| ] kIf -Ph]G6_ dfkm{t s'g} sf/f]af/ ug{ jf ;]jfu|fxLsf]
/f/f #@ lsnf]ld6/ a; ofqfkl5 :ofk|ma' ; +] L If]qdf hfgsf] nflu xjfO{ tyf ;8s kf;kf]6{ af]Sg], /fVg], sfuhfg ldnfOlbg] sfd ug{ gkfpg] ePsf x'g\ . olb
d'u' lhNnfdf kg]{ b]zs} ;a}eGbf
7"nf] tfn tyf :jR5 kfgL ePsf]
k'luG5 . nfª6fª k}bn ofqf ;f]xL
:yfgaf6 nfª6fª kbofqf ;'? x'G5 .
b'j} dfu{ k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . xjfO{
dfu{ d fkm{ t hfg sf7df8f} + a f6
k9\g s;}n] sfg'g c6]/ u/L Dofgkfj/sf sd{rf/Lafx]ssf nflu pQm sfddf
nufPsf] kfOPdf s8f sf/afxL x'g] ;d]t ljefun] hgfPsf] 5 . o;/L
tfnsf] ¿kdf /f/f tfnnfO{ lnOG5 . nfª6fª e"sDksf sf/0f Wj:t eP
klg kl5Nnf] ;do af6f]x¿ lgdf{0f
eP;Fu} ko{6sx¿sf] rxnkxn;d]t
g]kfnuGhsf] p8fgdf hfg'kg]{ x'G5 .
ljz]iftM o; ko{6sLo If]q af3 k7fcf}+ . Ph]G6sf] ¿kdf sfd u/]sf] e]l6Pdf Ph]G6nfO ;Lw} kqmfp ug{ ;lsg]
ljefusf clwsf/Lx¿ atfpF5g\ .

a9\g yfn]sf] 5 .
hf] d ;f] d –d' l Qmgfy
lxGb" / a'4dfuL{sf] ;d]t tLy{:yn
/x]sf] d'lQmgfy If]q ko{6ssf] nflu
cfk\mgf] 3/, Joj;fodf afnaflnsfnfO{ >ddf
kl5Nnf] ;do uf8Ldfkm{t hfg ;lsg]
ePsfn] ko{6sx¿nfO{ hfg / cfpg
xjfO{ / uf8L h'g;'s} ;fwg k|of]u
cfsif{s uGtJo /x]sf] 5 . # xhf/
gnufcf},+ c?nfO{ klg afn>d k|of]u gug{
ug{ ;S5g\ . kl5Nnf] ;do cfGtl/s
ko{6sn] el/e/fpg x'g yfn]sf] /f/fdf
ko{6snfO{ hfg ;xh x'g yfn]kl5
;"lrt u/f}+ .
ljb]zL ko{6sx¿ klg 7"nf] ;+Vofdf
hfg] cfzf ul/Psf] 5 . /f/f hfgsf] & ;o !) ld6/ prfOdf /x]sf] pQm
nflu kmfu'gb]lv h]7 dWo;Dd / EofNnLn] cfGtl/s / afXo ko{6ssf]
c;f]hb]lv d+l;/;Dd pko'Qm 5 . d'Vo uGtJo :ynsf] ¿kdf klxrfg
vKt8 sdfPsf] 5 .
vKt8 /fli6«o lgs'~h g]kfnsf] k' g lxn
;'b/" klZrd If]qdf kg]{ rf/ lhNnfsf] g]kfnsf] d'Vo / ;a}eGbf cfsif{s g] k fn ;/sf/
;+ud:yn xf] . aemfª, afh'/f, c5fd kbdfu{ 3fGb|s ' –3f]/k] fgL–k'glxn /x]sf]
/ 8f]6L lhNnfdf /x]sf] pQm If]q ! 5 . k'glxndf k'u/] bh{gf} lxd>[v + nf ;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno
xhf/ $ ;o ld6/ prfOb]lv # xhf/
# ;o #) ld6/ If]qdf km}lnPsf] 5 .
x]g{ ;lsG5 . DofUbL lhNnfdf /x]sf]
k'glxn # xhf/ @ ;o !) ld6/ ;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu
6 @)&^ ;fn h]7 @^ ut] cfOtaf/

uf]Ghfnf]sf] lu/k\mtf/Ln] k]?df gof“ hgjfbL qmflGtn] uDeL/ wSsf vfof]


x:taxfb' / s] ; L k]? klZrd blIf0f cd]l/sL /fi6« xf] . dgfpg k] ? sf jfdkGyLx¿n] cd]l/sL ;fd|fHojfb / To;sf] lk9\o"
ld:6/ Snfp8nfO{ k|Zg
an/fd ltdlN;gf

;f]leot df]8]nsf] ;dfhjfbsf] o;sf] blIf0f k|zfGt dxf;fu/;Fu lgsfn]sf] h'n; ' af6 lu/ˆtf/ ePkl5 k|ltlqmofjfbL k]?sf] ;/sf/ sd/]8 lsg
ktg;Fu} ljZjsDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng l;df hf]l8Psf] 5 . of] lrnL / z'? ePsf] lyof] . uf]Ghfnf]b]lv cft+lst eO/x]sf] 5 . yflt /x]sf] pHjn eljiosf] nflu
/IffTds l:yltdf k'us ] f] a]nfdf k]?df OSj]8/sf] lardf kb{5 . o;sf] pxfF ;g\ !($^ df sDo'lgi6 of]ª k]?df s]Gb|Lo ;Qf sAhf u/]/ pHjnx¿ jnLj]bLdf r9\5g <
gofF lsl;daf6 ;z:q hgo' 4 If]qkmn !@*%@@) ju{ lsnf]ld6/ la|u6] sf] ;b:o x'g' ePsf] lyof] . pxfF ;j{ x f/fju{ n ] ;Qf xftdf lng] lsg
;+rfng u/L sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngnfO{ 5 . o;sf] hg;+Vof s/La #) s/f]8 ;g\ !(%^ df P/Sj]kf ljZjljBfnosf] cj:yfdf k'lu;s]sf] cj:yfdf sd/]8 k|Hjnx¿ lx8\5g km]l/
k'ghL{ljt ug]{ sfo{df k]? sDo'lgi6 5 . o;sf] /fhwfgL lndf xf] . ;g\ ljBfyL{ ;+3sf] cWoIf lgjf{lrt x'g' uf]Ghfnf]nfO{ tTsflngL lu/ˆtf/ u/]/ k|HjngzLn kbfy{ af]s/] <
kf6L{ -;fOlgªkfy_ n] ;g\ !(*! df !(*) sf] bzsdf k]? sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ ePsf] lyof] . ;g\ !(^% df rLgsf] ;fOlgªkfyn] ;~rfng ul//x]sf] lsg lg/Gt/x¿
P] l txfl;s kxn u¥of] . k] ? df -;fOlgª kfy_ sf cWoIf uf]Ghfnf]sf] e|d0fkl5 !(^^ df k]? sDo'lgi6 ;z:q hgo'4nfO{ tx; gx; kfg]{ lg/Gt/ l86f]g6] / hf]8b\ } 5g
;+rflnt hgo'4n] 5f]6f] cjlwdf ufpF g]t[Tjdf ;+rflnt hgo'4n] k]?df kf6L{sf] ;b:o x'g' ePsf] lyof] / p2]Zo tTsflng cd]l/sL lk7\o" ˆo'hsf] 6'Kkf]df
b]lv zx/ 3g]{ l;4fGt adf]lhd Ps}bd l56f] ljsf; u¥of] . ufpFbl] v pxfFnfO{ ;g\ !(^( df sDo'lgi6sf] km'hLdf]/L ;/sf/n] ;f]r]sf] lyof] . / 8fOgfdfO6df 3';fb}{ 5g <
s]Gb|Lo ;Qf sAhf ug]{ tx;Dd zx/ 3]g]{ /0fgLlt cGtu{t To; cf/f]kdf kqmfp ul/Psf] lyof] . ;g\ uf] G hfnf] s f] lu/ˆtf/Ln] ToxfF s f] / lsg
ljsf; u/]/ ;a} vfn] ;+zf]wgjfbL, hgo'4n] /fhwfgL lndf ;lxt tLgj6f !(&% df k]? sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] hgo'4nfO{ 7"nf] 3f6f eof] . gofF d}od
' sf n]sx¿
k| l tlqmofjfbL tyf cd] l /sL d'Vo zx/ / cGo ufj}ufpFn] el/Psf] cWoIf x'g' ePsf] lyof] . of] k]? hgjfbL qmflGtn] u+eL/ k|sf/sf] wSsf
cgsG6f/ wf]bx]| ¿
;fd|fHojfbsf] :ju{df 7"nf] e"Orfnf] k]?df hgo'4n] ;Dk"0f{ kxf8L ufpx¿ sDo'lgi6 kf6L{n] ;g\ !(*! df ;z:q t Joxf]g'{ k¥of] . of] jf:tljstf xf] .
NofOlbof] . clg k]?sf qmflGtsf/L / b'Oj6f zx/x¿;d]t sAhf u/]/ hgo'4 z'? u/]sf] lyof] . of] hgo'4n] t/ klg k]?sf] hgo'4 ;dfKt ePsf] gofF lty{–:yn aGb}5g <
hgtf, ljZjsf efOrf/fx¿df cfzf /fhwfgL lndf sAhf ug{ rf/}lt/af6 ckf/ ;kmntf kfO/x]sf] cj:yfdf 5}g . dGb¿kdf k]?df hgo'4 hf/L
/ pT;fxsf] ;~rf/ k}bf ul/lbof] . 3]/faGbL ug]{ ;Ddsf] ljsf; u/L ;s]/ k|ltlqmofjfbL km'hLdf]/L ;/sf/n] ;g\ 5 . k]?sf] kl/36gfaf6 ;+;f/e/sf r]tgfdf nfu]sf]
o;sf] k|efj g]kfndf klg lgs} k/]sf] s]Gb|Lo ;Qf sAhfsf] glhs k'lu !((@ sf] ;K6]Da/ !@ df kqmfp qmflGtsf/L sDo'lgi6x¿n] lzIff lng sk6L jfbn pKsfP/
lyof] / g] k fnsf dfcf] j fbL ;s]sf] lyof] . o;}qmddf ;g\ !((@ ul/ ;}lgs h]ndf /fv]/ cfhLjg h?/L 5 . / clxn] k]?df jf:tljs Ps k6s ljutsf] cfFvfn] x]/ t
qmflGtsf/Lx¿n] klg …xfd|f] em08f k]?df ;]K6]Da/ !@ tfl/vsf lbg /fhwfgL sf/fjf;sf] ;hfo ;'gfPsf] lyof] . ¿kdf s] eO/fv] s f] 5 < cf] ld:6/ Snfp8
km//Ú eg] uLt ;d]t 3GsfPsf lyP . lndf zx/sf] Ps 3/af6 cd]l/sL ;z:q hgo'4åf/f ;Qf sAhf ul/ qmflGtsf/Lx¿sf] cj:yf s] 5 < s] ltgLx¿ cgful/s x'g <
;g\ !(%# dfr{ % tfl/vsf lbg ?;sf lk7\ o " k| l tlqmofjfbL km' h Ldf] / L u|fdL0f Onfsf xFb' } zx/L Onfsf 3]/fp ToxfFsf] qmflGtsf] eljio s:tf] 5 < lsg,
g]tf hf];k] m :6flngsf] lgwg eof] . ;/sf/n] uf]Ghfnf]nfO{ lu/ˆtf/ u/]/ u/L s]Gb|Lo ;Qf sAhf ug]{ sd/]8 cflb af/]df ulx/f] cWoog cg';Gwfg k|ltjlGwt xfjf g}
To; kZrft ;f]leot ?;d k|ltqmflGt Ps ;}lgs h]ndf y'g]/ cfhLjg uf]Ghfnf]sf] /0fgLlt lyof] . pxfF sd{7, / ;+Zn]if0fsf] vfFrf] 5 . d}qLk"0f{ dfG5g cr]n
eof] . o;n] ljZj sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng sf/fjf;sf] ;hfo ;'gfof] . @% jif{ ;fx;L, h' e mf? l;4fGtsf/ / sd/]8 uf]Ghfnf]sf] lu/ˆtf/Ln] x/]s gf}hjfgsf kmf]S;fx¿n] <
/ ;dfhjfbL lzlj/df 7"nf] gsf/fTds k'/f eof], clxn];Dd uf]Ghfnf]nfO{ qmflGtsf/L of] 4 f x' g ' x ' G 5 . k] ? k]?df gofF hgjfbL qmflGtn] u+eL/ lsg,
k|efj kf¥of] . k]?sf] cd]l/sL lk9\o" k|ltlqmofjfbL sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ -;fOlgªkfy_ n] k|sf/sf] wSsf vfof] . g]tT[ jsf] ;'/Iff ltdLåf/f k|ltjlGwt af6f] lx8\g
o;}qmddf cGt/f{li6«o sDo'lgi6 ;/sf/sf] Ps ;}lgs h]nd} s8f uf]Ghfnf] ljrf/wf/fnfO{ :jLsf/ u/]sf] ug{ g;Sg' k]? sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ - prfln/xG5g d]/f v'§f <
cfGbf]ngdf dfcf]T;]t'ªåf/f g]t[Tj lgu/fgLsf ;fy y'gfd} /flvPsf] 5 . lyof] . sd/]8 uf]Ghfnf] hf]lvd;Fu ;fOlgªkfy_ sf] sdhf]/L t /xof] lsg,
ul/Psf] qmflGtsf/L wf/f / v"Z| r]jåf/f uf]Ghfnf]sf] lu/kmtf/L kl5 k]? h'‰g ;wF} tof/ /xg] / ;j{xf/fju{sf] g} . Toltn] dfq k]?sf] gofF hgjfbL ltdLåf/f k|ltjlGwt uLt g}
g]tT[ j ul/Psf] blIf0fkGyL cj;/jfbL sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ -;fOlgªkfy_ sf bf];f| ] ljho lglZrt x'gd ] f ljZj:t JolQm qmflGtn] u+eL/ k|sf/sf] wSsf vfPsf] u'gu'gfO/xG5g d]/f cf]7x¿ <
wf/fsf lar eLif0f b'OnfOg ;+3if{ / t] ; | f ] tx;Ddsf g] t fx¿nfO{ x'g' x'G5 . xf]Og . ToxfF kf6L{ leq j}rfl/s ljrn ld:6/ Snfp8,
rNof] . cGtM cGt/f{li6«o sDo'lgi6 tTsflng k|ltlqmofjfbL km'hLdf]/L sd/]8 uf]Ghfnf]sf] lu/ˆtf/L kl5 klg k}bf eof] . k'/fg} tl/sfn] ;z:q ;Qfsf] dw'df;af6
cfGbf]ng qmflGtsf/L / cj;/jfbL ;/sf/n] lu/ˆtf/ u/]/ h]ndf y'Gof] . pxfFsf] hLjg/Iffsf] lglDt ;+;f/e/sf hgo' 4 ;~rfng u/L /xg] ls Ps l5g aflx/ lg:s
wf/fdf laeflht x'g k'Uof] . o;}qmddf b]zJofkL ¿kdf eLif0f bdgrqm qmflGtsf/L sDo' l gi6x¿ / zflGtk| l qmofdf k' u ] / zflGtk" 0 f{ / ;f]r ltd|f] l;h cleofg
dfcf] å f/f k| l tkflbt ;j{ x f/f rnfOof] . ;g\ !(*! af6 z'? ul/Psf] dfgjclwsf/jfbLx¿n] lj/f]w hgfP/ hg;+3if{ ;~rfng u/]/ qmflGtsf
cl3gfosTj cGtu{ t qmflGtsf k]?sf] hgo'4n] ;g\ !((% ;Dd s]Gb|Lo PSoa4tf hgfPsf lyP . g]kfnsf nflu zlQm ;~ro ug]{ eGg] ljifodf
s] Tof] cgful/sx¿n] rnfPsf] lyof] <
lg/Gt/sf] l;4fGtsf] dfGotfsf ;Qf sAhf u/]/ gofF hgjfbL qmflGt sDo' l gi6 qmflGtsf/Lx¿, b'O{ nfOg ;+3if{ ;~rfng eO/x]sf] of ltdL lyof}
cfwf/df !(^^ b]lv !(&^ ;Dd dxfg\ ;DkGg ul/;Sg] of]hgfsf ;fy cufl8 dfgjclwsf/jfbL jlsnx¿n] ;d]t kfOG5 . k]?df uf]Ghfnf]sf] lu/ˆtf/Ln] cgful/sx¿sf cu'jf <
;j{xf/f ;fF:s[lts qmflGt ;+rfng al9/x]sf] lyof] . lj/f] w h' n ' ; lgsfn] sd/] 8 dfq xf]Og kf6L{ leq k}bf ePsf]
ul/of] . of] qmflGt Ps};fy b'OnfOg uf]Ghfnf]sf] lu/ˆtf/L kl5 klg uf]Ghfnf]sf] hLjg /Iffsf] dfu ub}{ j}rfl/s ljrngn] klg qmflGtn] u+eL/ ltdLnfO{ sfFwdf af]Sg]x¿nfO{
;+3if{ / ju{;+3if{sf] Ps ;+Zn]lift ;g\ !((% ;Dd ;fOlgªkfyn] P]Soa4tf hgfPsf lyP . sd/]8 k|sf/sf] wSsf vKg'k/]sf] xf] . clxn] u]6 aflx/} 5f]8/] cnkq
cleJolQm lyof] . o;}qmddf dfcf]n] 5fkf/df o'4nfO{ tLa|ultdf cufl8 uf]Ghfnf]n] @% jif{b]lv /fhwfgL klg ToxfF b'OnfOgh ;+3if{ hf/L 5 . l5/]kl5 ltdL
larf/wf/fTds tyf /fhgLlts a9fP/ b]zJofkL ¿kdf Wj+zfTds lndfsf] Ps ;}lgs h]ndf si6s/ o;af6 ljZje/sf qmflGtsf/Lx¿n] l;+xb/jf/sf] j]Zofnodf
sfo{lbzf ;xL jf unt x'g'n] g} ultljlwx¿ ;+rfng ul/g} /x]sf] hLjg latfO/xg' ePsf] 5 . clxn] kf7 l;Sg h?/L 5 . / cfpFg yfn]kl5 u]6 aflx/
jf;L ljo{sf] gld7f] uGw
;a}yf]ssf] lgwf{/0f x'G5 eGg] s'/fdf
ljz]if hf]8 lbb} …tLg u/ tLg gu/,
Pstfa4 xf]pm gkm"6, k|i6 / v'nf
lyof] . uf]Ghfnf]sf] lu/ˆtf/L kZrft
k]?df gofF hgjfbL qmflGtn] u+eL/
wSsf vfof] . k|ltlqmofjfbLx¿n] eLif0f
;Vv/ vfg'sf] kmfObf ltdLn] jGb u/]sf] u]6df
lhn]l6g el/Psf] s's/ hf]8b\ } u/]sfx¿
sf7df8f}+ . pv'sf] /; ksfP/ hdfPkl5 ;v/ aG5 . u'lnof] ;v/ vfFbf
xf]pm, 5n5fd / if8oGq gu/Ú eGg] bdgrqm rnfP/ k] ? leofnL tTsfnsf nflu zlQm k|fKt x'G5 . t/, o;nfO{ cf}iflwsf ¿kdf klg k|of]u tL ltd|f k"j-{ cË/Ifsx¿ g} lyP Û
pbL{ hf/L ug{' e+of] . ctM dxfg\ hgo'4nfO{ tx; gx; kf/]/ l;WofO{ ul/g] s'/f sd}nfO{ yfxf x'g ;S5 .
;j{xf/f ;fF:s[lts Ps o'ufGtsf/L lbg] nIo /fVg' t :jfefljs} lyof] . o:tf 5g\ ;v/sf kmfObf – ;Qf ¿kL j]Zofsf] jfx'kfzaf6}
P]ltxfl;s sbd lyof] . t/ ;g\ ToxfF kf6L{ leq klg ljljw vfnsf – Ps kfp Hjfgf] / Ps kfp ;v/sf] ltdLn] P]nfg ugf{;fy
!(&^ ;]K6]Da/ ( tfl/vsf lbg ;d:ofx¿;Fu} ljrf/x¿ klg k}bf x'g' w'nf] ld;fP/ cf}iflw tof/ kfg{x' f];\ . tL s;/L cgful/s eP <
dfcf]sf] lgwg eof] . To; kZrft :jfefljs} lyof] . ToxfF eLif0f b'O{ x/]s lbg laxfg–a]ns ' f tftf]kfgL;Fu
rLgdf klg k|ltqmflGt eof] . To;n] nfOg ;+3if{ rNb} cfPsf] 5 . t/ Ps–Ps rDrf ;]jg ug{x' f];\ . sDd/ ld:6/ Snfp8,
cGt/f{li6«o sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng / klg k]?df hgo'4 /f]lsPsf] 5}g . b'Vg] ;d:ofaf6 /fxt ldN5 . of] klg ;f]r
;dfhjfbL qmflGtsf] Oltxf;df csf]{ dGbultdf rln /x]sf] 5 . qmflGt – b'O{ bfgf km'/fPsf] dl/r lkg]/ dl;gf] ;do ;Fw} ltd|f] kIfdf /xb}g
uFeL/ wSsf k'Ug u¥of] . cjZodefjL 5 . w]/}n] k]?sf] gofF kfp8/ tof/ kfg{'xf];\ / Ps rDrf ;v/df d'5]/ ;–;fgf uf]nL tof/ / o:tf] Ps lbg cfpFg] 5
o; kZrft dfS;{jfb–n]lggjfb– hgjfbL qmflGtn] u+eL/ k|sf/sf] wf]sf kfg{'xf];\ . o:tf uf]nL lbgdf tLg–rf/j6f r':g] ubf{ cl8\sPsf] skm
dfcf]jfbsf] kyk|bz{gdf sltko vfgsf] d'Vo sf/0f uf]Ghfnf]sf]
s73/fdf pleP/ Ps lbg
lgsfNg ;xh u/fpF5 . ltdLn] lbg' kg]{ 5 oL k|Zgsf] pQ/
sDo' l gi6 kf6L{ / ;+ u 7gx¿n] lu/ˆtf/LnfO{ dfq} lng] u/]sf 5g\ – kfFr–;ft bfgf lh/f kfgLdf /fv]/ ksfpg'xf];\ . ToxL kfgLdf ;v/ /fv]/
qmflGtsf/L sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngdf k'gM eg] sltkon] cfGtl/s sf/0fnfO{ oL k|Zgx¿
lrofh:t} u/L lbgdf tLg–rf/k6s vfg'xf];\ . k'/fgf] Hj/f] lgsf] x'G5 . ltdLnfO{ u[xsfo{ eP
;+ul7t ug{sf nflu !(*) df kxn dfq} atfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . ToxfFsf] – cfwf rDrf e'6]sf] /fof]sf] w'nf]df ;v/ /fv]/ Ps rDrf agfpg'xf];\ /
z' ? u/] . kmntM !(*$ df qmflGtn] wf]sf vfg'sf] d'Vo sf/0ft u[x sfo{ /fd|/L ug{' x} ld:6/ Snfp8 Û
Ps lunf; dgtftf] kfgL;Fu lgNg'xf];\ . k]6 b'v]sf] j]nf o;n] cf/fd
qmflgtsf/L cGt/f{li6«ojfbL cfGbf]ng cfGtl/s g} xf], uf]Ghfnf]sf] lu/ˆtf/L lbG5 .
-l/d_ sf] u7g x'g k'Uof] . o;n] afXo sf/0f xf] . t/ klg uf]Ghfnf]sf]
sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngdf cfzfk|b tyf
;fsf/fTds e"ldsf lgjf{x u¥of] .
lu/ˆtf/Ln] qmflGtnfO{ lgs} g} Iflt
k'¥ofof] . lu/ˆtf/Lsf] 36gf kl5 kf6L{
– Hjfgf] / ;v/sf] w'nf] ld;fP/ Ps rDrf agfpg'xf];\ . o;nfO{ kfgLdf
/fd|f];Fu pdfn]/ lkpgfn] 3fF6L a;]sf] ;d:ofdf /fxt lbG5 . ;fj{ h lgs :yfgdf kmf] x f] /
– e'6]sf] Hjfgf] / ;v/ ld;fP/ n•' agfpg'xf];\ . o;nfO{ ld>LkfgL;Fu
rLgsf] ;j{xf/f ;fF:s[lts qmflGtsf]
k|efjdf rf? dh'dbf/sf] g]t[Tjdf
leq ljrf/wf/fTds cGtM ;+3if{ k}bf
x'g' klg :jfefljs lyof], Tof] eof
ldnfP/ b'O{ ;ftf;Dd lgoldt ;]jg ubf{ z/L/ b'v]sf] lgsf] x'G5 .
– lk;fa kf]Ng] ;d:of tyf hlG8; ePsfn] klg ;fgf] 6'qmf ;v/ kfgLdf
kmfn]df hl/jfgfdf kl/G5 .
blIf0fklGy ;+zf]wgjfbsf lj?4 ;+3if{ g} . of] ljZn]if0f ul//xFbf uf]Ghfnf]sf] ld;fP/ ;]jg ubf{ cf}iflwsf] sfd u5{ .
rnfpb} ef/tdf ;z:q hgo'4sf] af/]df hfgsf/L /fVg klg h?/L 5 .
yfngL ul/of] . o;n] l;Fuf] blIf0f *@ jifL{ o sd/] 8 uf] G hfnf] s f]
PzLofdf blIf0fkGyL ;+zf]wgjfbsf]
lj/f]w / qmflGtsf/L sDo'lgi6 wf/fsf]
ljsf;sf nflu 7"nf k|efj kf/]sf]
lyof] . o;} k|lqmofdf qmflGtsf/L
jf:tljs gfd 8f= cljdfon u'Hdg
/]gf];f] xf] . pxfF ;g\ !(#$, l8;]Da/
# df P/Sj]kf, Pl08h >[vn
hGdg' ePsf] xf] . P/Sj] k f
+ f k]?df t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+
OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+
cGt/f{li6«ojfbL cfGbf]ngl;t ;Da4 ljZjljBfnoaf6 ljBfjfl/lw u/]sf
tyf c;Da4 sltko kf6L{x¿åf/f uf]Ghfnf]n] ;g\ !(^@ b]lv !(&$
gofF hgjfbL qmflGt ;DkGg ub}{ ;Dd bz{gzf:q laefu xjfdf+uf
;dfhjfb / ;fDojfbsf] lbzfdf ljZjljBfno, cfofs' r f] k] ? df
cufl8 a9\gsf nflu lkmlnkfOG;, k|fWofkg ug{' ePsf] lyof] . pxfFsf]
6sL{, k]?, g]kfn nufotsf b]zx¿df
;z:q hgo'4sf] k|lqmof cufl8
lajfx ;g\ !(^$ km]a|'c/Ldf cui6f
nf 6f]/];Fu ePsf] lyof] . pxfFsf]
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8
a9fOof] . ef/tdf klg ;z:q hgo'4 /fhgLlts hLjg ;g\ !($% df bf];f| ] kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&!
k|efjsf/L 9+un] ljsl;t x'b} u¥of] . ljZjo'4df kmfF;Ljfbsf] k/fhodf v';L
@)&^ ;fn h]7 @^ ut] cfOtaf/ 7
hGd ;doaf6 yfxf kfpg';\ JolQmsf] :jefj / eljio
bnfn ;+;bLo u0ftGqla?4 ;+3if{ cfjZos
@)^@/@)^# sf] hgcfGbf]ng
;'? x'b} ubf{ tTsflng Pdfn]sf g]tf
To;f] t em§ x]bf{ @$) jif{ k'/fgf]
lg/+s'z PsfTds ;fdGtL /fhtGq
66jGwsf sf/0f jif]{gL t/fO{jf;Ln]
b'jfg / hgwgsf] Iflt Joxf]g{'
el8\ s nf] / vlr{ n f] hLjgz} n L,
xfpefp, t8se8s ;lxt u0ftGqsf]
sf7df8f}F . Hof]ltifsf] d2tn] hGd ;dosf] cfwf/df s'g} klg JolQmsf] eljio /
:jefjsf] hfgsf/L kfpg ;lsG5 . /ftL hGd]sf / lbpF;f] hGd]sf dflg;x?aLr
lgs} leGgtf x'G5 . Hof]ltiffrfo{ k+= dlgif zdf{sf cg';f/ /ftL hGd]sf dflg;x? w]/}
hf]lvd df]N5g\\ eg] lbpF;f] hGd]sfx? sfd k|lt w]/} OdfGbf/ /xG5g\\ . Hof]ltif zf:q
tyf clxn] g]kfnsf k|d s]kL cf]nL sf] cGTo eO{ ;+3Lo u0ftGq klg kl//x]sf] 5 . t/ of] u0ftGq n] Tof] e/k'/ pkof]u ub}{5g . u0ftGqsf]
cg';f/ yfxf kfpg';\ lbpF;f] / /ftL hGd]sf dflg;x?sf] :jefj s:tf] x'G5 .
s} zJb ;fk6L lnP/ eGg'kbf{ cfh :yfkgf ePsf] 5 . gofF ;lj+wfg klg lsg b]Vb}g < cfˆgf] e'ldsf] /Iff ug{ p2]Zo s]xL g]tfx¿nfO{ ;Qf /
lbp“ ; f] hGd] s f dflg;x?sf] :jefjM
jonuf8f r9]/ cd]l/sf k'u]sf] lbg 3f]if0ff ePsf] 5 . Tolx cg';f/ b]z lsg ;Sb}g < cfˆgf] gful/ssf] zlQmdf k'¥ofpg / Joj:yfkg ug{sf]
– lbpF;f] hGd]sf eGbf /ftL hGd]sf dflg;x? ;fx;L x'G5g\\ .
cyf{t !@cf}+ u0ftGq lbj; . ;+of]un] ;+3Lotfdf uPsf] lxhf] gf/fo0flx6L ;+/If0f / ;'/Iff ug{ lsg ;Sb}g < nfuL lyPg . ltgsf 5f]/L, j'xf/L,
clxn] s]kL cf]nL g} b]zsf] k|d x'gx' G' 5 /fhb/jf/ / l;+x b/jf/df s]lGb|t hgtfsf] em'k8Ldf a;]/ ltg}sf] HjfO{, efO{, elth, ;fnf, ;fnLnufot – :jf:Yosf] dfdnfdf lbpF;f] hGd]sf dflg;x? efUodfgL x'G5g\\ . pgLx?sf]
/ pxfFs} g]t[Tjsf] jt{dfg ;/sf/n] zlQm / clwsf/ hgtfsf] 3/ / cfwf efu vfP/ hgtfsf] ;fy cfkmGt=gftfuf]tf cfˆgf ehgd08nL :jf:Yo lgs} /fd|f] x'G5 .
hgtfn] cfˆgf] uf; sf6]/ lt/]sf] cfFugdf k'u]sf] e|d 5l/b} 5 . ToxL ;xof]udf /fhgLlts cfGbf]ngdf ;d'xsf dfG5]x¿nfO{ ;f+;b . dGqL, – /ftL hGd]sf dflg;x? yf]/} cN5L x'G5g\\ t/ lbpF;f] hGd]sfx?n] s'g}
s/jf6 hDdf ePsf] /fHosf] 9's6' Lsf] b] v fP/ hgtfnfO{ hgo' 4 / ;xefuL g]tfx¿ Ps 8]9 bzssf] d]o/ h:tf lhDd]jf/Ldf lgo'Qm ug{' klg sfddf cN5L x'bF g} g\ . k|To]s sfd OdfGbf/Lk"js { ug{ ?rfpF5g\\ .
tyf ljleGg lgsfodf/ nfesf – oL JolQmx? efj's x'G5g\\, c?sf] ;d:of b]Vg ;Sb}gg\ / d2tsf nflu
8fod08 DofUb]nL kbx¿df elt{ ug{sf] nfuL klg sbfkL
lyPg . t/ of] !@ jif{sf] u0ftGqsf]
;w}+ tTk/ /xG5g\\ .
– pgLx? eujfgk|lt k"0f{ ljZjf; /fV5g\\ / pgLx?sf] :jefj wd{af6
olb ;fRr} cfd gful/ssf] nfuL cEof;n] k| : t ¿kdf To:t} k|efljt x'G5 .
u0ftGq cfPsf] xf] eg] dxfdlxd b]vfO{/x]sf] 5 . – pgLx? zfGtLk"js { sfd ug{ ?rfpF5g\\ .
u0ftGq :yfkgf ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f – /ftL hGd]sf eGbf lbpF;f] hGd]sfx?nfO{ sd l/; p7\5 . pgLx?sf] l/;
/fi6«kltsf] lhjgz}nL / xfpefp lsg rfF8} g} sd x'G5 klg .
ToxL ;+ljwfg cg';f/ ;DkGg gofF
/fhf / dxf/fhfx¿sf] eGbf leGg x'g lgjf{rg kl5 olta]nf s]kL cf]nL – 3/ kl/jf/ / ;dfhdf pgLx?n] dfg–;Ddfg kfpF5g\\ .
;s]g < dxfdlxdsf] st} ;jf/L x'Fbf g]t[Tjdf @/# sf] pgLx¿s} efiffdf – cfˆgf] sd{;lxt slxn]sfFxL efUodf klg pgLx? ljZjf; u5{g\ .
cfd ;j{;fwf/0f gful/sn] lsg zlQmzfnL / l:y/ ;/sf/ 5 . t/ – hLjg;fyLk|lt OdfGbf/ /xG5g\\ / ;a}sf] ;'vnfO{ Wofgdf /fV5g\\ .
cgfj:os tgfj / ;f:tL v]Kg' k/]sf] cem} cfkm'nfO{ sDo'lgi6 / jfdkGyL /ftL hGd]sf dflg;x?sf] :jefjM
5 < dxfdlxdn] /fHosf] ;DklQ :jfxf eGg ?rfpg]x¿sf] g]tT[ jdf ag]sf] – /ftL hGd]sf dflg;x?sf] s'08nLdf a[x:ktL / /fx' alnof] x'G5 To;sf/0f
;/sf/n] hgtfsf clt Go'gtd pgLx?nfO{ slxn] klg k};fsf] sdL x'bF g} .
kfb}{ d7dlGb// b]jL,b]jtf sf] bz{g, ;d:ofx¿ klg ;Djf]wg ug{ ;s]sf] – /ftL hGd]sf dflg;x? cfnf]rs x'G5g\\ . To;sf/0f pgLx? ;a}sf] cfnf]rgf
k'hf / cfhf u/]/ b]zn] s] kfpF5 < 5}g . hgtfnfO{ /fxt lbg] s'/f t ul//x]sf x'G5g\\ .
hgtfn] s] kfpF5g s] ul/j hgtf sf] k/} hfcf]; pN6f] 7fpF–7fFpdf rsf]{ – oL JolQmx? k|m]G8nL x'G5g\\ . lbpF;f] hlGdg]eGbf /ftL hGd]sfx? ;fyL
ef]s d]l6G5 < hgtfn] Ps k]6 vfg s/ c;'n/] 9f8 ;]ls/x]sf] 5 . b}lgs agfpg lgs} l;kfn' x'G5g\\ .
kfPsf 5}gg . dxfdlxdsf] nfuL 8]9 pkef]Uo j:t'sf] d'No cfsflzPsf] – /ftL hGd]sf JolQmx? lgs} cfTdljZjf;L x'G5g\\ To;sf/0f pgLx?
5 . x/]s If]qdf sfnf]jhfl/of / ;fj{hlgs :yfgdf cfˆgf] s'/f lgs} v'n]/ k|:t't ug{ ;S5g\\ .
cj{sf] x]lnsK6/ !* s/f]8sf] uf8L ;'ljwf ;DkGg lztnlgjf; b/jf/ ljnf;Lk'0f{ hLjgz}nL / ljrf} l nofx¿sf] ljuljuL 5 . – oL JolQmx? w]/} sNkgfzLn / /rgfTds :jefjsf x'G5g\\ .
e2f xfpefp nfO{ u0ftGqsf] s'g sf]6Lsf] pknJwL dfGg] < e|i6frf/, sld;g, clgoldttf Tolt – pgLx? ;fx;L x'G5g\\, h:tf];'s} hf]lvd lng tof/ /xG5g\\ .
)))) g} df} n fPsf] 5 . t/ Totflt/ – pgLx? rfF8} g} ;d:of kQf nufpg ;S5g\\ / To;sf] ;dfwfgdf tTk/
olta]nf s]kL cf]nL g]tT[ jdf @–# sf] pgLx¿s} efiffdf zlQmzfnL / l:y/ ;/sf/ 5 . t/ cem} ;/sf/sf] Wofg k'Ub}g . jnfTsf/L, /xG5g\\ .
cfkm'nfO{ sDo'lgi6 / jfdkGyL eGg ?rfpg]x¿sf] g]tT[ jdf ag]sf] ;/sf/n] hgtfsf clt xTof/fnfO{ sf/jfxL ug{'sf] ;Qf k'/} efubf}8 / qmflGtsf] ;'lglZrttf
zlQm nufP/ ;+/If0f ug{lt/ nfU5 . ljKnj===== hlt hlt qmflGt cufl8 a9\b}
Go'gtd ;d:ofx¿ klg ;Djf]wg ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . hgtfnfO{ /fxt lbg] s'/f t k/} hfcf]; kl5Nnf] ;do lgd{nf kGtsf] jnfTsf/ ljKnj / k| s f08aLrsf] hfG5 . Tolt Tolt kf6L{ leq klg
pN6f] 7fp“–7fp“df rsf]{ s/ c;'n/] 9f8 ;]ls/x]sf] 5 . b}lgs pkef]Uo j:t'sf] d'No cfsflzPsf] / xTof k| s /0f kl5 ljsl;t cGt{ l j/f] w sf] xNnf b'Zdgsf] xdnf clg k|lts'n cj:yf
5 . x/]s If]qdf sfnf]jhfl/of / ljrf}lnofx¿sf] ljuljuL 5 . e|i6frf/, sld;g, 36gfqmdn] To;}sf] k'i6L u/]sf] 5 . k|ltlqmofjfbL zlQmnfO{ s] nfu]sf] a9\b} hfG5 . cK7]/fx¿ a9\b} hfFbf
clgoldttf Tolt g} df}nfPsf] 5 . t/ Totflt/ ;/sf/sf] Wofg k'Ub}g . jnfTsf/L, @/# sf] jlnof] ;/sf/n] anfTsf/L 5 eg] ljKnj / k| s f08 aLr kf6L{ leq klg s]xL efubf}8x¿ dlRrb}
xTof/fnfO{ sf/jfxL ug{s ' f] ;Qf k'/} zlQm nufP/ ;+/If0f ug{lt/ nfU5 . kl5Nnf] ;do xTof/fnfO{ sf/jfxL ug{ ;Sb}g . cGt{lj/f]w l;h{gf ug{ ;s] of] zlQm hfG5g\ . ha JolQmn] lghL :jfy{nfO{
ljrf}lnof, sfnf]jhf/L lgoGq0f klg txzgxz x' g ] 5 . ljleGg s]Gb|nfO{ /fV5, ta ;+3if{df eGbf
lgd{nf kGtsf] jnfTsf/ / xTof k|s/0f kl5 ljsl;t 36gfqmdn] To;}sf] k'i6L u/]sf] 5 . ug{ ;Sb}g . dxfe|i6 nf]sdfgl;+x ;dfrf/x¿sf] of]hgfa4 ;+k|]if0fx¿ cfTd;dk{0f, knfog, wf]sf / u4f/Lsf
)))) sfsL{ , r' 8 fd0fL zdf{ , uf] k fn eP sL h:t}, ljKnj / k|sf08aLr :ju{ b]V5 . pQm ;/sf/L kf6L{n] ljKnj
u0ftGqsf] of] cjwL;Ddsf] cEof; / u0ftflGqs zf;sx¿sf] b[li6sf]0f Jojxf/ / rl/qn] k'/fgf] Joj:yf / v8\sfx¿nfO{ s73/fdf pEofpg af]nrfn g} aGb ePsf] 5 eGg] g]t[Tjsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf
zf;sx¿nfO{ ;d]6 rlst kfg]{ ul/ k|:t't e}/x]sf] b[Zo cfd gful/sn] b]lv/ef]uL /x]sf 5g\ . o:tf] kl/b[Zosf] ;Sb}g . jfO{8 j8L vl/bdf ePsf] ^ ;dfrf/ cfP . k|sf08dfly sf/afxL, ;b:ox¿nfO{ k|jz ] ug{sf] nflu rf}aL;}
aLrAf6 tL kfqx¿n] b]z / hgtfsf] lxtcg'sn ' sfd u5{g eGg] s'/fsf] sNkgf ug{' g} cy{lxg 5 . a? cfk\mgf] cj{ #% s/f]8 e|i6frf/sf] ;To tYo ljKnj / k|sf08aLr cf/f]k, k|Tof/f]k 306f 9f]sf v'Nnf u/]sf] 5 . t/ of]
;fj{hlgs ug{ ;Sb}g $ jif{df #* cflb cflb ;dfrf/x¿ klg cfO/x]sf efubf}8n] qmflGtsf] hLjGttfnfO{
;]jf / ;'ljwf / clwsf/sf] bfo/fnfO{ km/flsnf] kfb}{ hgtfsf] clwsf/ / :jtGqtfnfO{ v'DRofpFb} 5g\ . SjLG6n ;'g t:s/L ug]{ d'Vo gfO{sn ] fO{ 5g\ / ef]ln klg cfO/xg] 5g\ . st} ;+st] ub{5 . qmflGtsf] Hjf/ef6fn]
s/f]8f}+ vr{ u/]/ lgs} 7'nf] tfdemfd hgcfGbf]ngsf] cfwf/e't p2]Zo k'/f ljrdf cfln;fg dxn=;'ljwfo'Qm kqmg ;Sb}g . g]kfnL ;]gf leq ePsf] k| s f08nfO{ prfNg] clg st} afXo ;dfhdf dfq x}g kf6L{ leqsf]
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cYof{OPsf] 5 . hals Pg;]ndfly k|li6s/0f lbFb} cfPsf] 5 . ljikmf]6 / ljikmf]6df k/L g]=s=kf=s}
c~rnk' / df uf] n L rnfPsf] $ sfo{ s tf{ s f] Hofg uPsf] o; qmddf a'waf/ sflGtk'/ /fli6«o dfu;lxt nfnaxfb'/ k'q ljgf]b u/]sf] lyof] . l/xf nut} c;nnfO{
/fHonfO{ &# ca{ ¿k}ofF s/ 5nL b}lgsn] cToGt} e|fds / skf]slNkt jnLn] aGbL k|ToIfLs/0f l/6 lgj]bg k' g M lu/ˆtf/ u/] / bfª k| x /Ln]
u/]/ gf]S;fg k'¥ofPsf] uDeL/ cf/f]k ;/sf/n] To;sf] xKtf lbgkl5 g} 36gfkl5 !# ut] ;+;b a}7sdf
kmfu'g @* df g]=s=kf=nfO{ …ck/flws af]Nb} g]=s=kf=;Fu hg;/sf/ / rf/ b'/f;odf jblgotk"0f{ tYolxg ;dfrf/ bfo/ u/]sf lyP . ;jf]R{ r cbfntdf ;'g;/L k7fPsf] lyof] . v8\sfnfO{
5 . …e|i6 Pg;]ndfly sf/jfxLÚ sl/a ;Dk|z ] 0f u/]sf]kl| t kf6L{ Wofg cfsif{0f z'qmaf/ ePsf] aGbL k|ToIfLs/0fsf] k|x/Ln] xftxltof/ v/vhgf tyf
rf/ jif{ klxn] klg klxnf]k6s b]ze/ ;d"xÚsf] ;+1f lbFb} p;nfO{ s'gk} lg j6f sDkgLsf] :t/df hg;]gf u7g
ultljlw ug{ glbg] 3f]if0ff ub}{ /x]sf] / /fhwfgLnfO{ d'Vo lgzfgf ePsf] 5 .Ú pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . l/6 lgj]bgdfly lgj]bssf kIfdf ;+ u 7Lt ck/fw ;DaGwL d' 4 f
u/L @* j6f df]jfOn 6fj/df xfg]/ lj1lKtdf cufl8 elgPsf] 5 jl/i7 clwjQmf Ps/fh e08f/L, nufPsf] atfOPsf] 5 .
s/ ltg{ s8f r]tfjgL lbOPsf] lyof] . k|ltaGwsf] 3f]if0ff u¥of] . k|ltaGwsf] agfOPsf] hfgsf/L k|Zg p7fpg]
k|dv ' cfwf/ k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] cfkm" ;f+;bx¿nfO{ lbPsf 5g\ . o;af6 …xfd|f] kf6L{ ljrf/ efjgf / ;f+u7lgs cGgk"0f{ kf]i6 cgnfOgdf …ljKnjsf] o;} u /L, g] k fn sDo' l g:6
To;kl5 klxnf] v]kdf !) ca{ / ¿kdf a' h { ' j f kf6L{ h:tf] u' 6
kl5Nnf] -bf];|f]_ v]kdf !# ca{ ^) / k|r08 nufotsf] Hofg lng] of]hgf klg ;/sf/ / g]=s=kf=aLr c3f]lift ckx/0fdf ;} l gs hjfg, Ps kf6L{ l gs6 clvn qmflGtsf/Ln]
g] = s=kf=n] agfP/ dfG5] ; d] t o'4 rln/x]sf] cg'dfg ug]{x¿nfO{ pku' 6 sf] ;+ o ' Q m df] r f{ geP/ dlxgf;Dd u'kr'kÚ lzif{sdf zDe' slknj:t' k|fljlws k|lti7fg lkk/fdf
s/f]8 ¿k}ofF s/ /fHonfO{ a'emfof] . Pstfa4 / Psl9Ssf /x]sf] 5 .
o;af6 klg Pg;]ndfly hg:t/af6} v6fO;lsPsf] kfOPsf] eGg] s'/fnfO{ ;xh agfOlbPsf] 5 . s§] n sf] afOnfOgdf k| s flzt sfnf] Aofg/ 6fFus ] f] 5 . pQm ;+u7gn]
agfP . t/ g]=s=kfn] eg] cfˆgf] kf6L{sf] lhDd]jf/ txdf ;Dks{ g} ;dfrf/k|lt uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f dfq cfˆgf] ;+u7g lar ePsf] ;xdlt
s/5nL u/]sf] z+sfdf yk an k'us
xf] . cf/f]k kvfNg g;Sg' g} Pg;]nsf]
] f]
kf6L{ s f] nf] s lk| o tfaf6 …eoeLt ljKnjn]===== gu/L skf]slNkt 9+un] b'/f;ok"0f{ geP/ 3f]/ cfklQ /x]sf] hgfPsf sfo{jGog ug{k' g],{ Ctevt cGtu{tsf]
dfgl;stfsf] pkh ePsf] ts{ xnsf] bz{s lb3f{df a;]sf /fO{ ;dfrf/ k|;f/0f ug{s ' f] k5fl8 s;sf] lyP . o;}aLr dxf;lrj ljKnjsf] lgofjln kfngf u/L sn]h ;+rfng
nflu sn+s ag]sf] 5 . cfqmd0fsf ;]jf ug]{ p2]Zo 5 < To;af6 k|fKt
36gf gePsf] eP ;fob /fhZjdf u¥of] . 3f]if0ffkl5 ;'/IffsdL{nfO{ PsfPs dGrdf k|jz ] u/]sf lyP . r]tfjgL lakl/t ;f] klqsfn] ljKnjsf] ug{ ' k g] { , ljBfyL{ x ¿ ;+ u lnPsf]
g]=s=kf=lj?4 uf]nL rnfpg] clVtof/L Tolta]n} clwj]zgdf ;xefuL g]tf nfe s] xf] < ;dfrf/sf] Go'gtd\ g]skfdf k|sf08sf] …sdAofsÚ eGg] cgfjZos /sd lkmtf{ ug{ ' k g] { ,
bflvn x'g'kg]{ Toltsf /sd kmut\ ljZjf;lgotf rflxG5 ls rflxb}g <
Pg;]nsf] x'GYof] . ;d]t lbOof] . k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] sfo{stfn] /fO{ cj;/jfbL g]tf ePsf] lzif{sdf e|fds ;dfrf/ k|sfzg ljBfyL{nfO{ lbPsf] dfgl;s tyf
ljKnjsf] gfd} ls6]/ r}t dlxgfleq eGb} rsf]{ la/f]w u/]sf] g]skfsf Ps k|Zg p7\g :jefljs 5 . t;y{ km]s u/]sf] lt g]tfn] 7f]s'jf u/] . o;/L zf/Ll/s oftgf /f]Sg'kg]{ / sn]hdf
t/ ;/sf/n] hgtf / ;dfhsf] Go'hsf] v]tL gug{, ;g;gLk"0f{ /
lgoldt hLjgdf Jojwfg v8f ug]{ xltof/ ;/sf/nfO{ ga'emfP vf];]/ g]tfn] atfP . /fi6«lxt / hglxtnfO{ kf6L{ j f6 sf/afxLdf k/] s f, ;+rfng x'b} cfPsf] SoflG6gdf hËkm'8
lng] r]tfjgL ;d]t lyP . t/ b]ze } / s]Gb| dfg]/ qmflGtdf hf]l8g cfpg] pQ]lht ;dfrf/ kl:sP/ Jofj;fo lgisfzgdf k/]sf / kf6L{leq} /x]/ vfgf lgif]lwt ub}{ ;'wf/ ug{'kg]{ eGb}
/ gLlh ;DklQdfly Iflt k'¥ofO{ wfGg] xf]Og ls tYout ;dfrf/
zflGt;'/Iffdf vnn k'¥ofPsf] eGb} ;'/IffsdL{ kl/rfng eof] . t'ngfTds g]tfnfO{ ckdfg ug{ gx'g] eGb} /fO{sf] ;'/fsLsf] sfd ug]{ em'08x¿sf] pQm sfnf] Aofg/ 6fFu]sf] atfPsf]
¿kdf p;sf g]tf sfo{stf{dfly a9L arfp ub} { tTsfn g] t fx¿n] agfpg xfdL ;a} ;~rf/sdL{;uF cg'/f]w lgof]lht if8\oGqnfO{ ;fy lbFb} ;To 5 . clvn-qmflGtsf/L_ slknj:t'
;/sf/n] g]=s=kf=sf ultljlwdfly ub{5f}+ .Ú cGTodf gSsnL / ablgotk"0f{
sl/a b'O{ jif{b]lv glhsaf6 s8f lgu/fgL / lu/ˆtf/ ;d]t x'g yfNof] . sfo{stf{nfO{ ;DemfPsf] lt g]tfn] tYo ga'emL ;dfrf/ cfkm}df lgGbgLo lhNnfsf] cfof] h gfdf ;+ u 7gsf]
g]=s=kf=sf cg';f/ p;sf k"jL{, atfP . /fO{ n fO{ s] G qm:b| o k|rf/o'4sf] 86]/ ;fdgf ug{;d]t ;a} ePsf] pgsf] 7f]s'jf 5 . Pp6f s]Gb|Lo gLlt cGtu{t n'lDagL c+rn
lgu/fgL /fVg] / e]§fP;Dd lu/ˆtf/ dWos]Gb|Lo, dWoklZrd / klZrd kf6L{ k+lQm / Gofok"0f{ ;d'bfodf
ug]{ / d'2f rnfpg] sfo{nfO{ cufl8 hg;/sf/sf pkk|d'v h:tf] pk qmflGtsf/L kf6L{ / p;sf g]tfla?4 ;ldltsf] lgb]{zgdf pQm Aofg/
sdf08df ;/sf/n] w/ks8nfO{ tLj| k|d'vsf] lhDd]jf/L lbP/ qmflGtdf lj1lKtdfkm{t clkn u/]sf 5g\ . o;/L ;'lgof]lht 9+un] …d]l8of jf/Ú /flvPsf] ;+u7gsf s]Gb|Lo ;lrjfno
a9fof] . To;kl5 lg/Gt/ ¿kdf kfof] . /, y'k|} g]tf, sfo{stf{sf] s'/} o;} u /L, g] k fn sDo' l g:6
g]=s=kf= / /fHoaLr c3f]lift ¿kdf ;xefuL u/fPsf] g]t[Tj / kf6L{nfO{ df pqg' 3f]/ eT;{gf of]Uo ePsf] / ;b:o tyf n'lDagL If]qLo ;dGjo
5f8f}+ z'elrGts, ;dy{snfO{ ;d]t wf]vf lbP/ u2f/L u/]sf] lt g]tfn] kf6L{la?4 e|fds k|rf/ ug]{ lu/f]x Pp6f qmflGtsf/L kf6L{ / p;sf ;ldlt ;+ o f] h s lj/] G b| ljsn]
n8fO{F g} rNb} cfof] . cufl8 a9\b} ;/sf/n] lu/ˆtf/ u¥of] / cfbntsf] k'g ;lqmo x'g yfn]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .
;/sf/n] g]=s=kf=sf g]tf sfo{stf{nfO{ atfP . pgn] o:tf u2f/ g]tfnfO{ g]tfla?4 ul/Psf] o:tf] ;'lgof]lht hfgsf/L lbP . ;+u7gn] /fv]sf dfu
cfb]zdf y'gfd'Qm ePsfx¿nfO{ ;d]t g]kfln hgtfn] s73/fdf pEofpg] g]skfdf k|sf08sf] …sdAofsÚ eGg] xdnfsf] g]kfnL hgtfn] lx;fa lstfa k'/f gu/] s8f sfjf{xLsf ;fy ;+u7g
lu/kmtf/ ug{ uf]nL g} rnfof] . tfls em'7f d'2f rnfof] . lzif{sdf e|fds ;dfrf/ k|sfzg
r'gfj alxisf/sf] a]nfdf rnfOPgg\ . ;d]t atfP . dfUg] pgn] atfP, ;fy} pgn] h; ;+3if{df pqg] r]tfjgL klg lbP .
k|ltaGw 3f]if0ff u/]sf] sl/a ;ftf o;}aLr, g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] ePkl5 kf6L{n] pQm s'/f atfOPsf] h;n] qmflGtsf/L kf6L{ / p;sf slknj:t' k|flalws k|lti7fg lkk/f,
r'gfjkl5 u7g ePsf s]kL cf]nL lbgkl5 r}t % ut] sf7df8f}+af6 xf] . kf6L{n] qmflGtsf/L kf6L{ / p;sf
g]tT[ jsf] ;/sf/ g]=s=kf=k|lt z'?b]lv kf]ln6\Ao'/f] ;b:o kbd /fO{nfO{ g]tfla?4 ckmafx km}nfpb} 5g\ . slknj:t'sf 8f/]S6/ c?0f kf08]nfO{
lu/ˆtf/ k/]sf sfo{stf{nfO{ k|of]u ;fwf/0f ;b:o;d]t g/xg] u/L g]tfla?4 ul/Psf] o:tf] ;'lgof]lht ltgLx¿n] hgtfsf] s73/fdf pleP/ ;Dks{ ug{ vf]Hbf ;Dks{df cfpg
g} c;xli0f' / k|ltzf]wsf] efjgfaf6 xdnfsf] g]kfnL hgtfn] lx;fa
rNg yfNof] . ;/sf/ u7gsf] jif{ u/] / g] = s=kf=lj?4 sfe| ] s f kf6L{af6 lgisf;g u/]sf] 5 . ;f] lt ;dfrf/sf] k'l:6 ug]{ lbg glhs rfx]Pg\ . kf08] k|b]z gDa/ % sf
ufpF u fpF ; Dd ck/] ; g rnfPsf] kf6L{sf k|jQmf k|sf08n] cfh Ps lstfa dfUg] atfPsf] 5 . g]skfn] cfPsf] atfpb} k'l:6 ug{ g;s] To:tf Ctevt cWoIf klg x'g .
lbg kf/ ub} { u bf{ p;n] lj/f] w L g]=s=kf=sf] egfO{ 5 . ;f]xL lbg % h; h;n] qmflGtsf/L kf6L{ / p;sf
lj1lKt u/L ;f] hfgsf/L lbPsf x'g\ . e|fds / tYoxLg ;dfrf/ n]Vg] /
kf6L{ n fO{ l6Sg} glbg] lsl;dsf
ut] ;fFem ck/];gsf nflu k'u]sf k|sf08n] lj1lKtdf eg]sf 5g\, g] t fla?4 ckmafx km}nfpb} 5g\ 5fKg] ;a}nfO{ hgtfn] bl08t ug]{
3fOt]x?sf]====
lg0f{ox¿ u/fpFb} cufl8 a9\of] . ltgLx¿n] hgtfsf] s73/fdf pleP/ IftL x'gu] /L laxLaf/ ;fFem s}nfnL /
kmn:j¿kM ;/sf/n] klxnf]k6s ut a]nf sfe|]sf] /f]zL ufpFkflnsfsf] …¿kfGt/0f / pkrf/sf] cysk|of; pgn] 7f]s'jf u/] .
sfkmn 8fF8fdf g]=s=kf=n] kmfol/ª ubf{ub}{ c;Dej ePkl5 / kf6L{ gLlt lt ;dfrf/sf] k'l:6 ug]{ lbg glhs s~rgk' / df cfPsf] eLif0f
kmfu'g @# ut] slknj:t'sf] lzj/fh u/]sf] / To;df hjfkmL kmfol/ª / sfo{qmdsf] lj?4 uPkl5 ut cfPsf] / k'l:6 ug{ g;s] To:tf e|fds hgkl/ifb\åf/f===== xfjfx'/Laf6 kLl8tsf] p4f/ / /fxtdf
gu/kflnsf–( l:yt c~rnk'/df ;r{ / tYoxLg ;dfrf/ n]Vg] / 5fKg] ;a}nfO{ pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . sAhf ul/Psf] v6\g ;Dk"0f{ kf6L{ k+lQmnfO{ lgb]z{ g
ck/];g rnfP/ /ftsf] ;dodf cfkm"x¿n] u/]sf] ;'/IffsdL{n] atfof] . :yfoL ;ldlt a} 7 sn] lgnDag
% ut] kf6L{sf sfo{stf{åo ljzfn u/]sfkbd /fO{ emGemg\ kf6L{sflj?4 hgtfn] bl08t ug]{ hgfPsf] 5 . pQm hUufnfO{ k};f / kx'r F sf] cfwf/df lbPsf x'g\ . pQm cfFwL–x'/L;lxt
g]=s=kf=sf …ks8 If]qÚnfO{ 3]/f xfnL kf6L{n] e|fds / tYoxLg ;dfrf/ rnv]n u/]df s8feGbf s8f sf/afxL cl;gf kfgLsf] sf/0f @ hgfsf] d[To'
tfdfª / ^ ut] /flt lzj lwdfnnfO{ cGt/ Wj+; / ck/fwk"0f{ sfo{df
g]tf sfo{stf{dfly kmfol/ª u¥of] . kqmfp ul/Psf] atfOof] . To;nfO{ n]Vg], 5fKg] / 5kfpg plTk|t ug],{ ul/g] r]tfjgL lbOPsf] 5 . x'gs ' f ;fy} bh{gf} 3fO{t] ePsf 5g\ .
ToxfF g]=s=kf=n] n8fs' tflnd lzlj/ ;+ n Ug ePsfn] kf6L{ ;fwf/0f
g]=s=kf=sf] dWos]Gb|Lo sdf08 OGrfh{ ;b:o;d] t g/xg] u /L lgisf;g kf6L{ / qmflGtla?4 xs{ t ug] { o; ljifodf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 ;fy} k|jQmf k|sf08n] 3fOt]x¿sf]
rnfPsf] cf/f]k ;/sf/n] nufof] . em'08x¿nfO{ ;lRrg cfu|x u/]sf] kf6L{sf] hgkl/ifb eQmk'/n] hf/L lz3| :jf:Yo nfesf] sfdgf ub}{
h;nfO{ g]=s=kf=n] lgof]lht 36gf ;'bz{gn] & ut] Ps k|; ] lj1lKt hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .Ú
ub}{ kf6L{sf] tkm{af6 uf]nL rnfPsf] k|sf08n] lj1lKtdf eg]sf 5g\, u/]sf] atfPsf] 5 . lt em'08x¿ u/]sf] k|;] lj1lKtdf o; k|sf/ /x]sf] d[ t ssf kl/jf/nfO{ /fxt,
u/fP/ bdg ug]{ ;/sf/L if8oGq ;/sf/sf] egfO{nfO{ 7f8} c:jLsf/ ;lRrgsf] ;§f kf6L{ / qmflGtla?4 5 M æo; eQmk'/ lhNnfcGtu{t 3fOt] x ¿sf] lgz' N s pkrf/ /
ePsf] atfof] . pQm c~rnk' / …qmflGtsf] sl7g t/ dxfg\ k|lqmofdf
u/] . a? uf]nL k|x/Ln] g} PstkmL{ l6Sg g;s] s f s} o f} F sr/fx¿ df]rf{aGbL ug{ yfn]kl5 pgLx¿nfO{ rfFug' f/fo0f gkf j8f g+= @ l:yt kLl8tx¿nfO{ plrt Ifltk"lt{ lbg
36gfsf] :jtGq k'li6 eg] ePsf] ;r] t u/fpg] / kf6L{ d f ePsf b'jfsf]6df slyt e"dflkmofx¿n] dfu u/]sf 5g\ . ;fy} pQm 36gfk|lt
5} g . To;a] n f uf] n L nfu] / rnfPsf] / ToxfFaf6 sfo{stf{åo knfogx'g] qmflGtsf] clgjfo{ lgodxf]
l;Gw'kfNrf]ssf lazfn tfdfª / / xfd|f] kf6L{sf ;Gbe{df klg Tof] sltkosf] kf6L{ ;b:otfg} vf/]h cgk9 Psn dlxnfnfO{ cg]s k|nf]eg b' M v JoQm ub} { d[ t sx¿k| l t
g]=s=kf=sf :yfgLo sfo{stf{ $) emfkfsf lzj lwdfnnfO{ lu/ˆtf/ u/]sf] atfPsf] 5 . kf6L{n] sf/afxL tyf bafa lbO{ cfˆg} 5f]/fx¿nfO{ >4f~hnL / zf]sfs"s cfkmGthgk|lt
jifL{o b'uf{axfb'/ /f]sf uDeL/ 3fOt] TolQs} ;To xf] .Ú lj1lKtdf elgPsf]
u/]sf] k|li6s/0f lbP . /fHon] % ut] 5, …g]kfnsf ;j{xf/f ju{, >ldstyf u/]sf ltg} em'08x¿ / kf6L{sf] ;' s ' D af;L agfPkl5 5f] / fx¿n] ;xfg'el" t ;d]t JoQm u/]sf] 5 . …jiff{,
eP . pgsf] 3'F8fd'lg v'§fdf uf]nL lhDd]jf/Ljf6 x6fO lgu/fgLdf /x]sf /fHosf ljleGg lgsfodf Gofosf] cfFwL, x'/L, l;tnx/, af9L, klx/f] /
nfu]sf] hfgsf/L lbOof] . h;nfO{ sf7df8f}+af6 ef]hk'/sf l8s]Gb| /fO{, pTkLl8t hg;d'bfosf] cu|b:tf xfd|f]
bfªsf g'daxfb'/ ljsnfO{ lu/ˆtf/ uf}/jzfnL kf6L{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 JolQmx¿ g} clxn] kf6L{lj?4 lg/Gt/ nflu hfFbf sxL+st}af6 klg Gofo cfunfuL /x]s ;fgf] eGbf ;fgf]
efUg] vf]hk] l5 3fOt] agfO{ lgoGq0fdf u/L ck/];gsf a]nf pgLx¿nfO{ e|dk"0f{ ;dfrf/ k|sfzg ug{ / u/fpg gkfPkl5 xfd|f] kf6L{ g]kfn sDo'lgi6 k|fs[lts k|sf]kdf 7"nf] wghgsf] Iflt
lnOPsf] atfOof] . 3fOt] /f]sfsf kf6L{sf] g]t[Tjdf /fli6«otf, hgtGq
k|of]u u/]sf] g]=s=kf=sf] bfaL 5 . / hghLljsfsf kIfdf j}1flgs tlNng /x] s f] eGb} kf6L{ n ] lt kf6L{ eQmk'/ lhNnf hgkl/ifb\sf] x'g] u/]sf] eGb} k|fs[lts k|sf]k tyf
;fyaf6 aGb's, xltof/;d]t a/fdb em'08x¿nfO{ tTsfn To:tf xs{t sfof{nodf lgj]bg kg{ cfPsf]df xfd|f] b' 3 { 6 gfnfO{ /f] S g g;lsPklg
ePsf] ts{ /fHon] cl3 ;fof] . t/ To;sf] ef]lnkN6 r}t * ut] laxfg ;dfhjfbL qmflGt lg/Gt/ cufl8
t OGrfh{ ;'bz{g, k"jL{ tfD;flnª al9/x]sf] 5 . of] eLif0f / k]lrnf] /f]Sg r]tfjgL lbPsf] 5 . kf6L{n] hgkl/ifb\af6 ;f] :yfgdf uO{ ToxfFsf Go'gLs/0f eg] ug{ ;lsg] la1lKtdf
g]=s=kf=sf dxf;lrj ljKnjn] lbg OGrfh{ k|Hjng;lxt ( hgfnfO{ sf/afxL u/]sf ltg} em'08x¿ / ;dfh;] j L, a' l 4hLjL / hgfO{Psf] 5 . gful/sk|ltsf] /fHosf]
Ps k|]; lj1lKt hf/L u/]/ cfˆg} ;‹if{ k' F h Lkltju{ / ;j{ x f/f
;/sf/n] gLlh uf8L;lxt lgoGq0fdf ju{sfaLrsf] b'O{ ljZjb[li6sf]0fsf] kf6L{sf] lhDd]jf/Ljf6 x6fO lgu/fgLdf eb| e nfbdLx¿;F u sf] 5nkmndf a] j f:tf / nfk/jfxLsf sf/0f
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