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Government of Karnataka

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MATHEMATICS

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English Medium
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SEVENTH STANDARD
Part - I
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KARNATAKA TEXT BOOK SOCIETY (R)


100 Feet Ring Road, Banashankari 3rd stage,
Bengaluru-85

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Preface
The Textbook Society, Karnataka, has been engaged in producing new
textbooks according to the new syllabi which in turn are designed on
NCF - 2005 since June 2010. Textbooks are prepared in 12 languages;
seven of them serve as the media of instruction. From Standard 1 to 4
there is the EVS, mathematics and 5th to 10th there are three core sub-
jects, namely, mathematics, science and social science.

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NCF - 2005 has a number of special features and they are:

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 connecting knowledge to life activities.
 learning to shift from rote methods.

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 enriching the curriculum beyond textbooks.
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 learning experiences for the construction of knowledge.
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 making examinations flexible and integrating them with classroom
experiences.
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 caring concerns within the democratic policy of the country.
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 making education relevant to the present and future needs.


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 softening the subject boundaries integrated knowledge and


the joy of learning.
 the child is the constructor of knowledge.
The new books are produced based on three fundamental ap-
proaches namely, Constructive approach, Spiral approach and Inter-
grated approach.
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The learner is encouraged to think, engage in activities, master


skills and competencies. The materials presented in these books are
integrated with values. The new books are not examination oriented
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in their nature. On the other hand they help the learner in the all
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round development of his/her personality, thus help him/her become


a healthy member of a healthy society and a productive citizen of this
great country, India.
Mathematics is essential in the study of various subjects and
in real life. NCF 2005 proposes moving away from complete calcula-
tions, construction of a framework of concepts, relate mathematics to
real life experiences and cooperative learning. Many students have a
maths phobia and in order to help them overcome this phobia, jokes,
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puzzles, riddles, stories and games have been included in textbooks.
Each concept is intoduced through an activity or an interesting story
at the primary level. The contributions of great Indian mathematicians
are mentioned at appropriate places.
We live in an age of Science and Technology. During the past
five decades man has achieved great things and realized his dreams
and reached pinnacle of glory. He has produced everything to make

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life comfortable. In the same way he has given himself to pleasures
and reached the stage in which he seems to have forgotten basic sci-

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ences. We hope that at least a good number of young learners take to
science in higher studies and become leading scientists and contrib-

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ute their share to the existing stock of knowledge in order to make life
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prosperous. Ample opportunity has been given to learners to think,
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read, discuss and learn on their own with very little help from teach-
ers. Learning is expected to be activity centered with the learners doing
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experiments, assignments and projects.
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6th standard Social Science Textbook has been prepared based


on the prescribed syllabus. And all the features of NCF 2005 and KCF
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2007 have been included in the Text Book. This new Text Book has
given importance to enhance the creativity of students by including ac-
tivities. Many projects are included to help students to gain knowledge.
This Text Book has been written in such a way that students need not
memorise historical dates and other information.
The Textbook Society expresses grateful thanks to the Chairper-
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sons, Writers, Scrutinisers, Artists, Staff of DIETs and CTEs and the
Members of the Editorial Board and Printers in helping the Textbook
Society in producing these textbooks.
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Prof. G.S. Mudambadithaya Nagendrakumar


Coordinator Managing Director
Curriculum Revision and Textbook Karnataka Textbook Society®
Preparation Bengaluru, Karnataka
Karnataka Textbook Society®
Bengaluru, Karnataka

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Chairperson's Letter
Dear All,
NCF 2005 intends that the aim of learning Mathematics to be of higher value rather than
mere learning algorithms and this is stated as learning of Mathematics is 'Mathemetisation.
To achieve this objective our educational system, that is administration, class, school, society
and persons in these agencies has to provide opportunities to the child to gain excellence
experiences and fecilitate to construct knowledge himself.
The logical thinking adopted to solve a problem is to be of higher significance rather than

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knowing the solution to the problem. This develops rational and logical thinking among learners

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and enables them to explore their own method or approach of finding the solution and keeps
them to be active participants. To make it possible, teachers have to become friendly facilitators
to provide learning opportunities to the learners; as well as encourage pupils to learn with

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co - operation, in peer groups.
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'Mathematics' is a challenge at 7th standard because it has to be nearer to the experiences
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and environment of learner and the learner has to comprehend the logical process and the
abstract idea/concept.
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Scope for exploration and creation is required in Mathematics instead of the rote problems
and complicated calculations. Students have to be encouraged to solve the problems in different
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ways. To achieve this, previous learning is linked with present topics of learning Model activities,
activities that can be done by the students and activities that have to be performed by the
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students are given to the possible extent Illustration, figures, laws/ principles and worked (model)
problems are given to facilitate better comprehension of the subject. Additional information /
issues are included here and there to enrich learning. To make learning easier and meaningful
simple language along with wider scope and social situations are used. For reinforcement of
each unit exercises, based on knowledge, understanding, skills and application- are given as
far as possible. Our Committee is grateful to the chief co-ordinator, the managing director,
the joint director and programme co-ordinator of karnataka textbooks society for providing an
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opportunity and responsibility of producing this textbook through which we have the pleasure to
reach and serve larger educational community. We thank the editorial board and the scrutinizers
for the valuable guidance and suggestions the members and DIETS involved in 'Try - out' for
the feedback. All of this is attended to improve the text.
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I am thankful to the members, translators, artists of this committee, technical assistants


and other departmental, non departmental persons who have assisted me in this service .
It is tried to make this text to be free from doubts, confusions, ambiguity and printing
mistakes. In spite of it, I request you kindly to communicate with me for any such things. Any
suggestions for the improvement will be acknowledged whole heartedly. Please, share your
opinion regarding the quality of the textbook with us and the department.
Yours truly,
N. Kaleshwara Rao
Chair Person,7th Std Maths Text book

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Text Book Committee

Chair Person :
Sri Kaleshwar Rao Bagoor # 3 Santhasa, 1st Cross, Aravinda Marga, J.P. Nagar, IInd
Phase, Bengaluru.
Members :
Smt B. Keerthi Principal, Siliconcity P. U. College, Konanakunte, Bengaluru
-62.

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Sri Subramanya Bhat Assistant Teacher, K.V.S.M High school, Kanchana, Puttur (T)

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Sri Sadananda Kumar Government Girls P. U. College, Hampi Road, Hospete Ballari
District- 583218.
Sri Pramod G. Kulkarni V. B. Darbar P. U. College, Vijayapura.
Sri C. L. Bhaskar Assistant Professor Vijaya Teachers College, Jayanagar 4th

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Block Bengaluru - 56001.
Smt Renuka Assistant Teacher, Goverment composite P. U. College
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Sri Jangi bl Kamalapur Taluk Hospete. Ballari District.
Art Teacher. DSERT Bengaluru.
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Scrutinizers :
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Prof. Prabhakar R. V. Deen Vijaya College Jayanagar and Assistant Secretary B. H.
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S. H. E. S. Jayanagar 4th Block. Bengaluru


Dr R. Latha Kumari Principal, Sanjaya Gandhi College of Education, cholanagar,
Hebbal, Bengaluru.
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Editorial Committee :
Dr Ravindra Former NCERT Director Arehalli BSK 3rd stage Bengaluru - 61.
Dr Upadya B. S. Lecturer and Head, Department of Mathematics, Education
RIE, Mysuru.
Dr Prasad S. V. Lecturer RIE Mysuru.
Dr Sharad Sure Assistant Professor Azim Premji university, PES School of
Engineering Campus Konappana Agra Hara Bengaluru.
Translation Committee :
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Smt Vasanthi Rao Retired Teacher, Chord Road, IInd Stage Bengaluru.
Sri Sadananda Kumar Government Girls P. U. College. Hampi Road, Hospet Ballari
District 583218.
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Sri Ravikumar T. R. Assistant Teacher, A. L. S. High School, Basaweshwara Nagar,


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Bengaluru.
Chief - Coordinators :
Sri G. S. Mudambaditaya Co-ordinator, Curriculum revision and Text Book Preparation.
Guidance :
Sri Nagendra Kumar Managing Director, Karanataka, Text Book Society.
Smt. C. Nagamani Deputy Director, Karnataka, Text Book Society.
Programme Coordinators :
Smt Vijaya Kulkarni Assistant Director, Karanataka Text Book Society.
Smt Prema B. R. Technical Assistant ,Karanataka Text Book Society.

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About the Revision of Textbooks

Honourable Chief Minister Sri Siddaramaiah who is also


the Finance Minister of Karnataka, in his response to the
public opinion about the new textbooks from standard I to X,
announced, in his 2014-15 budget speech of constituting an
expert-committee, to look into the matter. He also spoke of

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the basic expectations there in, which the textbook experts

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should follow: “The textbooks should aim at inculcating
social equality, moral values, development of personality,

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scientific temper, critical acumen, secularism and the sense
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of national commitment”, he said.
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Later, for the revision of the textbooks from class I to
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X, the Department of Education constituted twenty seven


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committees and passed an order on 24-11-2014. The
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committees so constituted were subject and class-wise and


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were in accordance with the standards prescribed. Teachers


who are experts in matters of subjects and syllabi were in
the committees.
There were already many complaints, and analyses
about the textbooks. So, a freehand was given in the
order dated 24-11-2014 to the responsible committees to
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examine and review text and even to prepare new text and
revise if necessary. Eventually, a new order was passed on
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19-9-2015 which also give freedom even to re-write the


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textbooks if necessary. In the same order, it was said that


the completely revised textbooks could be put to force from
2017-18 instead of 2016-17.
Many self inspired individuals and institutions, listing
out the wrong information and mistakes there in the text,
had sent them to the Education Minister and to the Textbook
Society. They were rectified. Before rectification we had ex-
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changed ideas by arranging debates. Discussions had taken
place with Primary and Secondary Education Teachers’ As-
sociations. Questionnaires were administered among teach-
ers to pool up opinions. Separate meetings were held with
teachers, subject inspectors and DIET Principals. Analytical
opinions had been collected. To the subject experts of sci-
ence, social science, mathematics and languages, textbooks

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were sent in advance and later meetings were held for dis-

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cussions. Women associations and science related organi-
station were also invited for discussions. Thus, on the basis
of all inputs received from various sources, the textbooks

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have been revised where ever necessary.
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Another very important aspect has to be shared here. We
constituted three expert committees. They were constituted
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to make suggestions after making a comparative study of the
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texts of science, mathematics and social science subjects of


central schools (NCERT), along with state textbooks. Thus,
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the state text books have been enriched based on the com-
parative analysis and suggestions made by the experts. The
state textbooks have been guarded not to go lower in stan-
dards than the textbooks of central school. Besides, these
textbooks have been examined along side with the textbooks
of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra
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states.
Another clarification has to be given here. Whatever we
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have done in the committees is only revision, it is not the total


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preparation of the textbooks. Therefore, the structure of the


already prepared textbooks have in no way been affected or
distorted. They have only been revised in the background of
gender equality, regional representation, national integrity,
equality and social harmony. While doing so, the curriculum
frames of both central and state have not been transgressed.
Besides, the aspirations of the constitution are incorporated
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carefully. Further, the reviews of the committees were once
given to higher expert committees for examination and their
opinions have been inculcated into the textbooks.
Finally, we express our grateful thanks to those who strived
in all those 27 committees with complete dedication and also
to those who served in higher committees. At the same time,
we thank all the supervising officers of the Textbook Society

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who sincerely worked hard in forming the committees and

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managed to see the task reach its logical completion. We
thank all the members of the staff who co-operated in this

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venture. Our thanks are also due to the subject experts and
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to the associations who gave valuable suggestions.
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Narasimhaiah Prof. Baraguru Ramachandrappa
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Mangaging Director Chairman-in-Chief


Karnataka Textbook Society Textbook Revision Committee
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Bengaluru. Bengaluru.
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Text Books Revision Committee
Chairman-in-chief.
Prof. Barguru Ramchandrappa, State Revision Committee, Karnataka
textbooks Society®, Bengaluru.
Revision Committee
Chairperson
Dr. Narasimhamurthy S.K. Professor and Chairman, Department

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of Mathematics , Kuvempu University,
Shankaraghatta-577 451. Shivamogga

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Members
Dr. B . Chaluvaraju, Professor, Department of Mathematics,
Bengaluru University, Bengaluru.

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Sri. B. K. Vishwanath Rao, Rtd., Principal, No.94, ''Prashanthi'', 30th
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Cross, BSK 2nd Stage, Bengaluru.
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Sri Narasimha murthy G.N., ‘Beladingalu’ No.23/1,5th cross, Hosalli,
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Sri Shankarmurthy M.V.
Bengaluru.
Rtd Headmaster, Sarvodaya High-school,
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Bengaluru
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Sri H.N.Subbarao, Headmaster, Sadvidya Highschool,


N.S.Road, Mysuru.
Smt S.S. Thara, Headmistress, Govt. High School,
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Mavattur, K.R. Nagar taluk, Mysuru Dist,


Smt Sushma Nagaraj Rao, High School Teacher, Govt. Higher Primary
School, Ramnagar
Sri Shrinath Shastri, Kannada Ganak Parishat, Chamrajpete,
Bengaluru.
High Power Committee
Dr.Kashinath Biradar, Plot No.7, Gangasiri, Jayanagar,
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Kalburgi - 585 105.


Smt. L. Padmavati, Vice-principal, Empress Girls
High-school, Tumkur.
Sri T Gangadharaiah, Associate Professor, Department of
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Mathmetics, Govt. women’s college, Kolar


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Chief Advisors
Sri Narasimaiah, Managing Director, Karnataka Textbooks
Society®, Banashankari 3rd stage,
Bengaluru-85.
Smt Nagamani C. Karnataka Textbooks Society®,
Banashankari 3rd stage, Bengaluru-85.
Programme co-ordinator:
Smt. Vijaya Kulkarni, Asst.Director, Karnataka Textbooks
Society®, Banashankari 3rd stage,
Bengaluru-85.
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CONTENTS
Part - I

Sl. No Chapters Pages

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1 Integers 1 - 25

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2 Fractions 26 - 51

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3 blRational Numbers 52 - 79
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4 Algebraic Expressions 80 - 111


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5 Pair of angles 112 - 135

6 Pair of lines 136 - 159

7 Properties of triangles 160 - 181


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8 Symmetry 182 - 203


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Answers 204 - 214

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CHAPTER– 1
INTEGERS
After studying this chapter you :
 multiply positive integer by positive integer as well as
by negative integer,

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 multiply negative integer by negative integer,

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 compare integers and identify smaller, greater among
given integers,

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 follow proper method in multiplication, as well as relate
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multiplication and division of numbers,
divide an integer by another integer,
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 understand why an integer can not to be divisible by
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zero,
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 understand the properties of integers: commutative,


associative and distributive, with respect to fundamental
operations.
Suhasini saw a rose plant having 5 roses.
She plucked 3 roses. Find how many roses
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are left in the plant.


Solution:
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Total number of roses in the plant = 5


Number of roses plucked =3
Number of roses left in the plant = 5 – 3 = 2.

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Positive integers, negative integers along with zero are
termed as integers. We know how to add and subtract integers
on the number line.
Example 1 : Rita wanted to play a game. She jumped 3
steps to her right and then she decided to jump 5 steps
to her left.How can you show her jumping on the number
line ?

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If we consider the first position of Rita as zero, then the
jumps can be shown on the number line, where does she

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reach ?

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0 1 2 3
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-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
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3 + (–5) = –2

Remember :
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 Counting numbers/Natural numbers are positive


integers.
 Zero is not a natural number.
 Natural numbers and "0" together termed as "Whole
numbers".
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 Integers include whole numbers as well as negative


integers.
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Exercise 1.1

I. Simplify the following .


1) 8 + 5 2) 2 + (–7)
3) (–3) + (4) 4) (– 7) + (– 2)

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Multiplication of integers.
Multiplication of a positive integer by a positive integer:
If a sign is not attached to a number, it is considered to
be positive.
What is multiplication ?

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We know that multiplication is repeated addition. Let us

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observe this from the following example.
Example 1:

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Bharath bought 3 pencil boxes from a shop. If each box
contains 6 pencils, find the total number of pencils Bharatha
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6 + 6 + 6 = 18 (addition)
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How to mark this on a number line?

0 6 12 18

Look at the arrow marks shown on the number line. There


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are 3 arrow marks on the number line, each arrow covering


‘6’. The third arrow reaches at 18.
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Therefore, 6 × 3 = 18. This is represented on the number line.


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Example 2 :
Know this :
5 friends went to a shop. Each Z is used to represent
one bought 12 mangoes. How many Integers. Zahlen is
mangoes did they buy altogether? the German word for
× = Integers. Integers are
also represented by ‘I’.
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Multiplication of a positive integer by a negative integer :
Nidhi was fond of Almonds. Her mother kept some almonds
in a container. Nidhi ate 2 almonds each day. Every day the
number of almonds is reduced by 2. After three days the
container was empty!
How many almonds were there in the container?

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Let us denote the reduced number
of almonds by a negative integer –2

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–2, –2, –2. Now add these integers.
(–2)+(–2)+(–2) = –6

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∴ 3 × (–2) = –6
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Nidhi ate 6 almonds in 3 days.
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So, there were 6 almonds in the
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box.
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Let us mark this on the number


line.

-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0

(–2) × 3 = –6
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Example 1 : Find 5 × (–4)


We can simply take "5 time of −4", like this:
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-20 -16 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8


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1×-4=-4
2×-4=-8
3×-4=-12
4×-4=-16
5×-4=-20
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Example 2 : Let us try this; 4 × (–5) = ?

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10

4 × (–5) = –20
If we multiply a positive integer by a negative integer we
get a negative integer.

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Example 3 : (+5) × (–6) =?

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+5 × (–6) =–30
This means 5 times –6

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5 × (–6)=(–6) + (–6) + (–6) + (–6) + (–6)= –30
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I any ha ha No sign
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sign? ...
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I have neither positive sign, nor negative sign. I am free from sign
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Multiplication of a negative integer by a positive integer:


What happens if we multiply a negative integer by a
positive integer?
Look at this pattern , Know this
5 × 4 = 20
4 × 4 = 16 = 20 – 4 Do you know yes, it is -1
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3 × 4 = 12 = 16 – 4 which is the my friend


2 × 4 = 8 = 12 – 4 largest negative
integer?
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1×4=4=8–4
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0×4=0=4–4
–1 × 4 = 0 – 4 = – 4
–2 × 4 = –4 – 4 = –8
–3 × 4 = –8 – 4 = –12
–4 × 4 = –12 – 4 = –16
–5 × 4 = –16 – 4 = –20
Thus we get (–5) × 4 = –20
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When we multiply a negative integer and a positive
integer, we multiply them as whole numbers and put a
negative sign to the product. We get a negative integer.
Example 1: (–6) × 7 =?
Multiply the absolute values.
6 × 7 = 42
5 × 7 = 35 = 42 – 7

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4 × 7 = 28 = 35 – 7

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3 × 7 = 21 = 28 – 7
2 × 7 = 14 = 21 – 7

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1 × 7 = 7 = 14 – 7
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–1 × 7 = 0 –7 = –7
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–2 × 7 = –7 – 7 = –14
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–3 × 7 = –14 – 7 = –21
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–4 × 7 = –21 – 7 = –28
–5 × 7 = –28 – 7 = –35
–6 × 7 = –35 –7 = –42
∴ (–6) × 7 = –42
If we multiply two integers having unlike signs then,
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their product will be always negative.


Example 2 : (–8) × 2 = –16
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Write in the pattern as shown above.


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Example 3:
A diver dives into the sea. He dives at
a speed of 9m per minute. Find out the
position of the diver in the water after
6 min if he maintains the same speed.

(The person who dives in the sea is called scuba diver)

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If we consider the water level as zero (0), under water diver’s
position can be taken as negative number.
Here 9 is negative number.
Therefore, in 6 minutes divers position will be = –9 × 6 = –54
The diver is 54 m below the water level or he will be at a

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distance of –54 metre.

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Multiplication of an integer by '0'
Observe the following pattern

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6 × 2 = 12 = 12 - 0
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4 × 2 = 8 = 10 – 2

3×2=6=8–2
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2×2=4=6–2

1×2=2=4–2

0×2=0=2-2
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0 × 2 can be written as 2–2

∴0×2=0
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When an integer is multiplied by zero we get zero


Example :
i) 5 × 0 = 0

ii) –10 × 0 = 0

iii) 0 × 0 = 0

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Multiplication of a negative integer by a negative integer:
Read this:

I eat.
Which integer is greater Hey it's zero
I do not eat.
than any negative integer and my friend.
I fast.
less than any positive integer?

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I do not fast.

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The first and the last sentences give the same meaning.
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And the second and third give the same meaning..


If I say, ‘I do not disagree’ that means ‘I agree’.
We can conclude that any sentence with double negative,
gives positive meaning.
Consider x=3×5
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x + 0 = 3 × 5 + 0 Let y = 3 × (–5) and its additive inverse (–3) ×(–5)


x + y – y = 3 × 5 + 3 × (–5) – [3 × (–5)]
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= 3 [5 + (–5)] – [3 × (–5)] (x + y is simplified)


= 3 × 0 – [3 × (–5)]
= 0 – [3 × (–5)]
– 3 × (–5)
∴ 3 × 5 = –3 × –5
15 = –3 × –5

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By generalising this
a × b = a × b + 0
= a × b + a (–b) – a (–b)
= a ( b + –b) – a (–b)
= a (0) – a (–b)
= 0 –a (–b)
∴ ab = (–a) (–b) = –a × –b

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–a × –b = a × b
The product of two negative integers is a positive integer.

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Let us multiply the following numbers using a pattern.
(–3) × (– 6) = ? Let us write this in the form of a pattern,

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The product of two negative integers is a positive integer.
We multiply the absolute values and then assign positive sign
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to the product.
– 3 × 6 = –18
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– 3 × 5 = –15 = –18 – (– 3) (recall the additive inverse
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– 3 × 4 = – 12 = –15 – (– 3) that you have studied in


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– 3 × 3 = –9 =–12 – ( – 3)
6th Standard)
– 3 × 2 = – 6 = –9 – ( – 3)
– 3 × 1 = – 3 =–6 – (– 3)
– 3 × 0 = 0 =–3 – (– 3)
- 3 × -1 = ?
-3 × -1 = 0 - (- 3) = 0 + 3 = 3
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-3 × -2 = 3 - (- 3) = 3 + 3 = 6
-3 × -3 = 6 - (- 3) = 6 + 3 = 9
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-3 × - 4 = 9 - (- 3) = 9 + 3 = 12
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-3 × -5 = 12 –(-3) = 12 + 3 = 15
-3 × -6 = 15 –(-3) = 15 + 3 = 18
We know that any number multiplied by '0', the product
is '0' only. -3 × 0 = 0 = -3 - (-3)
If two integers have like sign then, their product is always
positive.
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Example 1 : (–4) × (–3) = ?
Multiply the absolute numbers. 4 × 3 = 12
But the product of two negative integers is a positive
integer. Thus ( – 4) × ( – 3) = 12
Multiplication of more than two integers:
Example 1: 3×5×6=?
3 × 5 × 6 = 15 × 6 = 90

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Example 2: 3 × 5 × (–6) =?

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3 × 5 × (–6) = 15 × (–6) = –90
Example 3: 2×3×5×6=?

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2 × 3 × 5 × 6 = 6 × 30 = 180
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Example 4: 2 × 3 × (–5) × (–6) =?
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2 × 3 × (–5) × (–6) = 6 × 30 = 180
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Example 5: (–2) × (–3) × 5 × (–6) = ?


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(–2) × (–3) × 5 × (–6) = 6 × (–30) = –180


Example 6: (–2) × (–3) × (–5) × (–6) = ?
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(–2) × (–3) × (–5) × (–6) = +6 × + 30 = +180 = 180


Know this?
Step 1 : Find the product of the numerical values of the
given numbers.
Step 2 : Count the number of negative integers in the given
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number.
Step 3 : If the number of negative integers counted in the
step 2 is even, the product is just the product from step 1,
t

if the number of negative integers is odd, the product is the


No

product from step 1 with a negative sign.


Verbal problems:
Do you know?
Example 1:
Nandan went to a fruit shop. One Dozen = twelve
He bought a dozen bananas. If
the cost of each banana is ` 3, how much has he to pay ?

10
Solution: One dozen = 12
The cost of one banana = ` 3
To find the amount to pay, multiply 12 by 3
Total amount Nandan has to pay = 12 × 3 = 36.
So, Nandan has to pay ` 36 to the shop keeper.
Example 2: A submarine is submerging from the surface at

d
the rate of 15m/minute. At what depth is the submarine after

he
5 minutes?
Solution: Note that moving downwards is negative.

is
re S
Change in position of submarine in one minute = –15 m
B

bl
∴The position of submarine after 5 minutes = –15 × 5
= –75 m
be T
pu
So, the submarine is at depth of 75 m from the surface
K

after 5 minutes.
©

Exercise 1.2

I. Let us play with numbers and enjoy


1) Multiply each number in the row by the numbers in
the column and write the product as shown.
to

× –3 6 11 –5
7 –21
t

4 44
No

–8
–2
12
–9
–4

11
2) Multiply the number in the outer circle by the number
in the inner circle and fill in the appropriated boxes
given outside the circle by their product.

Now select any numbers from the


wheel and multiply by other number
8
1 5

d
or numbers and enjoy. -5
-2

he
-6
7

is
re S
3) Let us play one more game.
B
i) bl
Take a board marked from (– 50) to 50 as shown in the
figure
be T
pu
K

–50 –49 –48 –47 –46 –45 –44 –43 –42 –41
©

–31 –32 –33 –34 –35 –36 –37 –38 –39 –40

–30 –29 –28 –27 –26 –25 –24 –23 –22 –21

–11 –12 –13 –14 –15 –16 –17 –18 –19 –20
to

–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
t
No

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

50 49 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40

12
ii) Take a bag containing two blue
dice and two red dice. Let the
number of dots on the blue dice
indicate the positive integers
and number of dots on the
red dice indicate the negative
integers.

d
Rules of the game:

he
Every player has to place the pawn at '0' in the beginning .
Every player will take out two dice at a time from the bag

is
and throw them.
re S
After every throw, the player has to multiply the numbers
B
bl
marked on the dice.
be T

The player will move his/her pawn to the product what he/
pu
she will obtain. The player who reaches the greater number
K

in 15 min is the winner.


©

Exercise 1.3
I. Find the products of the following integers :
1) 5, (– 3) 2) (– 3), 8
3) 7, (– 34) 4) (–3), (– 12)
to

5) (– 21), 6 6) (–2), (3), –(4)


7) (–3), 4, (–5), (–1)
t

II. Fill in the blanks appropriately and write the product


No

1) 4× + 7= + 28

2) 3× + 5= – .......

3) + 9× – 7= .......

4) 6× – 7= + .......

13
III. Tick the correct answer in the following situations :
1) An open tank filled with water is on the terrace of a
building. Evaporation causes the height of the water
level to change by 2cm each day.
If the first day the water level is x cm, then after 6 days
the level is

d
a) x cm + (2 × 6) cm b) x cm – (2 × 6) cm

he
c) x cm – (2 × –6) cm d) 6 × x cm – 2 cm
2) During the past 8 weeks Mr. Girish has deposited
` 7500 each week to his bank account. He has a bank

is
re S
balance of ` 62000 now. So his bank balance 8 weeks
B
bl
ago if no interest is added up in this period was,
a) ` (62000 – 8 × 7 × 7500) b) ` (62000 – 8 × 7500)
be T
pu
c) ` (62000 + 8 × 7500) d) ` (8 × 7500 – 62000)
K

Think:
©

i) Can you write the greatest positive integer and the


smallest negative integer?
ii) Which is the smallest positive integer and the biggest
negative integer

Division of integers.
to

Situation 1 :
t

Latha and team : Happy Birthday, Uma.


No

Uma : Thank you .Hey friends,here is a box of sweets.


Let us share these equally among ourselves.
Rabia : Ok, I will help you. (counts and says) There are 20
sweets in the box,and we are 5 members including
Uma.
Shrinidhi : Ok, fine, divide 20 by 5.

14
Latha : So let us take 4 sweets each.
Jose : Do you know Latha that 5 ×4 is also equal to 20.
Shrinidhi : Multiplication and division are related.
Latha, Jose ,Shrinidhi, Rabia: Any way thank you Uma.
Uma : Friends, if I have not taken the share, you could
have got more sweets .
Latha : yes, 20 ÷ 4 = 5.

d
Situation 2 :

he
Jack and Jill were playing in a village.
After some time they were thirsty.

is
re S
They wanted to drink some water.
B
bl
They saw a well and a bucket with a
rope. They decided to fetch the water
be T
pu
from that well. After drinking water
K

their conversation was like this.


Jack : Jill, What may be the depth of this well?
©

Jill : Hmm. Hey, we will ask that uncle.


What is the depth of this well uncle?
Raju : It is approximately 35 feet from the ground
level dear kids.
Jack : What may be the water level uncle?
to

Raju : 28 feet
Jill : Thank you uncle. Hey Jack, let us assume that
ground level as zero.
t

Jack : Yes, then 28 feet of water means, the water level


No

is 35–28 = 7 feet below the ground level.


Jill : Let us denote it by –7.
Jack : Since water is below the ground level, we can
denote the measure (depth) of the water as –28 feet
Jill : If a bucket fell into the well and reaches the bottom
in 4 min from the top of the water level what will
be the speed of the bucket Jack ?
15
Jack : Good question Jill. Let us calculate. We have
studied speed in Science.
Jill : Yes, speed = distance divided by time.
Jack : So speed = 28 ÷ 4 = 7 feet per min
Jill : But we have considered the depth of the water as–28.
Jack : And 4 × ? = –28

d
Jill : It is –7. Therefore –28 ÷ 4 = –7. The speed of the

he
bucket is –7 feet per min.
Negative sign indicates the movement of the bucket

is
re S
downwards.
B
Jack : Enough Jill. Let us continue playing.

bl
(Both Jack and Jill went back to play).
be T
pu
We know the relation between multiplication and division.
K

Example : i) 6 × 2 = 12 = 2 × 6
©

So 12 ÷ 6 = 2 and 12 ÷ 2 = 6
ii) (– 4) × 5 = – 20 using method applied in (i) we can write
(– 20) ÷ 5 = – 4 and (– 20) ÷ – 4 = 5.
Each multiplication statement has two division statements.
Fill up the table with your answers.
to

Multiplication statement Corresponding division statement


t

( – 8) × 2 = – 16 –16 ÷ 2 = – 8, –16 ÷ – 8 = 2
No

(– 5 ) × (– 4 ) = 20 20 ÷ – 4 = – 5, ––––––––––––––––
9 × (– 4) = – 36 –36 ÷ – 4 = 9, – 36 ÷ 9 = – 4
( – 7)× (– 6) = 42 –––––––––––––––, 42 ÷ – 7= – 6
3 × (– 10) = – 30 – 30 ÷ – 10 = 3, –––––––––––––––

16
Observations from the above table are
• Division involving two integers with the same signs
always results in a positive integer.
• Division involving two numbers with different signs
always results in a negative integer.
What happens if we divide an integer by zero?

d
he
Know this
S. Ramanujan, a great Indian Mathematician asked

is
this question in the class, when he was a student.
re S B
bl
Let us see this by an activity :
be T

Take 8 paper sheets of equal size.


pu
that is, 8, 1 time = 8
K

Divide 8 into 2 equal groups.


©

4 + 4 that is, 4, 2 times = 8


Divide these each groups into 2 further equal groups.
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 that is, 2, 4 times = 8
Again, divide these each groups into 2 further equal groups.
to

1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 that is, 1, 8 times = 8


Cut each of these 8 sheets into 2 pieces.
t
No

1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 +......+ 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
that is, 1 , 16 times = 8
2
Again cut each of these 16 pieces into 2 pieces.
1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 +....+ 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
that is, 1 , 32 times = 8
4
17
or 8 =32 0.25+0.25+………+0.25 (0.25,32 times) =8
0.25
similarly 8 = 80 0.1+0.1+……….+0.1 (0.1,80 times) =8
0.1
8 =800 0.01+0.01+……+0.01 (0.01, 800 times) =8
0.01
8 = ? How many zeroes add up to 8?
0

d
That is no group of zeroes can be found to make eight. So

he
we cannot divide any integer by zero.
(Note: Division of any number by zero is not defined)

is
re S
Exercise 1.4
B
bl
be T

I. Simplify the following:


pu
K

1) (– 40) ÷ (– 10) 2) 34 ÷ (– 2) 3) (– 44) ÷ 4


©

4) (– 28) ÷ (– 7) 5) 0 ÷ (– 8)

II. Fill in the blanks:

1) (– 45) ÷ ––––– = – 45 2) (– 27) ÷ (– 27) = –––––


3) 30 ÷ –––– = – 15 4) –––– ÷ 4 = – 3
to

5) –––– ÷ ( – 3) = 10

III. Fill this table:


t
No

Division of Integers Quotient


24 ÷ 12

24 ÷ (–12)

(–24) ÷ 12

(–24) ÷ (–12)

18
IV. Patil purchased 8 packets of Dharwad peda. Each
packet contains equal number of pedas. There were
320 pedas in total. Calculate the number of pedas in
each packet.

Properties of integers.
a) Commutative property:

d
Addition: 2 + (– 5) = (–3) and (–5) + 2 = (–3).

he
For any two Integers a and b, if a+ b = b +a then, this
property is called commutative property.
When we add integers, order doesn't matter, we get the

is
re S
same answer.
The Integers satisfy the commutative property under
B
addition. bl
be T

Multiplication: 2 × −5 = −5 × 2 = –10
pu
K

For any two Integers a and b, a × b = b × a


Order doesn't matter when we multiply integers, we get
©

the same answer.


The Integers satisfy the commutative property under
multiplication.
Subtraction: 18 – 15 = 3 and 15 – 18 = –3
18 – 15 ≠ 15 – 18
to

When the order changes in subtraction then, the answer


also changes.
Therefore the commutative property does not satisfy with
t

respect to subtraction of integers.


No

Division: 12 ÷3 = 4 and 3 ÷12 = 12 3 1


=4
12 ÷3 ≠ 3 ÷12
If dividend and divisor are interchanged then the quotient
also changes.
Therefore the commutative property does not satisfy with
respect to division of Integers.

19
b) Associative Property
Addition: (4 + −2) + −5 = 2 + –5 = –3.
4 + (−2 + −5) = 4 + –7 = –3.
For any three integers a,b and c, (a+b)+c = a+(b+c)
When we add three integers, it doesn't matter if we start
adding the first pair or the last pair; the answer is the same.
So the Integers satisfy the associative property under

d
addition.

he
Multiplication: (4 × −2) × −5 = –8 × –5 = 40
4 × (−2 × −5) = 4 × 10 = 40

is
For any three integers a, b, c; a × (b × c) = (a × b) × c
re S
When we multiply three integers, it doesn't matter if we
B
bl
start multiplying the first pair or the last pair; the answer is
be T

the same.
pu
K

The Integers satisfy the associative property under


multiplication.
©

Subtraction: 6 – (3 – 7) = 6 – (–4) = 10
(6 – 3) – 7 = 3 – 7 = –4
6 – (3 – 7) ≠ (6 – 3) – 7
It is clear that the Integers do not satisfy the associative
property under subtraction.
to

Division: 8 ÷ (4 ÷ 2) = 4
(8 ÷ 4) ÷ 2 = 1
t

8 ÷ (4 ÷ 2) ≠(8 ÷ 4) ÷ 2
No

It is clear that the Integers do not satisfy the associative


property under division.
c) Additive Identity
(−5) + 0 = (−5)
0 + (−5) = (−5)
For any Integer a, a + 0 = a = 0 + a.

20
Zero is the identity element for addition. By adding zero
on either side, the number will not change.
d) Multiplicative Identity
(−3) × 1 = (–3) = 1 × (−3) = −3
For any Integer a, a × 1 = a = 1 × a
One is the identity element for multiplication. By multiplying

d
1 on either side, the number remains same.

he
e) Distributive Property
Observe the multiplication of the numbers inside the

is
re S
brackets by the number outside, given below.
B
bl
Example 1 : 3 × (2 + (−4))= (3 × 2) + (3 × (−4))
Example 2 : [(–2) × (5 − 7)] = [(–2) × 5)] – [(–2) × (–7)]
be T
pu
For any three integers a, b and c
K

a × (b + c) = (a × b) + (a × c)
©

a × (b – c) = (a × b) – (a × c)

This is called Distributive property

Exercise 1.5
to

I. Simplify the following using appropriate property.


1) 5 × [(–4) + 2] 2) (–3) ×( 8 – 5) 3)[(4 ×(–2)]+[(5 ×(–2)]
t

4) (5 + (–3))–2 5) (–7) + (8 – 3) 6) [7 ×(–2)] + (4 –7) –6 (2 ×(–3)


No

Verbal problems.
Example 1 : Ramya went to a textile shop to buy trouser pieces
and shirt pieces to her 3 brothers. The cost of a trouser piece is
` 450 and the cost of a shirt piece is ` 320. What is the amount
she has to pay in the textile shop for 3 pairs of dresses?

21
Solution: The cost of a trouser piece = ` 450
Therefore, the cost of 3 trouser pieces = 3 × 450
= ` 1350
The cost of a shirt piece = ` 320
Therefore, the cost of 3 shirt pieces = 3×320

d
= ` 960

he
Therefore, the total amount spent by Ramya in the textiles
= 1350+960

is
re S
total amount = ` 2310.
B
bl
Example 2 : Sona had ` 1020 in her bank account. She
be T
pu
deposited ` 200 on Monday, withdrew ` 500 on the same
K

day, and deposited ` 580 on Wednesday. On Saturday, if she


deposited ` 1000, find her balance in the account on Saturday.
©

Solution:
Here depositing the amount is considered as positive and
withdrawing as negative.
The amount Sona had in the bank account = ` 1020
to

On Monday =1020 + 200 – 500 =1220 – 500 = ` 720


On Wednesday = 720 + 580 = ` 1300
t
No

On Saturday = 1300 + 1000 = ` 2300


Her balance in the account on Saturday is ` 2300.
Example 3: A company gains profit of `12 per each piece of
pen and loss of ` 8 per each box of pencil. The company sells
2500 pieces of pen and 4000 boxes of pencil in a month. What
is the profit or loss?
22
Solution:
The profit by selling the pen = `12
Number of pens sold = 2500
Total profit by selling pen = 2500 × 12
= `30000

d
The loss by selling pencils =`8

he
Number of boxes of pencils sold = 4000
Total loss by selling pencils = 4000 × 8

is
= ` 32000
re S
= 32000 – 30000
B
bl
The total loss by selling pen and pencils = ` 2000
be T
pu
Example 4: A quiz question paper contains 12 questions,
K

each carrying 5 marks. Scheme of evaluation is +5 marks for


correct answer and for incorrect answer (–2)
©

i) Bharathi attempts all the questions in which 9 are


correct and 3 are incorrect.
ii) Manjula attempts only 10 questions in which 6 are
correct and the remaining are incorrect.
Who is the winner in that quiz ?
to

Solution:
t

i) Marks given for one correct answer =5


No

Marks for 9 correct answer = 5 × 9 = 45


Marks given for one incorrect answer = –2
Marks for 3 incorrect answer = (–2) × 3= (–6)
Therefore, Bharathi's total marks = 45 + (–6)= 39
ii) Marks for 6 correct answer = 5 × 6 = 30

23
Marks given for one incorrect answer = –2
Marks for 4 (10 – 6) incorrect answer = –2 × 4= –8
Therefore, Manjula's total marks = 30 + (–8) = 22
39 > 22, Bharathi scores more

∴ Bharathi is the winner.

d
Exercise 1.6

he
I. Solve the following Verbal Problems.

is
re S
1) Monika had 5 boxes of chocolates with her. If each box
B
bl
contains 25 chocolates, find the total chocolates she had.
be T
pu
2) Aftab observed that the normal temperature of Bengaluru
K

during a month was 210C. On a particular day, the


changes in temperature as compared with the normal
©

temperature were as follows:

Morning : 5 am: –50 C ; 10 am: + 50 C;

After noon : 12 noon: + 70 C


to

Evening : 5 pm: + 20 C

Help Aftab to find the actual temperature at 5 am, 10 am,


t

12 noon and 5pm.


No

3) Rashmi had `12350 in her bank account. If she withdrew


`200 from her account 3 times, What is the balance
amount in her account ?

4) The cost of a pen is `8 and the cost of a pencil is `5. Find


the cost of a dozen pens and half a dozen pencils.

24
5) There are 38 students in a class. The cost of a set of books
for one student is `1235. Find the cost of books for 38
sets.
6) In a container 45kg sugar was there. Three years old
Meera spilt 750gm of sugar. How many packets of 250gm
of sugar can be made from the remaining sugar?

d
he
    

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K
t ©
to
No

25
CHAPTER - 2
FRACTIONS

After studying this chapter you :


 multiply a given fraction by a whole number,

d
 multiply a fraction by another fraction,

he
 understand the use 'of ' in proper order,
 write and use reciprocal of a fraction,

is
re S
 divide a fraction by a whole number and a whole
B

bl
number by a fraction,
divide a fraction by another fraction,
be T
pu
 solve statement problems involving multiplication and
K

division of fractions.
©

You have learnt the meaning of a fraction, types of fractions,


equivalent fractions and also addition and subtraction of
fractions. Recall them.
Classification of fractions
to

1) Let us classify the following into proper, improper and


mixed fractions.
t

1 , 2 , 2 3 , 7 , 11 , 5 , 2 1 , 6 , 15 , 4 1
No

3 5 5 4 9 6 8 13 13 6
Observe each fraction and write in respective row.

a) Proper fractions : 1 , 2,5, 6


3 5 6 13
b) Improper fractions : 7 , 11, 15 ,
4 9 13
c) Mixed fractions : 2 3 ,2 1 ,4 1
5 8 6
26
2) Improper fractions in list A are converted into mixed
fractions and mixed fraction in list B are converted into
Improper fractions. Have a keen look at it.
List A List B
9 , 12 , 15 , 12 2 3 ,5 1 ,4 2 ,6 3
2 5 6 11 4 6 7 5

d
9 41
2
=
2 2 3 = 11
4 4

he
12 = 2 2 5 1 = 31
5 5 6 6

is
re S
15 2 3
= 4 2 = 30
B
bl 6 6 7 7
be T

12 1 1 6 3 = 33
pu
= 5 5
11 11
K

Example 1 : Mohammed has 6 parts of chocolate and Manya


©

8
has 3 parts of chocolate. Who has got more chocolate?
4
What is your conclusion?
to

a) b)
t
No

Both have equal size of chocolates


Hence, 6 = 3 are equivalent fractions.
8 4
Note : a) 6 = 6 ' 2 = 3
8 8 '2 4

b) 3 = 3 # 2 = 6
4 4#2 8

27
Example 2 :
Shaila decorated 5 part of a school hall and Renu
12
decorated 3 part of the same hall. Find out total part of the
6
hall decorated by them?
The part of the hall decorated by Shaila = 5
12

d
The part of the hall decorated by Renu = 3
6

he
Total part of the hall decorated 5 3
= +
by Shaila and Renu together 12 6
5 3 2

is
= + #
re S
12 6 # 2
5 6
B
bl = +
12 12
5 6 11
= + =
be T

12 12
pu
K

Total parts of the hall decorated by both= 11


12
Example 3 :
©

8 3
There was 12 kg of sugar in a container. 8 kg of sugar is
utilized. Find the remaining quantity of sugar in the container?
The sugar in the container = 8 kg
12
The sugar used up 3 kg
=
to

8 The L.C.M. of
Remaining sugar
8 3 denominators
- =
12 8
2 12,8
t

8 2 3 3
= # - # 2 6,4
No

12 # 2 8 # 3
16 - 9 3,2
=
24 24 2×2×3×2
16 - 9 7 =24
= =
24 24


∴ Remaining sugar = 7 kg
24

28
Exercise 2.1

I Classify the following into proper, improper and mixed


fraction.

21 , 7 , 18 , 6 2 , 5, 3

d
6 12 16 9 4 20

he
II Write two equivalent fractions for each of the following.

1) 3 2) 4 3) 7

is

re S
6 5 10
B
bl
III Reduce the following fractions to the lowest form.
be T
pu
1) 8 2) 18 3) 28
K

12 30 56
©

IV Convert the following into mixed fractions.

1) 15 2) 25 3) 97
8 12 4

V Convert the following into improper fractions.


to

1) 3 3 2) 8 1 3) 4 5
4 2 6
t

VI Simplify.
No

1 3 2
1) 3 + 5 2) 3 2 + 4 + 5
4 3

3) 9 -2 4) 4 3 - 2 5
15 5 5 6

29
Multiplication of Fractions :
A class teacher gave pictorial problems to solve. Sanvi and
Puneeth solved these problems as follows.
1) There are 5 parts each of 2) There are 3 parts each of
which is 1 . Join them and which is 3 . Join them and
4 4
write write

d
he
1 1 11 11 111 11 111 111 111 1 1 3 11 13 3 3 3
+ + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +++ + + + + 3 + + + 3 3 3
4 4 44 44 444 44 444 444 444 4 4 44 + 44 + 44 4 4 4 + +
4 4 4

is
1 1 1 1
1 + 1++ 1 ++1 + 1++ 1 5 1
11 ++ 1
1511 1 11511 1 +3 51 5
re S
=` 4 = ` 4 =4` j =4=++` 4 == `++ +j+= ++= +3j =
+ +j3= = 3 + 3 + 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4j 4 4 44 4 + 4+ 3 4
43 3 = + +
4
=( )= 5
B
4
= =
5
bl
5 11+1+1+1+1
15 1 15 1 1 5
= = = = = = = = =1 = 1 = 9
44 4 44
1
44
1
5
4
1
4 4
=
4 4 9 4
3 + 3 +=34 =
9
4
be T

1 4 9 1
pu
9 21 = =2 9 1
4 4 = = 9 = =2
4 = 4= 2 1 4 4 4 4
K

4 4
Shreya who is observing the above, posed a question to
©

the teacher.
The above two sums Yes, of course, you are
have repetitive addition right! You can solve the
of fractions. Can we above problems using
multiply these fractions
as we do for whole multiplication process.
to

numbers?
t
No

Now, let us learn multiplication operation of fractions.


30
Multiplication of fractions by whole numbers :

Example 1 : Observe the figure given above. How much parts

d
of each circle are shaded?

he
Each circle has 1 part shaded
4
∴Total parts shaded = 1 + 1 + 1 = 1 # 3

is
re S
4 4 4 4
Now the total of 3 shaded parts can be represented
B
bl as below.
be T

That is 3 part.
pu
4
K

Hence # 3 = 1 # 3 = 3 .
1
4 4 4
The numerator is multiplied by the whole number and written
©

as the numerator and denominator remains the same.

Know this : A whole number has 1 in the denominator.


Hence,
3 = 3,5 = 5,8 = 8
1 1 1
to

1 #3 1 # 3 1#3 3
= = =
4 4 1 4#1 4
t

Example 2 : 2 # 2 = ?
No

5
To find the product of this join the strips of 2 . (two times)
5
2
5
4
+ =
5
2
5

31
Product of Whole number and
numerator 2 #2 2 # 2 2#2 4
= 5 = = =
5 1 5#1 5
Product of denominators

Example 3 : 2 x 3 = ?
9

d
+ + =

is he
Product of the numerators →
re S
2 #3 2 # 3 2#3 6
= = =
Product of the denominators → 9 9 1 9#1 9
B
bl
be T
pu
Alternate method
K

Observe the reduced form 2



9
©

6 3 #2 2 2
= =
9 3 #3 3
6 2
=9 =3
3

Example 4 : 5 # 2
12
to

5 #2 5 2
= = #
12 1 12 # 1
10 2 # 5 ← Common factor of 10 and 12 is 2
= =
12 2 # 6
t
No

2 #5 5
= =
2 # 6 6 ← Answer is in the reduced form

Do it yourself : a) 3 # 2 b) 3 # 3 c) 2 # 4 d) 5 # 3
7 10 9 15

32
Multiplication of improper fraction by a whole number.

Example 1 : Look at this picture convert the fractions


in each block into improper fraction.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

d
he
1 1 1 1 1
4 4 4 4 4

is
re S
In each group there are
[ 1 5
]
B
bl 4
×5=
4
be T

Total parts 5 #3
pu
=
4
K

5 3 5 3 15
= # = # =
4 1 4#1 4
©

[This can be written in mixed form]


∴ 15 = 3 3 ∴ Total parts = 3 3
4 4 4

Example 2 : 9 # 3 = ?
7
9 # 3 9 # 3 9 # 3 27 3 6
to

= = = =
7 7 1 7#1 7 7
Example 3 : 10 # 6 = ?
5
t

5 # 12
10 # 6 = 10 # 6 = 10 # 6 = 60 =
No

= 12
5 1 5 1#5 5 5 #1

Do it yourself : a) 8 # 3 b) 13 # 2 c) 6 # 5 d) 12 # 8
5 6 3 7

33
Multiplication of whole numbers by mixed fractions.
Observe these examples
Example 1 : How many parts are given in total ?

1 1
1
4 + 1 1
1
4 + 1 1
1
4

d
21 + 21 + 21 = ?

he
4 4 4
1
Hence 2 of 3.
4 Step 1 : Convert the mixed fraction into

is
1
re S
= 2 #3 improper fraction.
4
9 # 3 9#3
B
=
4 1 4#1
27 6 3
bl
= Step 2 : Then multiply.
The total parts = 6 3
be T

= = 4
pu
4 4
K

19
24 #7 = ? 5 98
Example 2 :
©

5
5
14 # 7 14 # 7 98
= = = 48
5 1 5#1 5
3 45
= 19 3
5
Do it Yourself: a) 5 1 # 7 b) 3 2 # 3 c) 8 # 2 1 d) 12 # 3 1
2 6 4 2
to

Fundamental operation related to fraction (of)


Example 1 : Rekha shaded half part of each circle by red.
t
No

34
What is the total parts shaded by Rekha?
We say this as 1 of 3. Let us learn the method of using the
2
"of " in fractions Alternate method
1 of 3 1 # 3
=
'of 'means multiplication,
2 2 1 3 of 1 =
2
1 # 3 3 1 1 consider 'of ' as multiplication 3 # 1
= = = 2
2#1 2 2 use the sign '×'

d
3 1 3 1
= # = =1
∴ Total parts shaded = 1 1 1 2 2 2

he
2

is
re S
Example 2 : Milk business is carried out in Ravi's house. One
day Ravi filled 8 bottles each with 4 litre of milk. Find out
B
bl 5
how many litres of milk did he used to fill 8 bottles
be T
pu
K
©

4 l 4 l 4 l 4 l 4 l 4 l 4 l 4 l
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Total quantity of milk in 8 bottles


to

4 of 8 Alternate Method
5 4
4 4 #8 8 of 5
= #8 =
t

5 5 1
No

4 8 32 4
= # = = 8#
5#1 5 5
8 4 32 6 2 l
=6 l
2 = # = =
5 1#5 5 5

2 Litres
Quantity of milk filled by Ravi = 6 5

35
Example 3 : In a class of 42 Students, 2 of them practised
7
volley ball, 3 of them practised karate and the remaining
7
practiced Kabbadi.
a) Find the number of students who practiced Volleyball?
b) Find the number of students who practiced Karate?

d
c) Find the number of students who practiced Kabbadi?

he
a) The number of students = 2 of 42
7
who practiced Volley ball 2 2 # 426
= # 42 =

is
7 7
re S
1

= 12
B
bl
∴ Number of students who practiced volley ball = 12
be T

b) The number of students 3 of 42


pu
=
7
K

who practiced Karate.


3 42
6
3
= # 42 = # = 18
7 7 1
©

∴ No of students who practiced karate = 18


c) The number of students who practiced Kabbadi
= Total students - (Students who practice Volley ball +
Karate) = 42 - (12 + 18)
to

= 42 - 30
= 12
t

∴ Number of students who practiced Kabbadi = 12


No

Do it yourself :1) a) 3 of 9 b) 2 of 15 c) 5 of 4 d) 5 of 20
4 6 7 6
2) There are 45 students in a class. Of them 3 are girls.
5
Find out the number of girls and number of boys in this
class

36
Exercise 2.2

I. Write the sum of the parts mention in figures given


below in multiplication form.
Example :
3 6
+ = ×2=

d
4 4

he
1) 1
4
1
+4 + 4 +4 +4
1 1 1
= ___× ___

is
re S
2)
1
+
1
+
1
= ___× ___
B
2
bl 2 2
be T
pu
+ = ___× ___
K

3)
©

1 1 1 1
4) 1
3
+ 1
3
+ 1
3
+ 1
3
= _× _
3 3 3 3

II. Multiply and write the product in reduced form


(simplified form).
to

A. 1) 2 # 2 2) 4 # 3 3) 2 # 5 4) 7 # 6
7 5 9 8
t
No

5) 9 # 1 6) 10 # 2 7) 15 # 3 8) 13 # 1
2 3 5 4

B. 1) 2 1 # 5 2) 3 1 # 8 3) 6 3 # 4 4) 9 # 2 1
4 2 5 2

5) 3 # 4 3 6) 2 # 1 3 7) 14 # 2 1 8) 30 # 3 7
5 10 7 10

37
III. Simplify and write the answer in its lowest form.

4) 1) 6 of 2 2) 10 of 3 3) 16 of 1 4) 28 of 2
3 5 8 7

5) 3 of 20 6) 2 of 56 7) 7 of 6 8) 5 of 4
4 8 10 9
3) 1) Madhu scored 3 of 50 marks in maths test. Find the

d
5
marks scored by her

he
2) A school arranged an excursion for 60 students. The

is
students were asked to bring lunch for themselves. 3
re S
12
of them brought Chapathis, 2 of them brought Pulao
B
bl 5
and 7 of them brought Chitranna. Find the
be T

20
pu
a) number of students who brought Chapathis
K

b) number of students who brought Pulao


©

c) number of students who brought Chitranna

Multiplication of a fraction by another


fraction
Reshma brought 3 kg of sugar from a shop. 12 of this was
to

4
taken by her neighbour. Find how much sugar the neighbour
took?
t

The quantity of sugar brought by Reshma is 3 kg.


No

4
1 3
The quantity taken by the neighbour = of kg
2 4
1 #3
=
2 4
3
= kg
8

38
There are two fractions in this problem and we will learn
to find out the product of it. Let us understand the method
of multiplying a fraction by another fraction.
Example 1 :
What is the 1 part of shaded region in figure?
4
Shaded region = 1

d
2
1 of the shaded region is = 1 of 1

he
4 4 2

It means divide the shaded region into 4 equal parts. Take

is
re S
one part from it. 1 of 1 is 1 the part of the whole thing.
B
bl 4
1 of 1
2 8

Multiply the numerators of both the


be T

4 2
pu
1 #1 fractions and write as the numerator
=
K

4 2
1 1 1 Multiply denominator of both
= # =
©

4 2 8 the fractions and write as the


1
` of 1 1 denominator.
=
4 2 8

Let us solve the problem of Reshma discussed above


The quantity of sugar brought by Reshma = 3 kg
4
The quantity of sugar taken by the neighbour = 1 of 3
to

2 4
=
3 #1 numerator
4 2
denominator
t

3 1 3
= # = kg
No

4#2 8

∴The quantity of sugar taken by the neighbour = 3 kg


8

39
3 of 1 1 of 3
Verify : 4 2 and 2 4. Are they equal?
Do it yourself : a) 1 # 1 b) 3 # 1
3 4 5 3

c) 5 # 2 d) 3 # 2
6 7 8 5

In our daily life, we have to multiply proper, improper and

d
mixed fractions. Let us learn it now.

he
Example 1 :

is
re S
Veena bought 4 1 m cloth to prepare a doll. She used 1
2 3
B
bl
of the cloth to prepare one doll. Find the length of cloth she
used to prepare a doll?
be T
pu
The length of the cloth bought by Veena = 4 1 m
K

2
The length used for preparing one doll 1 of4 1
©

3 2
1 #4 1
3 2
1 #9
=
3 2 [convert 4 12 into improper fractions]
9 1 9
= # =
3#2 6
to

3 #3 3 1
= = = 1 [taking common factor]
2 #
3 2 2
t

∴ Cloth used for making one doll = 1 1 m


No

2
Example 2 :
The rate of 1 metre ribbon is ` 4 3 . Gowthami purchased
5
2 1 metre length of the ribbon. Find the cost of the ribbon she
2
purchased

40
The cost of 1m ribbon = ` 43
5
The cost of 2 1 m ribbon = ` 4 3 # 2 1 ←[Here there are two
2 5 2
mixed fractions]
23 # 5 ← [Both converted into
1
=
51 2
improper fractions and

d
multiplied]

he
23 1
2 = 11 2
1

is
∴ Cost of the ribbon is ` 11 2
re S B
bl Exercise 2.3
be T
pu
K

I. Multiply and write the product in reduced form.

1) 5 # 2 2) 7 # 3 3) 4 # 7 4) 9 # 5
©

6 3 8 4 5 9 5 3

5) 1 # 7 6) 11 # 3 7) 4 # 9 8) 1 # 13
3 9 3 10 7 5 2 12

II. Multiply and write the product in its lowest form.


to

1) 3 # 2 1 2) 4 # 3 5 3) 5 # 2 1 4) 3 # 4 1
4 5 5 6 3 2 7 3
t

5) 4 3 # 2 1 6)5 1 # 3 7) 3 5 # 5 8) 6 1 # 3 1
No

5 2 4 2 9 4 5

III. Do it yourself:

1) 3 2 # 4 2) 4 2 # 3 3) 5 3 # 2 1 4) 25 # 3 1
5 3 5 4 2 2

41
IV. Solve the problems.

1) A school van travels 8 km per litre of diesel. If it has 8 3


4
litres of diesel, find the distance it could travel.
2) The cost of one litre of milk is ` 34 1 . Find the cost of 12
2
litres of milk.
3) Roshani started reading a historical novel at the rate

d
of 1 3 hour a day. She completed reading the book in 6

he
4
days. Calculate the number of hours she took to read
novel completely.

is
re S
4) The cost of 1m zip is ` 5 1 . Find the cost of 8 4 m zip?
B
bl 4
1
5
5) A thin rectangular sheet of metal has 3 m length and
2
be T

2 1 m breadth. Calculate its area.


pu
2
K

[ Area of a rectangle = length × breadth]


©

Division of fractions
Radha distributed 4 biscuits among her friends such that
each got half of a biscuit. How many friends of Radha got 1
2
biscuits. This is shown below.
to

Total Biscuits When they are When


cut into halves distributed
t
No

42
The 4 biscuits are distributed among 8 friends then each
will get half bisect.
It can be written as 4 ' 1 = 8
2
That means 1 #8 4
=
2
Let us study the operation used here.
When 4 is divided by 1 means 4 # 2 getting 8 halves

d
2 1

he
i.e, 4 is multiplied by 2
By inter changing the numerator
4 ' 12
and denominator of 1 we get 2 .

is
re S
2 8 2 1
= 4# = This is the inverse of 1
1 1 2
B
=8
bl
be T

Reciprocal form (or) Inverse form


pu
K

When the numerator and the denominator of fractions are


©

inter changed we get inverse form of the original fractions.


Observe the example :-

Reciprocal of 3 is 5 Reciprocal of 7 is 8
5 3 8 7
Reciprocal of 9 is 4 Reciprocal of 2 is 3
4 9 3 2
to

• What is the inverse of 2 3 ?


4
t

First, convert the mixed fraction into improper fraction.


No

Find the inverse of it.


Improper of 2 3 = 11
4 4
Inverse of 11 is 4
4 11

43
• What is the inverse of 8?
8 is written as 8
1
8=
8
1
( )
The inverse of 8 is 1
8
Observe the product when a fraction is multiplied by its
inverse.

d
1 #4 4 1 1
= = =
What is your inference?
4 1 4 1

he
2 # 5 10 1 1
= = =
5 2 10 1
2 #3 6 1 1
= = =

is
3 2 6 1
re S
5#1 = 5 =1 = 1
5 5 1
B
bl
Note: Any number except zero is multiplied by its inverse
be T
pu
the product is equal to 1.
K

Do it yourself: Write the Inverse of the following


©

a) 3 b) 5 c) 13 d) 3 1
4 9 4

Division of a whole number by a fraction


Example 1 : Step-1 Convert division sign as
to

Simplify : 8 ' 3 multiplication sign and write the


4
4
reciprocal of divisor .
= 8#
3
t

Step-2 Continue multiplication


8 4
No

= # process .
1 3
32 10 2
= =
3 3

44
Example 2 : How many 1 part can be obtained from three
4
circular discs?

d
he
From three discs we can get 12 equal parts each of which

is
re S
are 1 of the circle.
4
B
bl
This can be written as
be T

3'1 Step 1 : convert the division symbol into


pu
4
K

multiplication symbol by writing the reciprocal


of the divisor
©

4 Step 2 : then proceed with the multiplication


= 3#
1
process
3 # 4 12 12
= = =
1#1 1

∴ Number of 1 parts got from 3 circular discs = 12


4
to

Example 3 : Simplify : 12 ' 2 5


6
t

When the divisor is a mixed fraction convert it into improper


No

fraction and then solve. 12 ' 2 5


6
= 12 ' 17
6
12 # 6
=
17
72 4 4
= =
17 17

45
Do it yourself: a) 6 ' 3 b) 8 ' 1 c) 2 ' 3
5 4 5
d) 9 ' 3 e) 15 ' 2 1 f) 12 ' 3 1
7 2 4

Dividing a fraction by a whole number


Example 1 : 3 ' 2
5

d
Here divisor is 2, multiply dividend by the inverse of 2.

he
3 '2 3 # 1 3
= =
5 5 2 10

is
re S
Similarly
B
bl
1) 7 ' 5 = 7 # 1 =
be T

8 8 5
pu
K

2) 5 ' 10 = =
©

Example 2 : Observe multiplication of a mixed fraction by a


whole number. What would be done to divide mixed fraction?
Convert mixed fraction into improper fraction and proceed.
to

51 '9
4
21 ' 9 21 # 1 21
= = =
4 4 9 36
t

Similarly
No

1) 3 1 ' 5 = 7 ' 5 = 7 # 1 =
2 2 2 5

2) 4 2 ' 7 = = =
3

46
Division of a fraction by a fraction
Example 1 : 1 ' 3 , 1 is divided by 3 Here 1 is to be
4 5 4 5 4
3
multiplied by the reciprocal of the divisor .
5
Then 1 ' 3 = 1 # 5 = 5
4 5 4 3 12
Example 2 : 2 ' 3

d
3 8
2 ' 3 2 # 8 16 1 7

he
=
3 8 3 3
=
9
=
9
Similarly 1) 7 1
' = 7 3
# = =
10 3 10 1

is
re S B
bl 2) 5 ' 3 =
6 7
=
be T
pu
Try this : a) 8 ' 2 , b) 3 ' 9 , c) 2 3 ' 5 , d) 5 ' 1
K

9 7 5 10 4 12 11 2
©

Exercise 2.4

I. Simplify.

1) 9 ' 1 2) 13 ' 3 3) 15 ' 1


2 4 6

4) 20 ' 3 5) 15 ' 2 1 6) 10 ' 3 2


to

7 3 7
II. Write the inverse of these.
t

2 1
1) 5 2) 7 3) 12
No

9
4) 2 1 5) 9 6) 4 2
6 3
III. Simplify.
2 6
1) 3 ' 5 2) 7 ' 3 3) 7 ' 13
8
4) ' 4 5) 2 3 ' 7 6) 3 1 ' 14
9
5 4 2

47
IV. Simplify.

1) 5 ' 1 2) 5 ' 2 3) 4 ' 8


8 3 6 7 9 5

4) 4 ' 1 1 5) 3 3 ' 1 2 6) 3 2 ' 1 1


5 2 4 3 7 5

V. Solve the problems.

d
1) The cost of 6 chocolates is `10 1 . What is the cost of one
2

he
chocolate?
2) A school was provided with 12 3 l of milk for a day. Each
4

is
re S
child was given 3 l of milk. Find out how many children
20
B
bl
got the milk?
be T

3) Two students together purchased 15 note books. If the


pu
total cost of 15 note books is ` 142 1 , find the cost of
K

2
each note book.
©

4) How many packets are required to fill 10 4 l of curd so


5
that each packet contains 2 l ?
5

Mixed Operations
We come across many instances in our daily life,
to

where we use different operations on fractions.


t

Let us take some examples :


No

Example 1 : Asma had `3 1 . She bought 1 pencil for `2 3 and


2 4
one rubber of ` 1 .What is the amount left with her?
2
Solution : You have to subtract the total amount spent for
pencil and a rubber from ` 3 1 . Observe the method to solve
2
the different operations.

48
3
1
2
-( 2 )
3
4
+
1
2
=
7
2
-( )
11 1 × 2 ← L.C.M of the denominators of
+
4 2×2
fractions which are to be added
=
7
2
-( )
11
4
+
2
4
=
2×2
-
7 × 2 13
4
← Equalising the Denominator
=
14
- =
13 14 - 13
=
1

d
4 4 4 4

he
∴ Remaining amount with Asma = ` 1
4
BODMAS means divide first, then multiply, then add and

is
re S
at last substract.
B
bl
Example 2 : A tailor bought 12 pieces of cloth, each measuring
2 m. He stitched two curtains each measuring 2 1 m. Calculate
be T

5 8
pu
the length of the remaining cloth.
K

Solution : Total length of cloth = 2 # 12


5
©

length of the cloth used for stitching two curtains = 2 1 # 2


8
Bought cloth - used cloth
Remaining length of the cloth = ( × 12) - (2 × 2)
2 1
5 8
Observe how BODMAS rule is used here. First we have
to multiply and then subtract.
to

= ( 25 × 12) - (2 18 × 2)
=(
2
× 12 ) - ( 17 × 21 )
t

5 1 8
No

=
24
5
- 17
4 ← The
=
24 × 4
5×4
- 174×5
×5
denominators
=
96
20
- 85
20
are equalized
96 - 85 11
= =
20 20
11
∴ Remaining length of the cloth =
20
m
49
Example 3 : Simplify : 2 1 # 1 + 1 ' 2 - 1
2 2 4 5 2
In the above sum there are multiplication, addition,
division and subtraction.
Remember
According to BODMAS rule we have to do division first then

d
multiplication, addition and finally subtraction.

he
Solution: 2
1
2
× 1
2
+ ( 14 ÷ 2
5
)- 1
2

is
re S B
2
bl 1
2
× 1
2
( 58 ) - 12
+
1 '2 1 #5 5
=
4 5 4 2 8
=
Step 1
be T

( 1
× ) + 58 - 12
1
pu
= 2
2 2
K

5 5 1
©

+ -
4 8 2
Step 2 21 # 1 = 5 # 1 = 5
=
5
4
(
+
5
8
-
1
2
) 2 2 2 2 4

Step 3 15 - 1 5 5 5#2 5
+ = +
8 2 4 8 4#2 8
to

15 - 1 # 4 10 + 5 15
= =
8 2#4 8 8
15 - 4
=
8 8
t

15 - 4 11
No

= =
8 8

Step 4 11 1 3
=
8 8

50
Exercise 2.5

I. Simplify.
1) 7 - 1 # 1 2) 2 3 + 3 # 1 1 - 3 3) 2 1 # 3 - 1 ' 2 1
8 4 2 5 5 2 10 4 4 4 2

4) 4 1 - 1 ' 1 + 3 5) 2 3 + 3 # 7 6) 3 4 1 1
+ ' #

d
2 4 5 5 5 5 2 15 5 3 4
II. Solve these problems.

he
1) A school bought 15 m ribbon for a function. Out of

is
re S
which 4 14 m , is used for arch (toran), 4 7 m is used
10
B
bl
for badges, remaining length is used for decorating the
be T
pu
manuscript magazine. Find the length of the ribbon
K

used for decorating the manuscript magazine?


©

2) Organiser of a function bought 3 1 kg of sugar 4 times.


2
In that, 9 3 kg of sugar was used. What is remaining
4
quantity of sugar?

3) Raju needs 2 1 m length of cloth for stitching a shirt.


to

2
The shop keeper has ' 1 m' scale. How many times has
2
he to use this scale to measure 2 1 m cloth?
t

2
No

    

51
CHAPTER - 3

RATIONAL NUMBERS
After studying this chapter you will:
 know the meaning, standard form and equivalents of
rational numbers,

d
 develop the skill of representing the rational numbers

he
on a number line,
 know the comparison of rational numbers, method of

is
finding the rational numbers between any two rational
re S
numbers,
B
 bl
know about operations on rational numbers (Addition,
be T

Subtraction, Multiplication, Division) and also know


pu
the method of solving verbal problems related to them,
K

 know the method of writing rational numbers in


©

decimal form,
 know the multiplication, division operation of decimal
numbers. Also know the method of solving problems
related to them,
 understand the method of converting measuring units
(about measurement of length and mass).
to

Meaning of Rational numbers:


t

You already know about natural numbers (N),whole


No

numbers (W), integers (Z).


N = { 1, 2, 3, 4...............}
W = { 0, 1, 2, 3..............}
Z = {...................-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3........................}

52
In the beginning only natural numbers were there in use
'0' (zero) is invented to represent the non existence of an object.
In this way whole numbers came into existence. Integers set
developed because negative numbers also occur, while finding
the difference of two natural numbers.
(Example : 3-5=-2, 10-15=-5), a new set of numbers like - 5
is obtained, these are called negative integers. So, due to the

d
necessity, the development of integers set came to existence.

he
Know this : A well defined, related objects, ideas, or
numbers represents a set.

is
re S
In the same way, while dividing one integer by another
B
bl
integer, a new set will be obtained. Example : 5 3 , - 10 . These
7
numbers are not in integer set. So the set of rational numbers
be T
pu
(Q) came into existence.
K

We have already learnt in the previous class about


p
©

fractions. Fraction should be in the form q , where q ≠ o and


p, q are natural numbers. But while subtracting fraction of
p
the form q possibility of obtaining negative numbers is as
shown in the example. So, a new set of numbers is obtained
-5
in which 10 is neither fraction nor integer.
to

p
All the numbers of the form q
are rational numbers.
p
In q
, q ≠ o and p,q are integers.
t
No

Set of rational numbers is represented by a letter 'Q'.


p
Q = {contains all the numbers of the form q , q ≠ 0 and p,
q are intergers.}
Example : 2 , - 5 , 0 , - 4 , - 15 , 4 , 3 ...etc
3 4 3 7 7 - 9 10
We can write all natural numbers, integers and whole
numbers as rational numbers.
53
Example : 3 = 3 , 12 = 12 , 8 = 8
1 1 1
0
0 = ,0 = ,0 = 0 0
1 2 10
- 5 = - 5 , - 7 = - 7 , - 10 = - 10 Q
1 1 1 Z
W
N
The set of rational numbers includes natural

d
number, whole number and integers.

he
Therefore, it is the biggest set.
Think! All fractions are rational numbers. But all rational

is
numbers are not fractions? Give reason.
re S B
p bl
Know this : rational number is derived from the word
ratio q = p : q
be T
pu
K

Standard form (Simplest form) of rational numbers.


Observe these rational numbers. 3 , 1 , 7 , - 3 , 4
©

5 4 10 7 11
In these numbers the common factor of numerator and
denominator is 1 (or H.C.F is 1). These rational numbers are
said to be in standard (simplest) form.
Consider 4 (Divide both numerator and
to

10
denominator by 2)
4 2 Standard form of 4 is 2
` =
10 5 10 5
t
No

15 = 15
3
3
= . (Divide both numerator and
25 25 5 5
denominator by 5)

3 is standard form of 15
5 25

- 27 - 3 (Standard form) - 27 - 3 (Divide both numerator


= =
36 4 36 4
and denominator by 9)
54
Standard form of - 27 is - 3
36 4
Standard (simplest) form of rational numbers is obtained
by dividing both numerator and denominator of rational
number by their HCF
Example : a) - 22 = - 2 b) - 16 = 8 c) - 26 = - 2 d) 39 = 13
55 5 - 30 15 39 3 63 21
Equivalent rational numbers :

d
he
Recall the method of obtaining equivalent fractions. In the
same way equivalent rational numbers can be obtained by

is
multiplying or dividing both numerator and denominator of
re S
a rational number by the same non-zero integer.
B
bl
Example 1 :Write 4 equivalent rational numbers of 2 .
be T

3
pu
a) 2 # 2 = 4 b) 2 # 3 = 6 c) 2 # 4 = 8 d) 2 # 5 = 10
K

3#2 6 3#3 9 3 # 4 12 3 # 5 15
Example 2 : Write 4 equivalent rational numbers of - 5
©

7
a) - 5 # 2 = - 10 b) - 5 # 3 = - 15
7#2 14 7#3 21

c) - 5 # 4 = - 20 d) - 5 # 5 = - 25
7#4 28 7#5 35
Example 3 : Write 4 rational numbers equivalent to 40 .
to

80
a) 40 ' 2 20 b) 40 ' 4 10
= =
80 ' 2 40 80 ' 4 20
t

c) 40 ' 5 = 8 d) 40 ' 10 = 4
No

80 ' 5 16 80 ' 10 8

p1 p2
Know this: If q1 and q2 are equivalent rational numbers.
Then p1 × q2 = p2 × q1.

55
Representing (locating) rational numbers on a
number Line :
Already, you know the method of representing whole
numbers and integers on a number line:
On the number line, positive integers are on the right
side and negative integers are on the left side of zero at equal

d
distance.

he
Example 1 : Represent 3 on a number line.
5

is
To represent a rational number on the number line, divide
re S
the unit length on the number line into the number of parts
B
bl
as in the denominator of the rational number. Then mark the
be T

number of parts as in the numerator of the rational number.


pu
K

-1 0 +1
0 3
+
©

5
Note that the distance between 0 and 1 is divided into 5
equal parts
Example 2 : Represent 5 on a number line
2
to

-3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3
0 5
2

t
No

Here each unit is divided into 2 equal parts.


Example 3 : Represent - 7 on a number line. Here each unit
4
in divided into 4 equal parts.
-2 -1 0 +1 +2
0
-7
4

56
Exercise 3.1

I. State whether the following are true or false, if false


correct it and write.
1) - 12 is a rational number.

2) 3 is a rational number.

d
0
3) - 3 is a fraction.

he
4
4) 5 is a not rational number.
-7

is
5) 0 is a rational number.
re S
4
B
-
-8 bl
6) 5 is a positive rational number.
be T

7) 12 is in the simplest form.


pu
28
K

II. Write these rational numbers in standard form.


©

1) 28 2) 120 3) - 15 4) - 32
20 150 40 - 56
III. Write 4 equivalent rational numbers to each of the
following.
1) - 2 2) 3 3) 4 4) 80
9 10 -5 96
to

IV. Represent these rational numbers on a number line.


(Use different lines for each set)
t

1) 3 , - 4 , 5 2) -7 , 5 , 9
No

7 7 7 4 4 4
3) , - 2 , 8 4)
5 -6 , 7 , 8
3 3 3 5 5 5
V. Group the following rational numbers as positive and
negative rational numbers.
- 4 , 7 , 5 , - 10 , 7 , - 2 , - 11
5 6 - 3 - 7 9 15 - 6

57
VI. Fill up the blanks.
1) 3 = 12 2) - 5 = 3) - 12 = - 3
4 6 24 28

4) 15 = 5) - 18 = 9 6) =
5
20 4 14 - 12 -2

Operations on rational numbers

d
You have learnt addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division of integers and fractions. Now, let us do these

he
operations with rational numbers.
Addition : Rule used in the addition of fractions is to be

is
re S
used here also. If denominator is same, then write the same
B
bl
denominator and add the numerator and write as numerator.
be T

Example 1 :
pu
K

If the denominators are


a) 2 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 = 1
3 3 3 3 different, take the L.C.M of the
©

denominator, convert them to


b) 2 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3
5 5 5 5 have the same denominator and
then add.
c) - 7 + 2 = - 7 + 2 = - 5
8 8 8 8
7 (- 3)
d) 7 + - 3 = + =
4
=
2
to

10 10 10 10 5

Example 2 :
t
No

a) 2 1 8 + 3 11 LCM of 3 and 4 = 12
+ = =
3 4 12 12

b)
( -35 )+ 10
7

-6 + 7 1 LCM of 5 and 10 = 10
=
7 10

58
c)
( -56 )+( -45 ) LCM of 6 and 5 = 30

ú25 + 24 49
=
30 30
d) 5 1 3 LCM of 3,2,4 = 12
+ + 2 3,2,4
3 2 4
2 × 3 × 2 = 12 3 3,1,2
20 + 6 + 9 35
= = 2 1,1,2

d
12 12 1,1,1

he
Example 3 : Shanthamma bought 1 kg beans, 1 kg green
2 4

is
chillies, 3 kg potatoes, 1 kg ginger from a vegetable shop.
re S
2 10
What is the total weight of vegetables she bought?
B
Solution:
bl
be T
pu
Weight of beans = 1 kg
K

2
Weight of green chillies = 1 kg
©

4
Weight of potato = 3 kg
2
Weight of ginger = 1 kg
10
∴Total weight = 1 + 1 + 3 + 1 LCM of 2, 4, 2, 10 = 20
2 4 2 10
10 + 5 + 30 + 2 2 2,4,2,10
to

= 2 1,2,1,5
20
47 5 1,1,1,5
= 1,1,1,1
20
t

7 kg
=2
No

20
2 × 2 × 5 = 20

Example 4 : 5 m shirting , 2 m trouser cloth and 1 m cap cloth


4 3 4
is required to stitch a dress for a child. How many metres of
cloth is required for this ?

59
Solution:
Cloth required to stitch a shirt = 5 m
4
Cloth required to stitch a pant = 2 m
3
Cloth required to stitch a cap = 1 m
4
5 2
∴ Total cloth required = + 1 LCM of 4, 3, 4
+

d
4 3 4
15 + 8 + 3 4 4,3,4

he
= 3 1,3,1
12 1,1,1
26
=
12

is
re S
2
=2
12
B
LCM bl =2 m
1
6 4 × 3 = 12
be T

Additive inverse of a rational number


pu
K

We know additive inverse in integers. In the same way, all


rational numbers also have additive inverse.
©

Example: Additive inverse of 3 is -3


Additive inverse of 1 is - 1
2 2
-3 +3
Additive inverse of is
5 5
Additive inverse of - is 7
7
10 10
to

Know this: The sum of a number and its additive inverse


is '0' (zero); a + (-a) = a - a = 0, 0 is called additive identity.
t

Additive inverse of a rational number is the same number


No

having opposite sign in numerator.


Additive inverse of a is -a Additive inverse of -x is -x
b b y y

Subtraction :
In integers, when we subtract 5 from 8, we write 8 -5, That
can be written as 8 + (-5), which means the additive inverse

60
of the number to be subtracted is added.
To subtract -4 from 7 means -4 is subtracted from 7.
i.e., 7 + 4 = 11 ( Additive inverse of -4 is + 4)
In the subtraction of rational numbers, same method to
be followed.
Example 1 : a) Subtract 1 from 5 .

d
7 7

he
=
5
7
+ (- ) =
5
7
-
1
7
1
7
=
5 -1
7
=
4
7
b) Subtract - 1 from 7 .

is
8 8
re S
=
7
8
1
8
-(- ) =
7
8
+
1
8
=
7 +1
8
81
= 1 =1
8
B
bl
be T

To subtract rational numbers having different denominator


pu
convert their denominator to the same denominator and
K

proceed.
Example 2 : Subtract 2 from 5 LCM of 6 and 3 =
©

3 6
3 6,3
5 -2 = 5-4 1 2 2,1
= = 1,1 3×2=6
6 3 6 6
Example 3 : Subtract 3 from 11 LCM of 7 and 4 = 28
4 7
7 7,4
11 - 3 = 4 1,4
to

7 4 1,1
44 - 21
= 7 × 4 = 28
28
23
t

=
28
No

Example 4 : Subtract 5 from - 4


18 9
=
-4
-
5 LCM of 9 and 18 = 18
9 18
= -8-5
9 9,18
18
2 1,2
-13
1,1
=
18 9 × 2 = 18

61
Example 5 : A teacher brought 13 3 kg sweets to distribute
4
among the children, on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanthi.
If he distributes 12 7 kg sweets to the children, what is the
8
weight of remaining sweets ?
Solution :
Total weight of sweet brought = 13 3 kg
4
Weight of sweet distributed among the children = 12 7 Kg

d
8
3
∴ Weight of remaining sweet = 13 - 12 7 4 4,8

he
4 8 2 1,2
55 - 103 1,1
=
4 8

is
110 - 103
re S
= 4×2=8
8
B
bl
∴ Weight of remaining sweet = 7 kg
8
be T

Example 6 : Rahim spent 1 of his income on food, 1 part for


pu
2 5
K

children's education, 1 part for other items from his salary


4
and saved the remaining part. What is the part of salary saved
©

by him?

Solution :
Part of the salary used for food by Rahim in a month = 1
2
Part of the salary used for children's education = 1
to

5
Part of the salary used for other expenses = = 1
4
∴ Total part of salary spent 1 1 1 2 2,5,4
t

= + + 5 1,5,2
No

2 5 4
2 1,1,2
10 + 4 + 5 1,1,1
=
20
19
2 = × 5 × 2 = 20
20
LCM of 2, 5, 2 = 20

Let total salary be 1

62
19
∴ Remaining part of the salary = 1 - 20
20 - 19
=
20
1
=
20

∴ Rahim saves 1 part of his salary in a month.


20

d
Exercise 3.2

he
1) Find the sum of the following.

is
re S
a) 2 + 7 b) 2 + 2 c) - 3 + 5 d) 5 + 1 + 3
5 10 3 9 5 6 7 3 2
B
bl
2) Subtract.
be T
pu
a) 5 from 1
b) 5 from - 1
8 4 6 6
K

c) 3 from 4 d) 7 from 3
©

5 15 8 4
3) Usha bought 5 3 kg of pulses and 2 2 kg of vegetables
4 3
from the market. What was the total weight of pulses and
vegetables she bought?
4) As "Kshira Bhagya" plan a school got 15 3 kg milk powder
4
to

1
per week. 14 5 Kg of milk powder is used, what is the
quantity of remaining milk powder?
t

5) Ravi bought 8 5 m of cloth from a textile shop. In that 4 1


No

7 3
m of cloth for his son and 3 3
4
m cloth for his daughter is
used for stitching dress. What is the length of remaining
cloth?
6) There are four cows in Leela's house. One day 20 3 l of
5
milk is collected from them. If Leela sold 18 2 l out of this,
3
what is the quantity of milk remaining?
63
Multiplication of rational numbers :

Rational numbers can be multiplied in the same way as


fractions.

Example 1 :
Note : While multiplying rational
a) 3 # 3 = 9

d
4 1 4 numbers, multiply the numerator by
the numerator and the denominator

he
b) 2 # 4 = 8 by the denominator
3 3 9

is
re S
-15
c) -3 × 5= 4
B
4
-21 bl
×(- 43 ) = 3

be T

d)
pu
5 2
10
K

31
e) #1 # 5 = 1#5 = 5
4 2 6 2 4 # 2 # 2 16
©

Example 2 : If a student reads 2 part of a book containing


5
100 pages in a day, then how many pages are read by him?

Solution :
to

Total number of pages = 100


t

Part of it read by a student = 2 of 100


No

2 # 100
= 20
= 40 pages.
51

Example 3 : If a metre of cloth costs ` then, what is the

total cost of 14 1 m of cloth at the same rate?


2

64
3
Solution : Cost of 1 m of cloth ` 30 4
3 1
Cost of 14 1 m of cloth = 30 4  14 2
2
123 29
= 
4 2
3567 7
= = 445
8 8

d
1 7
Therefore, the cost of 14 2 m cloth = `445 8

he
Multiplicative inverse (Reciprocal) of rational numbers:

is
re S
To obtain the reciprocal (multiplicative inverse) of a rational
B
bl
number, interchange the numbers in the numerator and
be T

denominator of that rational number.


pu
Example : 1) Multiplicative inverse of 3 is 4
K

4 3
2) Multiplicative inverse of 5 is 2
©

2 5
3) Multiplicative inverse of -3 is -10
10 3
4) Multiplicative inverse of 4 is 1
4
5) Multiplicative inverse of a is 1 . (where a≠0)
a
to

Know this : No change in the sign while writing a


multiplicative inverse. The product of a number and its
t

reciprocal is always 1 (Identity element of multiplication is


No

1 i.e; a # 1 = 1 ).
a
Think ! : '0' has no multiplicative inverse. Why?
Division of rational numbers :
We know that dividing a fraction by another fraction
means, multiplying the dividend by the reciprocal of the
divisor. Division of rational numbers to be done in the same
65
way.
21 3
Example 1 : a) 3 ' 1 means 3 # =
4 2 42 1 2
10 2 - 4
b) -2 ' 3 means - 2 # =
5 10 51 3 3
- 31
c) - 5 ' - 4 = - 5 # =+
5

d
6 3 62 4 8
31

he
d) 3 ' 6 = # 7 = 7
8 7 8 6 2 16

is
-42 3 -6
÷
re S
e) -4 2
= × =
5 3 5 2 5
B
bl f) - 12 ' 10 =
-12 6
# 1
=
-62
=
-2
be T

15 15 10 5 75 25 25
pu
K

2) Find the quantity of milk shared by each student,


©

if 11 1 l of milk is distributed equally among 45 students.


4
Solution :
Quantity of milk available 11 1 l
4
Total number of students = 45
to

∴ Quantity of milk shared by each student = 11 1 ' 45


4
45 ' 45
=
4
t

451
# 1
No

=
4 451
1
=
Each student gets 1 l of milk 4
4 3
3) Find the weight of apple got by each, if 3 kg of apple
5
is shared equally by 3 friends.
Solution :
Total weight of apple = 3 3 kg.
5
66
Number of friends who shared the apple = 3
∴ Weight of apple each gets = 3 3 ' 3
5
18 ' 3
=
5
618
= #1
5 31
6
=

d
5
1
=1

he
5
∴ Each of the friends gets 1 1 kg of apple
5
Exercise 3.4

is
re S
I) Multiply the following:
B

bl
1) 5 # 3 2) - 7 # 5 3) -7 # 3
be T

4 10 8 42 15 14
pu
K

4) -5 # -2 5) -7 # 6 # -2 6) 9 # 5 # 2
6 15 9 8 7 10 3 3
©

II) Divide the following:


1) 1 ' 3 2) 7 ' 7 3) 2 ' 5 4) -4 ' -7
9 7 8 6 3 9 5 10
III) Write the additive inverse of the following:

1) -3 2) 9 3) -10
5 4
4) 7 5) -1
to

6) 0.
2 5
IV) Write the multiplicative inverse (reciprocal) of the
following.
t
No

1) 9 2) -5 3) -13 4) 5
10 6 18 -7
V) A box has 15 3 kg sugar. How many packets of each
4
containing 1 3 kg can be made?
4
VI) A student requires 2 3 m cloth for an uniform. Find the
4
total length of cloth required to stitch uniform for 44 such
students?
67
VII) A rectangular garden has length 3 1 m and breadth 2 3 m
5 4
What is its area?
VIII) In a school 20 4 l of milk is brought for distribution.
5
If 1 l of milk is given to each student, find the number of
5
students in the school?

d
To write rational numbers as decimals.

he
You know already, the method of writing fractions in
decimal form. In the same way, rational numbers can be

is
written in decimal form.
re S
Decimal numbers have two parts.
B
bl
In 61.35, 61 is the integer part and 35 is the decimal part.
be T
pu
Method of reading 61.35 → Sixty one point three five.
K

Similarly, method of reading 27.834 → Twenty seven point


©

eight three four.


Activity: Put some flash cards with different decimal
numbers in a box. Ask each student to take one card from
it and read the decimal number written in the proper way
and to say integer part as well as decimal part in it and to
to

cite the place value of each digit.

You know the method of writing fractions in decimal form.


t

Example 1 :
No

a) 7 = 0.7 b) 27 = 2.7
10 10

c) 3 = 0.6 d) 3 = 0.75
5 4

68
e) 1
= 0.005 f) 1 = 0.3333 ...
200 3

g) 5 = 0.8333
h) 1 = 0.090909 ...

d
6
11

is he
re S B
bl
In the same way, any rational number can be expressed
be T

in decimal form.
pu
If we observe the above examples while writing a rational
K

number in decimal form its digit may be stopped in one digit


©

or more than one digit or may be repeating.


In examples a , b , c , d and e digits in the decimal
part ends. Therefore these are called terminating decimals.
But in example f , g , h one or more than one digits in
the decimal part are repeated. Even if the division continues
the same digits will be recurring in decimals. We put dots to
to

show that the digits are repeated in the decimal part. These
are called, repeating decimals or recurring decimals.
1) Terminating decimals :
t
No

a) 3.57 b) 15.035 c) 0.0004321 d) 10.23576

2) Repeating or recurring decimals :


a) 2.544 ................ b) 10.272727 ................

c) 15.145614561456 ................ d) 18.321321321.............

69
Think ! All rational numbers can be written as terminat-
ing or recurring decimals. But if digits in the decimal part
neither end nor repeat then what type of numbers are they.
Can they be written in the form a ?
b
Examples of converting rational numbers into decimals

d
A) 2 = 0.285714285714 b) 1 5 = 1.555 ...
7 9

he
14 1.555 ...
=
9

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
c) 4 2 = 62 = 4.133 ...
K

15 15
©

d) 3
= 0.024
to

125
t
No

Exercise 3.5

I) Write these rational numbers in decimal form.

1) 4 2) 3 3) 5 4) 3
5 8 16 14

70
II) Identify terminating, non terminating and recurring
decimals.
1) 5 2) 1 3) 2 4) 1
8 12 9 16
3) Classify the following decimals as terminating, non-
terminating, recurring and not belonging to any of this
group of decimals.

d
a) 8.751 b) 2.5444 ...

he
c) 0.0303... d) 9.2874
e) 2.456731456731456731 ... f) 10.56173824931685...

is
re S
g) 3.147521896397...
B
bl
To write the decimals as rational numbers :
be T
pu
To convert a decimal into a rational number, write the
K

numbers given as it is without decimal point as numerator.


Then write 1 in the denominator followed by zeroes equal to
©

number of digits in decimal parts.


Example : a) 0.3 = 3 b) 0.12 = 12 c) 1 4 = 14 = 1.4
10 100 10 10
Multiplication of decimal numbers :
While multiplying decimal numbers find the product of the
to

numbers without taking decimal point for consideration, later


put the decimal point in that product by leaving the digits
to right side equal to the number of decimal places both in
t
No

multiplicand and multiplier. Suppose, there is no sufficient


number of digits in the product write zeros instead of that.
Example 1 : a) 0.2 × 0.3 = 0.06

b) 0.12×0.6 = 0.072

c) 1.2×1.5 = 1.80

d) 0.003×0.12 = 0.00036
71
e) 0.13×0.0005 = 0.000065
f) 3.41×2.678 = 9.13198
Example 2 : What is the area of a rectangle, if its length is
4.7 cm and breadth is 3.5 cm?
Length of a rectangle = 4.7 cm
Breadth of a rectangle = 3.5 cm

d
∴ Area of a rectangle = Length × Breadth

he
= 4.7 × 3.5 = 16.45 sq. cm
Example 3 : Find the cost of 3.20 m of cloth, if the cost of

is
1 m of cloth is ` 98.75
re S
Cost of 1 m of cloth
B
bl
∴ Cost of 3.20 m of cloth
= ` 98.75
= 98.75 × 3.20
be T
pu
Cost of 3.20 m of cloth = ` 316
K

Example 4 : For mid - day meal 0.035 kg of dal is given to


©

a child per day. What is the quantity of dal required for 38


children?
Dal given to a child per day = 0.035 kg
∴ Quantity of dal given for 38 children = 0.035×38
= 1.330 kg
to

Division of decimal numbers :


To divide decimal numbers by integers:
t

Example 1 :
No

a) 3.5 ' 7 = 3.5 = 0.5 b) 6.4 = 1.6


7 4

c) 8.24 = 1.03 d) 15.625 = 0.625


8 25

72
To divide decimal number by a decimal:
Example 1 :

a) 8.4 b) 3.24
0.4 1.8
21 3.24 # 100
8.4 # 10 84 =
1.8 # 100
= = = 21
0.4 # 10 4
32418 18

d
= = = 1.8
18010 10

he
Note: Multiply both numerator and denominator by the
same integer to remove decimal points and then divide.

is
re S
c) 6.25 d) 0.729 ' 1.80
B
12.5
bl
6.25 # 100 625 25
1
1
=
0.729
1.80
be T

= = = 81
pu
12.5 # 100 1250
50
2 0.729 # 1000 729 243 81
2 = = =
K

1.80 # 1000 1800 600 200


200
©

Observe :
To make an integer a number having 1 decimal place must
be multiplied by 10, 2 decimal place by 100 ... continued.

Example 2 :
to

If a bus covers a distance 48.4 km in 1.1 hrs then, find its


speed per hour?.
48.4 # 10
t

Total distance covered by bus = 48.4 km


1.1 # 10
No

Time taken = 1.1 hrs 484 44


=
Speed= Distance/ Time = 11

48.4
=
1.1
= 44 km/hr

73
Example 3 :
If Kavitha purchased 12.5 m cloth for ` 427.50 to stitch the
dress for her children, then find the cost of cloth per meter?

Quantity of cloth purchased by Kavitha = 12.5 m

Total cost of cloth = ` 427.50

d
∴ Cost of cloth per metre = 427.50 ÷ 12.5

he
427.50 # 100
12.50 # 100
4275 0171 171

is
re S
= =
1250 5
B
bl
∴ Cost of cloth per metre =
`34.20
5
be T
pu
K

know this
©

If two rational numbers of the form a , where a < b are


b
multiplied then the product obtained is less than both the
rational numbers. If one number is divided by the other,
then the quotient obtained is greater than both the rational
numbers.
to

Exercise 3.6

I. Multiply.
t
No

1) 8.6×4 2) 3.75×2

3) 4.105×9 4) 2.56×1.3

5) 0.03×1.456 6) 11.2×0.15

74
II. Divide.

1) 0.42÷6 2) 0.144÷12

3) 4.97÷10 4) 6.75÷0.25

5) 2.86÷1.3 6) 68.8÷0.16

III. Solve the following Problems.

d
he
1) If the cost of sugar per kg is ` 35.45 then find the cost of
20.25 kg of sugar.

is
2) If a bus travels 4.25 hrs at a speed of 28.25KM per hour then
re S
find the distance travelled by it.
B
bl
3) If a car travels 21.5 km distance per litre of petrol then find
be T

the number of litres of petrol required to travel 219.30 km


pu
distance.
K

4) If Sheela purchased 12.5 m coloured ribbon for `257.50


©

then find the cost of ribbon per m?


Conversion of units of measurements
Quantity of measurement gives numerical value. Quantities
can be compared by units. We have accepted a few unit of
measurements internationally. These measurements are
to

called Standard units. Small and big measurements are


derived from fundamental units (basic unit).
t
No

International fundamental(basic) unit of length is metre (m)


International fundamental(basic) unit of weight is kilo gram (kg).

75
know this
1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 ounce = 28.35 gram

1 foot = 30.48 cm 1 pound = 0.45 kg

1 yard = 0.914 m 1 kg = 2.204623 pound

12 inches = 1 foot 1 kilo metre = 1000 metre

d
3 feet = 1 yard 1 metre = 100 cm

he
220 yards = 1 furlong 1 cm = 10 mm

8 furlongs = 1 mile 1 kilo gram = 1000 gram

is
re S
1 mile = 1.61 kilometer 1 gram = 1000 milli gram
B
1 km bl= 0.62 mile
be T
pu
Do you know this?
K

Kilo metre That means,


©

Hecto metre 1 kilo metre = 10


Deca metre Hecto metre
Metre ÷ 10
× 10 Similarly,
Deci metre 1 cm = 10 mm
Centi metre
Milli metre
to

Example 1 : 1) Convert these into centimeter.



t

a) 45 m = 45 × 100 = 4500 cm
No

b) 2.7 m = 2.7 × 100 = 270 = 270 cm

c) 4 3 m = 19 # 100 = 19 # 25 = 475 cm
4 4
d) 3.02 m = 3.02 × 100 = 302.00 = 302 cm
Note : To convert metre into cm it should be multiplied by
100 a 1m = 100 cm 1 cm = 1 m
100

76
Example 2 : Convert these into metres.

a) 20 cm = 20 = 1 m
100 5
b) 2 cm = 2 = 1 m
100 50
c) 415 cm = 415 = 4.15 m
100

d
d) 0.003 cm = 0.003 # 1 = 3 # 1 = 3 m
100 1000 100 100000

he
e) 4.5 km = 4.5 × 1000 = 4500 m

is
re S
f) 25 km = 25 × 1000 = 25000 m
B
bl
g) 2.1 km = 2.1 × 1000 = 2100 m
be T
pu
Example 3 : Write these in cm.
K

a) 6mm b) 23 mm c) 276 mm
= 23 = 2.3 cm
©

= 6 # 1 = 3 cm 10 = 276 = 27.6 cm
10 5 10

Example 4 : Write these in km.


a) 105 m b) 725 m
21 1 21 29 # 1 25
= 105 # = = 725 = km
1000 200 km 1000 40 40
to

200

Example 5 : Write these in kg.


t

a) 720 g b) 3150 g
No

720 7218 18 kg 3150 315


= = = = = = 3.15 kg
1000 100 25 25 1000 100

77
Example 6 : Write these in grams.
a) 1.4 kg c) 3.42 kg
b) 10 1 kg
2
1.4×1000 3.42 kg
10 1 kg =
2
= 1400 g 21 # 1000500 10500 g = 3.42 × 1000 = 3420 g
=
21

d
Example 7 : Write these in grams.

he
a) 740 mg b) 210 mg
740 74 37 g 210
= = 21 g

is
1000 100 50 =
1000 100
re S B
bl
Example 8 : Write 125 mg in kg.
1000gm = 1kg
be T

51
pu
1255 # 1
= 1000000mg = 1kg
K

1000000 40000 400008000


1mg = 1 kg
1000000
©

1 kg
=
8000

Example 9 : A bus travels 16.2 miles in one hour. Express it


in km.
1 mile = 1.61 km
to

∴ 16.2 miles = 16.2 × 1.61


= 26.082 km
t
No

Example 10 :Find the length of the room in cm if its length


is 4.5 feet .
1 foot = 30.48 cm

∴ 4.5 feet = 30.48 × 4.5


= 137.160 cm

78
Exercise 3.7

1) Express these in Grams

a) 2.51 kg b) 72.5 mg

2) Express these in kilograms

d
a) 625 gm b) 10825 mg

he
3) Write these in kilo metres

a) 1450 m b) 17.3 m c) 21350 cm

is
re S
4) Write these in metres
B

bl
a) 2.7 km b) 7525 cm c) 1.58 km
be T
pu
K

5) Write these in cm
©

a) 12.5 m b) 4.7 km

6) Convert 7.2 miles into km.


to

    
t
No

79
CHAPTER– 4
ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS
After studying this chapter you :
 come to know algebraic expressions,
 define meaning of algebraic expression,

d
 obtain algebraic expressions by combining variables

he
with themselves or with other variables,
 convert verbal statements into algebraic expression.

is
 comprehend the meaning of degree of algebraic
re S
expression,
B
bl
 apply fundamental operations to algebraic expressions.
be T
pu
Introduction :
K

Algebraic expressions are core concepts in algebra. These


are powerful tools to solve many problems in daily life.
©

Expressions enable us to find out solutions for unknown


quantities while solving equations.
Elementary concepts in Algebra
Literal Numbers:
Suma and Madhu were playing with matchsticks. They
to

decided to make the letters of the English alphabet by using


match sticks.
t

Suma took three matchsticks to form the letter 'C'


No

Then Madhu picked three matchsticks to form another


letter C and put it next to the 'C' made by Suma.


80
Suma and Madhu went on forming the letter 'C' by using
matchsticks and put them one after the other.


Finally they thought of preparing
a table which shows relation between

d
number of sticks required and number

he
of 'C's
No. of 1 2 3 4 5 ... 20 ... 25 ... n
'C' formed

is
re S
No. of 3 6 9 12 15 ... 60 ... 75 ... 3n
B
bl
sticks used 1×3 2×3 3×3 4×3 5×3 ... 20×3 ... 25×3 ... n×3
be T

While writing the table, they realised that the number of


pu
matchsticks required is thrice the number of 'C's formed,
K

that is
Number of matchsticks required=3×number of 'C's to form 'c'.
©


If 'n' stands for number of 'C's formed, then, number of
matchsticks required = 3 × n = 3n
We know that 'n' is a literal number
Thus,
to

For n=1, the number of sticks required = 3 × 1 = 3


For n=2, the number of sticks required = 3 × 2 = 6
For n=3, the number of sticks required = 3 × 3 = 9
t
No

Here, n is the number of 'C's in the pattern and n takes


values 1, 2, 3, 4,....... in the table. The value of n goes on
changing. As a result, the number of matchsticks required
also goes on changing.
n is an example of a variable. Literal numbers are used
as variables also
It can take any value 1, 2, 3, 4, ......................

81
The word "variable" means some thing that can vary ie.,
change. The value of a variable is not fixed. It can take different
values. Yah, a,b,c,....x,y,z
some examples for variable, are used to repre-
sent variables as
You know that; well as unknowns.
Area of rectangle = Length × Breadth

d
A = l × b

he
In the following table different rectangle of same area is

is
listed.
re S
Name of Measures of
B
rectangle bl length (l) breadth(b) Area A = l × b
be T
pu
cm cm sq cm
K

ABCD 20 cm 3 cm 60 sq cm
©

PQRS 15 cm 4 cm 60 sq cm

KLMN 12 cm 5 cm 60 sq cm
to

WXYZ 10 cm 6 cm 60 sq cm

The above table shows 'l' has different values for different
t

rectangles and 'b' also has different values for different


No

rectangles. Thus the literal numbers like 'l' and 'b' are called
variables.
A variable is a literal number or any symbol which
attains different values according to the situation.
The symbols that are used to represent unknown numbers
are also called variables.

82
Know this :
Historical Background :
 Around 300 BC, use of letters to denote unknowns
and forming expressions from them was quite common
in India. Many great mathematicians – Aryabhatta
(476 AD), Brahmagupta (598 AD), Mahavira (who lived
around 850 AD) and Bhaskara II (1114 AD) contributed a

d
lot to the study of algebra. They name dvariables as beeja,

he
varna. The Indian name for algebra is Beejaganit.
 Francois Viete, one of the great mathematicians of 16th
century, was the first person who used letters to describe

is
re S
general arithmetic patterns.
B
Constant :bl
be T
pu
Can the number of sides of a triangle be more than 3 ?
K

Definitely not, hence, the number of sides of a triangle is a


fixed number; it is constant.
©

Can the number of vertices of a quadrilateral be less than 4 ?


Definitely not, hence the number of vertices of a
quadrilateral is a fixed number and thus it is constant.
When we write the numeral 4, it represents number 4
to

When we write the symbol 5, it represents number 5 (five


in english).
A constant is a number or other symbol that
t
No

represents only one value


5, 9, 10, 3/4, –8, 0.01.......... are constants

Circumference = π which is a constant


Diameter
c = 3 × 108 m/s is a constant i.e.,
(velocity of light in vacuum)
83
Algebraic Term
Algebraic terms have
We have already learnt numbers, variables
& both numbers and
that the product of 6 variables
and 8 i.e., 6 × 8 = 48
Similarly, the quotient
2xy, 4pq, - 3 x2 y , 10,
obtained by dividing 4

d
m are algebraic terms
18 by 2 i.e., 18 ÷ 2 = 9

he
Can you find the product of x and 3 ?

is
re S
Yes, the product is 3 x
B
bl
Can you find the quotient obtained by dividing y by 4 ?
be T

y
Yes, the quotient is 4
pu
y
K

These 3x, 4 etc are called algebraic terms. Some more


examples for algebraic terms are 3x , –6x y, 2x2y, y/2, –2x /3
©

Notice the constant and the


Think
variables in these algebraic x-2, x/y,
terms 1/x are
 In the algebraic term algebraic
terms
3x, 3 is constant and x is
to

variable
 In the algebraic term
t

–6x y, -6 is constant and


No

x and y are variables


 In the algebraic term 2x2y, 2 is constant and x and y
are variables etc.

An algebraic term is either a constant or the product or


quotient obtained by multiplication of division by constants.

84
Exercise 4.1
I. Make a list of the variable or variables in each of the
following algebraic terms
1) 5x 2) –3a 3) 7x y 4) 3 x 2y
4
5) 0.8a2b 6) m2n2 7) xyz 8) –5m2np

d
2. Make a list of the numerical constant in each of the
following algebraic terms

he
1) 2x 2) –5x 2y 3) m2n 4) –8p
6) 3 x 2y

is
5) 9p2qr 7) 0.5pqr2 8) 0.008mn
re S
4
B
bl Algebraic Expressions
be T

How are mathematical expressions


pu
K

formed ? ALGEBRA IS FUN !


EXPERIENCE THE
Consider the following THRILL OF FINDING
©

mathematical statements. 'UNKNOWNS'


The sum of a number and five is 59
+ 5 = 59
i.e., 59 = 54 + 5
Therefore the required number is 54
to

Similarly,
The product of a number and 8 is 88
t
No

8× = 88
i.e., 8 × 11 = 88
Therefore the required number is 11.
If we have too many unknown quantities, it becomes
difficult to create mathematical statement. To simplify we
denote unknown quantities by the variables x, y, z and so on.

85
Consider the following example
A girl is now 10 years old. How old will she be
1) 5 years later ?
2) 3 years ago ?
3) x years later ?

d
4) y years ago ?

he
Solution : The girl becomes 1 year older every year.
1) 5 years later she will be (10 + 5) = 15 years old.

is
2) 3 years ago she was (10 – 3) = 7 years old.
re S
3) 'x' years later she will be (10 + x) years old.
B
bl
4) 'y' years ago she was (10 – y) years old.
be T
pu
The expressions (10 + x), (10 – y) which contain variables
K

are called algebraic expressions.


©

Look at the following expressions


i) x2 ii) 2y2 Know this

iii) 3x + 2 iv) 2pq + 7 These symbols are read as


:-
The expression x2 means, IIIly- Similarly
to

multiplying x by itself. i.e. - that is


i.e., x × x = x2 ∴ Therefore
b congruent
t

IIIly 2 × y × y = 2y2
No

a because
How is 3x + 2 obtained ?
The expression 3x + 2 is
obtained by multiplying x by 3 and adding 2 to the product.
i.e., (x × 3) + 2 = 3x + 2

86
How is 2pq + 7 obtained ?
The expression 2pq + 7 is obtained as follows;
By multiplying p and q we get pq, then multiplying it by 2
to get 2pq and 7 is added to the product to get the expression.
All the above expressions x2, 2y2, 3x + 2, 2pq + 7 are called
algebraic expressions.

d
Look at the Table;

he
Statement Algebraic expression
8 is added to x x+8

is
re S
5 is subtracted from y y–5
B
bl
p is multiplied by 6 6×p
be T
pu
'm' is divided by n m÷n
K

Here, we observe according to the statement, operations


©

of addition, subtraction, multiplication or division are applied


on variables and constants resulting in an expression.
"Algebraic expression are obtained by doing fundamental
operations with algebraic terms"

Terms of an algebraic expression


to

Look at the following expressions


Algebraic Terms of the No. of
t

Expression Expression Terms


No

2x + 3y 2x, + 3y 2
x2 – 4 x + 3 x2, – 4x, + 3 3
3ab – 4bc – 6cd 3ab, – 4bc, 6cd 3
–2p2q + 3q2r – rp + 4pqr – 2p2r, + 3q2r, – rp, 4pqr 4

87
Now consider the expression, 2x + 3y
In this expression there are two variables x and y and
two numbers 2 and 3. 2x is one term of the expression and
3y is another term. Similarly identify the terms in other
expressions.
Product, Factor and Coefficient :

d
We know that 4 × 5 = 20

he
Here 20 is product, 4 and 5 are factors of 20
When two variables are multiplied, what is the product ?

is
re S
Suppose, we multiply 'x' and 'y', what is the product ?
B
bl
We write the product of 'x' and 'y' as (x × y) or xy
be T

Similarly, Note: The variables


pu
K

The product of 2 and p = 2p written side by side,


indicates their prod-
2 and p are factors of 2p
©

uct.
The product of 5 × m × n = 5mn
5, m and n are factors of 5mn

The product of 7 x × x × y = 7x2y


7, x, y are the factors of 7x2y
to

Diagram of an algebraic expression and its terms


t

Expression : 8x2 + 5 xy - 8

No


Terms : 8x2y +5xy -8

Factors : 8 x x y 5 x y 2 -4

88
Coefficient : When a variable is written
Let us consider the product with out its numerical
of x and 8, 8x. In this 8 is a coefficient its numerical
number, x is a variable. coefficient is 1
x = 1 x
8x means + 8x, 8 is the
y = + y
numerical factor. It is also
called arithmetical factor

d
z = +1z
or numerical coefficient of

he
x. Similarly, x is called the
variable factor or variable

is
re S
coefficient of 8.
Look at some more examples.
B
bl Literal
be T

Numerical
pu
Product Co–efficient coefficient
coefficient
K

in it
8xy co–efficient of y is 8x x
©

8
=8×x×y co–efficient of x is 8y 8 y
co–efficient of 8 is xy 1 xy

–21x2y co–efficient of y is –21x2 –21 x2


=–21x × x × y co–efficient of xy is–21x –21 x
to

co–efficient of x is–21y
2
–21 y
co–efficient of 21 is –x2y -1 x2y
t
No

Exercise 4.2

I. Classify the following expressions into numerical


expressions and literal numerical expressions (algebraic
expressions):
1) 8 + 5 – 3 2) 3×–8 3) (7 × 6) – 4m

4) 3p + 4q 5) (20 × 7) – (5 × 10) – 45 6) 2y + 6 – 4z
89
II. a) Write the terms of the following algebraic expressions:
1) 3x + 4y 2) 2pq – 8qr 3) 3 x 2 – 3x + z
4) ab + bc – ca 5) 9m + 6n 6) – 3xy + x – y

b) Write the diagram of the terms and factors of


the following algebraic expressions:
1) 2xy + 5 2) x2 + xy + 4 3) 3p – 5y2 4) 2ab + bc + ca

d
he
III. Write the following statements as algebraic expressions:

1) 8 is added to 'x'

is
re S
2) 7 is subtracted from 'y'
B
bl
3) p is multiplied by 12
be T

4) q is divided by 5
pu
K

5) 4 times x is added to 3 times y


©

6) 5 times y is subtract from 10


7) The product of p and q is added to 3x
8) 3 times 'l' is subtracted from 5 times 'm'
9) y is multiplied by 10 and then 15 is added to the product
to

10)The product of x and y is divided by z


IV. Write the numerical co–efficient of x in the following
t
No

1) 3x 2) –4x 3) 3 x
4
4) 10.5x 5) 168x 6) 8 x
-
9
V. Write the variable coefficient in the following

1) 3m 2) –9xy 3) 16pqr
4) 10c 5) - 5 mn 6) 0.8 x 2 y
4

90
VI. Write the coefficients of 27 xyz as directed

i) The numerical coefficient of xyz is ______


ii) The literal coefficient of xy is ______
iii) The literal coefficient of 27z is ______
iv) The literal coefficient of 27 is ______

d
Like and Unlike Terms

he
Four Students Rama, Suma, Salma and Robert are
discussing in the class room.

is
re S
Rama says : 20 pens + 5 pens = 25 pens
B
bl
Suma says : 50 note books – 5 note books = 45 note books
be T
pu
Salma says : 20 pens + 15 note books = 35
K

Robert asked whether 35 notebooks or 35 pens?


©

You cannot add like this. Salma reacted why she could not
add like this ?
Robert : They are different things, we cannot add or
subtract things of different types.
to

Salma : Yes, we can't add 3 kg of sugar with 2 kg of salt.


While friends are discussing, teacher enters the class room
t

and hangs a chart on board and asked them to


No

observe the Box –1 and Box –2 in the chart.


Box - 1 Box - 2
1) x, 3x, -6x 1) x, 3y, -6z
1 1
2) 2ab, -3ba, 2 ab 2) 2ab, -3bc, 2 ca
3) y2, 3y2, -52 y2 3) x, x2, -2x3

91
Teacher : What type of terms does Box 1 contain?
Students: Box –1 contains the group of algebraic terms
with the same literal factors and the same exponent.
Teacher : What does Box 2 contain?
Students: Box –2 contains the group of algebraic terms
with either different literal factors or the same literal factors

d
with different exponents.

he
Therefore –
Groups 1, 2, 3 in box 1 represent group of like terms.

is
re S
Groups 1, 2, 3 in box 2 represent group of unlike terms.
B
bl
Algebraic terms having the same literal factors with the
be T

same exponent are called like terms. Algebraic terms having


pu
different literal factors or same literal factors with different
K

exponents are called unlike terms.


©

Classification of Algebraic Expressions


Observe the following boxes;
Box–1 Box–2 Box–3 Box–4
–3x, 2xy, 7x2y, x+y, 2ab+c, x+y+z, 5x4+4x3–3x2+2x+8,
4pqr, – - 10mn 4p2+3y, m–7 2x2–3x+4, x5–3x2+7x+8,
to

7
ab+bc+ca 9p2+q2–rq+pq–8
t

Box 1: contains expressions having


No

only one term. Mono →stands for one


Bi →is for two
Box 2: contains expressions having
Tri →is for three
two terms.
Poly →is for more
Box 3: contains expressions having
three terms.
Box 4: contains expressions having many terms.

92
The classification is done in the following manner
i) Monomial : An expression having only one term
ii) Binomial : An expression having two unlike terms
iii) Trinomial : An expression having three unlike terms
iv) Polynomial : An expression having more unlike terms.
but in Algebra, irrespective of number

d
of terms, the expression is known as

he
a polynomial. In general all algebraic
expressions with terms having positive
exponents are called polynomials.

is
re S
Note : In algebra, like terms can be added or subtracted
B
bl
a + 3a = 4a, 3ab + 5ab + 6ab = 14ab ∴ a + 3a is not a binomial,
it is monomial. Similarly, 3ab + 5ab + 6ab is not trinomial,
be T
pu
it is monomial.
K

Algebraic Expression
©

Constant Monomial Binomial Trinomial


to

Polynomial
t
No

Know this :
+ and - sign separates algebraic
terms.
× and ÷ sign do not separate
algebraic terms.

93
Some special features of a polynomial in Algebra
1) Any expression with one or more terms is called a
polynomial. Hence a monomial, a binomial and a
trinomial are polynomials.
2) The index or exponent of the variable in each term
should be whole number.
3) Terms like x½, 5x –2
, 1/x, p1/3 are not polynomials.

d
Activity: Identification of monomial, binomial and trinomial

he
expressions.

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
Step 1 : Place 3 open boxes A, B, C and label them as
K

monomial, binomial and trinomial respectively.


©

Step 2 : Place flash cards containing algebraic expressions


of different types on stool in facedown position.
Step 3 : Call students one by one and ask them to take
one card, read aloud the expression and put it in
appropriate box.
Step 4 : Count the number of cards in each box and eliminate
to

the cards that have been wrongly placed. Make a list


of the observations in the table.
t

Group No. of Cards No. of Terms Type of Exp.


No

A ___________ One Monomial


B ___________ Two Binomial
C ___________ Three Trinomial
Have you understood on what basis the algebraic
expressions are classified? What is the reason for naming
like this?
94
Powered Numbers :
We have already learnt that the Area
of a square = side × side
If the length of each side of a square
is 2 cm then area of the square
= 2 × 2 = 22 sq cm = 4 sq cm

d
If the length of each side is 'x' cm, then

he
Area of square = x cm × x cm
= x2 sq cm

is
Similarly,
re S
Volume of a cube = length ×
B
bl
breadth × height If length, breadth and
be T

height are '2' cm then, Volume of


pu
cube
K

= (2 × 2 × 2) cubic cm
©

= 23 cubic cm
= 8 cubic cm
If the length, the breadth and the height of a cube are 'y'
cm then, volume of the cube = (y × y × y) cubic cm
= y3 cubic cm or c cm.
to

Thus, x , y , p , q , d and m etc. are called powered numbers


2 3 4 6 7 9

or exponential numbers.
t

How to read powered numbers?


No

• a2 is read as 'a squared' or 'a to the power 2'


• x3 is read as 'x cubed' or 'x to the power 3'
• p4 is read as 'p to the power 4'
• d7 is read as 'd to the power 7'
• m9 is read as 'm to the power 9'
95
Terms associated with powered numbers :
In the powered numbers
such as x2, y3, n7, r4 etc, the Index/Exponent/Power
numbers 2, 3, 7, 4 written on
the top of right hand corner of
the literal numbers are called
indices or exponents or powers. x 2

d
The numbers x, y, m, k are
known as bases. The index or

he
exponent indicates the number
of times the base is to be used base
as a factor.

is
re S
a2 = a × a (base 'a' is used as factor twice)
B
bl
x3 = x × x × x (base x is used as a factor thrice)
be T

(ab)4 = ab × ab × ab × ab (base ab is used as a factor 4 times).


pu
Note : The size of index should be smaller as compared to
K

the size of base.


©

Degree of algebraic expression :


We have already learnt about the terms of algebraic
expression and the powered numbers
Let us consider an expression x 4 + x 2 – 3x + 4
The terms of expression are x 4, x 2, –3x, 4
to

Which term of this expression has highest exponent ?


Yes, the term x 4 has the highest exponent i.e., 4
Thus, 4 is called degree of expression x 4 + x 2 – 3x + 4
t
No

Hence the expression is called fourth degree expression.


In the expression a2 + 5a3 – 4a – 8 the term 5a3 has highest
exponent 3.
Hence, the expression is called third degree expression.
In polynomial having only one variable, the highest exponent
of the variable among the terms of the expression is the
degree of that expression.

96
More about degree of polynomials
consider the expression
3x4 – 4x3y2 + 8xy + 7

Take each term and test its power


In 3x4, 4 is the index and it is 4th degree

d
In – 4x3 y2, add index of x to the index of y

he
ie
.. 3+2=5. It is 5th degree

is
In the above expressions the highest degree term is – 4x3y2
re S
and its degree is 5, Therefore the degree of this polynomial
B
bl
is 5. Hence,
be T
pu
The degree of polynomial with more than one variable is the
K

highest sum of indices of the variables of the terms of that


expression.
©

Excercise 4 .3

I. Classify these expressions as monomial, binomial or


trinomial expressions
to

1) 2x + y 2) 2xy 3) 5 + 6a + 4b
4) 3x2 + 5x 5) xyz 6) ab – bc
t

7) 2y - 7 z + x 8) 3xp ÷ q 9) a2 – 3ab + c
No

3
10) x + 4 – 3x
2

II. Which of the following expressions are polynomials


1) x + 2yq 2) x3 + x – 2 + 1
3) y2 + xy½ – 6 4) m3 + 2m2 + 3m – 4

97
III. Mark the group of like terms by 'L' and unlike terms by 'U'.

1) 3x, 5x, 8x
2) x3, –3x2, 8x

3) –8p2, 6p2, 10p2 4) 2ab, 6ba, 8ab

5) 3a2b, – 2ab2, 7a2b2 6) – a3, 2a2, – 8a

d
he
IV. Group the like terms together

1) x, y3, 2x, – 7y3, –8x, 23 y3, 6x, –y3

is
re S
2) 7ab, 6bc, –8ba, 2ca, – 3ab, 2abc, 4ab, 2a2b
B
bl
be T

3) 7p, 8pq, –5pq, 2p and 3p


pu
K

V. Write the numerical coefficient of the following


©

1) 3xy 2) - 2 ab 3) 0.3p
3

4) 24xyz 5) –18p2q 6) - 9 m2 np
11

VI. Write the coefficient of


to

1) xy in –3axy 2) ab in 4a2b
3) z2 in p2yz2
t
No

4) xy in 10xy 5) 15 in –15p2
6) mn in –mn

VII. Write the degree of each of the following

1) 3x2 2) 3 – p2 + p3 3) 7m2n

4) z – p 5) a2 + 2ab + abc 6) m2 + 2mn2 + n2

98
VIII. Complete the following table

Powered numbers Base Exponent / Index

x5

d
(ab)6

he
(13p)9

is
re S
(–y)10
B
bl
be T

(xyz)7
pu
K

(0.59)20
©

IX.Write the following in exponential form


a) p×p×p×p×p b) m×m×m×m
c) ab × ab × ab × ab × ab × ab d) z×z×z×z×z×z×z×z
to

e) abc × abc × abc f) b × b × b × ...... 10 times


Basic operations in algebraic expressions
t

As in arithmetic, all basic operations can be performed


No

on algebraic expressions and they obey all the basic rules of


addition, subtraction, multiplication and division just like
numbers. The signs used are also the same as that of integers.
Addition and subtraction of algebraic expressions
Let us consider 3 baskets containing some apples, some
mangoes and some oranges.

99
Let the 1st basket contain 8 apples and 8 mangoes,
the 2nd basket contain 6 apples and 4 oranges,
and the 3rd basket contain 5 mangoes and 6 oranges.
How do we speak about the fruits, if the fruits are put
together in a new basket?.

d
When these fruits are put together in one basket, then

he
there are 8 + 6 =14 apples,
8 + 5 = 13 mangoes and

is
re S
and 4 + 6 = 10 oranges.
B
bl
The same procedure is followed in addition and subtraction
be T
pu
of algebraic expressions. We add or subtract like terms.
K

Addition and subtraction of algebraic expressions, follow


©

the rules of addition and subtraction of integers.


Recall
1) The sum of positive integers is positive.

2) The sum of negative integers is negative.


to

3) The sum of a positive integer and a negative integer


depends on absolute value of the integer.
t

That is to say it takes sign of bigger absolute number.


No

Addition of algebraic expressions


a) Addition of monomials
i) only like terms can be added
ii) add their numerical coefficients to find their sum

100
Example 1 : Add 4x, 8x and 5x
Solution 4x + 8x + 5x All are like terms
= (4 + 8 + 5)x Add numerical coefficients of
variable x
= 17x And put variable ‘x’ with this
numerical coefficient

d
Example 2 : Add 3a, 5b, 8a and 2b

he
Solution 3a + 5b + 8a + 2b There are two variables a and b
= 3a + 8a + 5b + 2b Add numerical coefficient of a
and put “a” with the numerical

is
= (3+8)a + (5+2)b
re S
coefficient and similarly for
= 11a + 7b variable b.
B
bl
be T
pu
Example 3 : Add 3x2y, 2xy2 and 7yx2
K

Solution 3x2y + 2xy2 + 7yx2 Note :


= 3x2y + 7yx2 + 2xy2
©

i) x2y = yx2
= (3+7)x2y + 2xy2
ii) x2y ≠ xy2
= 10x2y + 2xy2

b) Addition of Binomial and Trinomials


i) Row method : All terms of expressions are written in a
to

horizontal line, like terms are written together and are added.
Example 1 : Add (3a + 2b) and (5a + 7b)
t
No

Solution : Row method


(3a + 2b) + (5a + 7b)
= 3a + 2b + 5a + 7b

= 3a + 5a + 2b + 7b

= 8a + 9b

101
ii) Column method : Expressions are written in such
that a way their like terms are arranged one below the other
in a column. Then addition of the terms is done column wise.
Solution:

3a + 2b ... Addend

d
5a + 7b ... Addendum

he
8a + 9b ... Sum

is
re S B
bl
Example 2 : Add (14m2n–10n2) and (10m2n+6n2)
be T

Solution: Row Method Column Method


pu
K

(14m2n –10n2) + (10m2n + 6n2) 14m2n–10n2


©

= 14m2n – 10n2 + 10m2n + 6n2 10m2n+6n2


24m2n – 4n2
= 14m2n + 10m2n –10n2 + 6n2

= 24m2n – 4n2
to

Example 3 : Find the sum of (4x+3y+5z), (2x+5y–2z) and (3x–4y–z)

Solution: Row Method Column method


t
No

(4x + 3y + 5z) + (2x + 5y –2z) + (3x – 4y – z) 4x + 3y + 5z

= 4x + 3y + 5z + 2x + 5y – 2z + 3x – 4y – z +2x + 5y – 2z

= (4x + 2x + 3x) + (3y + 5y – 4y) + (5z – 2z – z) +3x –+4y – z

= 9x + 4y + 2z 9x + 4y + 2z

102
Excercise 4.4

I. Find the sum of:


1) 4a, 7a, 9a, 21a 2) 6p2, 4p2, –10p2, 12p2
3) 6y, 7x, –3y, –4y, –4x 4) 2a2, a, 3b2, 4a2, 11a, –4b2
II. Simplify:

d
1) 5x + 7x – 3x + 2x – 6x

he
2) 5a2 + 2a2–a2 + 7a2
3) 5xy + 6xy – 9xy – xy + 10xy – 2xy

is
re S
4) 2x 2
+ 4y – 3z + x2 – y + z + 4x2 + 3y + z
B
bl
III. Find the sum of the following binomials:
be T

1) (3x + 4y) and (5x + 7y)


pu
K

2) (13a – 4b) and (4a – 6b)


3) (xy – 7z) and (6z –10xy)
©

4) (20a2bc – 3ab2c) and (10ab2c – 3a2bc)


IV. Find the sum of the following trinomials:
1) (4x + 3y + 5z) and (2x – 6y – 2z)
2) (p2 + 3q2 + 5r2) and (6p2 – 2q2 + 6r2)
to

3) (4a + b – 2c) and (3b + 2a + 5c)


4) (4x2y – 5y2z + 6z2x) and (7z2x – 2x2y + 3y2z)
t

V. Add the following expressions:


No

1) (5mn – 3p), (mn + p), (6mn – 2p)


2) (x + y – z), (2x + 3y + 2z) and (5x – 6y + 3z)
3) (5a2 + 2a–3), (2a2 + 3a + 1) and (3a2 – 4a + 5)
VI. Add all terms
5x2, 2x2 + y, 3 x2 + 3y + 7, y2+ 5z + 6y + 4

103
Subtraction of algebraic expressions
a) Subtraction of monomials
i) Only like terms can be subtracted
ii) Subtract their numerical coefficient to find their
difference
Example 1: Subtract 5x from 12x.

d
Solution: (12x) – (5x)

he
= (12 – 5) x

is
= 7x
re S
Example 2 : Subtract 5xy from the sum of 7xy and 3xy
B
bl
Solution: (7xy + 3xy) – 5xy
be T
pu
= 10 xy – 5 xy
K

= 5xy
©

b) Subtraction of binomials and trinomials


i) Row method :
All expressions are written in a horizontal line and then the
terms are arranged to collect all groups of like terms together.
Change the sign (from + to – or from – to +) of each term in the
to

expression which is to be subtracted and then add the two


expressions.
Example 1: Subtract (5x+3y) from (9x+7y)
t
No

Solution: Row method


(9x + 7y) – (5x + 3y)
= 9x + 7y – 5x – 3y
= 9x – 5x + 7y – 3y
= (9 – 5)x + (7 – 3)y
= 4x + 4y
104
ii) Column method :
In this method expressions are written in a separate row
such that their like terms are arranged one below the other
in a column. Change the sign of every term in the expression
to be subtracted below the original sign of each term. Then
add like terms.

d
he
Example 1 : Subtract (5x+3y) from (9x+7y)
9x + 7y minuend

is
re S
(–)5x + (–) 3y subtrahend
B
bl
4x + 4y → Difference
be T
pu
Example 2: Subtract (ax + by) from (2ax + 5by)
K

Solution: Row method Column method


©

(2ax + 5by) – (ax + by) 2ax + 5 by minuend

= 2ax + 5by – ax – by (–)ax + (–) by subtrahend

= (2 – 1)ax + (5 – 1) by ax + 4 by difference
to

= ax + 4by

Example 3: Subtract (2a + b + 6c) from (10a – 5b + 12c)


t

Solution: Row method Column method


No

(10a – 5b + 12c) – (2a + b + 6c) : 10a – 5b + 12c minuend


(–)
= 10a – 5b + 12c – 2a – b – 6c : (–)2a +(–)b + 6c ubtrahend

= (10a – 2a) + ( – 5b – b) + (12c – 6c) :


= 8a – 6b + 6c :
8a – 6b + 6c difference

105
Excercise 4.5

I. Subtract the first term from the second term in the


following:
1) 8x, 15x

2) 6a2b, 14a2b

d
he
3) –6ab, 10ab

4) 8x2y, –14x2y

is
re S B
bl
II. Subtract :
be T
pu
1) (7x + 4y) from (12x + 6y)
K

2) (13a – 6b) from (17a – 4b)


©

3) (– 6m2n – mn2) from ( – 10m2n + 4mn2)


4) (7pqr – 8q + 6) from (10 – 4pqr + 3q)
to

III. 1) By how much (6x + 10y) is greater than (2x + 6y)

2) By how much (2d – c) is greater than (5c – 2d)


t
No

3) What should be added to (3x + 4y + 6) to get (4x – 2y – 8)


4) What should be added to (9m2n2 – 12xy + 10) to get
(15m2n2 – 10xy)

106
Multiplication of algebraic expressions
Look at the shelf
5 glasses
5 glasses
5 glasses

d
5 glasses

he
The glasses are arranged in 4 rows. In each row there are
5 glasses. What is the total number of glasses in four rows ?

is
re S
5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 20 glasses
B
bl
We have already learnt that multiplication is repeated
be T

addition.
pu
K

5 × 4 = 20 glasses
©

Suppose each row has '2x' number of glasses


Then, total number of glasses in the shelf is given by
2x + 2x + 2x + 2x = 8x

2x × 4 = 8x glasses
to

Recall the signs used while multiplying integers


Positive integer (+a) × Positive integer (+b) = Positive integer(+ab)
t
No

Positive integer (+a) × Negative integer (–b) = Negative integer(-ab)

Negative integer (–a) × Positive integer (+b) = Negative integer(-ab)

Negative integer (–a) × Negative integer (–b) = Positive integer(+ab)


Multiplication of monomials
Example 1 : Multiply 3x by 5y

107
Solution : Multiply the numerical coefficient first and then
the literal coefficient. Note :
(3x) (5y) = (3 × x) × (5 × y) 3 × 5 ≠ 35
= (3 × 5) × ( x × y)
But, a × b = ab
If variables are written
= 15xy side by side it indicates
Example 2 : Multiply (–20x) by (+3y) their product.

d
Solution : (–20x) (+3y) = (–20 × x) (3× y)

he
= (–20 × 3) (x × y)
= –60xy

is

re S
Example 3 : Find the product of (-2x), (–3x), (4x)
B
Solution : bl (–2x) (–3x) (4x)
be T
pu
= (–2 ×–3 × 4) (x × x × x)
K

= +24x 3
©

Example 4 : Find the product of 3x 2 and 5x 3


Solution : (3x 2) (5x 3) Recall
= (3 × 5) (x × x )
2 3
Laws of exponent
= 15x 5 am × an = am+n
Multiplication of a binomial by a monomial
to

Let us consider the product


5 × 108 = 540
t
No

We may write this in the form 5 × (100+8)


Let us write 5 ×108 = 5 (100+8)
Recall
= (5 × 100) + (5 × 8) the distributive
= 500 + 40 property of
= 540 integers
i.e., a (b + c) = (a × b) + (a × c)

108
Example 1 : Multiply (3x + 2y) by 5y
Solution : 5y (3x + 2y)

= (5y × 3x) + (5y × 2y)

= 15xy + 10y2

d
Example 2 : Find the product of (8y – 3) and 4x

he
Solution : 4x × (8y – 3)

= (4x × 8y) + (4x × – 3)

is
re S
= 32xy – 12x
B
bl
be T
pu
Example 3 : Find the product of (8x –17y) and ( – 2x)
K

Solution : (8x – 17y) ( – 2x)


©

= (8x × –2x) + (–17y ×– 2x)


= –16x2 + 34xy

Multiplication of a binomial by a binomial.


As with multiplying a monomial by a binomial, using
to

distributive property, we can multiply a binomial by a binomial.


Let us consider the product of binomials.
t
No

Example 1 : Multiply (x+1) and (x+2)


(x + 1) (x+ 2) = x (x + 2) + 1(x + 2)
= x2 + 2x + x +2
= x2 + 3x + 2
We can also use FOIL method to multiply binomial by a
binomial.

109
(x + 1) (x + 2)

F – Multiply the FIRST terms x × x = x2


O – Multiply the OUTER terms x × 2 = 2x
I – Multiply the INNER terms 1×x=x

d
L – Multiply the LAST terms 1×2=2

he
so, (x + 1) (x +2)

is
= x2 + 2x + x + 2
re S B

bl
= x2 + 3x +2
be T
pu
K

Example 2 : Multiply (2a + 5) and (a – 7)


Solution : (2a + 5) (a – 7)
©

= 2a (a–7) + 5 (a–7)
= 2a2 – 14a + 5a – 35
= 2a2 – 9a – 35
to

Example 3 : Find the product of (n – 11) and (n – 5)


t

(n – 11) (n – 5) = n (n – 5) – 11 ( n – 5)
No

= [(n × n) – (n × 5)] – [(11 × n) – (11 × 5)]


= [(n × n) – (n × 5)] – [(11 × n) – (11 × 5)]
= n2 – 5n – (11n – 55)
= n2 – 5n – 11n + 55
= n2 – 16n + 55

110
Exercise 4.6

I. Multiply:
1) 7x , 8y, 5z 2) –2p, 59, –4r 3) (6m) , (–8n) , (+3p)
4) (–3a) , (–b) , (–6c) 5) –3x , 4x , 5x 6) (–2p) (+3p2) (–3p3)

II. Find the product of:

d
he
1) 6xy, 2yz and 7xz 2) –7ab, 5bc and –6ca
3) 4x2y, –3y2z and x2 4) –3a2, –2b3 and –4e4

is
re S
III. Multiply:
B
bl
1) (6x + 7y) by 2z
3) (–18x – y) by 2z
2) (3p – 5q) by –5p
4) (2ab + 3bc) by 6abc
be T
pu
K

IV. Multiply
©

1) (x + 4) (x + 8) 2) (5n + 2) (n –3)
3) (3a –b) (2a + b) 4) (5x – 2p) (5x + 2p)
5) (2x – 7) (x – 3)

    
t to
No

111
CHAPTER- 5

PAIR OF ANGLES
After studying this chapter you :
 understand the meaning of adjacent angles,
complementary angles, supplementary angles,

d
and vertically opposite angles,

he
 identify adjacent angles, complementary angles,
supplementary angles, linear pair and vertically
opposite angles,

is
re S
 solve the problems based on adjacent angles,
B
bl
complementary angles, supplementary angles, linear
pair and vertically opposite angles.
be T
pu
In our day to day activities the knowledge of geometry is
K

useful. The concepts of geometry such as line and angle are


essential in many occupations like carpentry, engineering
©

and tailoring. We come across situations which involve these


concepts in our daily life. For example, corners formed by
walls, slant position of ladder against the wall, inclination of
hill. The angles formed in these examples can be determined.
In your previous class, you have learnt different lines and
angles.
to

Now, identify the types of lines from the following :


t
No

(i) (ii) (iii)

112
Example : figure (i) is a horizontal line
Figure (ii) -------------- Figure (iii) --------------

Identify the type of angles formed in the


following figures?
K
Q

d
A X

he
O B P O Y O

is
Fig i Fig ii O L Fig iv
re S
Fig iii
B
bl
Example : In the above figure AOB is an acute angle
be T
pu
Some letters in the English alphabet are given below. Mark
K

the angles that you can notice and try to name them as acute,
obtuse and right angle.
©

Example : In a Letter ''T'' the marked angle is a right angle.


Remember
to

• A Point is the simplest of all the geometrical figures


Conceptually, a point has no size, but has ''position".
t

A fine dot made by a sharp pencil on a plane sheet of


No

paper is the physical representation of a point.


• A Line has no beginning point or end point. Imagine
it is continuing indefinitely in both the directions. It is
indicated by small arrows on both the ends.

113
• A Line Segment has a beginning point and an end
point. It is a part of the line.

P
X Y Q
K
N

d
M

he
L O

All the sides of the triangle KLO are line segments.

is
re S
• A ray has a beginning point but no end point. Think
B
bl
of Sun's rays. They start from Sun and move in all
directions.
be T
pu
K
©

Sun
to

• An angle is formed when two rays meet at a common


point. The two rays of the angle are called the arms
and the point where they meet is called the vertex.
t

The size of an angle depends upon the slope


No

or inclination of one arm on the other arm of A


an angle.
In the given figure OA and OB are two rays
starting from O. The angle between horizontal
ray OB and vertical ray OA is right angle. That
is AOB = 900 O B

(Then, What do you call those rays?)


114
Know this :
Measurement of angles : An angle is also defined as the
amount of the rotation made by a ray from its initial position
to the terminal position. The rotation may be clockwise or
anticlockwise.
Initial
Initial position

d
position

he
clockwise anticlockwise
Terminal Terminal
Position Position

is
Note : An angle formed by clockwise or anti clockwise
re S
direction, the value of the angle remains the same.
B
bl Congruent [Equal] Angles :
be T
pu
Look at the following figures, What is the measure of each
K

angle?
Plane - 1
©

400 400
40 0
to

Plane - 2 Plane - 3
t
No

500
300 30 0

500

In the Plane -1, the measure of each angle is 400. In the


Plane 2, it is 300 and in the plane 3, it is 500.

115
The angles having the same measurement on a same
plane are called equal ( Congruent ) angles.
CONGRUENT is derived from a Latin word, CONGRUENTEM
which means "to agree" this word is used for 'equal'

Pair of angles :

d
In geometry, certain pair of angles can have special

he
features. Our knowledge of acute, right, and obtuse angles
helps to know the relation between pairs of angles.

is
Adjacent angles :
re S B
bl
be T

Look at the given figure, identify the


pu
K

angles, which are placed side by side.


©

• How many angles are formed in the figure ? Name them.


• Identify the angles which are placed side by side in the
figure.
• Write the name of the vertex and arms of the angles
placed side by side.
to

Here, ''O'' is the vertex OB and OC are the arms of an angle


BOC . similarly OA and OB are the arms of the another
t

angle AOB .
No

That is to say;
i) They have one common vertex.

ii) They have one common arm separating the two arms.
The pair of angles which have one common vertex and one
common arm (side), which separates the angles are called
adjacent angles.

116
In the given figure, AOB and BOC are adjacent angles.

Activity - 1 :
A
In the given figure, locate the three pairs of
adjacent angles. O

d
C

he
Think
• Can two obtuse angles be adjacent angles? Justify

is
re S
• Can acute angle be adjacent to obtuse angles? Justify?
B
bl
Think : Look at the angles AOB and
be T
pu
AOC Are they adjacent angles ?
K
©

Exercise 5.1
1. Look at these figures and fill up the table given below :
to

(ii)
(i) (iii)
t
No

(vii)
(iv) (v)
(vi)

117
Figure Angles Arms Common Common Angles are
Vertex Arm adjacent or
not

1 2 3 4 5

d
yes

he
i AOB , BOC OA, OB, OC O OB AOB
& BOC

is
re S
ii
B
iii
bl
be T
pu
K

iv
©

vi

vii
to

2. In the given figure, identify the pairs of adjacent


t

angles, mention its common vertex and common side.


No

118
Angles

(Yes/No)
Common

Common

adjacent
Name of

Name of

Pairs of
Vertex

angles
vertex

arms

Arm
the

the

d
AOB and BOD

he
AOD and BOC

AOC and BOC

is
re S
BOC and AOB
B
bl
AOD and AOB
be T
pu
Group a few more pairs of angles and examine whether
K

they are adjacent angles ?


©

3. Observe the angles marked with one arc and two arc
in the given figure. Are they pairs of adjacent angles ?
Why ?
A R P X
O 1 W
to

B
D
O 1 1
E 2
2 C 2 X
t

O
No

Q Z
F

J P A D M
K Q
2 2 Q N
1 1 2 O
1
O L R S B C P

119
Complementary Angles :
Observe the figures given below in pairs on the same plane.
A A B Q A C
C R
65 0
P
Q
700 250

0
0
20

10
800
B P

d
R C R P B
plane (i) plane (ii) plane (iii)

he
Q

In the given figure; i), ii) and iii) Find the sum of the
measures of pairs of angles.

is
re S
If the sum of two angles in the same plane is equal to 900
B
bl
then they are called complementary angles.
be T

That is by adjoining the angles we get a new angle which


pu
measure 900
K

In the above figure; ABC + PQR = 900 . Here, ABC is


©

complementary to PQR and PQR is complementary to


ABC .

Note : Whenever two angles are complementary, each


angle is said to be complement to the other angle.
to

Think : If one of the angles is x0 then what would be the


complement of this angle ?
t
No

Example 1 : Find the complementary angle of 350.


Let the complementary angle for 350 is x0.
We know that , 350 + x0 = 900
x0 = 900 - 350
x0 = 550
The complementary angle of 350 is 550

120
Example 2 :
If an angle is 5 times of its complementary angle. Find the
measure of pair of angles.
Let an angle be x0
Five times of an angle x0 = 5x0
x0 + 5 x0 = 900

d

6x0 = 900

he
900

x0 =
6
x 0
= 150

is
re S

5x0 = 5 × 15 = 750 The pair of angles is 750 and 150 .
B
bl
Therefore, the complementary angle for 150 is 750 .
be T

Think:
pu
K

* What is the measure of complementary angle of a right angle ?


* What is the measure of complementary angle of 600 ?
©

Think :
 Can two acute angles be complement to each other ?
 Can two obtuse angles be complement to each other ?
 Can two right angles be complement to each other ?
to

Activity :
Take a rectangular sheet o o o
t

of paper. Mark a point 'O'


No

on BC . Fold the sheet


along DO and crease
them, unfold so as to Fig (i) Fig (ii) Fig (iii)
have figure (III) along the
vertex as shown in the figure, then measure marked angles
formed at the folded part.
From this, What do you conclude ?
121
Activity 1 :
 Draw two circles of same convenient radius on a hard
card board sheet.
 Label the circles as A and B respectively
 Draw a radius to the circumference of a circle ''A''.
 Mark 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800, angles

d
respectively on a circle as shown in the figure, using a
protractor and a scale.

he
 Cut the sectors of each angle separately, so that you
get 8 sectors.

is
re S
40
50 30
B
bl
 Mark 900 on the sheet having circle B.
60
20
10
be T

80
pu
70
K

A
©

 y Now place one of these 8 sectors, in such


a way that one arm of the sector coincides
L
with OX as shown in the figure. Let the
O x
sector cover LOX Now try to adjust
another sector that coincide LOY
B
to

 Repeat this activity with other pair of


sectors. Then, make a list of 2 sectors such that they
can cover the sector XOY
t
No

 List the complementary angles that you have used in


your activity.

122
Exercise 5.2

1. In the following figure each pair of angles are


complementary to each other, one of the angles is
given. Find the other angle.

d
is he
re S
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
B
bl
2) Find the complement of each of the following angles.
be T

a) 220 b) 840 c) 20.50 d) 40.50


pu
3) If an angle is 3 times its complement, then find the
K

measure of the pair of angles.


©

Supplementary angles :
Look at the following pairs of angles on the same plane,
O M O P Q R
M O
800
1000
1300 1080
to

500 72
0
S P Q RS M
PQ R S
fig -i fig -iii
fig -ii
t
No

In the given figure i), ii) and iii) find the sum of the pair of
angles SPO and RQM
If the sum of angles on the same plane is a straight angle,
then, they are called supplementary angles.

Supplementary angles are pairs of angles on a plane


whose sum is a straight angle or 1800

123
In the above figure; SPO + MQR = 1800
Hence SPO is supplement to MQR , and MQR , is
supplement to SPO .

Note : When two angles are supplementary, each angle is


said to be the supplement of the other.

d
he
Think : If one of the angle is x0 then what would be the
supplement of this angle ?

is
Example 1 : Find the supplementary angle for 130.50 .
re S B
Let the supplementary angle for 130.50 be x0
bl
We know that the sum of 2 angles in the above case is 1800
be T
pu
i.e. x0 + 130.50 = 1800
K

x0 = 1800 - 130.50
©

x0 = 49.50
Example 2 : One angle is supplementary to the other angle.
The measure of the bigger angle is 900 more than the smaller
angle. Find the measure of each angle.
Let the smaller angle be x0 and the bigger angle is x0 + 900
to

i.e. We know that x0 + (x+90)0 = 1800



x0 + x0 + 900 = 1800
t

2x0 = 1800 - 900


No

x = 90
0
0
2
x = 450
0

Therefore , The smaller angle is 450.


The bigger angle is x0 + 900 = 450 + 900 =1350

124
Think : Whether the following angles are supplementary?
Q

1450 450
O P

d
R

he
Think :
 Can two acute angles be supplement to each other ?

is
Justify.
re S
 Can two obtuse angles be supplement to each other ?
B
bl
Justify.
be T

 Can two right angles be supplement to each other ?


pu
Justify.
K
©

Note : Supplementary angles need not be adjacent angles.

Exercise 5.3
to

1) In the following figure, Which of the following angles


together make supplementary angles?
D
t
No

300
C
70 0
600
A 200
O B

125
2) Verify the following pair of angles; Are they
Supplementary ?

P M B

1350
70 0 1100 450 750 1050

d
R O Q N O P A O C
fig. i fig. ii fig. iii

he
P R
A D

is
re S
1600 1100 800
200
C Q
B
blBE
fig. iv
F OS T
be T

fig. v
pu
K

3) Write the supplementary angle of each of the following


angles.
©

a) 950 b) 1100 c) 120.50 d) 125.50

4) Of the two supplementary angles the measure of the


larger angle is 500 more than the measure of the smaller
angle. Find the measure of each angle.
to

5) If an angle is four times of its supplement, then find


that angle.
t

6) In the given figure; ABC = 350 and DBE = 900 then find
No

the measure of
D
i) Supplementary angle of CBD

ii) Supplementary angle of EBC


C
iii) Supplementary angle of ABD
900 350
iv) Supplementary angle of EBD E B A
126
Linear pair of angles :
Look at the measures of adjacent angles, in the given
figures.
C C C
1500 300 600 1200
A O B A B

d
O

he
900 900
A O B

is
fig. i fig. ii fig. iii
re S B
Find their sum. Then enter in the tabular form;
bl
be T

Figure AOC BOC AOC + BOC


pu
K

i. 1500 300 1500 + 300 = 1800


©

ii. 900 - -

iii. 600 - -

Are AOC and BOC adjacent angles ?


In the figures i, ii, and iii the sum of adjacent angles is 1800
to

and OA and OB rays form a straight line.


What do you call such pair of angles ?
t
No

They are called linear pair of angles.


Two angles are said to be linear pair if.
 They are adjacent angles.
 The sum of the measurement of the angles is 1800.

Note : A pair of supplementary angles form a linear pair


when they are placed adjacent to each other.
127
Exercise 5.4

1. Observe the angles AOB and BOC drawn in the


figure. Do AOB and BOC form a linear pair? Discuss
and Justify.
B A

d
650
A B

he
135 0
130 0
O
600
C

is
C O
re S
2. Find which of the following pairs of angles form a linear
B
bl
pair, when both the angles are placed side by side.
be T

Q
pu
P A B 700 P
A R P
K

550 A
300
©

O 1500
1100
1250 Q O B
Q O B
R
R fig-iii
fig-i fig-ii
Q
R
to

O 90 0 B QA 1400
P Q P O A
900 900
40 0
t

P
No

900
R O B
R
A B
fig-v
fig-iv
fig-vi
3) Find the type of another angle for the following types,
if they have to form a linear pair of angles.
A) An acute angle B) An obtuse angle C) A right angle
128
Game
Take two drawing sheets, cut each sheet to get 40 pieces
and draw the angles of the following measurement on each
piece as given below. Make two sets of the same. The angles
are 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90,100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150,
160, 170, 180 and 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, 85, 95, 105 115, 125,

d
135, 145, 155, 165, 175 (you may choose any measurement,
but think of supplementary or complementary angles). Then

he
at the back of each card mark one of the following numbers
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Place all the cards, so that you can see the

is
re S
numbers on them.
B
bl
Take a dice having 1 to 6 numbers or dots. (two or more
friends can play this game)
be T
pu
Rule : Each member has to throw the dice and take the
K

card of that number. After all the cards are over, that is cards
©

are with the players, exchange one to one card, so that you
can make a complementary or supplementary angle with that.
The person who holds maximum pairing cards is the
winner.
Vertically Opposite Angles :
to

Two sticks are tied across one another as shown in the


figure. Let AB and CD be the sticks and O be the point where
they are banded.
t

D
If AB and CD are line segments A
No

then, 'O' is vertex. AOC , BOC , AOD , BOD


are angles.
How many adjacent angles are there to O
BOC ? Name them
How many adjacent angles are there
to AOC ? Name them C B

129
Now, observe BOC and AOD
IIIrly, observe AOC and BOD

Are they adjacent ?


How are they related ?
BOC and AOD are on either side of the vertex. IIIrly AOC

d
and BOD are also on either side of the vertex.

he
What do you call ? such pairs of angles ?
The angles opposite to each other at the point of intersection

is
re S
of two lines are called vertically opposite angles.
B
Note : bl
be T
pu
The vertically opposite angles have a common vertex.
K

To find the relation between the pair of vertically opposite


©

angles, let us do the following activity.


Acitivity -1
A D A D
to

O O
t

C B C B
No

↔ ↔
 Draw two lines, say AB and CD on a sheet of paper
intersecting at a point O. Then mark the four angles by
COB , BOD , AOD and AOC as shown in the figure.
 Now place a tracing paper or a transparent sheet over
it. Trace the lines AB and CD on this transparent sheet.

130
 Now put the traced copy on the original in such away

that the line AB drawn on the sheet coincide with the

line AB on the tracing paper.
 Now fix a pin at the point of intersection of the line.

Rotate the traced paper in such a way that line AB on
↔ ↔
traced copy lies on BA opposite to the line AB drawn on

d
the original sheet of paper.

he
What do you observe from the above activity?
We observe that,

is
re S
1) COB drawn on original sheet covers completely the
B
bl
AOD drawn on the tracing sheet.
be T
pu
Which means COB coincides with AOD
K

2) AOD drawn on original sheet covers completely the


©

COB drawn on the tracing sheet.

Which means AOD coincides with COB


3) BOD drawn on the tracing paper completely covers the
AOC drawn on the original sheet.
to

Which means BOD coincides with AOC


4) AOC drawn on the tracing paper completely covers the
t

BOD drawn on the white sheet.


No

Which means AOC coincides with BOD


Thus we can conclude that
COB = AOD and BOD = AOC
If two lines intersect each other, a pair of vertically opposite
angles formed are equal.

131
Activity - 2 :Take a sheet of white paper. Fold it length wise
thrice and crease. Unfold the paper. Then fold the paper
diagonally and crease, then unfold it, you get a number
of intersecting points mark them as A, B, C........Measure
the angles formed at each of the vertex calling them A1, A2,
A3.............. and so on. Write the measurements on a tabular
form in such a way that measure of vertically opposite

d
angles lie side by side.

he
Sl. 1st pair of vertically 2nd pair of vertically

is
Vertex
re S
No. opposite angles opposite angles
B
bl
be T

A1 = A2 =
pu
i. A
A3 = A4 =
K
©

ii.

Give some situations from real life where you can see
to

vertically opposite angles.

Exercise 5.5
t

D
No

1) In the given figure, AOC = 600 600 O


Find out the other angle.
B
C

132
E C
2) In the given figure, Identify
the pairs of vertically opposite 1400
angles, name them, If, A O
B
BOE = 1400 and OC⊥EO then,
calculate the measurement of
D
all the angles.

d
D

he
3) In the given figure if AOC = 300
A
find the measurement of the

is
300 O
re S
remaining angles. B
B
bl C
be T
pu
Think :
K

Out of 2 pairs of vertically opposite angles, one pair has


©

the following condition. What would be the nature of other


pair of vertically opposite angle ?
 One pair of acute angle.
 One pair of right angle.
 One pair of obtuse angle.
to

Exercise : 5.6
t
No

I. What is the type of angle that forms a linear pair with.

1) acute angle

2) obtuse angle

3) right angle

133
II. Find the value of 'x' and measure of each angle from
the following.

3x x+20 2x
x 750 x x+50
x+15 2x+15
x+10
fig. i fig. ii fig. iii

d
fig. iv

he
III. In the given figure AOC = 90 0 PQ is the bisector of the
angle BOD and RS is the bisector of the angle AOD

is
re S
Find the other angles.
B
bl R
be T

A
pu
D
K
©

P Q
900
O

C B

S
to

IV. Find the value of x, y and z from the following.


t
No

y 450
A B
O
x 3z
2z

C E

134
V. In the given figure OE ⊥ AB, (OE is perpendicular to AB) then
find the following pairs.
D
i) Linear pair.
ii) Supplementary angles.
A O
B
iii) Vertically opposite angles.

d
iv) Complementary angles.

he
C
VI. Fill in the blanks : E
i) If two angles are complementary, then the sum of their

is
re S
measure is ____________ .
B
bl
ii) If two angles are supplementary, then the sum of their
measure is ____________ .
be T
pu
iii) Two angles forming a linear pair are ____________ .
K

iv) If two adjacent angles are supplementary, they form a


©

____________ .
v) If two lines intersect at a point, and one pair of vertically
opposite angles are acute then the other pair of vertically
opposite angles are ____________.

VII. In the given figure KL = PQ then find


to

K
1) Equivalent supplementary angles.
S
t

2) Vertically opposite angles.


No

3) Unequal supplementary angles. P 450


O Q
4) Adjacent Complementary angles.

5) Vertically opposite obtuse angles. R

L
    
135
CHAPTER- 6
PAIR OF LINES
After studying this chapter you :
 define the meaning of pair of lines,
 define the meaning of intersecting lines,

d
he
 understand the meaning of parallel lines and
transversal,

is
 identify parallel lines and transversal lines in day to
re S
day situations,
B
 bl
identify the angles made by a transversal; corresponding
be T

angles, alternate angles, interior angles, angles on the


pu
same side of the transversal,
K

 solve the problems related to the angles.


©

Observe the photograph of window grill, lines drawn in


your note book, etc.
Look at the figures below; you observe that each line in a
pair lie on the same plane.
t to
No

fig (a) fig (b) fig (c) fig (d)

Count the number of lines drawn in each figure. How


many lines are there in each figure? Yes, there are two lines
in each figure. Observe these figures. Can you identify the
lines crossing each other in fig (a) and fig (c) ?

136
Any two lines on the same plane, irrespective of type or
position, are called pair of lines.

Note:
Any two or more lines or line segments on same plane are
called coplanar lines or coplanar line segments.

d
Intersecting Lines

he
i) Choose a point on a plane, and draw two rays. Name them.

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K

ii) Draw a line segment PQ and mark a point R on it.


©

P R Q

T
 Draw another line segment RT.
P R Q
to

 Let RT stands on PQ .
t

P Q
No

R
 Extend the TR to get TS .
S

Look at the above figure, SR and TR meet the line segment


PQ at 'R'. ST crosses PQ through a point 'R'. The line segment
ST is called intersection line segment of PQ and R is the
intersecting point.

137
Look at these figures formed by rays and lines.

d
fig. I fig. II
fig. III

he
In the fig (i) The rays BA and BC start from point B. In the
figure (ii) and (iii) lines AB and CD cross each other at a point O.

is
re S
AB and CD are called intersecting lines and 'O' is called the
B
bl
intersecting point.
be T

Any two lines which cross through a common point are


pu
called intersecting lines and the common point is called
K

the point of intersection.


©

In the given figure PQ and RS intersect P


S
each other. Where do the lines PQ and
RS intersect each other ?
O
Which point is common to both the
R Q
to

line? What do you call this common point?

Activity 1 :
t

In the given figure, identify intersecting


No

line segments. For example, AC and BD are O


intersecting at O. Try to find out other pairs
of intersecting line segments and make a
list of them.

Think : Does any pair of lines or line segments always


intersect ?
138
Parallel Lines
Activity 2 : Draw a line segment AB.
Mark points K,L,M and N on the
line segment AB. Mark 900 at M
then draw an angular line and
mark a point 'P 'on that line. Now
join PK , PL , and PN as shown in

d
the figure. Measure the lengths
PK , PL , PM and PN using scale

he
and measure PMB , PMA , PNM and PKL by using a
protractor. Compare the lengths of PK , PL , PM and PN .
 Which line appears to be the least in length ?

is
re S
 Name the shortest length which stands on AB.
B
bl
The least distance between the given line segment from
an external point is PM . The angle at M is 900. Then, the
be T

line PM is called perpendicular to AB . So, Among all the


pu
line segment drawn from an external point to a given line
K

segment perpendicular has the least length.


©

Note: The symbol used to denote perpendicular is ⊥. PM is


perpendicular to AB. It is represented by PM = AB .

Parallel Lines
Scale
t to
No

Post Card

139
Look at the boundaries of the scale and post card.
Draw lines along the length wise boundaries of the scale
them. Name as PQ and RS as shown below. Now extend the
lines PQ and RS on either side.
P Q
R S

d
Do the two lines meet each other ?
Measure the perpendicular distance between the lines at

he
different points.
What do you infer from them ?

is
re S
What name is given to such lines ?
B
bl
Here, PQ and RS are at same distance at all corresponding
points. So, we call such lines as ''parallel lines''.
be T
pu
A pair of straight lines are said to be parallel, if the
K

distance between corresponding points of the lines are


always the same.
©

Note :
1) Two parallel lines can be represented by marking the
arrows on both the lines in the same direction. ⇒
2) If two parallel lines are extended in both directions, they
to

never meet each other on the same plane.

In the given figures, line AB and CD are two lines drawn in


t
No

different positions and the distance between them are same.

Why do these lines not meet or cross ?

140
The distance between two lines does not change. Hence,
the parallel lines do not meet anywhere.
Activity 3 : Observe the lines drawn in your graph book
and identify;
i) Parallel lines.
ii) Perpendicular lines.
What difference do you observe between them ?

d
Activity 4 : List at least 5 examples from your surroundings

he
where you see ;
(i) Parallel lines.

is
re S
ii) Perpendicular lines.
B
Note : bl
be T
pu
1) If two lines AB and CD are parallel, we write AB || CD
K

2) If they are perpendicular, we write AB ⊥ CD .


©

Transversal Lines
Activity 5 :
Draw a line segment AB and another line segment PQ as
shown in the figure, Where do they meet each other ?
to

Now, let us draw another line segment CD above the line


segment AB which intersects PQ as shown in the figure. Then
mark the point of intersection as L.
t
No

Q Q
C
L D
A B A B
K
A B
K
P P

What do you observe ? PQ intersects AB at K and CD at L.

141
Observe the following figures

fig - i fig -ii

d
P A C

he
C K D
P Q
L

is
K L
A
re S
M B
B
bl
Q B
fig - iv
D
be T

fig - iii
pu
In the above figures,
K

Name the line that intersects the lines AB and CD in each


©

case ?
Mark the points of intersection as K, L as shown in the
figure (i).
In the above figures, PQ intersects at least two lines; such
an intersecting line is called transversal.
The line that intersects at least two lines on a same
to

plane is called a transversal line.


Activity 6 :
t

 Take a sheet of white paper.


No

 Make two or three folds length wise and crease it, then
unfold the paper.
 Now fold the paper other than length wise and crease,
then unfold the paper.
 Mark the lines caused by folding using a pencil.
 Name the lines and intersecting points. Make a list of
intersecting lines and transversal lines.

142
Activity 7 : In the figures given below, name the transversal
and justify.
P P A C
B A
K B
L
A P L Q
D K
C

d
K L
C D

he
Q B D
Q

Think : In the given figure, 'EF' is not a

is
re S
transversal all though it cuts the line 'AB'
B
and 'CD'?
bl
be T

By observing the above, under what


pu
condition is a line called transversal ?
K

Angles formed by a transversal line


©

Look at the figure;


Name the line segment, transversal and the point of
intersection made by the transversal.
AB , CD and PQ are lines, in which PQ
to

is the transversal; K and L are distinct


points of intersection. PKB , AKQ are
vertically opposite angles,
t

find out other opposite angles formed


No

by the point K and L PKB , AKP are supplementary angles.


Identify other pairs of angles formed by the intersecting point
K and L
There are eight different angles formed at the intersecting
point K and L
How can these angles further be classified ?

143
Interior angles
P In the figure AB , CD and PQ are three straight
K lines.
A 1 2 B
C
3 4 Which is the transversal line ?
L D
Q Which are the angles formed by PQ at K
and L intersecting points.

d
Observe the following four angles AKQ , BKQ formed at

he
K, CLP and DLP formed at L.
What commonality do we observe among these four angles ?

is
re S
We observe that these angles which lie between the lines
B
bl
'AB' and 'CD' ,'KL' is the interior part of transversal 'PQ'.Since
these four angles are formed interior to the pair of lines. They
be T

are named as interior angles.


pu
K

The angles formed by a line segment of the transversal and


between pair of lines are called interior angles.
©

Therefore, in the above figure AKL , KLC and BKL , KLD


are interior angles.
Exterior angle; [External angle]
P
In the figure AB , CD and PQ are three
B straight lines Which is the transversal
to

A K
line?
C
L D Now, name the interior angles on the
t

same side of a transversal PQ .


No

Q
Observe the pair of angles outside the
pair of lines on the same side of the
transversal.
Here AKP at point K and CLQ at point L are pair of angles.
Similarly, PKB at K, and QLD at L are pair of angles.
What are the similarities between these pair of angles ?
144
Notice that these pair of angles lie outside the parallel lines
AB and CD on same side of the transversal .
What name do you suggest for such pair of angles ?
Certainly these angles are outside the lines other than the
transversal and hence, they are termed as External angles or
Exterior angles.
Therefore, the pair of angles which lie outside the pair

d
of lines, but on the same side of the transversal are called

he
Exterior angles or External angles.
A

is
Activity 8 : Identify the pair of interior angles
re S
and exterior angles from the following F
B
bl
figure and make a list of them.
D G
E
be T
pu
B C
Consecutive Interior Angles
K

In the given figure, observe the pair of


©

P
angles AKL and KLC and another pair A
K
BKL and KLD with respect to a transversal
C B
PQ . L
Observe that, AKL and KLC are pair
D
to

of interior angles on the same side of the Q


transversal PQ. ly the pair of angles BKL
and KLD are on the right side of the transversal. Such pair
t
No

of angles are called consecutive interior angles.


In the above figure AKL and KLC form one pair of
consecutive interior angles. Can you name other pair of
consecutive interior angles in the same figure ?
The interior angles on the same side of a transversal are
called "Consecutive Interior angles".

145
Corresponding Angles
Observe the angles marked in each of the figures.
P
A
K B

d
C D
L
Q

he
fig i
fig ii
P

is
re S
A B
K
B
bl D
be T
pu
C L
K

Q
fig iii
fig iv
©

In the above figures, PQ is a transversal. It cuts AB and


CD at K and L respectively.
In the given figure (i) AKP and CLK are marked on left
side of the transversal PQ and AKP lies above AB and CLK
to

lies above CD .
In the given figure (ii) pair of angles AKL and CLQ are
on left side of the transversal PQ and are below the lines AB
t
No

and CD .
In the given figure (iii) pair of angles PKB and KLD are
at right side of the transversal PQ and lie above the lines AB
and CD .
In the given figure (iv) pair of angles BKL and DLQ are
at right side of the transversal PQ and lie below the lines AB
and CD .
146
What can we observe from the above ?
The pair of angles in each figure,
a) have different vertices,
b) are on the same side of the transversal,
c) are above the pair of parallel lines in fig (i) and(ii) in fig
(iii) and fig (iv) below the parallel lines. Such pair of angles

d
are termed as Corresponding Angles.

he
The pair of angles which
 have different vertices,
 lie on the same side of transversal, and

is
re S
 are located in respective positions of the pair of lines
B
bl
are called corresponding angles.
be T

In the figures (i,ii,iii & iv) the pair of angles (i) ( AKP and CLK )
pu
(ii)( AKL and CLQ ) (iii)( PKB and KLD ) & (iv) ( BKL and DLQ
K

are corresponding angles.


©

Activity 9 : Fold a sheet of paper and crease it to get parallel


lines and transversal lines as shown in the figure. Name the
lines and intersecting points. Write pairs of corresponding
angles in each case.

Think : The letter 'F' helps you to remember corresponding


to

angles. How ?
Alternate Interior Angles :
t
No

Observe the angles marked in each of the given figures.


P
A K
B
L
C D
Q
Fig i Fig ii
147
In the figure (i) AKL lies to the left of transversal PQ
and below the line AB while the KLD lies to the right of the
transversal PQ and above the line CD .
In the figure (ii) BKL is on the right side of transversal
PQ and lies below the line AB while KLC is on left side of the
transversal PQ and lies above the line CD .

d
Make a list of what conclusions do you draw from the above

he
information ? Yes, the pair of angles in each figure,
(a) have different vertices

is
re S
(b) are at opposite sides of the transversal
B
bl
(c) are in the interior side of the parallel lines
be T
pu
(d) are in different position of the parallel lines that is if one
K

angle is above the line, the another angle is below the line,
So, such pair of angles are termed as Alternate Interior
©

angles.
In the above figures, pair of Angles AKL , KLD and
BKL , KLC are Alternate Interior Angles.

The pair of angles which


to

i) have different vertices


ii) lie on opposite sides of the transversal, and
t

iii) lie in the interior of parallel lines and


No

iv) located in different positions of parallel lines are called


Alternate interior angles.
Activity 10: Make paper folding as in previous activity mark
lines, then identify alternate interior angles.

148
Think :How are the letter N and Z useful to identify the
alternative angles ?

Transversals to parallel lines :


Observe the following pictures that you have seen in your
daily life.

d
is he
re S B
fig i
bl fig ii fig iii
be T

In the above figure; (i) picture of a ladder, (ii) photograph


pu
of a window, and (iii) photo of railway track. Identify which
K

of them looks like (a) parallel lines and (b) transversal line ?
©

Activity 11 :
 Take a sheet of paper.
 Draw two parallel lines AB and CD on it. Then draw a
transversal PQ to the lines.
to

Mark the pair of corresponding angles as shown below.


t
No

Fig iv
Fig i Fig ii Fig iii
Place a tracing paper over the figure (i), trace figure (i)
correctly. Now slide the tracing paper on vertex L, in such a
way that the line segment AB coincides with the line CD and
the vertex K at vertex L.
149
What do you observe from the above diagrams ?

We observe that the traced angle AKP in each case


completely covers the angle. KLC at vertex L.
What kind of angles are AKP and KLC ?
AKP and KLC are corresponding angles. From this
activity we notice that AKP = KLC .

d
Now, mark PKB on a trace sheet in figure (iii) Place the

he
marked tracing sheet coincide with the figure(iii). Then slide
the tracing paper such that AB coincides with CD and K

is
coincides with L.
re S
Observe PKB and KLD . What is your inference ?
B
bl
Yes, PKB = KLD
be T
pu
LKB = QLD , AKL = CLQ Therefore we conclude that,.
K

Relation between a pair of alternate angles made by a


©

transversal to parallel lines.


Activity 12 : Draw two parallel lines AB and CD and also
draw a transversal PQ on a sheet of paper, then mark the
pair of alternate angles as shown below.
t to
No

Fig (i) Fig (ii) Fig (iii) Fig (iv)


Trace figure (i) on transparent paper. Fold the traced figure
and crease such away that line AB exactly coincides with the
line CD and also the vertex K coincides with L.
Then, unfold the transparent paper and mark the point of
intersection on the line segment PQ . Mark that point as 'x' .
150
Then place a transparent paper over the corresponding
figure drawn on a sheet of paper in such a way that the line
AB on the transparent sheet coincide with the line AB on the
sheet as in fig (iii).
Then fix a drawing pin at the point 'x' on the transparent

d
paper and mark AKL . Now rotate the transparent sheet, in

he
such away that the line AB of the transparent sheet coincides
with the line CD drawn on the sheet of paper, but directed in

is
the opposite direction of CD . Observe the AKL that coincide
re S
exactly with KLD .
B
bl
be T

What do you infer from this activity? yes we infer that


pu
AKL = KLD .
K

Now mark BKL as shown in the figure (iii). Then rotate


©

on the axis 'x'. Now can you justify with the pair of angles;
BKL = KLC .

Therefore, we conclude from the above activity that;


If transversal is drawn to a pair of parallel lines, the pair
to

of alternate angles are always equal.


Interior angles on the same side of the Transversal :
t

Activity 13 : Draw two parallel lines AB and CD ¸and a


No

transversal PQ on a sheet of paper.

Fig (i) Fig (ii)

151
Now, trace figure (i) on the tracing sheet; then place the
tracing sheet on the sheet of paper in such away that the
line AB of tracing paper coincide with the line CD such that
A coincides with D.
Note : The direction of arrow of line AB of tracing sheet
and direction of arrow of the line CD on the sheet is opposite.
Notice that AKL = KLD Now you measure the angles BKL

d
and KLD and find the sum of these two angles.

he
We know that AKL + BKL = 1800 , because they are adjacent
angles.

is
re S
Now substitute AKL for KLD then KLD + BKL = 1800
B
bl
Similarly, BKL = CLK , therefore AKL + CLK = 1800 .
be T

Hence we conclude that,


pu
K

Let us observe the relation with pair of angles and line seg-
ments with this activity.
©

Step 1 : Take a sheet of paper. Draw A K


B
a line AB . Then mark a point K on it.
Step 2: Construct an angle of 1000 at
K. Draw an angular line and produce 1000
A B
it
to

Step 3: Take a tracing paper, draw a C L


D
t

line CD by using marker, then mark


No

a point L on it.
Step 4: Construct an angle of 1000 at
L. Draw an angular line and produce 1000
as you did it earlier C D
L

152
Step 5: Now you place a tracing paper P
below or above the line AB . Adjust
the position of AB and CD by sliding A B
K
up and down in such away that lines
C D
drawn from K and L coincide exactly L
with one another, so that the line is Q
a transversal.

d
he
Observe the pair of angles AKP and CLK . Which type of
angles are they?
They are corresponding angles and they are equal. Now

is
re S
measure the height between AB, CD at different positions. Are
B
they same? Then, What relation do you observe between the
bl
pair of lines AB and CD ?
be T
pu
When a transversal cuts two lines in such away that each
K

pair of corresponding angles remain equal, then the lines are


parallel.
©

Think :
 When a transversal cuts two lines in such away that
each pair of alternate angles is equal, then what would
be the nature of lines ?
 When a transversal lines cuts two line segments, the
corresponding angles formed are equal, then what
to

would be the nature of lines ?


 When a transversal cuts two lines in such away that
t

the sum of the interior angles on the same side of the


No

transversal are supplementary, then what would be


the nature of lines ?

153
Think :
1) Observe the shapes given below. How can you identify
the interior angles on the same side of the transversal
lines ?
2) If a transversal cuts two line segments, if the sum of
the interior angles are supplementary, then what do

d
you call those line segments ?

is he
re S B
bl
be T
pu
Activity 14: Draw two non - parallel lines AB and CD and
K

draw a transversal PQ, which cuts the parallel lines at K and


L respectively, then measure a pair of corresponding angles,
©

a pair of alternate angles, and interior angles on the same


side of the transversal. Write your conclusions.
A simple procedure to verify whether a given pair of lines
are parallel or not.
Draw two pair of lines on the same sheet of paper as in
to

the fig - (i) and fig - (ii).


t
No

fig-i fig- ii

154
A B A B

C C
D D

Name the two given lines as AB and CD . Put a ruler (scale)

d
in such away that its edges cross both the lines 'AB' and 'CD'.

he
Mark lines along the edges of the scale.
Remove the scale and name the points P and Q where the

is
re S
lines marked by the scale which meet on the given line 'AB'.
B
bl
Also name the points as 'R' and 'S' where lines marked by the
be T

scale meet the line 'CD'. Measure the length of the segments
pu
PQ and RS in each case.
K
©

fig (i) fig (ii)


In the given figure (i) we observe that length of PQ = length
to

RS . We conclude, that lines AB and CD are parallel to each


other where as in the figure (ii) the length of PR ≠ QS we can
say that the lines AB and CD are not parallel.
t
No

And hence, we conclude that, PQ and RS are perpendicular


to line AB and CD then, they are parallel.
If the perpendicular distance between two lines are equal,
then the lines are parallel.

155
Example 1 : In the given figure A B
G 500 D
ABIICDIIEF. GF= EF and BGD = 500 C
Find the remaining angles E F

+ = 180
O
[ CD║EF] ABG and BGD are alternate

d
O O
= 180 - 90
angles.

he
O
= 90

= = 50
O
Here CGB and BGD form a

is
O
= 50
re S
linear pair,
∴ CGB + BGD = 180
O
B
blO
CGB = 180 - 50
O
be T

O
CGB = 130
pu
K

Example 2 : In the given figure. Find the measure of marked


©

angle.
O
A E
CFE + EFG = 180 B
O O
CFE + 40 = 180
O O
CFE = 180 + 40 400
O C D
CFE = 140 F G
to

The marked angles is FEB


CFE , FEB are alternate angle
t
No

Since ABIICD
CFE = FEB

FEB = 1400

156
Example 3 : Find the marked A

angle p, q, r and s from the given


D p 700 F s
? q E
figure.
600 r
B C
i) ABC = 60 0

d
Since DEIIBC Corresponding angles are equal

he
ADF = ABC

p = ABC

is
ABC = 600
re S
` p = 600
B
bl
ii) AFD and EFC are the vertically opposite angles
be T
pu
AFD = EFC
K

700 = q
q = 700
©

iii) EFC and ACB are alternate angles.


` ACB = EFC
r = 700
` r = 700
to

AFD + CFD = 1800 [ linear angles]


700 + CFD = 1800
t

∴ CFD = 1800 - 700


No

∴ CFD = 1100

CFD and AFE are vertically opposite angles

[ DE║BC and AC transversal line]


∴ CFD = AFE
s = 1100
∴ s = 1100
157
Exercise 6.1
1. Write down the angle that corresponds to the coloured
angle?
b) c)
a)

d
he
d) e) f)

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
2) Find the measure of the angles of each marked letter
K

in each figure.
©

a) b) c)
E G
A 700
I J B

C D
K L
F
to

H
3) In the given figure PQRS is T
a parallelogram then find P 130 0
t

S
No

the measure of all interior


angles.
Q R

4) In the figure MN||BC. Find the


measure of all interior angles of
triangle ABC

158
5) Decide whether AB is parallel to CD in the given
figure
E C
A
B
G 126
0
750 F
A 750
C D E
H 440

d
D
F

he
B
6) In the given figure, the arms of the two angles are
parallel, if ABC = 700 then find, DGC and DEF .

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K
©

7) Find the measure of marked angles a, b, c and d from


the given figures.
1) 2) 3)
t to
No

4) 5)

    
159
CHAPTER- 7
TRIANGLES
After studying this chapter you :
 find through activities the sum of the interior angles
of a triangle,

d
 establish the sum of the interior angles of a triangle

he
is 1800 through paper folding (origamy),
 prove the sum of interior angles of a triangle is 1800

is
using the properties of parallel lines,
re S B

bl
Identify the difference between logical proof and activity
based proof,
be T
pu
 establish the relationship between exterior angle of a
K

triangle and interior opposite angles,


 understand that the sum of any two sides of a triangle
©

is always greater than the third side,


 understand the Pythagorean theorem through
activities.
Introduction
t to
No

Triangle is one of the most familiar geometrical shapes.


You observe many triangles in the above given figures.
Poles tied in the triangular shape attain more stability.
We observe many triangular objects and patterns in our
surroundings. Hence, it is necessary to learn the properties
of triangles.
160
Angle sum property of a triangle
Activity 1 :
A A

d
B C

he
fig (i) C fig (ii) B

Draw a triangle as shown in fig (i) Name its vertices as

is

re S
A, B, C
B
bl
 Measure the interior angles of the triangle using
protractor. (as shown in the fig ii)
be T
pu
 Write the measures in the table given below. For example
K

in the fig (1) the measures of angles are written.


 Find the sum of the three angles.
©

Interior Triangle 1 Triangle 2 Triangle 3 Triangle Triangle


angles of the above 4 5
triangles series
angle 1 640
angle 2 560
to

angle 3 600
sum of the
1800
t

three angles
No

Similarly, construct different types of triangles (eg :-


equilateral, scalene, acute angle, obtuse angle) Measure each
interior angles of these triangles.
Write these measures in the given table.
Find the sum of three angles of each triangle.
From the above activity, what do you observe about the
sum of the three interior angles of a triangle?
161
Let us do another activity.
Activity 2 :
1
 Take a thick paper. Draw a triangle 
of any measurement.
 Mark the three angles as 1, 2 and 3. 2 3
 Cut angle 1, angle 2 and angle 3 as fig (1)

d
shown in fig (1).

he
 Rearrange the cut pieces in such
away that the vertices coincide at a
point as shown in fig (2).

is
re S
 What is your observation about the
fig (2)
sum of the three angles of triangle?
B
bl
∴ What do you observe about the sum of the interior
be T

angles of a triangle?
pu
Let us do another activity (without cutting the paper)
K

Activity 3:
©

 Draw a triangle ABC on a thick


sheet as shown in the figure.
 Name the angles as 1, 2 and 3.
 Mark the mid points of AB and
AC as P and Q respectively. as fig (1)
shown in the fig (1).
to

 Fold the triangle APQ on the line A


PQ. Now, vertex A touches BC at
M.
t

P Q
No

 Fold the vertex B so that BP


coincides with PM. 1
2 3
 Fold the vertex C so that QC B C
M
coincides with QM
fig (2)
 Now you will find 1 , 2 and 3
makes a straight angle.
From the above three activities we establish that the sum
of the three interior angles of a triangle is 1800.
162
Exercise 7.1

1) Take a rectangular sheet of paper. Cut a right angle triangle


at one of its corner. Cut two angles other than the right
angle. Place the other two angles at the vertex where the
right angle is formed in such away that they all coincide
with each other. State your opinion about the sum of the
three angles of a triangle.

d
A
2) Draw an obtuse angled triangle as

he
shown in the adjacent figure. Cut
this triangle without cutting the

is
three angles. Verify the sum property
re S
B C
of the triangle.
B
Think: bl
be T
pu
 In all these activities we found that the sum of the
K

interior angles of a triangle is 1800. Why is it not 1500


or 2000?
©

 There are innumerable triangles of different shapes


and sizes. Do all these triangles have their sum of the
interior angles as 1800?
 Is there any triangle in which sum of the interior angles
is not equal to 1800?
To find the sum of the interior angles of triangle
to

logically.
All the activities conducted indicate that the sum of the
t

interior angles of a triangle is 1800. But there is no definiteness


No

of the property which is applicable to all the triangles, Even


after measuring the angles of thousands of triangles, one
cannot arrive at the exactness of the angle sum of property.
This is the limitation for the method in which examples are
taken. This limitation can be over come by some other method.
To generalise the inference, there is a method which
is known as logical method. To prove the mathematical
statements, logical method is applied.
163
Let us use the logical method to prove the statement ''sum
of the three interior angles of a triangle is 1800''.
Let us apply logical proof to derive the sum
A
of the angles A , B and C of OABC in figure
is equal to 1800.

d
Is it possible to have a construction to bring B C

he
all the three angles of the triangle ABC at any
point (say A, B or C) on a straight line? Yes, let us draw a

is
straight line RS passing through A.
re S
S
B
bl
In this figure, we have two pairs of alternate
angles. They are A
be T

∗ 
pu
i) ABC and BAR (represented by ∗) R
K

ii) ACB and SAC (represented by ) B ∗ C


©

But these alternate angles are not equal.


In the above triangle ABC, if there could be one pair of
parallel lines, there would be alternate angles which are equal.
We already know that, if a pair of parallel lines are cut
to

by a transversal, the alternate angles so formed are equal.

So, draw a line PQ through A parallel to BC


t

A
P Q
No

∗ 

Here PQ || BCand AB is the transversal.

Now observe the figure


B ∗ 
C
Do you find any pairs of angles equal?

PAB = ABC ........(i) [alternate angles marked as ∗]

164
Similarly PQ || BC and AC is the transversal.
Do you find any pairs of angles which are equal ?
QAC = ACB ........(ii) [alternate angles marked as ]

Observe the lines PA , AB and AC


PAB + BAC + QAC = Straight angle = 1800 → (iii)

d
he
Substitute the RAB and SAC by ABC and ACB
respectively in equation (iii)

is
we get ABC + BAC + ACB = 1800
re S
These are the interior angles of a triangle.
B
bl
Hence, the sum of the interior angles in a triangle is 1800.
be T
pu
The logical proof discussed is true of all shapes and sizes of
K

triangles. Hence the conclusion is applied to all triangles.


©

Calculation of the angles of a triangle by logical method


Solved problem 1:

In the adjoining fig PQ || RS .


A is a point on PQ .
to

AB and AC are drawn from the


point A.
t
No

PAB = 500 Q AC = 700 .


Find
the measure of all the angles of
triangle ABC logically.

Observe only parallel lines PQ and RS and another line AB .


What type of angles are PAB and ABC ?

They are alternate angles. Hence, ABC = PAB = 500


165
Now observe the lines PQ , RS and AC .
What type of angles are QAC and ACB ?
They are alternate angles.
Hence. ACB = QAC = 700
Now observe only the lines PQ , AB , AC What type of angles

d
are PAB , QAC and BAC ?

he
Are they supplementary angles ?
Then ∠PAB + ∠BAC + ∠QAC = 1800

is
re S
500 + ∠BAC + 700 = 1800
B

bl
∴ ∠BAC = 1800 - 500- 700
be T

= 600
pu
K

Solved Problem 2 :
In the figure, the two angles P
©

of triangle PQR is given(400 ?


and 300). Find the third angle
400 300
of the triangle logically. Q R

Draw a line through P parallel


to

to QR.
Mark the alternate angles
t

formed at the point P as 400


No

and 300 in the figure.


In the adjacent triangle PQR P
Q = 400 R = 300 .Sum of the 40 0
? 300
three angles at point P is 1800.
So, the third angle 400 300
Q R
=1100-400-300=1800

166
Example 1 : In the figure A = 600, B = 500 Find the measure
of C logically.
A + B + C = 1800
The sum of the three angles of triangle is 1800
600 + 500 + ∠C = 1800
1100 + ∠C = 1800

d
∠C = 1800 - 1100

he
∠C = 700
Example 2 :

is
Find the value of x in the adjacent figure.
re S
A + B + C = 1800 The sum of the three angles of triangle is 1800
B
bl
600 + x0 + 80 = 1800 [Substituted the measure of A and C ]
be T
pu
1400 + x 0 = 1800
K

x 0 = 1800 - 1400
x 0 = 400
©

Exercise 7.2
1. Find the value of x logically in the following figures:
t to
No

167
2. Two angles of the triangle ABC are given. Find the third
angle and fill up the blanks in the table:

∠A ∠B ∠C
1 600 700
2 1000 350
3 650 650

d
4 1100 360

he
3. Three angles are given in the table. Find the sum of
these three angles. Can these become the angles of a

is
re S
triangle?
B
bl Sum Can it form a triangle Yes/No
be T

A B C
pu
K

1 500 600 700


©

2 600 700 800

3 650 750 550

4 560 640 600


to

5 570 640 790

4) In a triangle ABC, if A = 450 B = 650, then find the measure


t

of C .
No

5) Construct the angle ABC with the following


measure AB =5cm PAB = 500 and QBA = 600
. Measure the ACB and verify the measure
of ACB logically.
6) In a right angle triangle if one angle measures 350. Find
the measure of the other two angles.

168
7) Construct an equilateral triangle having the side 4 cm and
find out the measure of each angle.

8) In a triangle ABC A = 350 and B is greater than A by 150


then find C .

9) In a right angle triangle, one of the other two angles is

d
twice the other. Find the measure of the other angle which
is not a right angle.

he
Exterior angle of the angle

is
A triangle has three sides,
re S
if any one of the sides of the
B
bl
triangle is extended, an angle
adjacent interior
angle
exterior
be T

which is formed out side the


pu
K

triangle at the vertex and this angle is called an exterior


angle.
©

The angle which is adjacent to the exterior angle is called


adjacent interior angle.

exterior angle
to

adjacent
interior
adjacent angle
t

interior angle exterior angle


No

ad
inte jacent
rior
ang
le adjacent
exterior angle exterior angle interior angle

169
If a side of any triangle is
extended, an exterior angle
and interior angles are formed. adjacent
exterior angle
what is the sum of an exterior interior angle
angle and an interior angle
adjacent to it ?
These two angles are supplementary angles or linear pair
angles.

d
Hence, the sum of an interior angle and an exterior angle

he
is 1800.
Interior Opposite angle

is
re S
The angle opposite to the adjacent interior angle of a
B
triangle is called interior opposite angle.
bl
be T
pu
interior opposite
K

angle 2
©

exterior angle
interior opposite angle1 adjacent opposite angle

There are two interior opposite angles and one adjacent


interior angle to every exterior angle of a triangle.
Is there any relation between the exterior angle and the
to

Interior opposite angles of a triangle ?


Activity 1 :
t

 As shown in the fig (1)construct


No

any triangle on a thick sheet of


paper.
 Extend the base of this triangle.
 Name the three angles of the
triangle as 1, 2 and 3. fig(i)
 Name the exterior angle as 4.

170
 As shown in the fig (2) cut the
angles (1) and (2) arrange these
two angles on the exterior angle
4 as shown in the fig.
What is your conclusion?
angle 1+ angle 2= exterior angle 4. fig(ii)
 This activity establishes that

d
exterior angle of a triangle is

he
equal to the sum of opposite
interior angles.
Let us examine some examples related to the above

is
re S
properties. A
B
bl
Example 1 : In the figure
given below, the two
700
be T
pu
angles of the triangle
K

ABC are given. external angle=?


Calculate the measure B 50 0
D
C
©

of exterior angle.
∠A + ∠B + ∠C = 1800 (Sum of the three angles of triangle
= 1800)
700 + 500 + ∠C = 1800 (Substitute the measure of
A and B ).
1200 + ∠C = 1800
to

∠C = 1800 - 1200
= 600
t

∴∠ACB = 600 Interior angle


No

ACB + Exterior angle ACD = 1800 (∴ The sum of one adjacent


interior and exterior angle = 1800)
∴ ∠ACB + ∠ACD = 1800
600 + ∠ACD = 1800
∠ACD = 1800 - 600
= 1200
Exterior angle ACD = 1200
sum of interior opposite angle = 700 + 500 = 1200
171
Hence, the exterior angle is equal to sum of opposite interior
angles.

Example 2 : In the given figure R


S Q
the two angles of triangle PQR are exterior angle 550
given. Find the measure of 400
exterior angle.
P

d
he
∠P + ∠Q + ∠R = 1800 (Sum of the three angles of the angles in 1800)
400 + 550 + ∠R = 1800 (Substituting the values of P and Q
950 + ∠R = 1800

is
re S
∠R = 1800 - 950 = 850
B
bl
∴ ∠PRQ = 850 Interior angle
be T

∠PRQ Interior angle and ∠PRS exterior angle are complimentary


pu
∴ ∠PRQ + ∠PRS = 1800
K

850 + ∠PRS = 1800


∠PRS = 1800 - 850 = 950
©

(One interior angle + One adjacent exterior angle = 1800)


In the above example exterior angle = 950. The sum of interior
opposite angles = 400 + 550 = 950
Hence exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of
the opposite interior angles.
to

A
Example 3 : In the figure if ∠BAC = 500 and
500
∠ABC = 850 then find the measure of ACB
t

and ACD 850


No

B C D
∠BAC+∠ABC +∠ACB=180 (Sum of the angles of
0

the triangle is = 1800)


500 + 850 + ∠ACB = 1800 (Substituting the values of A and B
1350 + ∠ACB = 1800
∠ACB = 1800 - 1350 = 450
∠ACB + ∠ACD = 1800(Supplementary angles)
172
450 + ∠ACD = 1800
∠ACD = 1800 - 450 = 1350

Exercise 7.3

1. Find the value of x and y in the following figures.

d
600 550

he
a) c)

400 x Y x y 550

is
re S
1450 Y 700 X 650 Y
B
b) bl d)
be T
pu
X 500
K
©

2) In the fig. if BAC = 45 0 and A

ABC = 75 0 Find the measure 450


of ACB and ACD .
750
B C D
to

3) In fig if PQR = 50 0 PRS = 130 0 , P

find the measure of QPR


1300
t

500
No

Q R S

4) In the fig if NKL = 35 0 N


KNL = 30 0 and LNM = 75 0 300 750
then find NLM and NML . 350
K L M

173
5) In triangle ABC, BC is produced to D. A and D are joined. If
BAC = 60 0, ABC = 45 0 find ACD .

Sum of any two sides of a triangle


Activity 1 :

Mark three non- collinear points A, B A

d
and C in the courtyard. Join AB, BC and

he
CA with chalk powder. These three lines
represent three sides of the triangle

is
re S
ABC. Ask your friend to walk from A to B C
B
bl
C using any route.
be T
pu
There are two routes to reach from A to C. One is directly
K

from A to C, another is from A to B then B to C.


©

The first route is short and everybody follows that route.


It is a longer distance to walk through A to B and then B to C.

In triangle ABC
AB + BC > AC → (1)
to

There are two routes to reach from B to A. One is directly


t

from B to A, another is from B to C and C to A.


No

then BC + CA > BA → (2)

There are two routes to reach from B to C. One is directly


from B to C, another is from B to A and Ato C.

∴ BA + AC > BC → (3)

174
Activity 2 : Take sticks of length 3cm, 5cm, 7cm, 9cm, 11cm,
13cm, 15cm, 17cm, 19cm, 21cm. Select any three sticks to
form a triangle. Similarly take different length of sticks to form
a triangle. Is it possible to construct a triangle with the sides
as 3cm, 4cm and 6cm?
For example, take two sticks of length 5cm and 7cm. You

d
need a third stick to complete the triangle. What should be
the length of the third side?. That stick should be more than

he
7-5 = 2cm and less than 7 + 5 = 12cm.

Hence, to form a triangle the sum of the lengths of two

is
re S
sticks should be greater than the third stick.
B
bl
From the above activity 1 and 2 we conclude that,
be T
pu
The sum of any two sides of a triangle should be greater
K

than the third side.


©

Example 1 : Let us verify whether the sum of any two sides


of a triangle greater than third side.
1) 3cm + 4cm > 6cm sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater
than the third side
2) 4cm + 6cm > 3cm sum of any two sides of a triangle is
to

greater than the third side


3) 6cm + 3cm > 4cm sum of any two sides of a triangle is
t

greater than the third side


No

∴ A triangle can be drawn with these measures


Example 2 : Is it possible to construct a triangle with sides
3cm, 4cm, and 7cm? Verify?

Let us verify whether the sum of two sides of a triangle is


greater than the third side.

175
a) 3cm + 4cm = 7cm The sum of the two sides of a triangle
is not greater than the third side.
b) 3cm + 7cm > 4cm The sum of the two sides of a triangle
is greater than the third side.
c) 4cm + 7cm > 3cm The sum of the two sides of a triangle is
greater than the third side.
In one occasion (a), the sum of 2 sides is not greater than

d
the third side. Hence, it is not possible to construct a triangle

he
with the given sides.

Exercise 7.4

is
re S
I. Verify whether a triangle can be drawn with
B
bl
following measures.
be T

1) 3cm, 4cm, 5cm 3cm, 2cm, 6cm


pu
2)
K

3) 2cm, 6cm, 6cm 4) 5cm, 3cm, 8cm


II. M is any point inside the triangle ABC. Are the following
©

statements True/False A
1) MA + MB > AB?
2) MB + MC < BC?
M
3) MC + MA > CA? B C
to

Pythagoras Theorem (Bodhayana sutra)


Pythagoras was a greek philosopher. He introduced
t
No

an important property of a right angled triangle in 600


BC. Hence, the law related to right angled triangle is
named after him.
If one of the angles of a triangle is 900, it is called as
right angled triangle. The side opposite to right angle is
called hypotenuse. Hypotenuse is the greatest side of a
right angled triangle.

176
Activity 1 : Take a white rectangular sheet of paper. As
per the measurements indicated in the figure, draw 4 right
angled triangles at the corners of the sheet. Triangles are
∆ABC, ∆KLM, ∆PQR and ∆XYZ. Fold along the hypotenuse of
these triangle such as AC, KH, PR and XZ.
B 3cm A X 12 cm Y

d
5cm
4cm

he
C Z
K R

is
re S
6cm

9cm
B
bl
L
8 cm M P 12 cm Q
be T
pu
K

Tabulate the lengths of the sides of the triangles in the


following table. Follow the information written in case of ∆ABC.
©

Triangle Measure Square Length Square Length Square Sum


∆ of of the of one of it of of it of the
hypot- hypot- side another squares on
enuse enuse side two sides
to

∆ABC 5 25 3 9 4 16 9+16=25
t

∆KLM
No

∆PQR

∆XYZ

In ∆ABC AB = 3cm BC = 4cm. Find AC, is AC = 5cm?


177
Let us calculate the sum of the squares of two sides.
AB2 + BC2 = 32 + 42
= 9 + 16

= 25

Now find the square of AC, AC2 = 25

d
∴ AC2 = AB2 + BC2

he
5 2 = 32 + 42

25 = 9 + 16

is
re S
=
25
B
bl
From the above calculation we understand, in a right
be T
pu
angled triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the
K

sum of the squares of the other two sides. This is universally


accepted as Pythagoras therom.
©

Pythagoras theorem
"In a right angled triangle the square on the hypotenuse
is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides".
to

sq
ua
hy r
po e on
t

A te t
In triangle ABC if ∠B = 900 AC nu he
No

square on 2 se
then AB2 + BC2 = AC2 one side
AB2

B square on C
another BC
side
BC2

178
Know this
The "shulba sutra" composed during the period
800-600 BC by "Bodhayana" states

d
he
which means "The diagonal of a rectangle produces both
areas in which length and breadth of the rectangle produce

is
re S
separately".
B
Example 1:bl
be T
pu
In the adjacent figure ∆ABC, AB = 6cm, BC = 8cm and
K

B = 900 calculate AC .
©

Solution

As per the Pythagoras theorem A

AC2 = AB2 + BC2


to

6cm

= 62 + 82
t

900
No

= 36 + 64
B C
8cm
= 100

= 102

AC = 10

179
Example 2: A 13 m length ladder is placed slantly on the
wall. If the top of the ladder reaches a height of 12m from the
floor on the wall, calculate the distance between foot of the
ladder and the wall.
A
Solution As per the pythagoras theorem
AB2 + BC2 = AC2

d
122 + BC2 = 132 12 m 13 m

he
wall ladder
144 + BC2 = 169

BC2 = 169 - 144

is
re S
BC2 = 25 ?
C
B
bl
BC =5
B floor
be T
pu
∴ The distance from foot of the ladder to the wall = 5m
K
©

Exercise 7.5

1) A flag staff is to be erected vertically on


the ground. A rope is tied to the flag staff to pegs
on the ground. The peg is 6m away form the 8 ?
to

bottom of the flag staff. If the rope is tied to the 6


flag staff at a height of 8m from the ground, find
the length of the rope.
t
No

2) In triangle ABC, AB = 5cm, BC = 12cm ABC = 900 calculate


the length of AC .

3) A 15m ladder reaches the wall at a height of 12m. Find


how far is the foot of the ladder from the wall.

180
4) Given below are the sides of a triangle. In which of these
cases are the triangles right angled?

a) 2cm, 2cm, 5cm b) 1.5cm, 2cm, 2.5cm

c) 6cm, 8cm, 10cm

d
    

is he
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K
t ©
to
No

181
CHAPTER- 8
SYMMETRY
After studying this chapter you :
 identify the symmetry and reflection symmetry,
 define rotational symmetry of 2D figures,

d
he
 identify rotational symmetry in the case of 900, 1200,
1800 rotation,

is
 manipulate rotation through 90 0 , 180 0 to show
re S
symmetry,
B
 bl
operate the figures with both rotation and reflection
be T

symmetry,
pu
K

 identify the figures that have reflection and rotation


symmetry.
©

Symmetry
You have studied symmetrical figures and reflection
symmetry in your previous class
What are symmetrical figures ?
to

The figures with balanced proportion with reference to


t

a line in terms of shape and size are called symmetrical


No

figures. Many monuments, architectural constructions and


gold ornaments are beautiful because of their symmetrical
constructions. Many pictures of living and non- living things
exhibit symmetry.
Ravi and Mohan are friends.
Ravi : Do you like nature, Mohan ?
182
Mohan : Yes Ravi, very much.
Ravi : I clicked a photograph see.

Mohan : Wow! Beautiful Ravi.


Sky is seen in the water.

d
Wonderful!!!

is he
What speciality do you observe in the figure ?
re S
Do you see the same image on either side ?
B
bl
We have a special name for this, that is symmetry.
be T
pu
We can see many things in nature which seem to be
K

symmetrical, but symmetry in mathematics is a particular


concept.
©

Look at this picture.


Is it beautiful to see ?
What aspect of geometry makes it beautiful?
It is the symmetry.
to

Try to identify symmetrical parts.


Activity 1: Spray ink on a sheet of paper, fold the paper
t

equally to half of its size in lengthwise and press and crease.


No

Open the sheet and look at the pattern formed. Mark the line
of symmetry. Think why and how symmetry is caused here.

If a line divides the figure into two identical halves then


the figure is said to be symmetrical figure and it has reflection
symmetry. The line is the axis of symmetry.

183
Observe the following figures.

d
is he
The dotted line represents line of symmetry. It is called
re S
the axis of symmetry.
B
bl
Symmetry provides a balance and perfection to the
be T

objects.
pu
K

Reflection symmetry and mirror reflection are related to


each other. In reflection symmetry the half side is the mirror
©

image of the other.


Activity 2: Draw the line/lines of symmetry for the follow-
ing figures.
t to
No

Recall: Do you know ?


The line that divides Our national flag is one
a figure into two of the best examples for
symmetrical parts is called symmetry.
the axis of symmetry.
184
Activity 3: Nitya likes origami. She folded a
sheet of paper lengthwise into two equal
halves, creased it and then cut it off along
the edges as shown in the figure.
Then she unfolded the paper. What
i) ii)
did she observe ?

d
Try to answer seeing the picture (ii).
Yes, she observed that the figure is divided into two equal

he
parts in size and shape along the fold.
Recall the name of the folded line.

is
re S
The folded line is called the line of symmetry or axis of
B
symmetry.
bl
be T
pu
Activity 4: Take a sheet of paper which is in a triangular shape with
K

PQ = PR as in the figure.
©

P
When the half of a figure
is the mirror image of the
other, it is said to have
reflection symmetry.
Q R
to

Let us fold this sheet through PS such that PR coincides


t

with PQ, crease it and then unfold. We can see the mirror image
No

of ∆PQS as ∆PRS. Can we draw another axis of symetry? Isn’t


it? No. This triangle has only one axis of symmetry.
Isosceles triangle which has reflection symmetry along the
axis of symmetry. (Can we draw another axis of symmetry to
this triangle ?)

185
Activity 5: Now take a rectangular shaped sheet of paper
PQRS as shown in the figure.
Fold this sheet in such away that QR
coincides with PS. crease it and unfold the
S R
sheet.
Now fold the sheet in such away that PQ
P Q
coincides with SR. crease it and unfold it.

d
How many folded lines can you see?

he
Two lines can be seen.
The rectangle has two lines of symmetry.

is
re S
Activity 6: Let us draw an equilateral triangle on a sheet of
B
bl
paper. Mark the mid points of each side. Join each midpoint
of the side to each opposite vertex.
be T
pu
ABC is an equilateral triangle. ΔADC
K

A
is the mirror image of ΔADB. We can
notice that AD, BE and CF are the
©

F E
axes of symmetry. That is, there are
3 axes of symmetry in an equilateral
triangle.
B C
D Find the remaining mirror images.

Activity 7: In a square PQRS, all the sides are equal.


to

N Let us draw lines of symmetry.


S R PR, NL are two axes of symmetry, name
the other two.
t
No

How many axes of symmetry are there?


K M
There are four axes of symmetry.
There are two diagonals and two
P Q perpendicular bisectors for each pair of
L
opposite sides.
For different figures, we can draw different number of axes
of symmetry.

186
Note : • An equilateral triangle has 3 lines of symmetry
• A square has 4 lines of symmetry
• A regular pentagon has 5 lines of symmetry
• A regular hexagon has 6 lines of symmetry.
The number of lines of symmetry of a regular polygon is
equal to its number of sides.

d
he
Can you find the number of lines of symmetry for a circle?
Observe the figures given below.

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
Think!!!! A circle has unlimited lines of symmetry. Why?
K

Note: We can see a reflection of a person in a mirror. The


image of that person in the mirror is definitely not the
©

reflection symmetry. Reflection of an object and reflection


symmetry are not one and the same.
Exercise 8.1
I. Which of the following figures have line of symmetry?
to

a) b) c) d)
t
No

II. Draw as many lines of symmetry as possible for the


following letters.

A H X
a) b) c)

187
III. Whether the dotted line on each shape is a line of
symmetry? Write yes or no and justify your answer.

a) b) c) d)

d
he
E
is
e) f) g) h)
re S B
bl
be T

IV. Write the number of lines of symmetry in the following


pu
K

a) An isosceles triangle b) An equilateral triangle


©

c) A square d) A rhombus
e) A circle f) A parallelogram
g) A regular pentagon h) A regular hexagon
V. Match the following English Alphabet given below with
their mirror images.
to

Alphabets Mirror Images


t

B E
No

C
B

D
E

E
C

R
D

188
Rotation
In our daily life we see many objects which show rotational
movement.
Eg: i) Rotation of wings of a fan.
ii) Rotation of wheels of vehicles.

d
iii) Rotation of hands of a clock

he
You have seen the movement o f hands of a clock. This
type of movement is called clockwise movement. The move-
ment opposite to the movement of hands of a clock is called

is
re S
anti-clockwise movement.
B
bl
In rotational movements, there are two types:
be T
pu
i) Clockwise movement ii) Anti-clockwise movement
K

Look at this clock. The two hands of the


©

clock rotate around a fixed point in the


middle of the clock. This fixed point is
called centre of rotation.

Observe the figures. consider the wheel and observe a dot


to

on the wheel.
t
No

In both the figures the shape and the size of the wheel do
not change and the wheel turns around a fixed point. The dot
implies the rotation.
One more example of rotation.

189
John is a naughty boy. On Christmas vacation his mother
bought a star for him. He played with that star by turning it
as shown in the figure.
That is he rotated the star.
A D C B

d
B D C
D B C A A

he
C B A D

He rotated that in all possible directions.

is
re S
Then he rotated it from left to right and right to left.
B
bl
He rotated the star, both ways clockwise and anti clockwise
direction.
be T
pu
The rotation is a process in which an object turns about
K

a fixed point in any direction in the plane.


©

This fixed point is called Centre of rotation or Point of


rotation.
Activity 8: Fix a small nail to a cardboard and
hang a thin strip of card board with an
arrow mark on one side as shown in the
90 90
to

figure. Here, nail is the centre of the


90 90 rotation. Now rotate the strip 900, 1800,
2700 and finally one full round. What do
t
No

you observe?

After completing 3600 or one full rotation the strip comes


to its original position.
So, all figures after completing 3600 or one full rotation,
come back to their original position.

190
What else do you understand from the above activity ?
We can observe that after a quarter turn, the strip covers
900, half turn, it covers 1800, after three quarter turns, it covers
2700 and after one complete rotation, it covers 3600 .
Observe the rotation of the following figures:

d
he
1)

is
re S
2)
B
bl
be T
pu
A B B C C D D A A B
K

3)
©

D C A D B A C B D C

4)
to

A D C B
D C B A D C
t

5)
No

C D A B
A B B C D A

Activity 9: Find the image of a rectangle OABC when rotated


about O through an angle of .
(i) 90° ii) 180° iii) 270° iv) 360°

191
Step 1: Draw a rectangle OABC and
B''' C''' let the point of rotation be O.
A B Step 2: Rotate the rectangle through
C''
A''' O A' C 900 . Let OA take the place of OA'.
B'' A''
Step 3: Clearly the image of OABC will

d
C' B' be OA'B'C' under rotation through 900.

he
Step 4: Rotate it further through 900 and the rectangle

is
re S
takes the position of OA''B''C''.
Step 5: Rotate it, further through 2700 from the
B
bl original position and the rectangle takes
be T

the position of OA'''B'''C'''.


pu
K

Step 6: A complete rotation through 3600 brings back


the rectangle to its original position.
©

Rotational symmetry
Example 1: Can you rotate this ? If you rotate two times it
a s s h o w n i n t h e takes the original shape.
figure Isn’t it?
t to
No

Note: Rotational symmetry is always considered with a


relative reference
Example 2: Do you know what this is ?
Yes, you are right. That is a wind mill.
It can also rotate at its point of centre.

192
Example 3:Generally flowers are liked by all. Is it not beautiful ?
Apeksha wanted to rotate a flower by 900 in clockwise direction.

The flower is rotated in the clockwise direction by 900, 1800,

d
2700 and 3600.

he
Example 4: Consider this triangular lamina. Let us rotate
this by 900 in anti-clockwise direction.

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
1800 3600
K

900 2700
When, we rotate this in the anti-clockwise direction by 900,
©

1800, 2700 and 3600 the figure takes the above positions. After
one complete rotation, it takes the original position.
Example 5:
to

1200 2400 3600


t
No

Here, the figure is rotated clockwise by 1200, 2400, and 3600.


Observe that in all these positions; the figure exactly looks
like the original figure.
This figure is symmetrical. When the object rotates in few
angles through rotational centre, there will not be any change.
Such figures have rotational symmetry.
The angle by which the object rotates to take exactly the
193
same shape of the original is called the angle of rotation.
In example 5, O is the point of rotation and the angle of
rotation is 1200.
A figure is said to have rotational symmetry, if it looks
exactly same as the original figure, when it is rotated at a
fixed point with a particular angle of rotation. A figure appears
exactly same as original after it rotates 360°.

d
Make a paper windmill and turn it. Compare it with the

he
rotation of the figure shown below.
Rotate the following figure completely one turn.

is
R S P Q R
re S
S P Q R S
O O O O O
B
P
Q bl Q
R
R
S
P S
Q P
be T
pu
In a full turn ie, when we rotate it completely 3600 there
K

are 4 positions when the figure looks exactly the same.


Then, we say, it has rotational symmetry of order 4.
©

In a complete turn, the number of times an object looks


exactly the same is called the order of rotational symmetry.
In the above example 1 order of rotation is 2. We rotated
that figure by 900.
In the above example 2 order of rotation is 3. In 3 rotations
of 1200 we get the original position.
to

In the above example 3 order of rotation is 4. In this case


after 4 positions it takes the original position.
In the above example 4 order of rotation is 4.
t
No

In the above example 5 order of rotation is 3.


Now, let us consider the following figure.
P S R Q P
S R O Q O P O S
O O
Q P S R Q
R Q P S R

194
This figure matches itself 4 times as it is rotated through
a complete turn about the point O. Four times it looks like
the same, when it has been rotated through 900, 1800, 2700
and 3600. So, it is said to have rotational symmetry of order 4.
Consider a parallelogram PQRS. By rotating this 1800 each

d
time we get the following figures.

he
S R S P S R

is
re S B
bl
be T

Q Q
pu
P R Q P
K

• Parallelogram has rotational symmetry of order 2.


©

Think!
What is the order of rotational symmetry of a circle?

Take a sheet which is a regular pentagon ABCDE. Fix a


pin the number of its centre and rotate. Observe how many
to

times it appears exactly as the first position after one complete


rotation.
t
No

D E A B C D

E C A D B E C A D B E C

A B B C C D D E E A A B

• Regular pentagon has rotational symmetry of order 5.


∴Order of rotational symmetry = 360c = 360c .
Angle of rotation Ac

195
Activity 10: Take a piece of paper and fix it to a card board.
Draw an equilateral triangle of each side 6 cm
on the paper. Mark the midpoints of the sides
and join them to the opposite vertices and get
the point O. Now take a transparent piece of
paper and draw a triangle identical to the orig-

d
inal triangle by placing a transparent paper over

he
the original triangle and also draw the lines joining the mid-
points of the sides to its vertices and get the point O in new

is
triangle.
re S
Now place the new triangle on the first triangle so that
B
bl
O and O and all other sides coincides each other. Now fix a
be T

pin into the shape at the point where O and O1 coincide each
pu
other. Turn the transparent paper in clockwise direction
K

and observe how many times the shape coincides with the
©

original shape in one full round. It coincides 3 times. So the


order of rotational symmetry is 3 and angle of rotational
symmetry is 1200.
Try this activity with a parallelogram and a rhombus.

If we know the order of rotational symmetry, we can find


to

the angle of rotation using the following formula.


From the above activity, Angle of rotation = 360 0

Order of Rotation
t


No

Angle of rotation = 360


0

3
= 1200
And the order of rotation = 360 0

Angle of rotation

= 3600
0

120
=3

196
Every rotating figure occupies the same position after a
rotation of 360°. Its order of rotation is one.
Do you know, what this is ?
This is a circular disc. Its centre is fixed on a
nail, so that, the disc can be easily rotated.
This is an example for rotational symmetry.

d
Can you find the order of this ?

he
Yes it is the number of black or white triangles on the
board. That is, the order of this disc is 10.

is
re S
A figure which looks exactly same as the original figure
B
bl
more than once during a complete rotation is said to have
different order of rotational symmetry.
be T
pu
• A figure has rotational symmetry when angle of rotation
is less than or equal to 1800.
K

• All figures when rotated through 3600 come back to their


©

original position.
• All figures have rotational symmetry of at least order 1.
to

• Cut out 2 squares of same size from a sheet of paper.


• Draw the diagonals and locate the centre.
t

• The point where the diagonals intersect is the centre.


No

• Place the sheets one upon the other, so that, the two
figures match exactly.
• Pierce a pin through the centre point to hold both the
sheets.
• Turn the top sheet only and note, how many times the
top figure matches with the bottom figure.
What is the angle of rotation and order of rotation? Would
it change, if you change the direction of rotation?
197
Example 1 : If we rotate the figure through 900, 1200, 1800
about O, then at which angle does the image look like the
original one?. Also find the order of rotational symmetry.
Solution: When we rotate above figure about O
through 900, we get shape. We get rotation through 1200,
we get (not symmetry)

d
he
Rotation through 1800 we get,
We can have the rotational symmetry if it rotates about

is
re S
1800.
B
bl
∴Order of rotational symmetry = 3600 = 2
180
0
be T
pu
Example 2 :
K

Find the order of rotational symmetry of the equilateral


©

triangle ABC.
Solution: When an equilateral triangle is rotated about its
central point O, it attains its original form at 1200.
A
∴Order of rotational symmetry = 360c = 3
120c
to

There are some figures, which have both O


reflection and rotational symmetry. B C
t
No

Figure A Figure B

Figure B is the reflection of Figure A.

198
Rotation of this figure around the point of rotation through
the angle 900 are as shown in the following.

The square has both reflection and rotational symmetry.

d
Now you identify the reflection of Figure 1 from the following

he
figures.

is
re S B
bl
be T

Fig 1 (a) (b) (c)


pu
K

The equilateral triangle has both reflection and rotational


symmetry.
©

Consider a regular pentagon.


Figure B is the reflection of Figure A. Now
rotate it through 720 around the point of
rotation.
to

Fig :A Fig :B We get the following figures.


The fifth figure is coinciding the original
figure after 4 rotations.
t
No

Fig (1) Fig (2) Fig (3) Fig (4) Fig (5)

The regular pentagon has both reflection and rotational


symmetry.
199
Try This: Identify some letters of the English alphabet which
have both reflection and rotational symmetry.
Cut figures of H, N, O, S, X, Z and visualize it.
Look at the table given below which is very informative.

Shapes Polygon sides lines Angle Order of

d
of of rotational

he
Symmetry rotation symmetry

is
Equilateral
re S
3 3 1200 3
Triangle
B
bl
be T
pu
Rectangle 4 4 900 4
K
©

Rhombus 4 4 900 4

Regular
to

5 5 720 5
Pentagon
t
No

Regular
6 6 600 6
Hexagon

Note the following from this table.


Number of sides, the number of lines of symmetry and the
order of rotational symmetry are same in each regular polygon.
200
d
is he
re S
Try this : Observe the giant wheel. Try to find the order
B
bl
of rotational symmetry of giant wheel.
be T

….Oops I lost the count…, I cannot count....


pu
K

Activity 12: Locate an item in the room that has symmetry


and ask a friend to try and guess which object you have
©

selected. Offer 10 clues and allow the partner to guess after


each clue. If the partner guesses the object then it is his/
her turn to locate an object that has symmetry and offer
you the clues.
Points to be remembered:
to

• Rotation may be clockwise or anti-clockwise.


• Every figure will have rotational symmetry of at least
t

order 1.
No

• The point at which the figure is rotated is called the


point of rotation.
• The angle of turning during rotation is called the angle
of rotation.
• Number of times the figure matches with the original
figure in one complete rotation is called the order of
rotation.
201
Exercise 8.2

1) Consider the letters of the alphabet S and I . Mark the


point of symmetry and also find the order of rotational
symmetry.
2) Write three letters of the English alphabet which have
reflection symmetry but not rotational symmetry.
3) Write three letters of English alphabet which have both

ed
reflection and rotational symmetry.

II. 1) What is the order of rotational symmetry of a ceiling

ish
fan with (i) 3 blades (ii) 4 blades ?
re S
2) Write some numbers which have rotational symmetry.
B
bl
3) This star is made up of black and white
equilateral triangles:
be T
pu
What is the order of rotational symmetry of
K

the star ?
©

III. 1) Draw an equilateral triangle ABC with side 2 cms, rotate


the triangle through 900 and 1800 with B as the point of
rotation and find the image.
2) Take an isosceles triangle OAB in which OA = AB. O be
the fixed point, rotate it through 900, 1800 and 2700. Draw
the diagrams to show the rotations.
E o

IV. 1) Identify the rotational symmetry and reflection


t

symmetry in the following figure.


t

E E E E
No

(a) (b) (c)

(a) (b) (c)

202
10) Find the order of rotational symmetry in
i) rectangle ii) rhombus
11) Fill in the table given below.

Alphabet Reflection No. of Rotational Order of


Letters symmetry lines of symmetry rotational
Yes /No symmetry Yes /No symmetry

d
he
I

is
re S B
O
bl
be T
pu
H
K
©

Z
to

S
t


No

    

203
Chapter -1 Integers

Exercise 1.1 I. 1) 13, 2) -5, 3) 1 4) - 9

Exercise 1.2
1. x -3 6 11 -5 2. -40
7 -21 42 77 -35

d
4 -12 24 44 -20 -5 8 -25
-8 +24 -48 -88 +40 1 5

he
-2 +6 -12 -22 +10 -5
12 -36 72 132 -60 -2 -6

is
7
re S
-9 +27 -54 -99 +45 10 +30
-14 +42 -84 -154 +70
B
bl -35
be T
pu
Exercise 1.3 I. 1) -15, 2) -24, 3) -238, 4) 276, 5) -126, 6) 24,7) -60
K

II. 1) + 4 # + 7 = + 28
©

2) - 3 # + 5 = - 15

3) + 9 # - 7 = - 63

4) - 6 # - 8 = + 48
III. 1) b) A cm - 2 × 6 cm 2) ` 62000 - 8 × 7500
to

Exercise 1.4 I. 1) + 4, 2) -17, 3) -11, 4) 4 , 5) 0 IV. 40


II. 1) 1, 2) 1, 3) -2, 4) -12, 5) -30 III. Integer Quotient
t

Exercise 1.5 I. 1) -10, 2) -9, 3) + 24 ÷ + 12 +2


No

-18 4) 0, 5) -2, 6) -19 + 24 ÷ -12 -2


- 24 ÷ +12 -2
- 24 ÷ -12 +2
Exercise 1.6 I. 1) 125, 2) 5am
16oC, 10am 26oC, 12noon 28oC, 3pm 23oC 3) ` 11,750, 4) ` 126,
5) ` 46930, 6) 177

204
Chapter -2 Fractions

Exercise 2.1 : I. Proper Fractions : 7 , 3


12 20

Improper Fractions : 18 , 5 Mixed Fractions : 2 1 ,6 2


16 4 6 9

d
II 1) 6 , 9 , 2) 8 , 12 , 3) 14 , 21 III 1) 2 , 2) 3 , 3) 1
12 18 10 15 20 30 3 5 2

he
IV 1) 1 7 , 2) 2 1 , 3) 24 1 , V 1) 15 , 2) 17 , 3) 29
8 12 4 4 2 6

is
re S
VI 1) 29 2) 93 3) 1 4) 1 23
12 20 5 30
B
Exercise
bl 2.2 : I 1) 1 # 5 , 2) 1 # 3 , 3) 3 # 2 , 4) 2 # 4
be T
pu
4 2 8 3
K

II A. 1) 4 , 2) 12 , 3) 10 , 4) 21 , 5) 9 , 6) 20 , 7) 9, 8) 13 ,
7 5 9 4 2 3 4
©

B. 1) 11 1 , 2) 28, 3) 26 2 , 4) 22 1 , 5) 13 4 , 6) 2 3 , 7) 30, 8) 111


4 5 2 5 5
III A. 1) 4, 2) 6, 3) 2, 4) 8, 5) 15, 6) 14, 7) 21 , 8) 20
5 9

B. 1) 30, 2) a) 15, b) 24, c) 21


to

Exercise 2.3 : I 1) 5 ,2) 21 , 3) 28 4) 3 5) 7 , 6) 11 7) 36 8) 13


t

9 32 45 27 10 35 24
No

II 1) 1 13 , 2) 3 1 , 3) 4 1 , 4) 1 6 , 5) 11 1 , 6) 7 7 , 7) 17 7 8) 20
20 15 6 7 2 8 9

III 1) 2) 3) 4)

IV. 1) 70 k.m. 2) ` 414, 3) 10 1 hour, 4) ` 46 1 , 5) 8 3 sq.cm.


2 5 4
205
Exercise 2.4 : I. 1) 1) 18, 2) 52 , 3) 90, 4) 140 , 5) 6 3 , 6) 3 1
3 3 7 23

II) 1) 5 , 2) 9 , 3) 12, 4) 6 , 5) 1 , 6) 3 III) 1) 2 2) 7 3) 6 4) 9


2 7 13 9 4 15 24 91 20

5) 11 6) 1 IV) 1) 15 2) 35 3) 5 4) 8 5) 2 1 6) 2 31
28 4 8 12 18 15 4 42

d
V 1) ` 1 34 2) 85 3) ` 91 4) 27

he
2

47
Exercise 2.5 : I 1) 3 2) 3 2 3) 1 4) 2 13

is
re S
4 10 80 20
B
II 1) 6 1 m
20 bl 2) 4 1 kg
4
3) 5m
be T
pu
Chapter -3 Rational Numbers
K

Exercise 3.1 : I 1) Yes 2) No 3) Yes 4) No 5) Yes 6) Yes 7)No


©

II 1) 7 2) 4 3) - 3 4) 4 III 1) - 4 , - 6 , - 8 , - 10 2) 6 , 9 , 12 , 15
5 5 8 7 18 27 36 45 20 30 40 50
3) 8 , 12 , 16 , 20 4) 160 , 240 , 320 , 400 V 7 , - 10 , 7 , - 11
- 10 - 15 - 20 - 25 192 288 384 480 6 -7 9 -6
- 4 , 5 , - 2 VI 1) 16 2) -20 3) 7 4) 3 5) -28 6) 30
to

5 - 3 15

Exercise 3.2 : I. 1) 11 2) 8 3) 7 4) 107


10 9 30 42
t
No

II. 1) 3 2) -1 3) - 1 4) 1
8 3 8
III.1) 8 5 kg 2) 1 11 kg 3) 53 m 4) 1 14 l
12 20 84 15
Exercise 3.3 : I 1) 83 2) 48
- 5 3) - 1 4) 1 5) 1 6) 1 II 1) 7 2) 3 3) 6
10 9 6 27 4 5

206
4) 8 III.1) 3 2) - 9 3) 10 4) - 7 5) 1 6) 0 IV 1) 10 2) - 6 3) - 18 4) - 7
7 5 4 2 5 9 5 13 5
V.9 VI 121 m VII 8 4 sq.m VIII 104
5
Exercise 3.4 :I. 1) 0.8 2) 0.375 3) 0.3125 4) 0.2142857142...
Never ending numbers = 1 , 1
12 16
Ending numbers = 5 , 2

d
8 9

he
Exercise 3.5 :I. 1) 34.4 2) 7.5 3) 36.945 4) 3.328 5) 0.04368
6) 1.68 II) 1) 0.07 2) 0.012 3) 0.497 4) 27 5) 2.2 6) 430

is
re S
III) 1) ` 717.86 2) 120.06 km 3) 10.2l 4) ` 20.6m
B
Exercise
bl 3.6 :
be T
pu
1) a) 2510 g b) 0.0725 g
K

2) a) 0.625 kg b) 0.0108 kg
©

3) a) 1.45 km b) 0.173 km c) 0.2135 km


4) a) 2700 m b) 75.25 m c) 1580 m
5) a) 1250 cm b) 470000 cm
6) 11.59 km
Chapter - 4 Algebraic Expression
to

Exercise 4.1 1) x 2) a 3) xy 4) x2y 5) a2b 6) m2n2 7) xyz 8) m2np


II 1) 2 2) -5 3) 1 4) -8 5) 9 6) 3 7) 0.5 8) 0.008
4
Exercise 4.2 I Variable number : 1) 8 + 5 - 3 2) 3x - 8 5) (20 ×
t
No

7) - (5 × 10) - 45
Algebraic term :3) (7 × 6) -4m 4) 3p + 4q 6) 2y + 6 - 4z II 1) 3x, + 4y
2) 2pq - 8qr 3) 3x2, -3x, +z 4) ab, + bc, -ca 5) 9m, + 6n 6) 6, -3xy, +x, -y
2)1) xy, 2, 5 2) x2, 1, xy, 4 3) p, 3, y2, -5 4) ab, 2, bc, 1, ca, 1
q
III 1) x + 8 2) y - 7 3) p 12 = 12p 4) 5) 4x + 3y 6) 10 - 5y
xy 5
7) pq + 3x 8) 5m - 3l 9) 10y + 15 10) IV 1) 3 2) -4 3) 3 4) 10.5
z 4

207
5) 168 6) - 8 V) 1) m 2) -xy 3) pqr 4) c 5) mn 6) x2y
q
VI 1) 27 2) z 3) xy 4) xyz
Exercise 4.3 I Monomial: 2xy, xyz, 3xp ÷ q Binomial: 2x + y,
3x2 + 5x, ab - bc
Trinomial: 5 + 6a + 4b, 2y - 7 z + x , a2 - 3ab + c, x2 + 4 - 3x
3
II) x3 + x - 2 + 1, m3 + 2m2 + 3m - 4, x + 2yz

d
III Like terms (L) Unlike terms (U)

he
3x, 5x, 8x x3, - 3x2, 8x
-8p2, 6p2, 10p2 3a2b, -2ab2, 7a2b2
2ab, 6ba, 8ab -a3, 2a2, -8a

is
re S
IV 1) y3, -7y3, 23y3, -y3 2) 7ab, -8ba, -3ab, 4ab 3) 7p, 2p, 3p
B
3 bl
V 1) 3 2) - 2 3) 0.3 4) 24 5) -18 6) - 9 VI 1) 3a 2) 4a3) p 2y 4) 10
11
be T

5) -p2 6) -1 VII 1) 2, 2) 3, 3) 3, 4) 1, 5) 3,6) 3


pu
IX i) p5 ii) m4 iii) (ab)6
VIII Base Exponent
K

x 5 iv) z8 v) (abc)3 vi) b10


©

ab 6
13p 9
-y 10
xyz 7
0.59 20
Exercise 4.4 I 1) 41 a 2) 12 p2 3) -1y + 3x 4) 6a2 - b2 + 12a
to

II 1) 5x 2) 13a2 3) 9xy 4) 7x2 + 6y - z III 1) 8x + 11y 2) 17a - 10b


3) -9xy-z 4) 17a2bc + 7ab2c IV 1) 6x - 3y + 3z 2) 7p2 + q2 + 11r2
t

3) 6a + 4b + 3c 4) 2x2y - 2y2z + 13z2x V 1) 12mn - 4p 2) 8x - 2y - 4z


No

3) 10a2 + a + 3 VI 10x2 + 10y + y2 + 5z + 11


Exercise 4.5 I 1) 7x 2) 8a2b 3) 16ab 4) -22x2y II 1) 5x + 2y 2) 4a + 2b
3) -4m2n + 5mn2 4) -11pqr + 11q + 4 III 1) 4x + 4y 2) -6c + 4d
3) x-6y - 14 5) 2xy - 10 VII 1) 27 2) Z 3) xy 4) xyz
Exercise 4.6 I 1) 280 xyz 2) 40 pqr 3) -144 mnp 4) -8abc 5) -60x3
6) +18 p6 II 1) 84 x2y2z2 2) + 210 a2b2c2 3) -12x4y3z 4) -24a2b3c4

208
III1) 12xz + 14yz 2) -15p2 + 25pq 3) -36xz - 2yz 4) 12a2b2c + 18ab2c2
IV 1) x2 + 12x + 32 2) 5n2 - 13n - 6 3)6a2+ab-b2
4) 25x2 - 4p2 5) 2x2 - 13x + 21
Chapter - 5 Pair of Angles
Exercise 5.1 Look at these figures and fill up the
table given below

d
Figure Angles Arms Common Common Angles are

he
Vertex Arm adjacent or
not

is
re S
i AOB , BOC OA, OB, O OB Yes
B
bl OC, AOB , BOC
be T
pu
ii PQR , RQS , QP,QR, Q QR No
K

SQJ QS,QJ QS
©

iii LMN , KLM LK, LM, - LM No


MN

iv DEF , FEG ED, EF, E DE Yes


EG DEF , FEG
to

v EOG , GFH OE, OG, - - No


FG, GH
t

vi OAB , DOC AB, OA, - OC Yes


No

OC, OD

vii HOG , GOJ OH, OG, O OG Yes


OJ

2. In the given figure, which of the following are pairs


of adjacent angles. Mentioning the common vertex and
common side.
209
Angles

Common

Common

adjacent
Name of

Name of

Pairs of
Vertex

angles
vertex

(Yes/
arms

Arm

No)
the

the
AOB , 0 OA, OB, OD Yes Yes Yes
BOD OB

d
he
AOD , 0 OA, OD, OB, OC Yes No No
BOC

is
re S
AOC , 0 Yes Yes Yes
B
OA, OB, OC
BOC bl OC
be T
pu
K

BOC , 0 OA, OB, OC Yes Yes Yes


AOB OB
©

AOD , 0 OA, OB, OD Yes Yes Yes


AOB OB

3. Adjacent angles : i) DOC and COE ii) POR and POQ


to

iv) JOK and KOL vii) QOM and MON ,

Exercise 5.2 I. 1) 500, 2) 700, 3) 350 4) 520 II. a) 680, b) 600 c)


t
No

69.50 d) 49.50 III. 22.50 and 67.50

Exercise 5.3 1.a) AOD + BOD = AOB b)

AOE + EOB = AOB

c) AOC + COB = AOB 2. (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Supplementary angle


3. a) 850 b) 700 c) 59.50 d) 54.50 4. 650 5. 360 and 1440 6. i) 1250,
ii) 350 iii) 900 iv) 900

210
Exercise 5.4 1) It is not a supplementary angle. 2) (ii), (iv),
(v) and (vi) Pair of angles 3) a) Obtuse angle b) Acute angle c)

Right angle
Exercise 5.5 1) AOD = 1200, 2)
AOE = 400,
3)

BOD = 600, BOC = 500, BOC = 1500


BOC = 1200 EOD = 900 BOD = 300

d
Exercise 5.6 I 1) Obtuse Angle 2) Acute Angle

he
3) Right Angle II i) 1050, ii) 400 iii) 32.50 iv) 350

is
re S
III IV x = 450, z = 27, y = 1350
V i) AOD & AOC
B
AOC = BOD = 900
bl
AOD = COB = 900 ii) a) AOE & BOE b) COA & AOD
be T

iii) AOC & BOD iv) AOC & COE


pu
` AOR = SOB = 450
VI) 1) 900 2) 1 8 0 0 3 ) S u p p l e m e n t a r y
K

DOR = COS = 450


POC = DOQ = 450 angles 4)Pair of angles
©

AOP = BOQ = 450


5) Obtuse angle

Chapter -6 Pair of Lines

Exercise 6.1 1.a) RNK b) QMN c) MNR d) SNK e) MNR f) QMN

2. a) [Opposite angles]
to

EIJ = 700
EIJ = AIK = 70 [Corresponding angles]
0

EIJ = IKL = 700


[ Opposite angles]
t

IKL = CKF = 700


No

JIK = BJL = 1100


[Corresponding angles]
AIE = JIK = 1100
[Opposite angles

b) [Opposite angles]
GIB = AIJ = 600
AIJ = CJK = 600 [Corresponding angles]
DJK = 180 - 60 = 120 [Opposite angles]
0 0 0

DJK = FKH = 1200


211
c) EHB GHF
= = 50o [Opposite angles
GHF = AGD = 50o Corresponding angles

PAR = 500
3. Alternative angles
PST = QPS = 1300
PST = QRS = 1300 Corresponding angles

d
he
4. BAC = 800, ABC = 450, ACB = 550

5. a) AB # CD b) AB  CD

is
re S
DGC = 700
6.
B
GEF = 700
bl
be T
pu
K

7. a b c d
©

(i) 800 500 1000 1300

(ii) 700 800 700 -

(iii) 500 1300 1300 -


to

(iv) 400 2600 600 -


t
No

(v) 1300 700 1300 1100

212
Chapter -7 Properties of Triangles

Exercise 7.1 1800

Exercise 7.2 1. a) x = 500 b) x = 800 c) x = 200


c) x=620

2. 1) C = 500 2) B = 450 3) C = 500 4) C = 340

d
3. 1) 500 + 600 + 700 = 1800 Yes 2) 600 + 700 + 800 = 2100 No

he
3) 650 + 750 + 550 = 1950 No 4) 560 + 640 + 600 = 1800 Yes

is
5) 570 + 640 + 790 = 2000 No
re S B
4. C = 700
bl 5. C = 700 6. x = 550 x =900
be T
pu
7. x = 600 8. C = 950
K

Exercise 7.3 a) x = 800, y = 1000 b) y = 700, x = 1100


©

c) y = 350, x = 750 d) x = 650, y = 1150

2. ∠ACB = 600 ∠ACD = 1200 3. ∠QRP = 500, ∠RPQ = 800

4. ∠KLN = 1150, ∠NLM = 650, ∠LMN = 400 5. ∠ACD = 1050


to

Exercise 7.5 1. AC = 10, 2. AC = 13 cms, 3. AB = 9 m 4. b) c)


t
No

213
Chapter - 8 Symmetry
Exercise 8.1
I. a c d
II. a) 1 b) 2 c) 2
III a) b) c) d) e) f) g)
No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes

d
h) i) j) k) l)

he
No No Yes Yes Yes
IV a) 1 b) 3 c) 4 d) 4 e) Infinity

is
f) 4 g) 4 h) 5 i) 6
re S
V A - B Exercise 8.2
B
i) bl
C -
C
I. 1) S I (2,2)
be T
pu
ii) D -
D
K

iii) E - 2) M W E C U
E

iv) R - R
©

3) O N Z

II. 1) 1200, 3 2) 900, 4

III 2) 0,8,1,6,9 3) 3
11)
English Reflection No of Rotational Order of
to

Alphabets Symmetry lines of Symmetry Rotational


Yes / No Symmetry Yes / No Symmetry
t

I Yes 1 Yes 4
No

B Yes 1 Yes 4
O Yes Many Yes Many
H Yes 2 Yes 2
E Yes 1 Yes 4
G No - Yes 4
Z Yes - Yes 2
S Yes - Yes 2

214