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Conf.dr. Corina Dobrotă

Departamentul de Engleză

Macromolecules are giant molecules with many atoms and very large masses for a
molecule. Nearly all macromolecules include the element carbon as a building block,
because it is the only element that readily forms giant chains or networks by bonding to
other carbon atoms and other elements. Chemists can create macromolecules in laboratories
or in factories. Most of the synthetic (laboratory-made) macromolecules are polymers,
molecules created by linking together many identical units, called monomers. Living
organisms build polymers and other complex macromolecules through natural processes.
A polymer’s properties depend on its size, its monomers, the strength of its bonds,
and whether links form between different parts of the molecule. Larger molecules tend to
have higher melting points, so macromolecules tend to be solid at room temperature. The
type of monomer or monomers affects the polymer structure and its properties. The
repeating monomer unit may be polar or nonpolar, depending on the types of atoms it
contains and whether they form polar bonds. If the monomers are polar, attractions can form
between different parts of the molecule or between the monomers and other molecules. The
bonds between the units may be stable, or they may break easily in water or in other
substances. Hydrogen bonds linking two parts of a polymer can make it hold a special shape
or strengthen it.
Synthetic polymers include the plastics polystyrene, polyester, nylon (a polyamide),
and polyvinyl chloride. These polymers differ in their repeating monomer units. Scientists
build polymers from different monomer units to create plastics with different properties. For
example, polyvinyl chloride is tough and nylon is silk-like. Synthetic polymers usually do
not dissolve in water or react with other chemicals. Strong synthetic polymers form fibers
for clothing and other materials. Synthetic fibers usually last longer than natural fibers do.
Living organisms produce three main types of biological polymers: polysaccharides,
proteins, and nucleic acids. Polysaccharides are made of linked sugar molecules, such as
fructose and glucose. Plants use sugars to make polysaccharides, such as starch and
cellulose, to store energy and form cell walls. Animals eat plants to gain energy from the
plants’ sugars and polysaccharides. These molecules are important sources of energy for
both plants and animals.
Proteins consist of amino acids linked together. There are over 20 different amino
acids, which can combine in a myriad of ways to form the protein molecules an organism
needs. Protein chains can curl or twist in upon themselves and hold a special form because
of hydrogen bonds and other bonds between parts of the molecule. Proteins perform a
variety of functions in a living organism. They form the enzymes that make chemical
reactions possible in the human body. The protein hemoglobin carries oxygen to cells. Other
proteins in the cells use the oxygen to break down the sugar glucose to create the energy the
body needs. Proteins also form important bodily structures. Proteins are, for instance, the
important part of muscles that enables limbs to bend and the heart to pump. They also form
fingernails and hair to protect the skin.
Nucleic acids are macromolecules found in the cell’s nucleus and cytoplasm. There
are two classes of nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
DNA forms an organism’s genetic code—the set of hereditary instructions that govern the
activities of every cell. The DNA instructions serve as ―blueprints‖ for all the proteins a cell
needs to make. RNA enables a cell to use the DNA blueprints to build proteins. In nucleic
acids, sugars link together with phosphorus and oxygen atoms (which together form the
phosphate group) to form the macromolecule’s backbone. Nitrogen-containing side chains,
called bases, link to the sugars of the backbone. The sequence of the bases forms the code
that the cell uses to make proteins. During cellular replication—when a cell divides into two
―daughter‖ cells—the DNA code is copied so that each daughter has a complete set of the
original genetic code. (Donald K. Brandvold, Encarta 2000)

1. Answer the following questions:

a) What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer?
b) What are synthetic polymers used for?
c) What is the role of nucleic acids?
d) What is the role of enzymes?

2. Make up questions for the following short answers:

a) As a building block.
b) Twenty.
c) Living organisms.
d) Its size, monomers, the type of bonds, etc.
e) The cell nucleus and cytoplasm.

3. Reinsert the following words in the text:

accurate when differentiate through element between himself chloride table why received
split electricity while ions.
Discovery of Molecules
Until the 1800s chemists did not understand the difference … ionic and molecular
compounds. They considered anything that contained more than one … to be a compound.
Investigators, such as British scientists Michael Faraday and Henry Cavendish, began to …
the two when they realized that some compounds, … dissolved in water, made the water
conduct electricity more easily, while others did not. Cavendish gave … electric shocks to
measure the conductivity of these water solutions. His results were surprisingly ….
Dutch chemist Jacobus Hendricus Van’t Hoff (who … the first Nobel Prize in chemistry in
1901) and Swedish chemist Svante August Arrhenius explained … different water solutions
conduct electricity differently. Van’t Hoff determined that salts—such as sodium chloride
(NaCl), or … salt, and potassium … (KCl)—split into two particles when they dissolve in
water, … substances such as glucose do not split apart when they dissolve. Arrhenius
realized that the dissolved salts not only split, but they split into two electrically charged
particles, or …. The ions move … the water to conduct electricity. Substances such as
glucose do not … and thus dissolve into uncharged compound particles that do not conduct
…, that is, into molecules.

4. Each line contains a mistake. Correct it in the space provided. A number of 9 lines
are correct.
When chemists understand the relationships among a molecule’s structure
and the properties of the substance containing the molecule, he can create
new molecules with best properties or molecules that copy natural
substances. For example, pharmaceutical chemists study molecular
structures to develop new drugs. Some drugs that dull pain work by fiting
into slots on nerves in the body. A scientist can examine the structure of
molecules that fit the slot to develop a similarly shaped molecule that works
better. Scientists have used their understanding of molecules and molecular
structure to make many useful materials, such as the plastics nylon and
Teflon, vitamins, pharmaceuticals, and artificial skin and bones. Scientists
can also determine weather a substance is likely to be harmful by
comparing its molecular structure with the structures of other molecules
that are know to be harmful. Chemists use many tools to study molecules,
including lasers, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-Ray systems ,
spectroscopes, and computers.

5. Rephrase the following sentences so as to preserve the initial meaning:

a) Scientists have recently developed devices that allow them to study a single molecule at a
Recently ……………………………..allow the ……………………………………………..
b) The nuclei of hydrogen atoms and several other atoms act like small magnets.
The ………………………………………………………………………magnet-like.
c) When X rays pass near electrons, they diffract, or bend.
……………..occurs when …………………………………
d) Certain groups of atoms commonly found together in molecules absorb certain
wavelengths of light.
Certain wavelengths ………………………………………………………………………..

Codex Alimentarius

The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for "food code" or "food book") is a collection of
internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations
relating to foods, food production and food safety under the aegis of consumer protection.
These texts are developed and maintained by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a body
that was established in 1963 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
(FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The Commission's main aims are stated as
being to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the international food
trade. The Codex Alimentarius is recognized by the World Trade Organization as an
international reference point for the resolution of disputes concerning food safety and
consumer protection.

Practice: In the previous paragraph, find the English equivalents of: sub egida; comisie;
siguranta alimentelor; consumatori; standarde recunoscute international; organism; scop;
comert; directive; protectia consumatorilor; punct de referintă.

The Codex Alimentarius officially covers all foods, whether processed, semi-
processed or raw, but far more attention has been given to foods that are marketed directly to
consumers. In addition to standards for specific foods, the Codex Alimentarius contains
general standards covering matters such as food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and
pesticide residues, and procedures for assessing the safety of foods derived from modern
biotechnology. It also contains guidelines for the management of official (i.e., governmental)
import and export inspection and certification systems for foods.The Codex Alimentarius is
published in Arabic, Chinese, English, French and Spanish. Not all texts are available in all

Practice: Ask questions to which the underlined words are the answers.
General texts
 Food labeling (general standard, guidelines on nutrition labeling, guidelines on
labeling claims)
 Food additives (general standard including authorized uses, specifications for food
grade chemicals)
 Contaminants in foods (general standard, tolerances for specific contaminants
including radionuclides, aflatoxins and other mycotoxins)
 Pesticide and veterinary chemical residues in foods (maximum residue limits)
 Risk assessment procedures for determining the safety of foods derived from
biotechnology (DNA-modified plants, DNA-modified micro-organisms, allergens)
 Food hygiene (general principles, codes of hygienic practice in specific industries or
food handling establishments, guidelines for the use of the Hazard Analysis and Critical
Control Point or ―HACCP‖ system)
 Methods of analysis and sampling.

Specific standards
 Meat products (fresh, frozen, processed meats and poultry)
 Fish and fishery products (marine, fresh water and aquaculture)
 Milk and milk/ dairy products
 Foods for special dietary uses (including infant formulae and baby foods)
 Fresh and processed vegetables, fruits, and fruit juices
 Cereals and derived products, dried legumes
 Fats, oils and derived products such as margarine
 Miscellaneous food products (chocolate, sugar, honey, mineral/ plain water)

The 28th Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission was held July 4 - July 9,
2005. Among the many issues discussed were the "Guidelines for Vitamin and Mineral Food
Supplements", which were adopted during the meeting as a new global standard. This text has
been the subject of considerable controversy, in part because many member countries regulate
these substances as therapeutic goods or pharmaceuticals and not as foods (if they were not
foods, they would be excluded from the Codex Alimentarius). The text does not seek to ban
supplements, but to subject them to dosage, labeling and composition requirements.
The Guidelines have attracted concern from both consumers and industry due to the potential
for restrictions on vitamins and minerals as dietary supplements. The health freedom
movement has pointed to greater concerns related to restrictions on dietary supplement
ingredients in Europe via the European Union's Food Supplements Directive (which utilizes
approved lists of ingredients and ingredient forms) and potentially restrictive dosage limits to
be based on a Codex model via the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World
Health Organization (WHO) Nutrient Risk Assessment Project.

Practice: Answer the following questions:

When was the 28th session held?
What was adopted as a new global standard?
Why has this text been subject to controversy?
What does the text not seek?
Why have the guidelines attracted concern?
What are the concerns related to?
Translate into English:
a. Carnea de pasăre și produsele din pește sunt recomandate în diete.
b. Produsele lactate conțin lactoză și de aceea se pot dovedi mai greu de digerat, cauzând
c. Au existat probleme cu etichetarea acestui lot de produse.
d. Suplimentele alimentare sunt supuse unor reglementări stricte în Uniunea Europeană.
e. Conferința s-a desfășurat sub egida Organizației Mondiale a Sănătății.
f. Laptele praf pentru sugari se obține de la farmacie.
g. Igiena și siguranța alimentelor constituie preocupări de bază pentru ingineria


Biotechnology is technology based on biology, agriculture, food science, and

medicine. Modern use of the term refers to genetic engineering as well as cell- and tissue
culture technologies. However, the concept encompasses a wider range and history of
procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes, going back to
domestication of animals, cultivation of plants and "improvements" to these through breeding
programs that employ artificial selection and hybridization. By comparison to biotechnology,
bioengineering is generally thought of as a related field with its emphasis more on mechanical
and higher systems approaches to interfacing with and exploiting living things. United
Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as any technological
application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or
modify products or processes for specific use.

Practice. Ask questions for the underlined answers.

Biotechnology draws on the pure biological sciences (genetics, microbiology, animal cell
culture, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology, cell biology) and in many instances is
also dependent on knowledge and methods from outside the sphere of biology (chemical
engineering, bioprocess engineering, information technology, biorobotics). Conversely,
modern biological sciences (including even concepts such as molecular ecology) are
intimately entwined and dependent on the methods developed through biotechnology and
what is commonly thought of as the life sciences industry.

Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical),
crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g.
biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses.

For example, one application of biotechnology is the directed use of organisms for the
manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and milk products). Biotechnology is
also used to recycle, treat waste, clean up sites contaminated by industrial activities
(bioremediation), and also to produce biological weapons.

Practice. Find the equivalents of: mase plastice biodegradabile, recoltă, genetică, celulă,
mediu înconjurător, arme biologice, îngrijirea sănătății, strâns legat, reziduuri.

A series of derived terms have been coined to identify several branches of biotechnology, for
 Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using
computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization and analysis of biological
data possible. The field may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be
defined as, conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying
informatics techniques to understand and organize the information associated with
these molecules, on a large scale. Bioinformatics plays a key role in various areas,
such as functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics, and forms a key
component in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector.
 Blue biotechnology is a term that has been used to describe the marine and aquatic
applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.
 Green biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. An example
would be the selection and domestication of plants via micropropagation. Another
example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environments in
the presence (or absence) of chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology might
produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture.
An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby ending
the need of external application of pesticides. An example of this would be Bt corn.
Whether or not green biotechnology products such as this are ultimately more
environmentally friendly is a topic of considerable debate.
 Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing
of organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of genetic cures through
genetic manipulation.
 White biotechnology, also known as industrial biotechnology, is biotechnology
applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce
a useful chemical. Another example is the using of enzymes as industrial catalysts to
either produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous/polluting chemicals. White
biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to
produce industrial goods.

The investment and economic output of all of these types of applied biotechnologies is
termed as bioeconomy.

Answer the following questions:

a. What is the significance of the colour blue/green/red/white applied to biotechnology

and where does it get its symbolism from?
b. How may computational biology be defined?
c. What is bioeconomy?
d. What is white biotechnology also known as?
e. What is the use of enzymes in industrial processes?
f. What does green biotechnology hope to achieve?
g. What is red biotechnology applied to?
h. What does Bt corn stand out by?

Complete the following with words derived from the words given in capitals:

Modern biotechnology is often associated with the use of [GENE] altered microorganisms
such as E. coli or yeast for the [PRODUCE] of substances like synthetic insulin or
antibiotics. It can also refer to transgenic animals or transgenic plants, such as Bt corn.
Genetically altered mammalian cells, such as Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, are also
used to [MANUFACTORY] certain pharmaceuticals. Another promising new biotechnology
[APPLY] is the development of plant-made [PHARMACY].

Put the verbs in brackets into the right form:

Modern biotechnology can (use) to manufacture existing medicines relatively easily and
cheaply. The first genetically engineered products (be) medicines designed to treat human
diseases. To cite one example, in 1978 Genentech (develop) synthetic humanized insulin by
(join) its gene with a plasmid vector inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli. Insulin,
widely used for the treatment of diabetes, previously (extract) from the pancreas of abattoir
animals (cattle and/or pigs). The resulting genetically engineered bacterium enabled the
production of vast quantities of synthetic human insulin at relatively low cost. According to a
2003 study (undertake) by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) on the access to and
availability of insulin in its member countries, synthetic 'human' insulin is considerably more
expensive in most countries where both synthetic 'human' and animal insulin (be)
commercially available: e.g. within European countries the average price of synthetic
'human' insulin was twice as high as the price of pork insulin. Yet in its position statement, the
IDF (write) that "there is no overwhelming evidence to prefer one species of insulin over
another" and "[modern, highly-purified] animal insulins (remain) a perfectly acceptable

Modern biotechnology (evolve), making it possible to produce more easily and relatively
cheaply human growth hormone, clotting factors for hemophiliacs, fertility drugs,
erythropoietin and other drugs. Most drugs today (base) on about 500 molecular targets.
Genomic knowledge of the genes involved in diseases, disease pathways, and drug-response
sites (expect) to lead to the discovery of thousands more new targets. (adapted from

Translate into English.

a. Initial insulina era extrasă din pancreasul animalelor sacrificate în abatoare,
precum vitele saau porcinele .

b. I s-au administrat medicamente pentru coagularea sângelui.

c. Noile medicamente se pot fabrica relativ usor si ieftin.

d. Se discută încă dacă aceste produse dăunează sau nu mediului înconjurător.

e. Există probe în sprijinul acestei ipoteze stiintifice.

f. Aceste enzime se folosesc pe scară largă drept catalizatori industriali.

g. Aceste organisme modificate genetic au certe virtuti terapeutice.

Food Preservation

Food preservation is defined as the branch of food science and technology that deals
with the practical control of factors capable of adversely affecting the safety, nutritive value,
appearance, texture, flavor, and keeping qualities of raw and processed foods. Since
thousands of food products differing in physical, chemical, and biological properties can
undergo deterioration from such diverse causes as microorganisms, natural food enzymes,
insects and rodents, industrial contaminants, heat, cold, light, oxygen, moisture, dryness, and
storage time, food preservation methods differ widely and are optimized for specific products.
Food preservation methods involve the use of heat, refrigeration, freezing,
concentration, dehydration, irradiation, pH control, chemical preservatives, and packaging
applied to produce various degrees of preservation in accordance with the differing use
patterns and shelf-life needs of unique products.
Thermal processes to preserve foods vary in intensity. True sterility to ensure total
destruction of the most heat-resistant bacterial spores in nonacidic foods may require a
treatment of at least 250°F (121°C) of wet heat for at least 15 min to be delivered throughout
the entire food mass. The term commercial sterility refers to a less severe condition that still
assures destruction of all pathogenic organisms, as well as organisms that, if present, could
grow in the product and produce spoilage under normal conditions of handling and storage.
Many foods are subjected to still less severe heating by methods that produce
pasteurization to assure destruction of pathogens and extend product shelf life.
The slowing of biological and chemical activity with decreasing temperature is the
principle behind cooling (refrigeration) and freezing preservation. In addition, when water is
converted to ice, free water required for its solvent properties by all living systems is
removed. Commercial freezing methods utilize refrigerated still air; high-velocity air, which
is faster and more efficient; and high-velocity air made to suspend particulate foods, such as
peas, as in a fluidized-bed fast freezer. Indirect contact freezing utilizes hollow flat plates
chilled with an internally circulated refrigerant to freeze solid foods, or with refrigerated
tubular heat exchangers that rapidly slush-freeze liquids. Immersion freezing involves direct
contact of the food or its container with refrigerants approved for food or a fast-freezing
cryogenic liquid.
When sufficient water is removed from foods, microorganisms will not grow, and
many enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions will cease or be markedly slowed. Concentration
preservation can be achieved by physically removing water, as by boiling or with lower-
temperature vacuum evaporation, or by binding water through the addition of sugar, salt, or
other solutes.
Foods preserved by dehydration contain considerably lower water activity and less
total water than concentrated foods. Most dehydration methods utilize heat to vaporize and
remove water. The heat and oxygen sensitivity of many foods necessitates vacuum
dehydration for high quality. Under vacuum, water can be removed at reduced temperature,
and oxidative changes are minimized. In freeze-drying, foods are frozen quickly and placed in
a chamber under high vacuum. A food's structure remains rigid as it goes directly from the
frozen state to dryness.
Food irradiation remains highly controversial, partly because of fears that the safety of
products and processes cannot be adequately regulated. The natural acids of certain fruits and
vegetables, acid added as a chemical, and acid produced by fermentation can inhibit or
partially inhibit several pathogenic and spoilage organisms. The pH of acidic foods, however,
is rarely sufficiently low to assure long-term preservation from acid alone. Many acidic and
fermented foods further depend upon prior pasteurization of their ingredients, the addition of
salt and other chemicals, and refrigeration.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and comparable agencies in various countries
vigorously regulate the chemicals that may be added to foods as well as the conditions of their
use. Chemical preservatives and similar substances include antimicrobials, enzyme inhibitors,
and antioxidants. There is much pressure to remove chemicals from the food supply,
especially where their effects can be achieved by other means.
Packaging protects foods from contamination, moisture gain or loss, flavor loss and
odor pickup, the adverse effects of light, physical damage, and intentional tampering.
Ultimately, a food product's quality and storage life are determined largely by its package.

1. Derive nouns from the following: to include, to lose, to determine, to pack, to achieve,
to inhibit, to protect, to preserve, to regulate, to treat, to add, to remove, to assure, to
irradiate, to refrigerate.

2. Ask questions for the following answers:

a. The practical control of factors influencing raw and processed foods.
b. At least 121 degrees.
c. It is less severe than sterilisation.
d. They are used to slush-freeze liquids.
e. Enzymatic or nonenzymatic reactions slow down or cease.
f. Considerably lower water activity.
g. Because of the lack of safety regulation of foods.
h. Contamination, moisture gain or loss, odor pickup, etc.

3. Translate into English:

a. Se încearcă îndepărtarea aditivilor din alimente pentru a nu pune în pericol sănătatea
b. Substanțele antimicrobiene, inhibitorii enzimatici și antioxidanții fac parte din
categoria conservanților chimici.
c. Aceste produse au fost supuse tratamentului termic.
d. Utilizarea aditivilor alimentari este atent reglementată și monitorizată mai ales în
ultimii ani.
e. Înmulțirea microorganismelor se poate controla și încetini apreciabil prin
deshidratare, refrigerare sau congelare.

Food Manufacturing

Food manufacturing is defined as a total sequence of food operations, including the

growth and selection of raw materials, harvesting, processing, preservation, and distribution.
In general, the aim of all food manufacturing operations is to extend the availability of
seasonal crops to year-round use.
The products of food manufacturing differ from traditional foods of plant or animal
origin which have undergone minimal treatment. For example, the quality of apples sold in
the winter can be maintained, through the use of controlled-atmosphere storage, which retards
the ripening process by controlling the levels of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere of the storage facility. Atmosphere control is also used to hasten ripening so that
fruits may be harvested in the unripe stage for ease of handling and then ripened rapidly in
storage. In other cases the package itself allows the diffusion of only certain atmospheric
gases and thus maintains quality. There are certain foods that cannot be maintained in a state
close to the raw product. Tomatoes, for example, are not amenable to freezing or long periods
of storage. Therefore, such products as heat-processed sauces, pastes, and stewed tomatoes
have been developed. Other food products are even further removed from the raw product: oil
is produced from seed; and plant proteins are used as extenders or substitutes for meat, as
additives for nutritious beverages, and as bases for many formulated foods.
There are many other forms of food preservation representing both ancient and
modern technologies. The ancient operation of sun-drying was first employed when it was
realized that dried fruits remained wholesome and edible for long periods of time. Today,
with the additional knowledge that drying, evaporation, and concentration all reduce the water
activity or increase the osmotic pressure of a food to the point where bacteria will not grow,
this technology is used for sophisticated products such as powdered milk and freeze-dried
mushrooms. Food additives, such as salt, sugar, and other solutes, which reduce the water
activity or increase the osmotic pressure, and acids, which inhibit bacterial growth, also
achieve the preservation effect. Many food additives are natural in origin, and their
preservative effect was noted in nature prior to their use as food additives. Freezing, heat
sterilization (canning), pasteurization, fermentation, baking, and meat curing are other well-
known forms of preservation. Irradiation processes for food have also been developed, and
low-level irradiation has been approved in the United States by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA).
Food manufacturing is not solely involved with the preservation of food but is also
concerned with the production of high-quality, appealing, wholesome food. To fulfill these
goals, five broad categories of food additives are often used: flavors, coloring agents,
preservatives, texturizing agents, and miscellaneous. The last category includes a variety of
substances that may retain moisture, control acidity, act as leavening agents, or provide
nutrients such as vitamins and minerals.
The final operation in the manufacturing process is that of packaging, which is
governed by the physicochemical attributes of the food, the preservation process involved, the
gaseous permeability desired, the conditions under which the product is to be stored, the
desirability of viewing the product through a clear film or glass, and the expense.
Historically, metal and glass have been used to package heat-processed foods; more flexible
films are used for foods which undergo less vigorous treatment. Adoption of the regulation
allowing the use of hydrogen peroxide as a package sterilant has permitted the use of nonrigid
flexible packages for heat-sterilized foods (aseptic packaging). This type of packaging is very
cost-effective. (

1. Complete with one word:

There ................. many other forms of food preservation representing both ancient and
modern technologies. The .................... operation of sun-drying was first employed when it
was realized that dried fruits remained wholesome and edible for .................. periods of time.
Today, with the additional knowledge that drying, evaporation, and concentration all reduce
the water activity or increase the ..................... of a food to the point where bacteria will not
grow, this technology is used for sophisticated products such as powdered milk and freeze-
dried mushrooms. Food additives, ............... as salt, sugar, and other solutes, which reduce
the water activity or increase the osmotic pressure, and acids, .................... inhibit bacterial
growth, also achieve the preservation effect. Many food additives are natural in origin, and
their ............................ effect was noted in nature prior to their use as food additives.
Freezing, heat sterilization (canning), pasteurization, fermentation, baking, and meat curing
are other well-known ....................... of preservation. Irradiation processes for food have also
......................... developed, and low-level irradiation has been approved in the United States
by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

2. Answer the questions:

a. What is food manufacturing?
b. What is atmosphere control used for?
c. What happens to sun-dried foods?
d. Which are the categories of food additives?
e. Why is packaging important?

3. Derive verbs from: administration, moisture, irradiation, preservation, package,

manufacturing, loss, gain, growth, additive.

Food Engineering

Food engineering is the application of engineering concepts and principles to the

conversion of raw foods into safe consumer products of the highest possible quality. The
entire spectrum of food engineering is associated with operation and maintenance of food
processing plants as well as sophisticated research involving process design.
The applications of engineering in food handling, processing, packaging, and
distribution can be described in terms of unit operations. There are many different unit
operations associated with the conversion of raw food materials to consumer products. The
movement of foods and other materials within the processing plant requires the use of unique
equipment and processes. For example, special sanitary pumps are used to transport liquid
foods, and the material-handling equipment for solid foods requires careful design for
product-contact surfaces.
The importance of thermal treatments for food preservation requires that a broad range
of heat-exchange equipment be used. Heat exchangers for liquids are unique in terms of
sanitary design and cleanability of surfaces following thermal processing. A special
component of thermal preservation is the design of thermal processes.
Several unit operations involve heat transfer in order to achieve the desired
preservation even though storage stability is not the direct result of thermal treatment. An
excellent example is the freezing process, where removal of thermal energy reduces product
temperatures to levels where deterioration reactions are significantly inhibited. Concentration
processes achieve a degree of preservation by reducing the availability of water for
deterioration reactions, although the primary aim is reduction of liquid-product mass and
volume. Although traditional concentration processes have used thermal energy to evaporate
water, membranes of various types are now used to achieve the same results. The preservation
of food products is achieved by reduction of the water content to low levels by means of
dehydration processes which use thermal energy. These processes are applied to liquid foods
and to products that are naturally solid.
Another series of unit operations is used to alter the product composition or structure
in some manner. These include separation, mixing, and extrusion. Separation processes are
designed to divide food products into two or more components. While a variety of physical or
chemical properties of the product components are used in the various separation processes,
two of the most important processes are filtration and extraction. Filtration, a physical
process, has several applications in addition to its use for separating product components.
Extraction is most often designed to remove a specific or unique product component for use in
a separate operation or product formulation. After separation, the final product is obtained
through the use of a mixing process which includes a variety of equipment types. Finally, the
extrusion process involves the use of both thermal and flow properties to achieve product
preservation as well as some specified set of structural and textural characteristics.
The importance of cleaning and sanitation must be emphasized due to direct
relationships to final product quality. The required operations vary considerably depending on
the type of product handled and the type of equipment used. The processes required to
manage the wastes generated during food handling, processing, packaging, and distribution
are all similar, and many of the waste-handling and treatment operations are the same as those
used directly with the food products.
The final operation to which the product is subjected before distribution is packaging.
The package barrier is important for maintaining food products at desirable quality levels.
Food packaging involves the selection of equipment needed for placing the product in the
package as well as the selection of packaging material needed to protect the product in an
optimum manner.
An engineering input to food handling, processing, packaging, and distribution that is
applied to almost all unit operations is process control. The use of instrumentation and
associated electronic controls has a significant impact on the efficiency of all components of
the food delivery system. (

1. Complete the following with words from the text:

a. Food ……………… and catering are major parts of the food trade nowadays.
b. While ……………… food, workers should wear gloves in order to avoid
c. ………… sterilization such as boiling kills the harmful microorganisms.
d. In order to obtain high quality finished products, one needs top …………. materials.
e. When they are defrosted, fruits and vegetables lose some …………. characteristics.
f. The ………….. material should be both resilient to protect the product inside and
appealing to the customer.
g. This retail shop sells a wide ……………… of food products.

2. Answer the questions:

a. What is food engineering associated with?
b. What are sanitary pumps used for?
c. Why should material-handling equipment be carefully designed?
d. Why are heat exchangers considered unique?
e. Is storage stability the result of thermal treatment?
f. What is the primary aim of concentration?
g. What products may be subjected to dehydration?
h. What does separation achieve?

3. Give questions for the following answers:

a. ………………………………………………………………………………………..?
The conversion of raw materials into consumer products.
b. ………………………………………………………………………………………..?
The use of unique equipment and processes.
c. ………………………………………………………………………………………..?
It significantly inhibits deterioration reactions.
d. ………………………………………………………………………………………?
The type of product handled and the type of equipment used.
e. ………………………………………………………………………………………?
For maintaining food products at desirable quality levels.
f. ……………………………………………………………………………………….?
The use of both thermal and flow properties.
4. Translate into English:
a. Există o multitudine de operații care trebuie îndeplinite până când materiile prime se
transformă în produse finite, gata de a fi livrate consumatorilor.
b. Manipularea produselor alimentare se realizează în condiții perfecte de igienă.
c. Selectarea procesului de ambalare se realizează în funcție de tipul produsului, dar și
de termenul de valabilitate.
d. Prin reducerea temperaturii în refrigerare sau congelare, procesele chimice de
deteriorare și alterare din interiorul alimentelor sunt semnificativ încetinite sau chiar
e. Prin deshidratare se reduce conținutul de apă din alimente.

5. Complete with the right word :

Another series of unit operations is used to alter the (1)……………. composition or structure
in some manner. These (2)……………….. separation, mixing, and extrusion. Separation
processes are designed to divide food products (3)………………… two or more components.
While a variety of physical or (4)…………………. properties of the product components are
used in the various separation processes, two of the most important processes are
(5)…………………… and extraction. Filtration, a physical process, has several applications
in (6)……………….. to its use for separating product components. Extraction is most often
designed to remove a specific or unique product (7)………………. for use in a separate
operation or product formulation. After separation, the final product is (8)…………………
through the use of a mixing process which includes a variety of equipment types. Finally, the
extrusion process involves the use of (9)…………………… thermal and flow properties to
achieve product preservation as (10)…………………. as some specified set of structural and
textural characteristics.

Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble nutrient that occurs in nature in two forms: preformed
vitamin A and provitamin A, or carotene. Preformed vitamin A is concentrated only in certain
tissues of animal products, in which he animal has metabolized the carotene contained in its
food supplement. One of the richest natural sources of preformed vitamin A is fish oil, which
is classified as a food supplement. Some animal products, such as cream and butter, may
contain both preformed vitamin A and carotene.
Carotene is a substance that must be converted into vitamin A before it can be utilized
by the body. It is abundant in carrots, from which its name is derived, but it is present in even
higher concentrations in certain green leafy vegetables, such as beet greens, spinach and
broccoli. If, owing to any disorder, the body is unable to use carotene, a vitamin A deficiency
may arise.
Vitamin A aids in the growth and repair of body tissues and helps maintain smooth,
soft, disease-free skin. Internally it helps protect the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose,
throat and lungs, thereby reducing susceptibility to infection. This protection also aids the
mucous membranes combating the effects of various air pollutants. The soft tissue and
bladder are also protected. In addition, vitamin A prompts the secretion of gastric juices
necessary for the proper digestion of proteins. Other important functions of vitamin A include
the building of strong bones and teeth, the formation of rich blood, and the maintenance of
good eyesight.
Many people are unaware of the importance of vitamin A in fighting infection. By
giving strength to cell walls, it helps protect the mucous membranes against invading bacteria.
People who live in environments with high air-pollution counts are more susceptible to
infection and colds than people who live in environments with cleaner air. If infection has
already occurred, therapeutic doses of vitamin A will help keep it from spreading.
Vitamin A can be used successfully in treating several eye disorders, such as blurred
vision, night blindness, cataracts and crossed eyes. Therapeutic dosages of vitamin A are
necessary for the treatment of glaucoma and conjunctivitis, an inflammation of the mucous
membrane that lines the eyelids.
Administration of vitamin A has helped shorten the duration of communicable
diseases, such as measles, scarlet fever, the common cold and infections of the eye, middle
ear, intestines, uterus, ovaries and vagina. It also has been effective in reducing high
cholesterol levels and atheroma, fatty degeneration or thickening of the wall of the larger
Vitamin A protects the epithelial tissues like the skin, the stomach and the lungs from
becoming cancerous. It has also proved successful in treating cases of brochial asthma,
chronic rhinitis and dermatitis. Vitamin A has been found to be extremely important in this
repair process.
There is increasing evidence that vitamin A is related to sexual development and
reproduction. It is essential in the chemical processes whereby cholesterol is converted into
female estrogens and male androgens. Insufficient supply of these sex hormones results in
degenerations of the sex organs. Vitamin A given to animals in this condition resumed normal
hormone activity. Researchers believe that the vitamin counters the cancerous process by
activating the body`s immune system and preventing the thymus gland from shrinking. When
animals injected with a tumour-virus are given large doses of vitamin A their tumours
diminish and the thymus returns to normal size.
Externally, vitamin A is used in treating acne. When applied locally, it can clear up
impetigo, boils, carbuncles and open ulcers. Vitamin A applied directly to open wounds
hastens the healing process in cases where healing has been retarded because cortisone has
been used. It also stimulates the production of mucus, which in turn prevents scarring. A
treatment using injections of vitamin A has proved effective in the removal of plantar warts.

1. Answer the following questions:

a. What forms can vitamin A be found in?
b. Why is it useful?
c. What is carotene?
d. What products contain vitamin A?
e. What happens if the body is deprived of it?
f. What is the role of vitamin A in sexual development and reproduction?
g. What are its external uses?

2. Make up questions for the following answers:

a. They are necessary for the proper digestion of proteins.
b. It is an inflammation of the mucous membrane in the eyelids.
c. A normal hormone activity.
d. They are derived from cholesterol.
e. It proved efficient in removing warts on the soles.
f. It is delayed when using cortisone.

3. Fill in the blanks with just one word:

The Recommended Dietary Allowances of … A, as established … the National
Research Council, are 1500-4000 IU … children and 4000-5000 IU for …. These
amounts increase during disease, trauma, pregnancy … lactation. Requirements vary
for people … smoke, those who easily absorb vitamin A and those who have their
stored … of vitamin A depleted by pneumonia or nephritis. An increased intake of
vitamins C and E will … prevent excessive oxidation of stored vitamin A.

4. Fill in with the suitable word according to the text: People living in a polluted
environment are … affected by vitamin A deficiency. #If you take in the necessary
amount of vitamin A, you will have … bones and teeth. #There is a …
concentration of vitamin A in spinach than in carrots. #The duration of
communicable diseases is … if vitamin A is administered. #If you eat a lot of
products rich in vitamin A your skin will be … and …. #A wound heals … if you
apply vitamin A.

Food contaminants

Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms
which can cause consumer illness. The chemical contamination of foods is seen as opposed to
microbiological contamination, which is treated as an aspect of foodborne illness. A separate
issue is genetically modified food, or the presence in foods of ingredients from genetically
modified organisms, also considered a form of food contamination.


The impact of chemical contaminants on consumer health and well-being is often apparent
only after many years of prolonged exposure at low levels (e.g. cancer). Chemical
contaminants present in foods are often unaffected by thermal processing (unlike most
microbiological agents). Chemical contaminants can be classified according to the source of
contamination and the mechanism by which they enter the food product.


Agrochemicals are chemicals used in agricultural practices and animal husbandry with the
intent to increase crops and reduce costs. Such agents include pesticides (e.g. insecticides,
herbicides, rodenticides), plant growth regulators, veterinary drugs (e.g. nitrofuran,
chloramphenicol), and bovine somatotropin (rBST).

Practice. Find the English equivalents for: îmbolnăvirea consumatorului, hrană mofificată
genetic, expunere, procesare termică, produs alimentar, zootehnie, recoltă, ierbicide.

Environmental contaminants

Environmental contaminants are chemicals that are present in the environment in which the
food is grown, harvested, transported, stored, packaged, processed, and consumed. The
physical contact of the food with its environment results in its contamination. Possible sources
of contamination are:

-Air: radionuclides (137Caesium, 90Strontium), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

-Water: arsenic, mercury.

-Soil: cadmium, nitrate, perchlorate.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) , dioxins, and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) are
ubiquitous chemicals, which are present in air, water, soil, and the entire biosphere.

-Packaging materials: antimony, tin, lead, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), semicarbazide,

benzophenone, isopropylthioxanthone (ITX), bisphenol A.

-Processing/cooking equipment: copper, lubricants, cleaning and sanitizing agents.

-Naturally occurring toxins: mycotoxins, alkaloids, mushroom toxins, shellfish toxins (see
shellfish poisoning), tetrodotoxin, among many others.

Food additives

Food additives are chemicals intentionally added to foods during processing. Most food
additives play important technological roles in the food product and their use is justified from
an economical, nutritional, or safety point of view. However, the employment of food
additives in a manner inconsistent with their intended use may result in undesirable levels in
the finished product (e.g. nitrate, nitrite). In such cases, food additives may become
contaminants and may exert unfavorable effects on consumer health and/or the food product.
Similarly, unapproved food additives (e.g. Sudan Red dyes, melamine), or food additives
withdrawn because of safety concerns (e.g. Butter Yellow) should be regarded as food

Processing contaminants

Processing contaminants are generated during the processing of foods (e.g. heating,
fermentation). They are absent in the raw materials, and are formed by chemical reactions
between natural and/or added food constituents during processing. The presence of these
contaminants in processed foods cannot be entirely avoided. However, technological
processes can be adjusted and/or optimized in order to reduce the levels of formation of
processing contaminants. Examples are: nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAH), heterocyclic amines, histamine, acrylamide, furan, benzene, trans fat,
monochloropropanediol (MCPD), semicarbazide, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and ethyl

Emerging food contaminants

These food contaminants are the ones discovered relatively recently. These are the so-called
emerging food contaminants, e.g. acrylamide, furan, benzene, trans fat, etc. The list is likely
to grow in the future.

Safety and regulation

Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) levels and tolerable concentrations of contaminants in

individual foods are determined on the basis of the "No Observed Adverse Effect Level"
(NOAEL) in animal experiments, by using a safety factor (usually 100). The maximum
concentrations of contaminants allowed by legislation are often well below toxicological
tolerance levels, because such levels can often be reasonably achieved by using good
agricultural and manufacturing practices.
The establishment of ADIs for certain emerging food contaminants is currently an active area
of research and regulatory debate. ( contaminants)

Answer the following questions based on the text:

1. What does food contamination refer to?

2. Are chemical contaminants usually affected by temperature?
3. What are environmental contaminants? Give examples.
4. Why are dioxins considered ubiquitous?
5. When are food additives regarded as contaminants? Give examples.
6. When are processing contaminants generated?
7. Can they be completely avoided?
8. How is the ADI determined?

Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word from the text:

1. The final ...................... should be satisfied with the product.

2. The Danube Delta is the most important ............................. reservation in our country.
3. Lactic acid is produced by the ...............................of milk.
4. By heat, these foodscan easily get spoilt.
5. The potato ........................... are currently decreasing in this region due to the
unfavourable weather.
6. Animal ............................. is a branch of agriculture.
7. It is ............................ to leghten the list of emerging food contaminants.
8. The ................................. materials should be of premium quality in order to obtain a
high quality product.
9. ................................. processing is the most common manner of killing
10. Diseases that appear due to pathogens transported by air are called ....................

Translate into English:

1. Aceste tevi sunt fabricate din cupru, datorită comportamentului lor termic superior.

2. Lubrifiantii fabricati în acest combinat chimic se folosesc în multe ramuri ale industriei.

3. Fabricarea acestor tipuri de vopsea textilă poluează grav mediul înconjurător.

4. Solul din această zonă nu este potrivit pentru cultivarea acestui tip de plante industriale.

5. Efectele nocive asupra sănătătii consumatorului trebuie evitate în fiecare etapă a

procesului de productie.

6. Valoarea nutritivă a acestor alimente ar trebui îmbogătită prin adaos de vitamine si

Chemical Industry

The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. It
is central to modern world economy, converting raw materials (oil, natural gas, air, water,
metals, minerals) into more than 70,000 different products.

Polymers and plastics, especially polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride,

polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polycarbonate comprise about 80% of the
industry’s output worldwide. Chemicals are used to make a wide variety of consumer goods,
as well as thousands inputs to agriculture, manufacturing, construction, and service industries.
The chemical industry itself consumes 26 percent of its own output. Major industrial
customers include rubber and plastic products, textiles, apparel, petroleum refining, pulp and
paper, and primary metals. Chemicals is nearly a $3 trillion global enterprise, and the EU and
U.S. chemical companies are the world's largest producers.

Sales of the chemical business can be divided into a few broad categories, including
basic chemicals (about 35 to 37 percent of the dollar output), life sciences (30 percent),
specialty chemicals (20 to 25 percent) and consumer products (about 10 percent.

Basic chemicals, or "commodity chemicals" are a broad chemical category including

polymers, bulk petrochemicals and intermediates, other derivatives and basic industrials,
inorganic chemicals, and fertilizers. Typical growth rates for basic chemicals are about 0.5 to
0.7 times GDP. Product prices are generally less than fifty cents per pound. Polymers, the
largest revenue segment at about 33 percent of the basic chemicals dollar value, includes all
categories of plastics and man-made fibers. The major markets for plastics are packaging,
followed by home construction, containers, appliances, pipe, transportation, toys, and games.
The largest-volume polymer product, polyethylene (PE), is used mainly in packaging films
and other markets such as milk bottles, containers, and pipe. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC),
another large-volume product, is principally used to make pipe for construction markets as
well as siding and, to a much smaller extent, transportation and packaging materials.
Polypropylene (PP), similar in volume to PVC, is used in markets ranging from packaging,
appliances, and containers to clothing and carpeting. Polystyrene (PS), another large-volume
plastic, is used principally for appliances and packaging as well as toys and recreation. The
leading man-made fibers include polyester, nylon, polypropylene, and acrylics, with
applications including apparel, home furnishings, and other industrial and consumer use. The
principal raw materials for polymers are bulk petrochemicals.

Chemicals in the bulk petrochemicals and intermediates are primarily made from
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas, and crude oil. Their sales volume is close to 30
percent of overall basic chemicals. Typical large-volume products include ethylene,
propylene, benzene, toluene, xylenes, methanol, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), styrene,
butadiene, and ethylene oxide. These chemicals are the starting points for most polymers and
other organic chemicals as well as much of the specialty chemicals category.

Other derivatives and basic industrials include synthetic rubber, surfactants, dyes and
pigments, turpentine, resins, carbon black, explosives, and rubber products and contribute
about 20 percent of the basic chemicals' external sales. Inorganic chemicals (about 12 percent
of the revenue output) make up the oldest of the chemical categories. Products include salt,
chlorine, caustic soda, soda ash, acids (such as nitric, phosphoric, and sulfuric), titanium
dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide. Fertilizers are the smallest category (about 6 percent) and
include phosphates, ammonia, and potash chemicals.

Life sciences (about 30 percent of the dollar output of the chemistry business) include
differentiated chemical and biological substances, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, animal health
products, vitamins, and crop protection chemicals. While much smaller in volume than other
chemical sectors, their products tend to have very high prices—over ten dollars per pound—
growth rates of 1.5 to 6 times GDP, and research and development spending at 15 to 25
percent of sales. Life science products are usually produced with very high specifications and
are closely scrutinized by government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration.
Crop protection chemicals, about 10 percent of this category, include herbicides, insecticides,
and fungicides.

Specialty chemicals are a category of relatively high valued, rapidly growing

chemicals with diverse end product markets. Typical growth rates are one to three times GDP
with prices over a dollar per pound. They are generally characterized by their innovative
aspects. Products are sold for what they can do rather than for what chemicals they contain.
Products include electronic chemicals, industrial gases, adhesives and sealants as well as
coatings, industrial and institutional cleaning chemicals, and catalysts. Coatings make up
about 15 percent of specialty chemicals sales, with other products ranging from 10 to 13

Specialty Chemicals are sometimes referred to as "fine chemicals".

Consumer products include direct product sale of chemicals such as soaps,

detergents, and cosmetics. Typical growth rates are 0.8 to 1.0 times GDP.

Every year, the American Chemistry Council tabulates the U.S. production of the top 100
basic chemicals. In 2000, the aggregate production of the top 100 chemicals totaled 502
million tons, up from 397 million tons in 1990. Inorganic chemicals tend to be the largest
volume, though much smaller in dollar revenue terms due to their low prices. The top 11 of
the 100 chemicals in 2000 were sulfuric acid (44 million tons), nitrogen (34), ethylene (28),
oxygen (27), lime (22), ammonia (17), propylene (16), polyethylene (15), chlorine (13),
phosphoric acid (13) and diammonium phosphates (12).

1. Answer the following questions:

a. What does the chemical industry comprise?

b. What does the chemical industry produce?
c. What are the major categories of chemical business?
d. What are basic chemicals?
e. What is the most important polymer product and what is its use?
f. Name at least two crop protection chemicals.
g. Why are specialty chemicals also called fine chemicals?
h. Name at least three consumer products issued from the chemical industry.
2. Give questions for the following short answers:
a. About 80% of the industry’s output.
b. Generally less than 50 cents per pound.
c. Bulk petrochemicals.
d. The Food and Drugs Administration.
e. Their innovative aspects.
f. Inorganic chemicals.

3. Fill in with one word from the text:

Basic chemicals, or "............... chemicals" are a broad chemical category including

polymers, bulk petrochemicals and intermediates, other ..................... and basic
industrials, inorganic chemicals, and fertilizers. Typical growth ..................... for basic
chemicals are about 0.5 to 0.7 times GDP. Product prices are generally less than fifty
cents ......................... pound. Polymers, the largest revenue segment at about 33 percent
of the basic chemicals dollar value, ......................... all categories of plastics and man-
made fibers. The major markets for plastics are .........................., followed by home
construction, containers, appliances, pipe, transportation, toys, and games. The largest-
volume polymer product, ........................., is used mainly in packaging films and other
markets such as milk bottles, containers, and pipe. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), another
large-volume product, is principally used to make pipe for construction markets as well as
siding and, to a much smaller ........................, transportation and packaging materials.
Polypropylene (PP), similar in volume to PVC, is used in markets ranging from
packaging, appliances, and containers to ....................... and carpeting. Polystyrene (PS),
another large-volume plastic, is used principally for appliances and packaging as
.................. as toys and recreation. The leading man-made fibers include polyester, nylon,
polypropylene, and acrylics, with applications including ......................, home furnishings,
and other industrial and consumer use. The principal .................... materials for polymers
are bulk petrochemicals.

4. Translate into English:

a. Policlorura de vinil cu numele prescurtat PVC este o substanţă din categoria

materialelor termoplastice cu o structură amorfă.
b. O altă utilizare a wolastonitului este în industria maselor plastice, unde folosirea
acestui mineral determină creşte rezistenţei şi elasticităţii maselor plastice (poliesteri,
poliamide, sau polipropilen).
c. Pesticidele sunt substanţe sau un amestecuri de substanţe ce conţin ingrediente
biologic active împotriva dăunătorilor.
d. Sulfatul de magneziu este folosit ca îngrăşământ chimic în agricultură servind ca sursă
de magneziu pentru plante
e. Petrom este cea mai importantă companie românească de petrol şi gaze, cu activităţi
în sectoarele Explorare şi Producţie, Rafinare şi Produse Petrochimice, Marketing,
Gaze Naturale şi Energie.
Supplementary materials

1. As cities expand rapidly, the supply of food to them will become one of the major food
security issues facing the world. FAO's Marketing Group has for a long time concentrated on
this subject with the objective of providing a detailed analysis and evaluation of the
organization of the urban food marketing systems, the way they operate and their overall
performance in terms of efficiency to satisfy the needs of city dwellers. Emphasis is not on
the supply of specific food types but on the urban channels of distribution and marketing,
facilities (i.e. infrastructure, wholesale and retail markets) and services (i.e. information,
credit, advice and assistance) through which the food needs of consumers are satisfied.

Answer the questions:

1. Why will the supply of food become a major issue?
2. What has FAO concentrated on?
3. What is emphasis on?
4. What are the urban channels of distribution and marketing?
5. What are the urban services?
6. How are the food needs of consumers satisfied?

2. Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers. This
includes external factors as appearance (size, shape, colour, gloss, and consistency), texture,
and flavour; factors such as federal grade standards (e.g. of eggs) and internal (chemical,
physical, microbial).

Food quality is an important food manufacturing requirement, because food consumers are
susceptible to any form of contamination that may occur during the manufacturing process.
Many consumers also rely on manufacturing and processing standards, particularly to know
what ingredients are present, due to dietary, nutritional requirements (kosher, halal,
vegetarian), or medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, or allergies).

Besides ingredient quality, there are also sanitation requirements. It is important to ensure that
the food processing environment is as clean as possible in order to produce the safest possible
food for the consumer. A recent example of poor sanitation recently has been the 2006 North
American E. coli outbreak involving spinach, an outbreak that is still under investigation.

Food quality also deals with product traceability, e.g. of ingredient and packaging suppliers,
in case a recall of the product is required. It also deals with labeling issues to ensure there is
correct ingredient and nutritional information.

3. Fill in with the right word from the list:

genetic includes standards discipline which adequate medium
Food safety is a scientific (1)…………….. describing handling, preparation, and storage of
food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This (2)………… a number of routines that
should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food can transmit disease from
person to person as well as serve as a growth (3)…………….. for bacteria that can cause food
poisoning. Debates on (4)…………………. food safety include such issues as impact of
genetically modified food on health of further generations and genetic pollution of
environment, (5)……………….. can destroy natural biological diversity. In developed
countries there are intricate (6)…………………. for food preparation, whereas in lesser
developed countries the main issue is simply the availability of (7)…………….. safe water,
which is usually a critical item.

4. Put the following verbs into the right form:

Although not normally (think)…………… of as biotechnology, agriculture clearly
(fit)………………… the broad definition of "using a biological system to make products"
such that the cultivation of plants may be viewed as the earliest biotechnological enterprise.
Agriculture (become)………………………… the dominant way of producing food since the
Neolithic Revolution. The processes and methods of agriculture have been refined by other
mechanical and biological sciences since its inception. Through early biotechnology, farmers
(can)…………………. select the best suited and highest-yield crops to produce enough food
to support a growing population. Other uses of biotechnology were required as crops and
fields (become)………………… increasingly large and difficult to maintain. Specific
organisms and organism by-products (be)……………….. used to fertilize, restore nitrogen,
and control pests. Throughout the use of agriculture, farmers have inadvertently altered the
genetics of their crops through (introduce)………………… them to new environments and
breeding them with other plants--one of the first forms of biotechnology. Cultures such as
those in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and India (develop)………………… the process of brewing
beer. It is still done by the same basic method of (use)………….. malted grains (containing
enzymes) to convert starch from grains into sugar and then adding specific yeasts to produce
beer. In this process the carbohydrates in the grains were (break)……………………… down
into alcohols such as ethanol. Ancient Indians also used the juices of the plant Ephedra
vulgaris and used to call it Soma. Later other cultures (produce)………………………… the
process of Lactic acid fermentation which allowed the fermentation and preservation of other
forms of food. Fermentation (be)…………………. also used in this time period to produce
leavened bread. Although the process of fermentation was not fully understood until Louis
Pasteur’s work in 1857, it (be)…………………… still the first use of biotechnology to
convert a food source into another form.

5. Reinsert the following adverbs and adjectives into the text:

biological simply universal complex outer terrestrial global currently various generally

Although there is no ………………… agreement on the definition of life, scientists generally

accept that the …………………. manifestation of life is characterized by organization,
metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli and reproduction. Life may also be said
to be ………………. the characteristic state of organisms.

Properties common to ………………… organisms (plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, etc) are
that they are cellular, carbon-and-water-based with …………………. organization, having a
metabolism, a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, and reproduce. An entity with these
properties is ………………….. considered life. However, not every definition of life
considers all of these properties to be essential. Human-made analogs of life may also be
considered to be life.

The biosphere is the part of Earth's …………….. shell — including air, land, surface rocks
and water — within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform.
From the broadest geophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the ……………..
ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their
interaction with the elements of the lithosphere (rocks), hydrosphere (water), and atmosphere
(air). ……………… the entire Earth contains over 75 billion tons (150 trillion pounds or
about 6.8 x 1013 kilograms) of biomass (life), which lives within …………….. environments
within the biosphere.

6. Agriculture refers to the production of food and goods through farming and forestry.
Agriculture was the key development that led to the rise of civilization, with the husbandry of
domesticated animals and plants (i.e. crops) creating food surpluses that enabled the
development of more densely populated and stratified societies. The study of agriculture is
known as agricultural science (the related practice of gardening is studied in horticulture).

Agriculture encompasses a wide variety of specialties. Cultivation of crops on arable land and
the pastoral herding of livestock on rangeland remain at the foundation of agriculture. In the
past century a distinction has been made between sustainable agriculture and intensive
farming. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and technological
improvements have sharply increased yields from cultivation. Selective breeding and modern
practices in animal husbandry such as intensive pig farming (and similar practices applied to
the chicken) have similarly increased the output of meat. The more exotic varieties of
agriculture include aquaculture and tree farming.

The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, raw
materials, pharmaceuticals and illegal drugs, and an assortment of ornamental or exotic
products. In the 2000s, plants have been used to grow biofuels, biopharmaceuticals,
bioplastics, and pharmaceuticals. Specific foods include cereals, vegetables, fruits, and meat.
Fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo.
Drugs include tobacco, alcohol, opium, cocaine, and digitalis. Other useful materials are
produced by plants, such as resins. Biofuels include methane from biomass, ethanol, and
biodiesel. Cut flowers, nursery plants, tropical fish and birds for the pet trade are some of the
ornamental products.

In 2007, about one third of the world's workers were employed in agriculture. However, the
relative significance of farming has dropped steadily since the beginning of industrialization,
and in 2003 – for the first time in history – the services sector overtook agriculture as the
economic sector employing the most people worldwide. Despite the fact that agriculture
employs over one-third of the world's population, agricultural production accounts for less
than five percent of the gross world product (an aggregate of all gross domestic products).

Answer the questions:

a. What does agriculture refer to?
b. What is animal husbandry?
c. What is horticulture defined as?
d. What remains at the foundation of agriculture?
e. Why have cultivation yields increased?
f. Why has the meat output increase?
g. What do the more exotic varieties include?
h. What useful materials are produced by plants?
i. What do biofuels include?
j. How many workers were employed in agriculture in 2007?

To regulate food additives, and inform consumers, each additive is assigned a unique
number. Initially these were the "E numbers" used in Europe for all approved additives. This
numbering scheme has now been adopted and extended by the Codex Alimentarius
Commission to internationally identify all additives, regardless of whether they are approved
for use.
E numbers are all prefixed by "E", but countries outside Europe use only the number,
whether the additive is approved in Europe or not. For example, acetic acid is written as E260
on products sold in Europe, but is simply known as additive 260 in some countries. Additive
103, alkanet, is not approved for use in Europe so does not have an E number, although it is
approved for use in Australia and New Zealand. Since 1987 Australia has had an approved
system of labelling for additives in packaged foods. Each food additive has to be named or
The United States Food and Drug Administration listed these items as "Generally
recognized as safe" or GRAS and these are listed under both their Chemical Abstract Services
number and FDA regulation listed under the US Code of Federal Regulations.

Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and
antioxidants. Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid,
fumaric acid, lactic acid.
Acidity regulators
Acidity regulators are used to change or otherwise control the acidity and alkalinity of
Anticaking agents
Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking.
Antifoaming agents
Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods.
Antioxidants such as vitamin C act as preservatives by inhibiting the effects of oxygen
on food, and can be beneficial to health.
Bulking agents
Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without
affecting its nutritional value.
Food coloring
Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation, or to make food
look more attractive.
Color retention agents
In contrast to colorings, color retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing
Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion, as in
mayonnaise, ice cream, and homogenized milk.
Flavors are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, and may be derived
from natural ingredients or created artificially.
Flavor enhancers
Flavor enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors. They may be extracted from
natural sources (through distillation, solvent extraction, maceration, among other
methods) or created artificially.
Flour treatment agents
Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking.
Humectants prevent foods from drying out.
Tracer gas
Tracer gas allows for package integrity testing to prevent foods from being exposed to
atmosphere, thus guaranteeing shelf life.
Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi, bacteria and other
Stabilizers, thickeners and gelling agents, like agar or pectin (used in jam for example)
give foods a firmer texture. While they are not true emulsifiers, they help to stabilize
Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to
keep the food energy (calories) low, or because they have beneficial effects for
diabetes mellitus and tooth decay and diarrhea.
Thickeners are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity
without substantially modifying its other properties.