Amusement park and theme park are terms for a group of rides and other entertainment attractions assembled

for the purpose of entertaining a large group of people. An amusement park is more elaborate than a simple city park or playground, usually providing attractions meant to cater to children, teenagers, and adults. Amusement parks evolved in Europe from fairs and pleasure gardens which were created for people’s recreation. The oldest amusement park of the world (opened 1583) is Bakken, at Kloppenburg, north of Copenhagen, Denmark. In the United States, world's fairs and expositions were another influence on development of the amusement park industry. Most amusement parks have a fixed location, as compared to traveling funfairs and carnivals. These temporary types of amusement parks, are usually present for a few days or weeks per year, such as funfairs in the United Kingdom, and carnivals (temporarily set up in a vacant lot or parking lots) and fairs (temporarily operated in a fair ground) in the United States. The temporary nature of these fairs helps to convey the feeling that people are in a different place or time. In common language, theme park is often used as a synonym to for the term 'amusement park'. A 'theme park' is actually a distinct style of amusement park, for a theme park has landscaping, buildings, and attractions that are based on one or more specific or central themes. A plurality of themes are not required to be considered a 'theme' park. Despite the long history of amusement parks, where many parks have traditionally incorporated themes into the evolving design and operation of the park, qualifying a park as a theme park, the first park built with the original intension of promoting a specific (or exclusive set of) theme(s), Santa Claus Land (currently known as Holiday World & Splashin' Safari) located in Santa Claus, Indiana, did not open until 1946. Disneyland, located in Anaheim, California, built around the concept of encapsulating multiple theme parks into a single amusement park is often mistakenly noted as the first themed amusement park


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1 History of amusement parks o 1.1 Fairs and pleasure gardens o 1.2 Trolley parks and Coney Island o 1.3 The "Golden Age" of amusement parks o 1.4 Depression and post-World War II decline o 1.5 The modern amusement park  1.5.1 Educational theme parks o 1.6 Family-owned theme parks o 1.7 Disneyland and the corporate-owned park 2 Present and future of amusement parks 3 Admission prices and admission policies o 3.1 Pay-as-you-go o 3.2 Pay-one-price 4 Rides and attractions

when the first event was held in Munich. was Vauxhall Gardens founded in 1661 and closed in 1859.5 Transport rides 5 Cuisine 6 Trade Associations 7 References o o o o o History of amusement parks Fairs and pleasure gardens Periodic fairs.2 Roller coasters 4. to celebrate a good harvest. and carnival-like freak-show attractions. Another long-standing park is Prater in Vienna. games. baking and cooking competitions. In the United States. World's fairs began in 1851 with the construction of the landmark Crystal Palace in London. fireworks displays and some “rides” such as introduction to the modern railroad. People particularly point to the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. This park was conceived as a place where the common person could enjoy a respite in a pastoral setting and participate in the musical culture of the city. are a parent for the modern amusement park. Tivoli Gardens. These fairs featured livestock exhibits. food. which opened in 1766.4 Water rides 4.1 Thrill rides 4. The parks grew to accommodate the expectations of their customers—who were increasingly familiar with the mechanical wonders of industrialization. north of Copenhagen. Copenhagen is another example of a European park.3 Train rides 4. entertainment. These were annual events that were usually held for a short time. dating from 1843. Germany. Oktoberfest is not only a beer festival but also provided amusement park features beginning in 1810. Beginning in the Elizabethan period the fair had evolved into a center of amusement with entertainment. These parks consisted of booths. the county and state fairs also played a part in the history of amusement parks. Another type of fair is the exposition or world’s fair. America cities and business saw the world’s fair as a way of demonstrating economic and industrial success. Illinois as an early precursor to the modern amusement park. Rides became a required part of the pleasure garden and by 1896 there were 65 such pleasure parks in London. Amusement parks also grew out of the pleasure gardens that became especially popular at the beginning of the Industrial revolution as an area where one could escape from the grim urban environment. The purpose of the exposition was to celebrate the industrial achievement of the nations of the world (of which Britain just so happened to be the leader). which still exists. Austria. The most well known of the parks in London. The seasonal celebration was a natural place for development of amusement attractions. Denmark. such as the Bartholomew Fair which began in England in 1133. a week or two. England.• • • 4. This fair was an enclosed site that merged . The oldest intact still-surviving amusement park in the world (opened 1583) is Bakken ("The Hill") at Klampenborg.

such as the first Ferris wheel. dance halls. Another such location was Coney Island in Brooklyn. The “midway” introduced at the Columbian Exposition would become a standard part of most amusement parks. Trolley parks like Atlanta's Ponce de Leon Park. Sea Lion Park was joined by Steeplechase Park. such as the Prater by 1896. where a horse-drawn streetcar line brought pleasure seekers to the beach beginning in 1829. but other concessions and entertainments such as shooting galleries. Companies that established the trolley lines were directly responsible for establishing amusement parks -. In 1897. and Lake Compounce in Connecticut. New York. It wasn't till 1895 that the first permanent amusement park in North America opened: Sea Lion Park at Coney Island in Brooklyn. George Tilyou designed the park to provide thrills and sweep away the restraints of the Victorian crowds. Hotels and amusements were built to accommodate both the upper-classes and the working-class. expanding them from picnic groves to include regular entertainments. Various sources report the existence of between 1500 and 2000 amusement parks in the United States by 1919. Some of these parks were developed in resort locations. penny arcades. Also. It set out to bedazzle the visitors. The . culture and progress (electricity). and successfully did so with a blaze of lights from the “White City. was based on the creation of an illusory place.trolley parks -.entertainment. games of chance and shows. carnivals and circuses. the first of three major amusement parks that would open in the Coney Island area. which was found in many other amusement areas. boats rides. This park was one of the first to charge admission to get into the park in addition to sell tickets for rides within the park. such as bathing resorts at the seaside in New Jersey and New York. Others were found along rivers and lakes that provided bathing and water sports such as Riverside Park in Massachusetts. the planners included a dedicated amusement concessions area called the Midway Plaisance.” To make sure that the fair was a financial success. or Reading's Carsonia Park were initially popular natural leisure spots before local streetcar companies purchased the sites. Trolley parks and Coney Island In the final decade of the 19th century. rides. sports fields. fairs. Rides from this fair captured imagination of the visitors and of amusement parks around the world. and in 1876 two million reached Coney Island. first established as a bathing beach in 1846. restaurants and other resort facilities. the experience of the enclosed ideal city with destinations of these lines. the "Switchback Railway". Certainly the precursor of the amusement park experience to come. a million passengers rode the Coney Island Railroad. In 1875. The first carousel was installed in the 1870s. which was founded along the Connecticut River in the 1840s. engineering and education to entertain the masses. the electric trolley lines were developed in most of the larger American cities. in 1884. the first roller coaster. The midway contained not only the rides. mechanical amusements.

hundreds of amusement parks were operating in the United States and Canada. OH took passengers to traditionally popular picnic grounds. emerged to meet this new economic opportunity. in fact. which by the late 1890s also often included rides like the Giant Swing. These amusement parks were often based on nationally-known parks or world's fairs: they had names like Coney Island. but there was also Luna Park (opened in 1903). and Dreamland (opened in 1904). Coney Island was a huge success and by year 1910 attendance on a Sunday could reach a million people. Trolley parks (established at the end of the trolley line by enterprising streetcar companies) stood outside many cities. The 1920s is more properly known as the “Golden Age” of roller coasters. GA and Idora Park near Youngstown. many Americans began working fewer hours and had more disposable income. By the end of the First World War. The Golden Age of amusement parks also included the advent of the Kiddie Park. Amusement parks. This era saw the development of the new innovations in roller coasters that encouraged extreme drops and speeds to thrill the riders. Founded in 1925. The American Gilded Age was. By the early 1900s. Depression and post-World War II decline . Luna Park also burned to the ground. in 1944. Most of Ingersoll's Luna Parks were similarly destroyed (usually by arson) before his death in 1927. it is Steeplechase Park that comes to mind when one generically thinks of the heyday of Coney Island. Often. These parks reflected the mechanization and efficiency of industrialization while serving as source of fantasy and escape from real life.combination of the nearby population center of New York City and the ease of access to the area made Coney Island the embodiment of the American amusement park. while urban amusement parks saw declining attendance. The "Golden Age" of amusement parks During the Gilded Age. Luna Park. Texas and is still in operation today. other "Luna Parks" (starting with ones in Pittsburgh and Cleveland in 1905) were quickly erected worldwide and opened to rave reviews. people seemed to want an even more exciting entertainment. a need met by the roller coasters. In 1911. Although the development of the automobile provided people with more options for satisfying their entertainment needs. the amusement parks after the war continued to be successful. set up outside major cities and in rural areas. being the decade of frenetic building of these rides. as much of the construction within the amusement parks of the era was wooden. Fire was a constant threat in those days. amusement parks' “golden age” that reigned until the late 1920s. Fueled by the efforts of Frederick Ingersoll. Parks like Ponce de Leon in Atlanta. The Kiddie Parks became popular all over America after World War II. Dreamland was the first Coney Island amusement park to completely burn down. and Shoot-the-Chutes. Carousel. or Dreamland. Americans sought new venues for entertainment. the original Kiddie Park is located in San Antonio. White City. With new-found money and time to spend on leisure activities.

By the 1950s. crime. once the king of all amusement parks. Kennywood in West Mifflin. lands or "spaces. War saw the affluent urban population move to the suburbs. action figures and finally park rides and costumed characters that make up the "theme. Pennsylvania. Steeplechase Park. Many would be taken out by the wrecking ball to make way for suburban living and development. for example. The northeastern USA region. Pennsylvania. on the Isle of Wight. Amusement parks are usually owned by a large corporate conglomerate which allows capital investment unknown by the traditional family-owned parks. and DelGrosso’s Amusement Park in Tipton." These parks offer a world with no violence or social problems. Dorney Park in Allentown. established in 1843 by Victorian entrepreneur Alexander Dabell. Others include Hersheypark in Hershey. such as Walt Disney World in Florida (United States). Pennsylvania. in West Mifflin. television became a source of entertainment. Pennsylvania. Idlewild Park in Ligonier. and Cedar Point. traditional amusement parks closed or burned to the ground. Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania. Starting with Disneyland in the 1950s. Kennywood." Large resorts. closed down for good. Today. Lakemont Park in Altoona. Pennsylvania. In its truest traditional form is Conneaut Lake Park in Conneaut Lake. The thrills of the theme parks are often obscured from the outside by high fences or barriers re-enforcing the feeling of escape. The first amusement park on Coney Island. Pennsylvania. and even desegregation in the ghettos led to changing patterns in how people chose to spend their free time. did so in spite of the odds. the park experience became part of a larger package. movies. Pennsylvania. The modern amusement park First parks devoted to a particular theme are precursors for the modern amusement park. factors such as urban decay. lunch boxes. Knoebels Groves in Elysburg. central Florida and most notably Orlando boasts more theme parks than any other worldwide destination. in Sandusky. Modern amusement parks now run differently than those of years past. UK can be considered the oldest existing theme park in the world. most notably Pennsylvania. Waldameer Park in Erie. the theme park is either based on a central theme or. actually house several different theme parks within their confines. . In addition to this experience. A Blackgang Chine amusement park. The traditional amusement parks which survived. Ohio. reflected in a television show. divided into several distinctly themed areas. and families went to amusement parks less often. Many of the older. Sea Lion Park was built around a nautical theme. is now a hotbed of traditional surviving amusement parks. In 1964. Pennsylvania.The Great Depression of the 1930s and World War II during the 1940s saw the decline of the amusement park industry. they are kept clean and new thrill rides are frequently added to keep people coming back.

Family-owned theme parks Some theme parks did evolve from more traditional amusement park enterprises. Connecticut may be the true oldest continuously operating amusement park in the United States. charged admission for the first time. California ghost town and Prescott. Marvel Cave near Branson. such as Knott's Berry Farm. however. Disneyland and the corporate-owned park Walt Disney. Within a few years." Knott's Berry Farm is now owned by Cedar Fair Entertainment Company. California. Walter Knott and his family sold berries from a roadside stand. as well as Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen and De Efteling. is often credited with having originated the concept of the themed amusement park.Educational theme parks Other parks use outdoor attractions for educational purposes. Missouri. Santa Claus Land (renamed Holiday World in 1984) opened in 1946 in Santa Claus. Knott's Berry Farm currently claims to be "America's First Theme Park. Indiana in 1935 and included Santa's Candy Castle and other Santa Claus-themed attractions. lines outside the restaurant were often several hours long. In the 1920s. Santa Claus Town. The small village eventually became the theme park. In 1968. Epcot center is well known. The park is still owned and operated by the Herschends and the family has several other parks including Dollywood. to which Walt Disney was a regular visitor. Other theme parks include: Children's Fairyland opened in 1950 in Oakland. open since 1846. In the 1950s the Herschend family took over operation of the tourist attraction. using buildings relocated from real old west towns such as the Calico. Celebration City and Wild Adventures. The Herschend family opened a recreation of the old mining town that once existed atop Marvel Cave. To entertain the waiting crowds. and Knott's Berry Farm officially became an amusement park. Silver Dollar City. Lake Compounce in Bristol. Disney took these influences and melded them . the Knott family fenced the farm. which led to large numbers of people waiting to take the tour. which opened in Santa Claus. Walter Knott built a Ghost Town in 1940. Indiana and many people will argue that it was the first true Theme Park despite Knott's history. but there are also Holy Land USA and the Holy Land Experience are theme parks built to inspire Christian piety. is considered the first themed attraction in the United States: a pre-cursor to the modern day theme park. Because of its long history. Dinosaur World entertains families with dinosaurs in natural settings. opened in 1952 in the Netherlands. which grew to include a restaurant serving fried chicken dinners. although he was obviously influenced by Knotts Berry Farm owned by Walter Knott (at the time owner of Calico Ghost town) who brought buildings from Calico to increase business at his berry stand located in nearby Buena Park. Over the next decade they modernized the cave. Another variation of the theme park were the animal theme parks that reintroduced the concept of Sea Lion Park such as Marineland of the Pacific which opened in 1954 which paved the way for SeaWorld parks which eventually added thrill rides. Arizona. CA.

Riverview Park. in 1990. Originally just a backlot tram ride tour of the actual studios in Hollywood. Perhaps the most indirect evolution of an attraction into a full-fledged theme park is that of Universal Studios Hollywood. a look at props from the movie Jaws in 1975. and the latter is now Six Flags Great America. and "Disneyland" was born. the theme park industry started to mature as a combination of revitalized traditional amusement parks and new ventures funded by larger corporations emerged. Louis. During the 1970s. By 1968. a park started in 1898 and continuing to operate to the present which used television advertising and featured television personalities at the park. with Steeplechase Park at Coney Island closing in 1964. Many theme parks were hit badly by the Arab oil embargo of 1973 and a number of planned theme parks were scrapped during this time. The years in which Disneyland opened were a sort of stopgap period for the amusement park industry. Also in 1971 was the opening of the Walt Disney World resort complex in Florida. The former is now California's Great America and is owned by Cedar Fair. as well as the first Six Flags park. Louis) opened near St. Six Flags Over Georgia. California. Universal Studios Florida in Orlando opened. The first Six Flags theme park was the vision of Angus Wynne. Six Flags over Texas was officially opened in 1961 in Arlington. the modern era of the Universal Studios Hollywood theme park began with the "King Kong" ride and. closed in 1967. Jr. Marriott Corporation built two identical theme parks named "Great America" in northern California and Illinois. California. Some traditional parks were able to borrow a page from Disneyland and use television to its advantage. California in 1955 and changed the amusement industry forever. Most of today’s major amusement parks were built in the 1970s. L. opened. moved towards the more modern theme park-concept as well as rotating new roller coasters and modern thrill rides. Cedar Point was set to be torn down in the 1950s when local businesspeople were intrigued by the success of Disneyland and saved it from destruction. and in 1971. as many of the older. and helped create the modern. Illinois. which now also owns Kings Island and Cedar Point. Regional parks such as Cedar Point and Kings Island. . Magic Mountain (now a Six Flags park) opened in Valencia.with the popular Disney animated characters and his unique vision.. Epcot (1982). "The Parting of the Red Sea" in 1973. competitive theme park industry. Chicago. the train ride that started in 1964 slowly evolved into a larger attraction with a western stunt show in 1967. Six Flags Over Mid-America (now Six Flags St. traditional amusement parks had already closed and many were close to closing their doors. The first regional theme park. Texas near Dallas. Other parks were not as lucky. By 1985. such as Kennywood. which is still the largest theme park and resort complex in the world with the Magic Kingdom (1971). Key to the design process of Disney's new park was the replacement of architects with art directors from the film industry. Missouri. the second Six Flags park. Disney's Hollywood Studios (1989) and Disney's Animal Kingdom (1998). Also during the mid-1970s. and the "Conan the Barbarian" show in 1984.P. Disneyland officially opened in Anaheim. popular amusement parks in Ohio.

Examples of giant mall parks are West Edmonton Mall. Pier 39. and traditional amusement parks now also have these competition areas in addition to their thrill rides. Present and future of amusement parks Since the 1980s. . a recreation of the traditional seaside amusement park of yesteryear. San Francisco.S. The Walt Disney Company. Amusement park owners are also aware of the need to satisfy their aging baby boomer customer base with more restaurants. Bloomington. The only limit to future theme park ventures is one's imagination. Alberta. worldwide type theme parks such as Disneyworld and Universal Studios Hollywood to smaller and medium-sized theme parks such as the Six Flags parks and countless smaller ventures in many of the states of the U. and other themed spaces lack the rides and other features of theme parks."the use of an overarching theme. they owe much to the legacy of the theme lands and spatial organization that became popular in theme parks.S. Disney opened the Disney's California Adventure which includes Paradise Pier. California (the first Legoland opened in 1968 in Billund. Canada. carousels. the amusement park industry has become larger than ever non-theme park venues. In 2001. Mall of America. gardens and live entertainment.-based attractions each year. such as western.Universal Studios is now the third-largest theme park company in the world. with everything from large. The popularity of theme parks has led to the increase of theming -. landscaping. Some of these parks have grown to include even roller coasters. and shopping facilities. While theme restaurants. including Legoland opened in 1999 in Carlsbad.S. and a slowing economy in 2008 are forcing The Walt Disney Company and its competitors to seek their fortunes in emerging tourist markets such as in the Middle East and in China. go-karts. movie theaters. casinos. bumper boats and water slides. an aging population in the U. behind Disney and Merlin. Family fun parks starting as miniature golf courses have begun to grow to include batting cages. and live entertainment— with hotels. bumper cars. to create a holistic and integrated spatial organization of a consumer venue" -. blending traditional amusement park entertainments—roller coasters. Denmark). Even simpler theme parks directly aimed at smaller children have emerged. and in countries around the world. water parks. accounts for around half of the total industry's revenue in the US as a result of more than 50 million adventure seekers pouring through the gates of its U. Amusement parks in shopping malls began in the 1990s. Minnesota. Although domestic visitors still make up around 80 percent of admissions to theme and amusement parks. Kennywood has created in 1995 the "Lost Kennywood" area with classic rides that recall the possibly more tranquil times of the early twentieth century.

is still part of the amusement-park lexicon. like Space Mountain. the problems of handling such large amounts of coins led to the development of a ticket system that. Other revenue sources include parking fees. a guest might pay one ticket to ride a carousel but four tickets to ride a roller coaster. The park usually has some attractions that are not included in the admission charge. two or three A-tickets would equal a single B-ticket). For example. as well as the Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World. more popular rides. guests purchased ticket books that contained a number of tickets. The guest must then purchase rides individually. food and beverage sales and souvenirs. like a token). labeled "A. Within a short time. large admission fee." Rides and attractions using an "A-ticket" were generally simple. while now out of use. Later. The park may allow guests to purchase unlimited admissions to all attractions within the park. abandoned this practice in 1982. Disneyland. either at the attraction's entrance or by purchasing ride tickets (or a similar exchange method. Smaller tickets could be traded up for use on larger rides (i.e. The cost of the attraction is often based on its complexity or popularity.. Initially. which was used on the biggest and most elaborate rides. The advantages of pay-as-you-go include the following: • • guests pay for only what they choose to experience attraction costs can be changed easily to encourage use or capitalize on popularity The disadvantages of pay-as-you-go include the following: • • guests may get tired of spending money almost continuously guests may not spend as much on food or souvenirs Pay-one-price An amusement park using the pay-one-price format will charge guests a single.Admission prices and admission policies Amusement parks collect much of their revenue from admission fees paid by guests attending the park. these are called "up-charge . The guest is then entitled to use all or more often almost all of the attractions in the park as often as they wish during their visit. with "B-tickets" and "C-tickets" used for the larger. guests paid the ride admission fees at the attractions." "B" and "C. the "D-ticket" was added. A wristband or pass is then shown at the attraction entrance to gain admission. In this new format. Practically all amusement parks operate using one of two admission principles: Pay-as-you-go In this format. Disneyland opened in 1955 using the pay-as-you-go format. then finally the now-famous "E-ticket". a guest enters the park at little or no charge.

since ticket-takers are not needed at each attractions The disadvantages of pay-one-price include: • • guests will often be paying for attractions that they do not ride or visit guests who are simply coming just to be with their families will have to pay anyway Today's modern theme parks typically charge a single admission fee for admission and unlimited use of attractions. these gravity driven railroads were the beginning of the search for even more thrilling amusement park rides. he noted that park's pay-as-you-go format as a reason to make his park pay-one-price. The advantages of pay-one-price include: • • • guests can more easily budget their visit guests may be more likely to experience an attraction they've already paid for lower costs for the park operators. Another such ride which shaped the future of the amusement park was the roller coaster. and shows. rides. .25 for entrance to the 15-acre (61. A park contains a mixture of attractions which can be divided into several categories.000 m2) park and visitors could enjoy all of the attractions as much as they wanted. The entrance fee was $0. However. first visited Disneyland in 1959. how much it would cost to attend. He felt that a family would be more likely to visit his park if they knew. where as most modern amusement parks offer free admission yet charge separate fees per attraction. The Columbian Exposition of 1893 was a particular fertile testing ground for amusement rides.attractions" and can include bungee jumping or go-kart tracks or games of skill. Beginning as a winter sport in 17th century Russia. The Ferris wheel is the most recognized product of the fair. founder of Six Flags Over Texas. By the 19th century. relaxing picnic grove or retreat. All rides are set round a theme. When Angus Wynne. Earliest rides include the carousel which was originally developed as a way of practicing and then showing-off expertise at tournament skills such as riding and spearing the ring. up front. The “pay-one-price” ticket was first used by George Tilyou at Steeplechase Park. the majority of the park's attractions are included in the admission cost. Coney Island in 1897. carousels were common in parks around the world. Rides and attractions Mechanized thrill machines are what makes an amusement park out of a pastoral.

Some of the most common manufacturers were: • • • • • • • • • • Allan Herschfield Cagney Brothers Chance Rides (C. Water rides are especially popular on hot days. and the top spin.Thrill rides There is a core set of thrill rides which most amusement parks have. Roller coasters feature steep drops. Such rides are usually gentler and shorter than roller coasters and many are suitable for all ages. the record for the most coasters in one park is held by Cedar Point with 17. (MTC) The National Amusement Devices Co. including the enterprise. and Canada's Wonderland with 15. amusement parks have featured roller coasters. but many people come for other reasons. with new variations on ways to spin and throw passengers around appearing in an effort to keep attracting customers. followed by Six Flags Magic Mountain with 16. and rowing boats. the gravitron. However. and inversions.(NAD) Ottaway Sandley Tampa Metal Products Water rides Amusement parks with water resources generally feature a few water rides. bumper boats. Amusement parks generally have anywhere from two to seven coasters. Huntington Train) Crown Metal Products Custom Locomotives Miniature Train Co. The earliest park trains were mostly custom built. the earliest park trains weren't really trains —they were trolleys. chair swing. Roller coasters may be the most attractive aspect of a park. sharp curves. depending on space and budget. Train rides Amusement park trains have had long and varied history in American amusement parks as well as overseas. According to various websites and historians.P. tilt-a-whirl. . As of 2009. swinging inverter ship. Roller coasters Since the late 19th century. twister. there is constant innovation. such as the log flume.

3.html. 4.roadsideamerica. Transport rides include chairlifts. http://www. "History of the Town of Santa Claus. The American Amusement Park Industry: A History of Technology and Thrills. monorails. and train Adams. rides Transport rides are used to take large amounts of guests from one area in the park to another. one of America's top rated theme parks". "Holiday World. "Holiday World & Splashin' Safari". Many restaurants and food stands are operated by the amusement parks themselves. (1991). http://www. Retrieved 2010-09-02. "Definition of Theme Park".antiquetrader. "A Town Named Santa Claus". even in parks where rides are free. 5.html. http://www. ISBN 0805798218.cfm. Cuisine Amusement parks generate a portion of their income through the sale of food and drink to their patrons. Retrieved 2010-09-02.merriamwebster. "Your complete directory to Santa Retrieved 2010-09-02. Indiana".spencerco. 2. cotton candy. merriam-webster. http://www. Trade Associations • • International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions Themed Entertainment Association (USA) References Retrieved 2010-09-02.traveleze. push carts and indoor restaurants. 7. Retrieved 2010-09-02. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 8. . http://www.coastergallery. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 10. and range from common fast food donuts and local street foods up to full-service gourmet dishes.htm. "Definition of Theme Park". http://www. hot dogs. Indiana". They are generally popular as they offer an alternative to walking .htm. http://www. http://www. candy apples.hohoholdings. The offerings vary as widely as the amusement parks themselves. Dictionary. Food is routinely sold through food booths. Retrieved 2010-09-02. Boston: Twayne Publishers. like hamburgers. They usually cost extra. Amusement parks with exotic themes may include specialty items or delicacies related to the park's theme. "Santa Claus".com/article/Santa_Claus_Land_The_first_theme_park/. Retrieved 2010-09-02. "Santa Claus Land: The first theme park?". while others are branches of regional or national chains. Judith A.

Samuelson. 16. "World's Fairs (1853-1897): A New Idea". Inc. Retrieved 2007-09-29.11. Midway Plaisance. 20. http://www.html? res=9F05E3D71230F937A35752C1A9679C8B63. Alter. WI: MBI Publishing Company. 17. ISBN 0760309817. A Hilltop Landmark Undergoes a Revival" Sun Sentinel (Tribune Company).southflorida. And Other U.S.. http://query. Retrieved 4 August 2010. Frances. The American Amusement Park. "Holyland theme park". ISBN 0760306893. amusement parks 15. Alabama: Oxmoor House.nytimes. ISBN 0531203042. ISBN 9780810908116. Randy (1987).icewind. 18. Birmingham. Wendy Yegoiants (2001). Theme And Amusement Park Operators Look To Drive Up Revenue With Foreign Visitors. Abrams. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 14. The American Roller Coaster. 12.7964224. The New York Times.. ISBN 0-8487-1247-1. Dale. The Essential Guide to Six Flags Theme Parks. New York: Franklin Watts. Paul. Scott (2000). Tim. Osceola. Amusement Parks. 2001). Rutherford. IBISWorld 19. Harry N. MN: MBI Publishing Company. 13.htm. Chamberlain (November 4. July 2008. (2007). Six Flags. Judy (1997).0. "The View From/Waterbury. . Disney & Co. Bright. http://www. Disneyland: Inside Story. James D. O'Brien.