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LOSS CIRCULATION

CAUSES OF LOSS CIRCULATION

Loss circulation can be caused by.

INDUCED FRACTURES: caused by mechanical and/or hydraulical phenomena due, for example, to bad hole cleaning and
excessive gathering of cuttings in open hole. Hole shrinkage causes an increase in friction losses and consequent pressure on
wellbore which can induce fractures on formation with mud loss.
When G PORE ~ = G FRACT, pressure margin is so small that we can register mud losses only by circulating mud. The severity
of losses is proportional to the difference between the ECD (Equivalent Circulating Density) and the fracture gradient.

DEPLETED RESERVOIRS: while drilling depleted reservoirs, in which pore pressure and fracture gradient decrease as a
result of oil/gas production, if circulating pressure is very high we can have fluid loss.

NATURAL FRACTURES: loss circulation can be registered while drilling fractured or vacuolar carbonates, dolomites, gypsum,
karstic or tectonic areas.
LOSS CIRCULATION
Loss circulation are very dangerous because mud is lost into the formation, with consequent loss of hydrostatic load, which
might cause kicks or even blowouts.

Loss circulation depend on the formation characteristics and fracture gradient.

Clear evidence of drilling a thief zone is mud loss into the well with consequent level drop in the mud tanks.

According to the severity degree of absorptions, losses and thief zones can be classified as described in the following table:

LOSS TYPE SEVERITY DEGREE

Seepage 1-10 bbl/hr (0.15-1.5 m³/hr)

Partial 10-500 bbl/hr (1.5-75 m³/hr)

Total >500 bbl/hr , impossibility of keeping the well full

Underground blowout >500 bbl/hr , impossibility of keeping the well full

SEEPAGE losses can be registered in any type of formations when pore Ø is > than ~ 3 times the Ø of solid particles in the
mud.

PARTIAL losses are more frequent in high-permeability gravel, in small natural horizontal fractures, or in induced vertical
fractures.

On the other hand, TOTAL losses can be registered in long, induced vertical fractures or in cavernous formations (limestone).

Underground BLOWOUTS can be registered in very deep, induced vertical fractures.


LOSS CIRCULATION
MUD LEVEL IN WELL

This data is fundamental to know the pore pressures and consequently the zones where the loss might take place. It can be
determined both with a DIRECT or INDIRECT method.

DIRECT METHOD: in static condition extract the drill string, and check the drill string area that is mud wet and at higher
temperature than the clean drill string; or, with drill string at bottomhole, run wireline cable with mass down to mud level. Once
acquired the mud level, gradient can be found using the following formula:

Pmud*hb (h * Dmud )* hb
Ppore = =
h h
where Ppore = pore pressure
Pmud = mud pressure at hb
hb =mud level in well

INDIRECT METHOD: through the measures of SPPs before and after the loss occurs (with constant circulation Q and H).

SPP1 − SPP2
hb =
Pmud
where SPP1 = initial Stand Pipe Pressure
SPP2 = Stand Pipe Pressure after the loss
LOSS CIRCULATION

• Loss circulation are very dangerous because mud is lost into the formation, with consequent
loss of hydrostatic load, which might cause kicks or in worst cases a blowout.

• Loss circulation depend on the formation characteristics and the fracture gradients.

• Clear evidence of drilling a thief zone is mud loss into the well with consequent level drop in
the mud tanks.

• According to the severity degree of absorptions, losses and thief zones can be classified in
different types.
LOSS CIRCULATION IN FUNCTION OF FORMATION
TYPE
LOSS CIRCULATION

LOSS TYPES IN FUNCTION OF DRILLING TYPE

LESS THAN 50% OR PARTIAL

MORE THAN 50% OR ALMOST TOTAL

TOTAL
BLAND

INTERVENTION TYPE CONSIDERABLE

STRONG
LOSS CIRCULATION
LESS THAN 50% OR PARTIAL

IN SURFACE ZONES ON ACCOUNT OF ON ACCOUNT OF


HIGH PERMEABILITY FRACTURES

FORMATIONS
GRAVEL AND SANDS LIMESTONE AND DOLOMITE
UNCONSOLIDATED
FORMATIONS
1° INTERVENTION
HIGH VISCOSITY MUD HIGH VISCOSITY
AND GELS MUD

- PLUGGING MATERIAL IN CIRCULATION


- HIGH FILTRATION MUD
2° INTERVENTION

SPOT PILLS WITH


PLUGGING MATERIAL
3° INTERVENTION

HIGH OR VERY HIGH


FILTRATION MIXTURE
LOSS CIRCULATION
MORE THAN 50% OR ALMOST TOTAL

ON ACCOUNT OF
FRACTURES

FORMATIONS
- GRAVEL AND UNCONSOLIDATED
FORMATIONS
- LIMESTONE AND DOLOMITE

SPOT PILLS WITH


1° INTERVENTION PLUGGING MATERIAL

HIGH FILTRATION
MIXTURE

2° INTERVENTION
GEL-CEMENT
DOBC

3° INTERVENTION
AIR-CUT MUDS
STIFF-FOAM
LOSS CIRCULATION
TOTAL

FORMATIONS
ON ACCOUNT OF ON ACCOUNT OF
FRACTURES CAVERNS

HIGH GEL-CEMENT
FILTRATION SLURRIES
1° INTERVENTION MIXTURE

- CEMENT SLURRIES CEMENT +


- GEL-CEMENT GILSONITE

2° INTERVENTION
DOBC DOBC

3° INTERVENTION
AIR-CUT MUDS
STIFF-FOAM
LOSS CIRCULATION

VUGULAR ZONES DETECTION

Vugular zones are normally detected through geological maps that show the nature of the formations.

While drilling, vugular zones are detected by checking absorptions severity, and they can be classified in:

Unconsolidated formations:
Usually sands, gravel and similar formations. In these type of formations, mud loss can become total if drilling
operations continue. Stop drilling to check the severity degree of absorptions in order to face situation with the
most adequate method.

Formations with caverns or macrovacuoles:


Usually gravel beds, limestone, dolomite and volcanic rocks (tufite). Mud loss is sudden (or almost so), and in
some cases the bit can fall for a few centimeters or, rarely, even for a few meters, when the loss occurs.
Before total loss drilling operations are difficult.
LOSS CIRCULATION

INTERVENTION TYPES

HIGH VISCOSITY MUDS

PLUGGING MATERIAL IN CIRCULATION

PLUGGING SPOT PILLS

HIGH FILTRATION SPOT PILLS

BARITE PLUGS

CEMENT PLUGS
LOSS CIRCULATION – Intervention Procedures
SEEPAGE ALMOST TOTAL HYDRAULICALLY
LOSS TOTAL more INDUCED FRACTURES
Less than 10% than 50%

SURFACE HIGHLY FRACTURES FRACTURES FRACTURES CAVERNS LOW DENSITY HIGH DENSITY
AREAS PERMEABLE FLUIDS FLUIDS

HIGH HIGH
VISCOSITY VISCOSITY SPOT PILLS HIGH GEL- STOP TO THIN
FLUID AND FLUID WITH LCM FILTRATION CEMENT CIRCULATION FLUID OR
HIGH GELS MIXTURE SLURRIES OR TO LOW TO LOW
FLOW RATE
MUD
DENSITY

- LCM IN CIRCULATION HIGH CEMENT / CEMENT + HIGH


- HIGH FILTRATION FLUID FILTRATION GEL- GILSONITE FILTRATION
MIXTURE CEMENT MIXTURE
SLURRIES HIGH
FILTRATION
MIXTURE
GEL - DOBC DOBC DOB
SPOT PILL WITH LCM CEMENT
DOBC DOBC

AERATED AERATED AERATED


HIGH / VERY HIGH FLUIDS FLUIDS FLUIDS
FILTRATION STIFF-FOAM STIFF-FOAM STIFF-FOAM
MIXTURE
LOSS CIRCULATION

Can occur with

WATER-BASE MUDS OIL-BASE MUDS

Methods for loss circulation control vary according to mud types.


LOSS CIRCULATION
WATER-BASE MUDS OIL-BASE MUDS
HIGH VISCOSITY MUDS

ADDITION OF COLLOIDS
PLUGGING MATERIALS
IN CIRCULATION
PLUGGING SPOT PILLS
SPOT PILLS WITH
PLUGGING MATERIAL
HIGH FILTRATION SPOT PILLS
High Filtration Mixture 200 – 400 cc (API)
Very High Filtration Mixture > 600 cc (API)
DIASEAL M > 1000 cc (API) DIASEAL M > 1000 cc (API)

GEL- CEMENT
Gilsonite Cement
PLASTIC PLUG WITH
ORGANOPHILIC CLAY
DOB SQUEEZE
DOBC (Diesel Oil Bentonite Cement)
LOSS CIRCULATION
WATER-BASE MUDS

HIGH VISCOSITY MUDS

PROCEDURE

Add contaminants to mud (lime, salt, etc.) in order to increase viscosity and filtrate

NOTES
apparent viscosity = + o – 100 sec
LOSS CIRCULATION
WATER-BASE MUDS

PLUGGING MATERIAL WHILE CIRCULATING

PROCEDURE

Add 2 – 4 % fine mica and 2 – 3 % fine granular LCM to mud

NOTES
Screen mesh: max. 10 - 15 mesh
LOSS CIRCULATION
WATER-BASE MUDS

PLUGGING SPOT PILLS

PROCEDURE

Prepare 15 m³ (min.) to 80 m³ (max.) of high filtration mud, then add 6 - 8 % plugging material
adequate to loss type.

NOTES
Displace the spot pill(s) in the loss area. If the well clogs, squeeze with low pressures ( ~ 50 psi).
Preferably displace with a nozzleless bit.
LOSS CIRCULATION
WATER-BASE MUDS

HIGH FILTRATION SPOT PILLS

High Filtration Mixtures


200 – 400 cc (API)

Very High Filtration Mixtures


> 600 cc (API)

DIASEAL M > 1000 cc (API)


LOSS CIRCULATION
WATER-BASE MUDS

HIGH FILTRATION MIXTURES 200 – 400 CC (API)

PROCEDURE

Attapulgite 3 - 6 %
Bentonite 1.5 - 6 %
Lime 0.15 %
Diatomite 15 %
(mica 1 - 1.5 %)
(granular LCM 1.5-2.5 %)
(fibrous LCM 0.3-1 %)

() Chosen in function
of losses

NOTES
Get on top of loss area. Squeeze with low pressures ~ 50 psi – 150 l/1’. Do not exceed
fracture gradient. Maintain residual pressure for 6 - 8 hours.
LOSS CIRCULATION
WATER-BASE MUDS

VERY HIGH FILTRATION MIXTURES > 600 CC (API)

PROCEDURE

Diatomite 30 %
Lime 15 %
Attapulgite 0 - 4 %
(granular LCM 1 - 2.5 %)
(fibrous LCM 1 %)
(lamellar LCM 1 %)

( ) Chosen in function
of losses

NOTES
Same procedure as for high filtration mixtures.
With T >60°C mechanical resistance develops.
LOSS CIRCULATION
WATER-BASE MUDS

DIASEAL M > 1000 cc (API)

PROCEDURE

Formula for 1 m³ (final)


of DIASEAL M

Density Diaseal Barite Water


Kg/l sx t m³

1.08 6 0 0.9
1.45 5 0.2 0.8
1.80 4 1 0.7
2.15 3 1.5 0.6

NOTES
Same application procedure as for high filtration mixtures.
LOSS CIRCULATION
WATER-BASE MUDS

GEL-CEMENT
PROCEDURE

Slurry composition
(Class G Cement)

Bentonite Water Y. Slurry Density


% weight % l/100 Kg Kg/l

0 44 75.7 1.90
2 84 116.5 1.60
3 104 136.9 1.51
4 112 157.25 1.45

NOTES

It is important to obtain a high viscosity slurry. Using these percentages slurry develops a sufficient
mechanical resistance.
It is possible to prepare slurries with higher percentages of bentonite. Plugging properties
improves if mechanical resistances decrease.
LOSS CIRCULATION
WATER-BASE MUDS

GILSONITE CEMENT

PROCEDURE

Slurry composition
(Class G Cement)

Gilsonite Water Y. Slurry Density


% % in peso l/100 Kg Kg/l

0 44 75.7 1.90
50 61 139.5 1.51
100 78 203.2 1.37
200 112 330.7 1.25

NOTES

Good mechanical resistance is due to Gilsonite’s plugging action. As for cement plugs, it is
suggested to cross the whole vugular zone before carrying out the operation. WOC: minimum 8
hours.
LOSS CIRCULATION
WATER-BASE MUDS
DOB SQUEEZE (diesel oil bentonite)
PROCEDURE
Formula for 1 m³ (ultimately)

Oil base 0.70 m³


Bentonite 800 Kg

DOBC SQUEEZE (diesel oil bentonite cement)


PROCEDURE
Formula for 1 m³ (final)
Oil base 0.72 m³
Cement 450 Kg
Bentonite 450 Kg
NOTES
Pump the gunk plug on top of the loss zone. Volume must be equal or higher than calculated volume.
The first and second pill should be about 1 m³ of diesel oil. When the gunk is out of the drill
string, close the annular and pump mud in the annulus while displacing the plug in the drill pipes. Drill
pipe/annulus flow rates must be kept in a 2:1 ratio (~ 600 l/1’ drill pipes and ~ 300 l/1’ annulus). When half
of the gunk has been displaced, halve flow rates. After ¾ of the gunk has been pumped, try a step
squeeze with 100 - 500 psi, underdisplace 1 barrel, pooh, wait for 8 - 10 hours.
LOSS CIRCULATION
OIL-BASE MUDS

ADDITION OF COLLOIDS

PROCEDURE

Reduce the HPHT filtrate with LT products. Add CaCO3 with particle size of ~ 5 - 15 µm

NOTES
The low colloid content of oil-base mud is the main cause of seepage losses.
LOSS CIRCULATION
OIL-BASE MUDS

SPOT PILLS WITH PLUGGING MATERIALS

PROCEDURE

5 - 10 m³ volume, added with plugging materials adequate to the loss and compatible
with oil-base muds, in percentages that vary between 5 and 10%.

NOTES

Spot pill(s) in the loss area. If the well clogs, squeeze with low pressures ( ~ 50 psi).
Preferably displace with a nozzleless bit.
LOSS CIRCULATION
OIL-BASE MUDS
DIASEAL M > 1000 cc (API)

PROCEDURE

Formula for 1 m³ (final)


of DIASEAL M

Density Diaseal Barite Oil Base


Kg/l sx t m³

1.08 5 0.2 0.9


1.45 4 0.7 0.8
1.80 3 1.1 0.7
2.15 2 1.6 0.6

NOTES
The pill volume must be twice the borehole volume (min. 1,5 m³). To avoid contamination, use 3 - 4 m³
of spacer. Final squeeze pressure should be at least equal to the highest
scheduled density. If the pill is too viscous, add wetting agents. You can also add plugging materials.
LOSS CIRCULATION
OIL-BASE MUDS

PLASTIC PLUG WITH ORGANOPHILIC CLAY

PROCEDURE

Formula for 1 m³ (final)

Density Water FCL NaOH Org. Clay Barite


Kg/l m³ Kg Kg Kg Kg

1,2 0,67 9 4 550 ---


1,45 0,72 7 4 712 ---
2,15 0,54 7 4 285 1540

NOTES
The operational procedure is the same as for the D.O.B. Gunk Squeeze. Try to obtain a residual
pressure between 300 and 900 psi (300 for light muds e 900 for very heavy muds). It is advisable to wait
at least 2 hours before restart drilling.
PLUGGING MATERIALS

Lost Circulation Materials that can be used are:

MICA

NUT PLUG

CaCO3

STEELSEAL

MAGMA FIBER
PLUGGING MATERIALS

MICA

MICA is a silica-base lamellar material. It’s used to prepare pills with oil-base, synthetic-base and water-base muds.

- ADVANTAGES

It’s readily available and can easily be added to LCM pills, or in circulation as a preventer.

- GRANULOMETRY

Granulometry varies from Fine – Coarse, with particle sizes from 2 - 3 mm for Fine up to 4 - 6 mm for Coarse.

- APPLICATIONS

- Mainly used to control seepage losses.


- In highly permeable sandstones.
PLUGGING MATERIALS

NUT PLUG

NUT PLUG is a granular material with vegetable base (nutshells). It’s used to prepare pills with oil-base, synthetic-base and
water-base muds.

- ADVANTAGES

It’s readily available and can be easily added to LCM spot pills.

- GRANULOMETRY

Classified into 3 categories: Fine - Medium – Coarse with particle sizes from 0.15 to 0.5 mm for the Fine type; from 0.5 to 1.6
mm for Medium; from 1.5 to 6 mm for Coarse.

- APPLICATIONS

- Used to control partial or total losses.


- In fractured formations and/or in macrofractures.
- Can also be used in combination with other plugging materials.
PLUGGING MATERIALS

CaCO3

CaCO3 is one of the most valid and adaptable lost circulation materials. It’s a granular, naturally occurring, ground rock. It’s
acidizable and is therefore ideal in reservoirs. It is used to prepare pills with oil-base, synthetic-base and water-base muds.

- ADVANTAGES

It’s readily available and can easily be added to LCM spot pills also in high concentrations. It can be added in circulation as
prevention.

- GRANULOMETRY

Granulometry is divided in Fine - Medium - Coarse categories, with particle sizes of 0.05 mm for the Fine type, 0.1 mm for
Medium and 3 mm for Coarse. Higher granulometry exists for considerable fractures: Super Coarse > 3 mm.

- APPLICATIONS

- The Fine and Medium types are used to control seepage and partial losses. The Medium, Coarse and Super Coarse types
are used for partial and total losses.
- In fractured formations and/or in macrofractures (carbonates).
- Can be used in combination with other plugging materials.
PLUGGING MATERIALS

STEELSEAL

Steelseal is a resilient, angular, dual-composition carbon-based material that can expand or compress itself without being
removed from pores or collapsed due to changes in differential pressure. It can be used as an additive in oil-base, synthetic-
base and water-base muds.
It can also be used as a lubricant for torque and drag reduction.

- ADVANTAGES

In concentrations > 300 Kg/m³, it can be used to control high losses without affecting rheological properties.

- GRANULOMETRY

Particle Size – 100% <40 mesh and 95% >200 mesh. Has a specific gravity of 2.1.

- APPLICATIONS

Used in concentrations between 40 and 70 Kg/m3 to control seepage losses.


Used in concentrations between 140 and 300 Kg/m³ used as LCM pill spotted over thief zone or on bottom prior to trips.
Used in concentrations between 10 and 30 Kg/m³ used as a lubricant for water-base muds.
PLUGGING MATERIALS

MAGMA FIBER

Magma Fiber is a material acidizable with hydrogen chloride and could be in reservoirs. It’s fibrous and very adaptable. It can
be used as an additive for oil-base, synthetic-base and water-base muds, for completion fluids and in work-over operations.

- ADVANTAGES

It’s a non-damaging inert material which forms a good filter cake panel.

- CONCENTRATIONS

In concentration of 30 lb/bbl, it’s used to control total-losses; it also can be used to spot pills or as mud additive for prevention.
In concentrations between 5 and 15 lb/bbl it’s used for seepage and partial losses.

- APPLICATIONS

It’s used to plug highly permeable unconsolidated formations and all kinds of fractures including karsts.
As it is highly acidizable it ca be used in reservoirs.
LCM – Lost Circulation Materials
Materials Type Granulometry Seepage Partial Total Can Be Can Be
(mm) Loss Loss Loss Acidified Used In
OBM
CaCO3 Granular 50% @ +/- 0.05 X X X X

CaCO3 Granular 50% @ +/- 0.1 X X X

CaCO3 Granular 50% @ +/- 0.6 a3 X X X X

Fine Nuts Granular 0.16 - 0.5 X X

Medium Granular 0.5 - 1.6 X X


Nuts
Coarse Granular 1.6 - 5 X X X
Nuts
Fine Mica Lamellar 2-3 X X X

Coarse Lamellar 4-6 X X X X


Mica
Vegetal Fibrous 5 - 15 X X
Fibres
Cellophane Lamellar 10 - 20 X X
Natural fractures: 200 microns
Natural fractures: 500 microns

Induced fractures: 50 microns

Natural fractures: >1000 microns

If we consider that the BRIDGING


AGENTS HAVE TO BE SIZED AS
1/3 OF THE FRACTURE (Abrams’
law) this results in the following
required sizes:
• 66 microns
• 166 microns
• 16 microns
• 333 microns and higher
Choosing the LCM Type
LCM - Efficiency
60 60

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
FRACTURE WIDTH (mm)

FIBROUS LAMELLAR GRANULAR


“Form-A” Cross-linking Polymer Squeezes

• “Form-A” products are a blend of


– polymers
– lost circulation materials
• “Form-A” products are used to stop circulation loss,
prevent water flows and consolidate loose gravel.
• They are activated by cross-linking agents, time and
temperature.
• “Form-A” slurries may be weighted.
• A retarder and accelerator are available, if needed.
CROSS-LINKING POLYMER SQUEEZES – Form-A-Set™

• Form-A-Set is one sack of


polymers, cross-linkers and Acid Solubility 100 % acid soluble
fibrous materials
• Target: large fractures or
vugular zones.

0 % acid soluble
low
large (vugular/cavernous)

medium
medium

high fine
Form-A-Set Fracture/pore
Strength openings size
CROSS-LINKING POLYMER SQUEEZES – Form-A-Set AK™

• Form-A-Set AK is a Acid Solubility 100 % acid soluble

special blend of polymers


and fine size fibrous
materials
• Target: matrix and
medium-to-fine size 0 % acid soluble
fractured zones. low
large (vugular/cavernous)

medium
medium

high fine

Fracture/pore
Strength openings size

Form-A-Set AK
CROSS-LINKING POLYMER SQUEEZES – Form-A-Set AK

• Differences between Form-A-Set and Form-


A-Set AK
– Lower Fiber Loading
– Polymer is same chemistry, but lower
molecular weight
• More rigid gel structure
– Cross-Linker not pre-mixed in the product
• can be mixed ahead of time and
won’t cross-link…cross-linker only
added immediately before pumping!
CROSS-LINKING POLYMER SQUEEZES – Form-A-Set AKX™

• Form-A-Set AKX is a Acid Solubility 100 % acid soluble

special blend of polymers


and Calcium Carbonate
• Target: matrix and fine
size fractured zones (can
be used to shut-off water 0 % acid soluble
and/or gravel low
large (vugular/cavernous)
consolidation).
medium
medium

high fine

Fracture/pore
Strength openings size

Form-A-Set AKX
CROSS-LINKING POLYMER SQUEEZES – Form-A-Plug II™

• One sack biopolymer / Acid Solubility 100 % acid soluble

borate salt blend

• Form-A-Plug II is 98 % acid
soluble in 15% HCl.
0 % acid soluble
low
large (vugular/cavernous)

medium
medium

high fine
Form-A-Plug II
Fracture/pore
Strength openings size
InstanSeal
It’s a system comprised of a semi-stable emulsion of water in oil 80/20
(diesel, L.T. , foreign oils). In the oil phase emulsifiers and gelifying agents
are dissolved. As they mix with other components, they don’t come into
direct contact with the water phase. The fluid thus prepared is stable and
can be pumped through the drill string, with the bit at bottomhole. When the
emulsion breaks, (fluid flows out of the nozzles) viscous agents come into
contact with water, creating a highly gelified mass (it can even set, if further
cement is added to the fluid) in a very short time, from 1 - 10 minutes to an
hour.
InstanSeal
InstanSeal
InstanSeal
InstanSeal
InstanSeal
CEMENT PLUGS

Cement plugs are used to control loss circulations,


especially total losses:
• Cement slurry must be correctly formulated to be used
in vugular zones.
• Slurry sets or consolidates in vugular zones or in weakly
consolidated formations.
• A cement plug can be placed above similar zones, to
protect and isolate them.
• Special circulation-loss additives can be included in
some cement plugs to ensure better results.
CEMENT PLUGS
DISPLACEMENT VOLUME
Displacing volume is
calculated in order to have
cement level inside the drill
string higher than annular level
at the end of the cement job.
This allows to compensate
steel volume once drill string is
pulled out of hole and to avoid
reverse flow from the drill
pipes due to differential
pressure and possible cement
contamination. Spacers must
be equal in height, not in
volume.

Vdisp. = Vint. BHA to the plug top – Vsteel immersed in cmt – V2nd spacer
CEMENT PLUGS
Properties of loss circulation slurries:
• Low density, to reduce slurry losses into the formation.
• High rheologies and gel development, to reduce flowing
into the formation or the fractures.
• Low mechanical resistance.
API standards, for oilfield cementing operations, require
slurries that develop a minimum mechanical resistance
of 500 psi.
• Slurry must be batch mixed, in order to better control
its density.
• When operations are carried out with coiled tubing,
slurry rheology must be low to avoid high pressures
while pumping.
CEMENT PLUGS

Operational procedures:

• Slurry must be batch mixed, in order to better control


density.
• When operations are carried out with coiled tubing, the
slurry rheology must be low, to avoid high pressures
while pumping.
• Setting time is:

Displacement Time + 45 minutes.


BARITE PLUGS
USED TO CONTROL OVERPRESSURED FORMATIONS, WELLS WITH HIGH BLOW-
OUT RISK, WHEN IT’S IMPOSSIBLE TO INCREASE MUD WEIGHT
BECAUSE OF LOSS CIRCULATION DUE TO THE HYDROSTATIC LOAD.

There are several advantages in using barite plugs instead of cement plugs:

Operations can also be carried out Can be easily drilled


using the drilling BHA

Their extremely low viscosity and


Increase hydrostatic load
yield allows a high settling
in specific borehole sections
velocity

High filtration helps to


compact the plug
BARITE PLUGS

COMPOSITION

Fresh/salt water
(laboratory test showed better results with fresh water)

Barite
Fluidifier
Caustic soda (pH 7.5 – 9.5)

Antifoam (~ 5 – 10 l)
LOSS CIRCULATION - Barite Plugs
Treatment Formulas Operational Procedures

Fresh Water Barite Plug Formula for preparing 1m3 1.Determine the height of the plug, commonly 130-150 m is sufficient.
Density 2.16 2.4 2.64(kg/l) 2.Choose the desired density, the lower the density, the faster the
Water 0.64 0.57 0.5 (m3) setting time.
SAPP 2 2 2 (kg) 3.Calculate the plug volume plus 10 barrels.
NaOH 0.7 0.7 0.7 (kg) 4.Calculate the amount of materials required.
*(FCL) (6) (6) (6) 5.Evaluate displacement
*(NaOH)(1.4)(1.4) (1.4) 6.Mix with cement unit.
Barite 1530 1850 2155 7.Use bit with nozzles.
* as alternative to SAPP and Soda. 8.Underdisplace by two barrels.
9.Pull out above plug and circulate as long as you can, in order to allow
plug to settle.

Oil-Base Fluid Barite Plug Formula for preparing 1m3 Note:


Density 2.4 2.64 kg/l •The use of fresh water is advisable, as sea water does not allow a
Oil base 0.51 0.49 (m3) proper settling.
EZ MUL 20 17 (kg) 1.Maintain mixture water pH at 8 -10.
Water 27 26 (L)
Barite 1930 2530 (kg)

Water-Base Fluid With Galena Formula for preparing 1m3 To prepare a pumpable fluid, follow the indications herein given.
Oil-Base Mud With Galena Density 2.88 3.36 3.84 kg/l It is not possible to weigh drilling fluid.
Water 0.58 0.51 0.51 (m3)
Bent. 23 8 5 (kg)
Na2CO3 4 5 5.7 (kg)
SAPP 2 2 5.7 (kg)
Galena 1325 1995 3320 (kg)
Barite 955 838 ....... (kg)
Formula for preparing 1m3 Base Fluid (Invermul)
Oil 0.85 (m3)
Water 0.15 (m3)
Driltreat 35 (kg)
Suspentone52 (kg)
Gelitone II 10 (kg)
Duratone HT35 (kg)
Formula for preparing 1m3
Density 3.36 3.6 4.32 kg/l
Base 0.59 0.55 0.43 (m3)
Fluid
Galena 2821 3078 3930
Driltreat -- -- 14 (kg)
BARITE PLUGS
PROCEDURE

+ + +

+ =

Max BHA Height H = 160 m


BARITE PLUGS

TABLE

BLEND DENSITY FRESH WATER BARITE FLUIDIFIER CAUSTIC SODA


Kg/l liters Kg Kg Kg

2.20 625 1575 1.3 0.4

2.30 595 1705 1.4 0.4

2.40 560 1840 1.5 0.5

2.50 530 1970 1.6 0.5

Settling time: ~ 3 hours