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ENGLISH PROJECT

ACADEMICUNIT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

CAREER OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

MEMBERS:
 Iván Aguilar
 Eliana Piedra
 Ana Alberca
 Michelle Arias

2018
ENGLISH PROJECT - 2019

CONTENT:

FOREWORD ..................................................................................................................................................... 4
DEDICATION ................................................................................................................................................... 5
GRATITUDE ..................................................................................................................................................... 6
GENERAL OBJECTIVE ................................................................................................................................... 7
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................................. 7
CONCRETE .......................................................................................................................................................... 8
COMPONENTS................................................................................................................................................ 8
THE PEPARATION ........................................................................................................................................... 9
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................11
Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................12

Autores: Iván Aguilar – Eliana Piedra – Michelle Arias – Ana Alberca 2


ENGLISH PROJECT - 2019

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MACHALA

ACADEMICUNIT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

CAREER OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

ENGLISH IV PROJECT

AUTHORS:

AGUILAR HUARQUILA IVAN JAIR

ALBERCA REINOCUNA ANA GABRIELA

ARIAS MURILLO GABRIELA MICHELLE

PIEDRA CAPELO ELIANA PAULETTE

DOCENTE:

LCDO. SARMIENTO SUGCHO KLEBER OSWALDO, MS.

MACHALA, FEBRERO 2018

Autores: Iván Aguilar – Eliana Piedra – Michelle Arias – Ana Alberca 3


ENGLISH PROJECT - 2019

FOREWORD

The present project was carried out by a group of students of fourth semester of Civil Engineering
of Technical University of Machala, with the objective of creating a document that serves as guide
for the use of the markers in different subjects related to the Civil Engineering career, for which it
was necessary an arduous work and dedication on the part of the members of this team. We hope
that the present will be useful for the fellow students of our educational community and we are
ready to recommendations and suggestions of how to improve the presentation and to be able to
realize in future works of greater quality.

Autores: Iván Aguilar – Eliana Piedra – Michelle Arias – Ana Alberca 4


ENGLISH PROJECT - 2019

DEDICATION

We dedicate this project to our parents who are the fundamental pillar and example of life; to our
colleagues and to all those students interested in this matter.

To Lcdo. Kleber Sarmiento, who gave us the necessary instructions for a better elaboration of the
project.

To all those who supported us in the research and development of the project

Autores: Iván Aguilar – Eliana Piedra – Michelle Arias – Ana Alberca 5


ENGLISH PROJECT - 2019

GRATITUDE

This present work is directed with a spirit of gratitude.

To God for guiding us with wisdom to successfully complete this project; to our parents we thank
them infinitely because they have been our greatest support and unconditional help throughout this
work; to the Technical University of Machala for welcoming us always with open arms, for their
hospitality during this semester of study; to our teachers because in addition to sharing their
knowledge we have found in them a great friendship, especially, to Lcdo. Kleber Sarmiento who
patiently taught us his knowledge and guided us in the development of the project.

Autores: Iván Aguilar – Eliana Piedra – Michelle Arias – Ana Alberca 6


ENGLISH PROJECT - 2019

GENERAL OBJECTIVE

Analyze the properties of concrete, their types, advantages and disadvantages; through the
bibliographical research to highlight its functionality and benefits that provides us in the
development of civil works.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
 Know the components of concrete.
 Know all the uses that can be given in the area of civil engineering.
 Analyze the preparation of the concrete.

Autores: Iván Aguilar – Eliana Piedra – Michelle Arias – Ana Alberca 7


ENGLISH PROJECT - 2019

CONCRETE
We are going to talk about the concrete

The concrete is the result of a mixture of cement,


sand and gravel which, together with water, form a
resistant mass and compact consistency. Concrete is
one of the most traditional materials used in
construction. The density and hardness that the
material acquires when it forges make it the king of
masonry.

In order words, the concrete mass can be used to


construct pavements, to lift walls and to
manufacture various types of blocks used in
construction.

COMPONENTS
The aggregates, such as sand, stone and cascote.

Sand: It serves to reduce the fissures that appear in the mixture, when
hardening and giving volume.

Stone: It is used in the preparation of resistant concrete as for bases,


columns, slabs, can be used boulder, that is the stone of broken
river or stone (of quarry) or expanded clay.

Cascote: May be brick or demolish old works. It is used in poor or


low-resit concrete for subfloors and foundations.

Autores: Iván Aguilar – Eliana Piedra – Michelle Arias – Ana Alberca 8


ENGLISH PROJECT - 2019

The binders, for example cal and cement, water and additivie.

The Cal and the Cement: The two react in contact with the water,
undergoing a process that begins with the water.

Water: Gives plasticity to the mixture to be workable and causes the


chemical reaction that produces the fragüe.

Additives: These additives are added to the water, which


are of all types such as cement accelerators, plastic
improvers, retarders, etc.

All right… Now, let’s analyze the preparation

THE PEPARATION
Dump and collation

The care during the casting of the concrete is intended to maintain


the homogeneous mixture, ie with good distribution of the
aggregates. It is important to eliminate air trapped by what is
advisable of the vibrator as a tool and in small works of a simple
rod.

Cured

In order for the concrete to reach all its strength and the characteristics for which it was designed, it
is necessary not to lose the moisture of the mixture in an accelerated manner, with this objective the
surface of the concrete must be protected to prevent its drying prematurely, called Concrete Curing.
Good curing contributes to the design strength. In case of a bad cure, the resistances can be up to
30% below expectations.

Autores: Iván Aguilar – Eliana Piedra – Michelle Arias – Ana Alberca 9


ENGLISH PROJECT - 2019

Concrete Decking

Another very important factor is the time that the formwork must be maintained in order to obtain
the strength of the concrete and to achieve its durability. On slabs or slabs, it is advisable to keep
the formwork at least 15 days under normal conditions and to leave the necessary props.

All right… Now, let’s turn to the types of concrete

Such as ordinary, arming, prestressing, post-tensioning and self compacting.

- Ordinary: It is the result of the mixture between Portland cement, water and elements of various
sizes that are superior or inferior to 5 mm, more gravel and sand.

- Arming: It is the most common because it contains structures of steel in its interior that have been
properly arranged. It is ideal for resisting tensile and compression loads.

- Prestressing: This mixture has a steel armature inside that was designed to be tensioned in the
traction function after pouring. The prestressing may also occur before placing the mixture fresh.

- Post-tensioning: Similar to the previous one, the steel reinforcement is tightened after the cement
has set and hardened.
- Self-compacting: It does not require compaction due to a precise dosage of superplasticizing
additives that facilitate that it is compacted by its own weight.

Autores: Iván Aguilar – Eliana Piedra – Michelle Arias – Ana Alberca 10


ENGLISH PROJECT - 2019

CONCLUSION

Concrete is the most used construction material in the world for several reasons, first because it has
a great resistance to the action of water without suffering a serious deterioration, besides that it can
be molded to give a great variety of shapes and sizes thanks to the consistency of the mixture, being
this one of great popularity among the civil engineers for its performance in the works and its low
cost.

Autores: Iván Aguilar – Eliana Piedra – Michelle Arias – Ana Alberca 11


ENGLISH PROJECT - 2019

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] M. Sanhueza, «Hormigon,» Ministerio de Obras Pùblicas, Chile, 2015.

[2] Holcim, Ecuador S.A., «Nuestros procesos de producciòn,» Ecuador, 2011.

[3] UMACON, «Los Principales Tipos de Hormigón y sus Aplicaciones.,» España, 2017.

Autores: Iván Aguilar – Eliana Piedra – Michelle Arias – Ana Alberca 12