You are on page 1of 299

The Shell Petroleum Development Company

of Nigeria Limited
Operator for the NNPC/Shell/Agip/Elf Joint Venture

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA)

FOR

THE REPLACEMENT OF THE 44 M SECTION OF THE


14” X 33.4 KM OKORDIA – RUMUEKPE PIPELINE AT
SOMBRIERO RIVER CROSSING

(FINAL REPORT)

November, 2006
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTERS AND TITLES ii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
LIST OF TABLES xi
LIST OF APPENDICES viii
LIST OF PLATES AND BOXES xiv
GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS xv
EIA REPORT PREPARERS xix
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT xx
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 of 20

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION


1.0 Background 1 of 11
1.1 Project Location 1 of 11
1.2 Objectives of the EIA 2 of 11
1.3 Scope of the EIA 2 of 11
1.4 Administrative and Legal Framework 2 of 11
1.4 Structure of Report 9 of 11

1.5 Terms of Reference 9 of 11

CHAPTER TWO PROJECT DESCRIPTION


2.0 Introduction 1 of 11
2.1 Project Description 1 of 11
2.2 Project Activities 5 of 11
2.3 Project Schedule 10 of 11

CHAPTER THREE DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT


3.0 Description of the Environment 1 of 84
3.1 Introduction 1 of 84
3.2 Baseline Data Acquisition Methods 1 of 84

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page ii


3.3 Results and Discussions 5 of 84
3.3.1 Biophysical Environment 6 of 84
3.3.1.1 Climate and Meterology 6 of 84
3.3.1.2 Rainfall 6 of 84
3.3.1.3 Relative Humidity (RH) 7 of 84
3.3.1.4 Wind 8 of 84
3.3.1.5 Temperature 8 of 84
3.3.1.6 Air Quality 10 of 84
3.3.1.7 Noise Level 10 of 84
3.3.1.8 Vegetation Types/Distribution 11 of 84
3.3.1.9 Phytopathology 19 of 84
3.3.1.10 Plant Tissue Analysis 20 of 84
3.3.1.11 Land Use/Cover 20 of 84
3.3.1.12 Land Cover Trends 23 of 84
3.3.1.13 Wildlife/Biodiversity 26 of 84
3.3.1.14 Geology/Hydrogeology 34 of 84
3.3.1.15 Soils 38 of 84
3.3.1.17 Aquatic /Sediments Studies 46 of 84
3.3.1.18 Hydrobiology and Fisheries 55 of 84
3.3.2 Socio-economic Environment 62 of 84
3.3.2.1 Communities/Constituencies 62 of 84
3.3.2.2 Population 62 of 84
3.3.2.3 Age – Sex Distribution 62 of 84
3.3.2.4 Household Size 63 of 84
3.3.2.5 Marital Status 65 of 84
3.3.2.6 Income Distribution 65 of 84
3.3.2.7 Living Conditions and Housing 66 of 84
3.3.2.8 Electricity Supply, Source of Lighting/Energy
For Cooking 66 of 84

3.3.2.9 Transportation/Accessibility of the Communities 66 of 84

3.3.2.10 Education 67 of 84

3.3.2.11 Occupation 68 of 84

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page iii
3.3.2.12 Cultural Environment 70 of 84

3.3.3 Health Environment 73 of 84


3.3.3.1 Disease Pattern 73 of 84
3.3.3.2 Mortality 75 of 84
3.3.3.3 Health Facilities and Services 75 of 84
3.3.3.4 Environmental Health Factors 76 of 84
3.3.3.5 Lifestyle/Habits 79 of 84
3.3.3.6 Immunization Status in Children 82 of 84
3.3.3.7 Measurements of Respiratory Function 82 of 84
3.3.3.8 Health Determinants 84 of 84

CHAPTER FOUR CONSULTATIONS


4.0 Consultations 1 of 7

CHAPTER FIVE ASSOCIATED AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS


5.0 Introduction 1 of 28
5.1 Impact Prediction Methodology 1 of 28
5.2 Rating of Impacts 1 of 28
5.3 Impact Identification 8 of 28
5.3.1 Project Activities and Sensitivities Interaction Matrix 10 of 28
5.3.2 Determination of Environmental Impacts 10 of 28
5.3.3 List of Identified Impacts 23 of 28
5.4 Description of Impacts 24 of 28
5.4.1 Pre-Construction Phase 24 of 28
5.4.2 Construction Phase 25 of 28
5.4.3 Operational Phase 28 of 28

CHAPTER SIX MITIGATION MEASURES


6.0 Introduction 1 of 13
6.1 Pre-Construction Phase 1 of 13
6.2 Construction Phase 3 of 13
6.3 Operations/Maintenance Phase 10 of 13

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page iv


CHAPTER SEVEN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN
7.0 Introduction 1 of 25
7.1 Environmental Monitoring 1 of 25
7.2 Hazards and Effects Management Process (HEMP) 2 of 25
7.3 Safety and Hazard Identification 3 of 25

CHAPTER EIGHT CONCLUSION


8.0 Conclusion 1 of 1

REFERENCES 1 of 4

APPENDICES 1 of 97

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page v


LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 2.0: Map of the Niger Delta Showing the Proposed Project
Location 3 of 11

Fig. 2.1: Location Map of the Proposed Okordia – Rumuekpe


River Crossing Pipeline Replacement Project 4 of 11

Fig. 2.2: Schematic Showing Pipeline Replacements 6 of 11

Fig. 2.3: Project Schedule for the Proposed River Crossing


Replacement 11 of 11

Fig. 3.1: Sampling Locations for the Okordia – Rumuekpe


Study Area 4 of 84

Fig. 3.2: Rainfall Distribution Pattern in the Project Area 7 of 84

Fig. 3.3: Diurnal Pattern of Relative Humidity in the Project Area 7 of 84

Fig. 3.4: Diurnal Ambient Temperature Pattern in Project Area 8 of 84

Fig. 3.5: Wind Distribution Pattern 9 of 84

Fig. 3.6: Structure of Freshwater Swamp/Riparian Vegetation on


Banks of the Sombreiro at Proposed Pipeline Crossing 14 of 84

Fig. 3.7: Structure of Mixed Tropical Rainforest Vegetation around


Ihuowo Community 17 of 84

Fig. 3.8: Land Cover Types in Proposed Project Area (2002) 23 of 84

Fig. 3.9: Trends in Land Cover/Land Use in Project Area (1986-2002) 25 of 84

Fig.3.10 Lithological Sections of the Boreholes around Project Area 35 of 84

Fig. 3.11: Geostatistics for Direction of Groundwater Flow at Ubie 36 of 84

Fig. 3.12: Population Distribution Pyramid 63 of 84

Fig. 3.13 Household Size in Ahoada and other LGAs in Rivers State 64 of 84

Fig. 3.14: Marital Status in Study Area 65 of 84

Fig. 3.15: Educational Attainment in Project Area 67 of 84

Fig. 3.16: Occupational Patterns in Project Area 68 of 84

Fig. 3.17: Traditional Hierarchy of Governance in Ihuowo 71 of 84

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page vi


Fig. 3.18: Alcohol Intake, Tobacco, and Cigarette Smoking among
15 Years and above in the Study Area 80 of 84

Fig. 3.19: Awareness of Sexually Transmissible Infections among


Respondents in the Area 81 of 84

Fig. 3.20: Frequency Distribution of Multiple Sexual Partners in the


Area 82of 84

Fig. 3.21: Immunization Status of Children under 5 years in the Area 83 of 84

Fig. 3.22: Peak Flow Rate among Sampled Adults Compared to


Standards for Age 83 of 84

Fig. 7.1 Hazard and Effect Management Process 3 of 25

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page vii
LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.0: Section of Okordia – Rumuekpe River Crossing Section


to be Replaced 6 of 11
Table 3.1: Environmental Components and Associated Methodologies 2 of 84
Table 3.2: Analytical Test Methods for Physico-Chemical Parameters 3 of 84
Table 3.3: Ambient Air Quality of the Project Area/Location 10 of 84
Table 3.4: Noise Level Measurements around Proposed Project Area 11 of 84

Table 3.5: Checklist of Plant Species around the Project Area 11 of 84


Table 3.6: Plant Species Composition in Freshwater Swamp Forests
Of Project Area 16 of 84
Table 3.7: Plant Species Composition and Frequency of Occurrence
in Bush Fallow Vegetation 18 of 84
Table 3.8: Composition, Habit and Cover of Aquatic Macrophytes 19 of 84
Table 3.9: Diseases of Crops and Plants within the Pipeline ROW,
and Causative Agents 21 of 84
Table 3.10: Heavy Metals Content of Plant Species from the Study Area 22 of 84
Table 3.11: Checklist of Terrestrial Wildlife in the Study Area 27 of 84
Table 3.12: Terrestrial Macro Invertebrate Fauna of Project Location 32 of 84
Table 3.13: Physico-chemical and Heavy Metal Content of
Borehole Water Samples Situated in the Study Area 37 of 84
Table 3.14: Microbial Contents of Borehole Waters from around the
Project Location 38 of 84
Table 3.15: Summary of Textural Analysis of Soils from Project Area 39 of 84
Table 3.16: Physical Characteristics of Surface and Subsurface
Soils around Project Area 40 of 84

Table 3.17: Summary of the Nutrient Status of Soils from Project Area 41 of 84
Table 3.18: Summary of Alkaline Earth Metals of Soils from the Project Area 42 of 84
Table 3.19: Exchangeable Acidity and Cation Exchange Capacity
of Soil of the Project Area 43 of 84
Table 3.20: Heavy Metals of Soils in the Project Area 44 of 84
Table 3.21: Summary of Microbiological Characteristics of Soil
Samples from Project Area 45 of 84

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page viii
Table 3.22: Major Hydrological Features of Sombriero River at
Pipeline Crossing 46 of 84

Table 3.23: Summary of Physico-Chemical Parameters of


Surface Water at the Pipeline Crossing (Rainy Season) 48 of 84

Table 3.23b: Summary of Physico-Chemical Parameters of


Surface Water at the Pipeline Crossing (Dry Season) 48 of 84

Table 3.24: Heavy Metal Content of Surface and Bottom Water


Samples from the Project Location 50 of 84

Table 3.25: Summary of Microbiological Characteristics of


Surface and Bottom water Samples from Project Location 52 of 84

Table 3.26: Sediment Physico-Chemistry in the Sombreiro River 53 of 84

Table 3.27: Heavy Metal Content of Sediment from Locations on the


Sombreiro River 53 of 84

Table 3.28: Summary of Microbiological Properties of


Sediment Samples from Project Area 55 of 84

Table 3.29: Species composition and Abundance (Organisms/l)


Of Phytoplankton in the Sombriero River (upstream)
During the Rainy and Dry Seasons 57 of 84

Table 3.30: Species Composition, Distribution and Abundance of


Zooplankton in the Project Area 58 of 84

Table 3.31: Fish Fauna and Fisheries in Waters around Project Location 61 of 84

Table 3.32: Household Size in Study Area 64 of 84

Table 3.33: Income Distribution of Respondents in Study Area 66 of 84

Table 3.34: Roles and Responsibilities of Traditional Authorities


in Ihuowo 72 of 84

Table 3.35: Sacred Shrines, Lakes and Forests in Ihuowo 73 of 84


Table 3.36: The Disease Pattern in the Project Communities 74 of 84
Table 3.37: The Common Symptoms/ Signs and Diseases
Detected During Physical/Clinical Examination 74 of 84
Table 3.38: Indicators for Safe Water and Sanitation 76 of 84
Table 3.39: Wastes Inventorisation from the Identified Sources
in the Communities 77 of 84
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page ix
Table 3.40: Nutritional Status of children Under Five in the Area
Using Anthropometric Indices 80 of 84
Table 5.0: Likelihood of Occurrence 3 of 28
Table 5.1: Potential Consequences Classification Matrix 4 of 28
Table 5.2: Potential Consequence 4 of 28
Table 5.3: Degree of Impact Signifiicance 7 of 28
Table 5.4: Impact Assessment Matrix 8 of 28
Table 5.5: Project Activities and Environmental Sensitivities
Interaction Matrix 11 of 28
Table 5.6: Associated and Potential Impacts: Pre-construction Phase 12 of 28
Table 7.1 Mitigation Measures/Management Plan Table of
14” x 33.4 km Okordia –Rumuekpe
(Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page x


LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 2.1 SPDC Waste Management Manual 11 of 13

Appendix 3.1 Methodologies for sample collection and


analysis for the environmental, social and health components 3 of 84

Appendix 4.1 The minutes of the community engagement


Session 1 of 8

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page xi


LIST OF PLATES AND BOXES

Plate 3.1: View of Pipeline ROW at Ihuowo 5 of 84

Plate 3.2: View of Sombreiro Pipeline Crossing at Ihuowo


showing Strata of Freshwater Swamp/Riparian Vegetation 15 of 84

Plate 3.3: Closer View of Swamp Forest Vegetation at Pipeline


Crossing on the Sombreiro River
(Note: Dense Stands of Raphia) 15 of 84

Plate 3.4: Stagnant Pool near Pipeline Crossing with Floating


Aquatic Macrophytes 19 of 84

Plate 3.5: Fisherman at Ihuowo in traditional fishing canoe in the


vicinity of the pipeline crossing on the Sombreiro River 60 of 84

Plate 3.6: Fresh Catch of Tilapia from the Sombriero River on the
Pipeline Crossing 60 of 84

Plate 3.7: Local Gin Distilling Shed on Banks of the Sombreiro


at Ihuowo 69 of 84

Plates 4a – k:Cross sections of community engagement for the Project 3 of 7


at Ihuowo

Box 3.0: Linear Extrapolation Model for Population Projection of


Communities 62 of 84

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page xii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

Units
% - Percent
°C - degree Celsius
Cfu - Colony forming units
Cfu/ml - Colony forming units/milliliter
Cfu/g - Colony forming units/gramme
dB(A) - Decibel
g - Gramme
ha - hectare
°k - degree Kelvin
kg - Kilogram
km2 - Square Kilometre
L - Litre
µg - microgramme
µm - micrometer
mg - Milligramme
mg/kg - Milligramme per kilogramme
Meq - Milli-equivalent
mg/l - Milligrame per litre
mm - Milimetre
ml - Millilitre
m/s - Metres per second
NTU - Nephelometric Turbidity unit
nmi - Nautical Miles
ppm - Parts per million
psi - Pounds per square inch
psig - Pounds per square inch gauge

Abbreviations/Acronyms
AAS - Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
AGG - Associated Gas Gathering
ALARP - As Low As Reasonably Practicable
APHA - American Public Health Association
API - American Petroleum Insitute

BH - Borehole
BOD - Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Ca - Calcium
CASHES - Community Affairs, Safety, Health, Environment, and Security
CBO - Communiy Based Organisations
CDC - Community Development Committee
Cl- - Chloride ion
CLO - Community Liaison Officer
Cm - Centimetre
CO - Carbon monoxide (Carbon II Oxide)
Co - Cobalt

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page xiii
CO2 - Carbon Dioxide, Carbon iv oxide
COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand
Cr - Chromium

DO - Dissolved Oxygen
DPR - Department of Petroleum Resources
DS - Dissolved solids
DTE-GEM - Geomatic Services
E - East
EP - Extraction Procedure
E&P - Exploration and Production
EER - Environmental Evaluation Report
EIA - Environmental Impact Assessment
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
ESP - Emergency Shut –Down Protection
Fe - Iron
FEPA - Federal Environmental Protection Agency
FMENV - Federal Ministry of Environment
F&G - Fire and Gas
GOR - Gas Oil Ratio
GPS - Global Positioning System

HC - Hydrocarbons
H2S - Hydrogen Sulphide
HAZID - Hazard identification
HEMP - Hazard and Effect Management Process
HET - Heterotrophic bacteria
HRA - Health Risk Assessment
HSE - Health, Safety and Environment
HSE-ENVE - Environmental Assessment Team of HSE Department
HSES - Health, Safety, Environment and Security
HSES-MS - Health, Safety, Environment and Security Management System
HUB - Hydrocarbon utilising bacteria

ISO - International Organisation for Standardisation

K - Potassium

LP - Low Pressure
LGAs - Local Government Areas
LNG - Liquified Natural Gas

MEDEVAC - Medical Evacuation


Mg - Magnesium
Mn - Manganese
MPN - Most Probable Number

N - North, Nitrogen
Na - Sodium
NA - Not applicable

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page xiv
NAG - Non Associated Gas
NAOC - Nigerian Agip Oil Company Limited
NE - North East
N-NH4 - Ammonium Nitrogen
N-NO2 - Nitrite Nitrogen
N-NO3 - Nitrate Nitrogen
N/D - Not Detected
NGC - Nigerian Gas Company
NGLs - Natural Gas Liquids
NGO - Non-Governmental Organisation
Ni - Nickel
NEGAS - National Environmental Guidelines and Standards
NAPIMS - National Petroleum Investment Management Services
NLNG - Nigerian Liquified Natural Gas Limited
NNPC - Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation
NOx - Nitrogen Oxides
NW - North West

OEL - Occupational Exposure Limit


OH - Occupational Health
OML - Oil Mining Lease
OPL - Oil Prospecting Lease

PAGX - Public and Government Affairs


PFS - Process Flow Scheme
PA - Public Affairs
PEFS - Process Engineering Flow Scheme
Pb - Lead
PCBs - Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls
pH - Hydrogen ion concentration
PPE - Personal Protective Equipment
PR - Public Relation
PTW - Permit to Work

QA - Quality Assurance
QC - Quality Control
QM - Quality Management

R - Correlation Coefficient
ROW - Right of Way
RPE - Respiratory Protection Equipment
RPI - Research Planning Institute
R/S - Rivers State
RSEPA - Rivers State Environmental Protection Agency
(now Rivers State Ministry of Environment)
RSMENV - Rivers State Ministry of Environment

S - South, Sulphur
SAFOP - Safety and Operability Study

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page xv


SE - South East
SHOC - Safe Handling of Chemicals
SIA - Social Impact Assessment
SIEP - Shell International Exploration and Production B.V.
SIPM - Shell International-Hague
SO2 - Sulphur dioxide
SO4 - Sulphate ion
SOx - Oxides of Sulphur
SPDC - Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited
SPM - Suspended particulate matter
sp - Species (Sing.)
spp - Species (Pl.)
SS - Suspended solids
STDs - Sexually Transmitted Diseases
SW - South West
SWL - Soil Water Level (Soil Water Table)

THC - Total hydrocarbon


TSS - Total Suspended Solids
TVP - True Vapour Pressure

USDA - United States Department of Agriculture


UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme
USEPA - United States Environmental Protection Agency

VES - Vertical Electrical Sounding


V - Vanadium
VES - Vertical Electrical Sounding
VOC - Volatile Organic Compounds

W - West
WDG - Waste Disposal Guidelines
WHO - World Health Organisation

XTDE - Topographic Department – East

Zn - Zinc

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page xvi
EIA REPORT PREPARERS

This report was prepared by the following representatives:

SPDC PROJECT EIA TEAM


Mrs. Oby Moore - Team Leader, Integrated EIA Team
Ms. Edidiong Ekwere - Snr HSE Adviser, Special EIA Projects
Mr. Richard Michael - Environmental Inspector
Mr. Jeremiah Anietie - Project Engineer

CONSULTANTS
Professor A. Obi-Ekezie - Biophysical Consultant,
Institute of Oceanography,
University of Calabar,
Calabar,
Cross River State.
Mr. S. Ojo - Social Consultant,
30 Sobande Street,
Akoka,
Lagos State.
Dr. J. Amah - Health Consultant,
Amber Projects International,
Plot 104B Airport Road, Warri,
Delta State.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page xvii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC) wishes to


acknowledge the opportunity granted by the Government of the Federal Republic of
Nigera through the Ministries to conduct this EIA for the replacement of the 44 m section
of the 14” x 33.4 km Okordia – Rumuekpe Pipeline at Sombriero River Crossing, in
recognition of the National Regulatory Requirements and Standards, the Shell Group and
International Specifications.

We appreciate the cordial working relationships we have with FMENV, DPR, Rivers State
Ministry of Environment, Local Government Authorities, Community Chiefs, Elders and
Youths of Ihuowo Community.

The efforts of the project team in putting this EIA together are also greatly commended.

Thank you.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page xviii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

E.S.1.0 The Proponent


The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC), in its capacity
as the technical operator of the NNPC/TotalFinaElf/NAOC Joint Venture and on behalf of
its partners plans to embark on a sectional pipeline replacement project of the Okordia -
Rumuekpe Pipeline at the Sombreiro River Crossing. The proposed project will involve
the replacement of 44 m Sombriero River Crossing section of the 14” x 33.4 km Okordia
– Rumuekpe Pipeline.

E.S.1.1 Administrative and Legal Framework


The specific laws, guidelines and standards that regulate the operations and all forms of
development activities in the Nigerian oil industries/SPDC include:
• National Policy on the Environment (1999).

• Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Act No. 58, 1988.

• S.I. 15 - National Environmental Protection Management of Solid and Hazardous


Wastes Regulation (1991) (FMENV).

• Environmental Impact Assessment Act No. 86, 1992 (FMENV).

• FEPA National Guidelines for Spilled Oil Fingerprinting (Act 14 of 1999).

• FEPA National Guidelines on Waste Disposal through Underground Injection (1999).

• Nigeria's National Agenda 21 (1999).

• Forestry Law CAP 51, 1994.

• Rivers State Environmental Protection Edict of 1994

• National Inland Waterways Authority Act No 13 of 1997.

• Oil Pipelines Ordinances (CAP) 145, 1956 and Oil Pipelines Act, 1965.

• The Mineral Oil (Safety) Regulations, 1963.

• Petroleum (Drilling and Production) Regulations (1969).

International Laws and Regulations.


• Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn
Convention).

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 1 of 113
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

• Convention on Biological Diversity.

• Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage
Sites (or World Heritage Convention).

• Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous


Wastes and Their Disposal.

• United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

• SPDC’s Community Affairs, Safety, Health, Environment and Security {CASHES}


Policy.

• SPDC’s Environmental Assessment Policy.

• SPDC’s Waste Management Policy.

International Guidelines
• World Bank Guidelines on Environmental Assessment {EA}.

• International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)


Guidelines.

E.S.1.2 Declaration
Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC) hereby declares her
intention to abide by the existing international and local laws/regulations as well as
SPDC polices regarding environmental protection during the construction, operation and
decommissioning phases of the proposed project.

E.S.2.0 Project Objective


The objective of the project is to replace the 44 m Sombreiro River Crossing section of
the Okordia - Rumuekpe pipeline. This will help to restore the pipeline ratings and
integrity thereby enabling pigging operations, ensure evacuation capacity for current and
future production targets, reduce product deferment and environmental pollution thereby
protecting company image.

E.S.2.1 Location of Project


The project is located within Ihuowo community in Ahoada East Local Government Area
of Rivers State in OML 22. The proposed pipeline replacement section lies within the
boundary co-ordinates, Eastings 467296.30 and 467387.82, and Northings 1103290.89
and 110287.85.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 2 of 12


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

E.S.2.2 Project Alternatives


The following two project development options were considered:
• Do Nothing.
• Replace the non-compliant pipeline section.
• Rehabilitate affected section (repair/ maintenance).
Replacement of the non-compliant pipeline section was selected as the preferred option.

E.S.2.3 Project Description


The project activities will include a land-take of about 80m2 for contractor lay down area.
The construction phase will involve excavation/trenching, flushing/cutting of existing
pipeline, pulling out of the pipeline section to be replaced, welding and radiography. It will
also involve the pressure testing of the new pipeline section; pipe laying/tie-in and
backfilling. Operation/maintenance phase of the project will involve hooking the new
pipeline on to the cathodic protection system and inclusion in routine pipeline
maintenance schedule.

E.S.3.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT


In this EIA study, the term environment covers biophysical, social and health aspects.
The environmental conditions for the proposed project site are as described below:

E.S.3.1 Biophysical Environment

• Climatic Conditions
The project area is characterized by two seasons (rainy and dry seasons) on the basis of
the rainfall pattern, which peaks in June and September with drier periods between
November and February. The high mean annual rainfall (above 2200mm) and its pattern
of distribution influences other environmental parameters including ambient temperature
and relative humidity. Humidity is high during the rains (above 95%) dropping to about
86% in the dry season. The generally high temperatures of the area (up to 34 oC) are
typical of its tropical location. Wind speeds are moderate and calm periods occupy up to
42% of the time. Southwesterly winds prevail during the rainy season attaining speeds of
up to 0.3-3.2m/s around Ahoada.

• Air Quality
Ambient air quality parameters show that values for air pollutants (SPM, NO2, SO2, HC,
CO) are consistently within the permissible limits of the FMENV indicating fairly pristine
conditions in terms of air quality. Noise levels in and around the project location lie within
national regulatory limits.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 3 of 12


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

• Vegetation
The vegetation types of the area include freshwater swamp/riparian forest, lowland forest
(mixed tropical rain forest), farmland / bush fallow mosaic and re-growth vegetation.
Floristic composition of the fresh water swamps is fairly diverse and dominated by the
raphia palm species, Raphia hookeri in terms of abundance. Open and un-stratified
secondary forest/fallow mosaic characterized by numerous stands of the oil palm, Elaeis
guineensis, dominate the landscape of the immediate project community. Isolated
patches of lowland rainforest randomly dispersed within this mosaic attest to a long and
sustained human-induced forest depletion. Within the homestead, traditional tree crops
(cola, pear, mango, plum) and cultivated plants provide subsistence and food. Plant
pathological conditions are mostly leaf spot diseases of fungal aetiology consistent with
the high humidity and typical for other areas of the Niger Delta.

• Wildlife
Civet cats (Viverra civetta), grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and bigger game
previously abundant in the area have reportedly become rare. The presence in large
numbers of rodents in particular, and the near absence of the bigger mammals which
make up a typical rainforest wildlife are indicative of the changes in land cover/vegetation
forms over the years. Typical high rainforest wildlife has become replaced over the years
by grassland-adapted species, mainly rodents such as grasscutters and the giant rats.
The Bates dwarf Antelope Neotragus batesi is fairly common in the area. Excessive
exploitation and habitat change has reduced the abundance, kill rate and size-at-capture
of traditional wildlife.

• Land Use/Land Cover


Seven land cover/land use forms were identified by satellite imagery with disturbed forest
(Forest II) as the dominant land cover type accounting for 50% coverage of the general
project area. Primary forest, degraded vegetation and bare soil occupied 9%, 18% and
13% respectively. Approximately 25 km2 or 10% of the project area is used for agriculture
and industrial/urban settlement. The trend in land use over a 16-year period (1986-2002)
evaluated by time-lapse satellite imagery showed that 18.5 km2 of primary forest has
been converted over the period to other forms at an average annual rate of approx.1.2
km2. During the same period, degraded forest, farmland and sparse vegetation covers
registered significant increases. At the current trend, much of the primary/undisturbed
forest is in danger of depletion.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 4 of 12


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

• Geology/Hydrogeology
Geologically, the area is underlain by quarternary sands belonging to the Sombreiro
deltaic plain of the Niger-Delta basin. Stratigraphy revealed that the site is covered by
loose light brown sand, underlain by about 4.5 m thick soft to firm brownish grey sands.
Static Water Levels (SWL) for the area vary from 0.75 – 1.35m allowing the communities
to extract water for domestic use from the relatively shallow aquifers Groundwater flow
direction is south eastwards in the area. The ground water exhibits freshwater
characteristics with values within recommended limits for drinking water (FEPA, WHO).
Faecal pollution indicators such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and
Clostridium perfringens were not detected nor were fungi isolated in borehole water
samples.

• Soil Characteristics
The soils of the location are predominantly loamy sand at top and mid-depth horizons
and sandy clay loam at bottom soil horizons. They are Entisols typical of the Ahoada –
Idu Ekpeye axis, greyish brown in the upper surface layers (10 YR 4/2) and tending to
grey in the deeper strata (5 YR 4/1). Porosity is moderate to high on the surface,
decreasing towards the bottom layers. The soils show moderate to high bulk densities
ranging from 1.24 – 1.32 gcm3 in the surface layers to only slightly lower values of 1.24 -
1.30 gcm3 in the bottom layers. Soil pH varied from extreme (3.98) to moderate acidity
(5.60) in the topsoil horizon. Proportion of organic carbon (approx. 14%) and levels of
nitrate-nitrogen, available phosphorus, and sulphate concentrations indicate a fairly
adequate nutrient base for soils of the area. The low oil and grease concentrations from
this area indicate that the soils are still relatively free of hydrocarbon contamination.
Heavy metal concentrations fell within the range of values reported for similar
ecosystems in the Niger Delta. Of significance is the low proportion of hydrocarbon
degraders among both fungi and bacteria in the soils of the area. These low values,
generally below 0.025%, indicate absence of hydrocarbon contamination of soils.

• Hydrobiology
Hydrobiological parameters were found to be conducive to aquatic life. Values of pH,
dissolved oxygen, and nutrients are at levels that should promote reasonable aquatic
productivity. Concentrations of phyto and zooplankton as indicators of aquatic production
are compatible with the lotic (flowing) nature of the river. Coliform loads indicate faecal
pollution of the river water incompatible with its use for drinking and domestic purposes.
Oil and grease contents exceed values permissible by national regulation. Sources of oil

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 5 of 12


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

and grease have not been determined but may not be unrelated to urban and industrial
activity in the area. Proportions of hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi and bacteria, however,
remained low (<0.1%) in spite of the relatively high oil and grease content. Levels of
alkaline earth metals in the sediment and nutrients are consistent with the freshwater
nature of the Sombreiro at the location and are considered adequate for the sustenance
of aquatic biota. Sediment microbial load is significantly higher than those of surface
waters consistent with microbial retaining character of detritus. The proportion of
hydrocarbon degraders in the sediment was low (<0.1%) in line with the low values
obtained for the surface water

• Fisheries
The project location with its freshwater swamps and grass/sedge-lined banks provide
suitable habitat for a wide variety of fish species. Twenty-nine fish species representing
thirteen families occur in the fish assemblage of the project area. Fishing is carried out
on an artisanal basis mainly for subsistence or as an occasional undertaking deploying
only traditional gears such as dug-out canoes, basket traps, cast nets, set nets and hook
and line. Species targeted include mainly mid-water species such as tilapias and swamp
dwellers such as the Clariidae. Catch-per-unit of effort is very low and does not exceed
an average of 4kg per person daily. Total average daily fish catch from the area is
estimated at not more than 20 kg of fish for most parts of the year.

E.S. 3.2 Social Status


• Socio-cultural Characteristics
The project community is Ihuowo in Ahoada East LGA of Rivers State. Ihuowo people
belong to the Ekpeye ethnic group that reportedly originated from the ancient Benin
Empire. Social groups in the community include women and youth associations,
cooperatives, social clubs, age grades and community development associations.

The power structure of the community has the paramount ruler at the apex. The council
of chiefs, elders, CDC, youth leaders, women leaders and age grades assist in decision-
making and governance.

Christianity and traditional religion are the two major religions practiced. The Anglican
denomination is the most prominent church in Ihuowo. However, belief in deities and
“Juju” was found to be very strong, hence the existence of several shrines, sacred
forests and mystic water bodies.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 6 of 12


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

• Demographic Characteristics
The current population estimate for Ihuowo is 5215 people. (Projections of 1991 census
figures, using 2.83% growth rate). Most households had 6-10 persons per household.
The population structure was bottom-heavy, as expected. Age bracket 0-14 made up
47.3%, almost half of the total population, while the 15-24-age bracket made up 24.3% of
the population. This age bracket (15-24) is considered very sensitive, being mostly
dependent students, dropouts and apprentices in their most volatile and venturing
phases of life, who commonly occupy the frontiers of youth restiveness.

About 55% of the respondents in the project area were married while 18.3% were single.
Among the remaining respondents 17.7% were divorced while 9% were widowed.
Polygamy is also practiced.

• Social conditions
The income of the respondents is generally low. More than 60% of the respondents
earned below N5,000 as monthly income. Most community members live in their own
houses. The majority of houses are of the modern type, built with cement blocks and
roofed with zinc plated corrugated iron sheets. However, several mud houses were
observed. Over 90% of the households in the community depend on hurricane lanterns
for lighting, while the rest rely on generators. Ihuowo is not connected to the national
electricity grid. Firewood is the major source of cooking fuel.

The major means of transportation is bicycles and commercial motorcycles. A very small
percentage of the respondents use motor vehicles. Canoes are also other means of
transportation to farms and fishing grounds. The community is accessible by road all
year round, although the main road linking Ahoada to Ihuowo was in a poor state of
disrepair.

The number of people with no form of formal education is exceptionally high, depicting a
low level of functional literacy. Ihuowo has a primary school but no secondary school.
Secondary school pupils walk daily to Edeoha, a neighbouring town about 9 km away.
There are enough classrooms in the primary school in Ihuowo.

• Socio economic conditions

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 7 of 12


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Farming is the major occupation in the area. This is supplemented with fishing, palm
wine tapping and palm kernel processing. In addition, communities practice hunting,
logging and other traditional occupations commonly practiced in fresh water forest areas.
Other income generating activities found were contracting, welding, motor mechanics
and carpentry, civil service jobs in the Local or State government service, company
employees as well as teaching.

Cassava is the major crop cultivated in Ihuowo. Other crops are plantain, banana, okro,
vegetables, cocoyam, yam and maize cultivated mainly for subsistence. Local livestock
and fish rearing are practiced. The most popular livestock found in Ihuowo were local
fowls and goats. Females are as active as their male counterparts in farming activities.
Decreasing agricultural production was expressed as a major concern, which was
attributed to loss of soil fertility, gas flaring and oil pollution. Other reasons include
population pressure, pests and diseases, erosion, negative attitudes towards farming as
well as inadequate labour supply.

Some identified limitations to agricultural productivity in Ihuowo include the lack of


access to fertilizers, credit, agro-chemicals (herbicides, pesticides etc) and tractors.
Manual implements/tools such as machetes and hoes are used. Farm labour is available
but expensive.

E. S. 3.3 Health Status

• Disease Pattern
Infectious diseases accounted for 80.24 % of the overall disease pattern in the
community. Major infectious diseases include malaria (46.16%), diarrhoea (20.5%), and
respiratory tract infections (13.58%). The leading causes of death among children under
five years of age were infectious diseases such as malaria, febrile convulsion, measles,
and diarrhoeal diseases, while in adults they were malaria, typhoid fever, tuberculosis,
hypertension and diabetes.

The prevalence of these infectious diseases could be due to the poor sources of
domestic water, unsanitary waste disposal and the abundance of disease vectors in the
area. The respiratory function tests using the peak flow meter revealed that in all the age
groups, there were compromised lung functions either due to smoking habits, contact
with smoke from cooking, fish processing or vehicular emissions.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 8 of 12


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The healthcare needs of the people are catered for by the NYSC Community Health
Centre and via trado-medical practices.

• Lifestyle / Habits
Starchy foods such as cassava, rice, yam and plantain are consumed in various forms.
The sources of animal proteins include seafood (fish, shrimps, crayfish) and snails etc.
Acute and chronic under-nutrition is prevalent in the area.

About 49% of adults drink alcohol, 10.1% smoke cigarettes while 4% snuffed tobacco.
No female among the respondents smoked cigarette.

About 20.5% and 9.1% of the community members were aware of the existence of
HIV/AIDS and gonorrhoea respectively. Most of the people had one sexual partner with a
few having two or more.

The immunization coverage of children under five years in the area were BCG 70%, oral
polio 80%, and DPT 65%. The coverage for yellow fever and hepatitis immunization was
very poor accounting for less than ten percent.

E.S.4.0 CONSULTATION
The identified stakeholders for this study were Government (Federal, State and Local),
Regulators (FMENV, DPR, Rivers State Ministry of Environment), Ihuowo community,
CBOs, NGOs, Government agencies, consultants, etc. The type of consultation
conducted was an interface meeting with the community and identified stakeholders to
obtain their issues and concerns on the proposed project.

E.S. 5.0 ASSOCIATED AND POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS


The assessment of the potential environmental, social and health impacts of the
proposed project was undertaken using an ISO 14001 and Hazard and Effect
Management Process (HEMP) tool. The process included impact identification,
description and categorization. The identified moderate negative and positive impacts in
the various phases of the project are detailed below.

• Pre-Construction Phase
Additional land take area of 80m2 could be required on a temporary basis for contractor
equipment lay down. Third party agitations may arise from land disputes, wrong

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 9 of 12


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

stakeholder (land owners) identification, leadership tussles within the community and
issues of compensation.

• Construction Phase
Clearing of vegetation in the ROW and the 80 m2 contractor lay down area may result in
potential negative impacts such as exposure of workers and community members to
attack by poisonous snakes, bees, scorpions, and other wildlife. Injuries from the sharp
objects used during manual vegetation clearing may also result. Opportunities for
business and employment due to vegetation clearing constitute positive impact.

It is envisaged that the project could create employment opportunities for about thirty-five
persons including Ihuowo community members. This is a positive impact of the project.
However, labour requirements could lead to increase in social vices such as violence,
drug/alcohol abuse, teenage pregnancies, prostitution and third party agitation over
employment issues.

Potential negative impacts from excavation and trenching include impairment of water
quality and interference with river-based traditional occupations such as fishing, cassava
and palm produce processing. Aquatic productivity and fisheries may also be disturbed
all of which will lead to third party agitation.

Site fabrication with generation of high intensity welding flash may lead to burns and
injuries from welding sparks. Radioactive emission during radiography (non-destructive
testing) may potentially cause genetic mutation in humans.

Cutting of the existing pipeline after flushing may potentially contaminate surface/ ground
water and soil from the residual water flow back. Pulling out of the pipeline section to be
replaced will temporarily impair the Sombreiro river quality through increased turbidity.
Third party agitation may arise over these issues and the inheritance of disused pipeline
sections. Pipeline laying, tie-in and backfilling have the potential to temporarily impair
water quality, block waterways increasing the possibility of maritime accidents.

• Operational Phase
The potential negative impacts during the pipeline operations/ maintenance include
contamination of soils, sediments, surface/ground water from oil spill incidents and wash
out from pigging operations as well as destruction of assets and properties from oil spill
fire outbreaks. These impacts were rated as moderate

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 10 of 12


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

• Decommissioning Phase
The decommissioning of the replaced pipeline section will be tied to the ultimate
decommissioning of the entire 33.4km Okordia – Rumuekpe pipeline.

E.S.6.0 MITIGATION MEASURES


Mitigation measures were provided for the moderately rated impacts. The SPDC
standard procedures and practices will address the identified minor impacts. The
measures proffered will reduce the severity of the identified moderate negative impacts
to minor and enhance the positive impacts.

To mitigate third party agitation that could arise from the temporary landtake, SPDC shall
ensure identification of the relevant stakeholders and legacy issues, regular consultation
with stakeholders (Government, Community, NGOs, CBOs etc.) and adequate/prompt
compensation to affected land owners/parties.

The potentials for exposure of workers and community members to attack by poisonous
snakes, bees, scorpions, other wildlife and contact with poisonous plants shall be
mitigated by providing workers with PPE (coveralls, jungle boots, hard hat and gloves).
Additionally, SPDC shall create awareness among workers and communities on the
likelihood of this exposure and provide first aid measures/ MEDEVAC.

Injuries from the use of sharp objects in clearing shall be mitigated by providing workers
with adequate PPE (coveralls, jungle boots, hard hat and gloves) and holding safety
briefing before commencing site-clearing activities.

SPDC shall institute awareness campaigns to enlighten the communities/field workers on


the implications of drug and alcohol abuse, unprotected sex and prostitution. The
company shall also provide condoms at the site clinic and tie in to existing government
control programs for HIV/AIDS. These measures will address the potential impacts from
employment of labour which include increase in social vices (violence, drug/alcohol
abuse, teenage pregnancies, commercial sex trade) and third party agitation. Relevant
SPDC policies on alcohol consumption, drug use and related vices shall be strictly
enforced.

The impairment of water quality by increased turbidity could interfere with river based
traditional occupations such as fishing, cassava/ palm produce processing and lead to

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 11 of 12


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

third party agitations. To mitigate this impact, SPDC shall provide potable water to
affected persons during water-impairing operations such as excavation, pulling off the
old pipeline section and backfilling. In addition, affected parties should be identified and
compensated.

The impacts of welding and radiography shall be mitigated by awareness sessions on


the health risks and safety precautions for welding and radiography operations as well as
provision of PPE (welders mask, earmuff’s, jackets, gloves, etc) pre-employment and
periodic medical checks on the workers.

SPDC shall activate her Emergency Response and Contingency Plan to mitigate the
impacts of any incidents such as oil spill and fire which may lead to loss of assets, etc.
The design of the project had incorporated mitigation measures against potential impacts
identified at the conceptual phase.

E.S.7.0 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (EMP)


An environmental management plan has been incorporated into the EIA document to
address the identified environmental concerns. The plan provides for compliance and
effects monitoring of the various environmental components in line with the FMENV and
DPR guidelines. This will ensure future compliance with legislation, good environmental
performance and integration of environmental issues into project decision. The EMP
therefore indicates how the environmental, social and health concerns highlighted in the
EIA would be managed. The anticipated impacts of the proposed project, corresponding
mitigation measures, residual impact rating, action party(ies), timing, parameters to be
monitored and monitoring frequency are indicated in the EMP for the different project
phases.

E.S.8.0 CONCLUSION
This environmental impact assessment has shown that the project could be executed
and operated with minimal negative impact on the environment by implementing
recommended mitigation measures, EMP and other provisions of this EIA.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 12 of 12


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.0 BACKGROUND
The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC), in its capacity
as the technical operator of the NNPC/TotalFinaElf/NAOC Joint Venture and on behalf of
its partners plans a project for the replacement of the river crossing section of the 14”
Okordia – Rumuekpe Trunkline.

The 14” x 33.4 km Okordia - Rumuekpe pipeline evacuates fairly stabilised crude oil
production from the Adibawa and Ubie Flowstations into the Trans-Niger Pipeline (TNP)
network at Rumuekpe Manifold. Current production from both Adibawa and Ubie Flow-
stations is about 12,800 bpd. The pipeline was commissioned in 1981 and has a design
life of minimum 25 years. The pipeline traverses mainly land terrain and at Ihuowo, it
crosses the Sombriero River.

The environmental assessment covers the biophysical, social and health impacts of the
proposed project. This Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was done as a desktop
study (with approval from the Federal Ministry of Environment [FMENV]) using existing
baseline data from the following FMENV approved EIA reports:
1. Gbaran/Ubie IOGP (FMENv/CONF/EIA/123.423/Vol. 11/290 of 9/6/2005)
2. Rumuekpe Cuttings Re-injection, December 2002
3. Akri/Oguta Field Development
4. 20`` X 37 Km Kolo Creek – Rumuekpe Trunkline Replacement
(FMENv/CONF/EIA/123. 190/Vol. 1/1/164 of 3/5/2005).

The existing data was further updated through site visits and community engagement
(sensitization, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and questionnaire administration).

1.1 PROJECT LOCATION


The proposed river crossing section of the 14” Okordia - Rumuekpe Trunk Line (TL) is
located in OML 22, some 45 km west of Port Harcourt. It is located within the land area
of the Niger Delta Region, geographically traversing the Ahoada East Local Government
Area of Rivers State. Access to the pipeline is by road. The proposed project site is
located within the boundary coordinates of 467296.30E, 1103290.89N and 467387.82E,
110287.85N.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 1 of 11


CHAPTER 1 Introduction

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE EIA


The objectives of the EIA are to:
• Source for existing and relevant baseline data on the biophysical, socio-
economics and health conditions of the proposed project area;

• Update the existing baseline information, where necessary;

• Use the existing baseline data to describe and characterise the study area;

• Identify the environmental sensitivities of the project area;

• Determine and evaluate the potential impacts of the proposed project


activities on the identified environmental sensitivities and the interactions
between the sensitivities;

• Recommend appropriate mitigation measures; and

• Develop an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) and Monitoring Plan.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE EIA


The scope includes:
• Review of pertinent literature;
• Updating existing baseline information (biophysical, social and health);
• Prediction and evaluation of potential impacts;
• Determination of appropriate mitigation measures;
• Preparation of an environmental management plan;
• Stakeholder engagement (sensitisation of the communities, involvement of
regulators i.e FMENV, RSMENV and DPR);
• Report preparation.

1.4 ADMINISTRATIVE AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK


There are regulatory legislation, guidelines and standards that govern the assessment of
environmental impacts of development projects. These regulations can be classified as
follows:

1.4.1 National Policy on the Environment (1999)


This gave the policy goals, conceptional framework and strategies for implementation.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 2 of 11


CHAPTER 1 Introduction

1.4.2 Environmental Impact Assessment Act No. 86, 1992 (FMENV)


This Act provides guidelines for activities or development projects for which EIA is
mandatory in Nigeria. The Act also stipulates the minimum content of an EIA as well as
a schedule of projects, which require mandatory EIAs.

1.4.3 Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act No. 58, 1988


This Act, which was issued in 1988 and amended by Act No. 59 of 1992, provides the
setting up of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, as the apex organization for
the overall protection of the Environment and Conservation of Natural Resources.

1.4.4 S. I. 15 – National Environmental Protection Management of Solid and


Hazardous Wastes Regulation (1991) (FMENV)

This provides that the objective of solid and hazardous waste management shall be to:
• Identify solid, toxic and extremely hazardous wastes dangerous to public
health and environment,
• Provide for surveillance and monitoring of dangerous and extremely
hazardous wastes and substances until they are detoxified and safely
disposed,
• Provide guidelines necessary to establish a system of proper record keeping,
sampling and labelling of dangerous and extremely hazardous wastes,
• Establish suitable and provide necessary requirements to facilitate the
disposal of hazardous wastes;
• Research into possible re-use and recycling of hazardous wastes.

1.4.5 FEPA National Guidelines for Spilled Oil Fingerprinting (Act 14 of 1999)
This provides Guidelines for spilled oil fingerprinting applicable throughout Nigeria, in
order to improve the quality of the environment and to free it from pollutants and other
environmental and health hazards.

1.4.6 FEPA National Guidelines on Waste Disposal through Underground


Injection (1999)

This Guidelines and Standards on waste disposal through underground injection


provides the 'modus operandi' for the most viable options for disposal of these wastes in
a tropical environment as Nigeria.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 3 of 11


CHAPTER 1 Introduction

1.4.7 Nigeria's National Agenda 21 (1999)


Nigeria's National Agenda 21 was developed to:
• Integrate environment into development planning at all levels of government
and the private sector,
• Intensify the transition to sustainable development,
• Address sectoral priorities, plans, policies and strategies for the major sectors
of the economy and,
• Simultaneously foster regional and global partnerships

1.4.8 The Mineral Oil (Safety) Regulations, 1963


The Mineral Oil (Safety) Regulations Act of 1977, Section 43.4 requires that all
hydrocarbon-carrying pipelines must be internally inspected every five years in order to
ascertain their integrity.

1.4.9 Oil Pipelines Ordinances (CAP) 145, 1956 and Oil Pipelines Act, 1965
The oil pipelines ordinance (CAP 145), 1956, as amended by the Oil Pipelines Act 1965
provides under Section 4(2) for a permit to survey (PTS) a pipeline route to be issued to
the applicant by the Minister of Petroleum Resources, for the purpose of transporting
mineral oil, natural gas, or any product of oil or gas to any point of destination to which
such a person requires such oil, gas or product, thereof, for any purpose connected with
petroleum trade or operations. Such a survey should include the approximate route or
alternative routes proposed, in order to determine the suitability of the land for laying and
construction of the pipeline and ancillary installations. Section 15(1) of the Oil Pipelines
Ordinance (CAP) 145 prohibits the holder of an OPL to enter upon, take possession of or
use any of the following lands unless the occupiers or persons in charge thereof have
given their assent:
a) Any land occupied by a burial ground or cemetery,
b) Any land containing any grave, grotto, and trees or thing held to be sacred
or the object of veneration,
c) Any land under actual cultivation.

1.4.10 Petroleum (Drilling and Production) Regulations (1969)


The Petroleum (Drilling and Production) Regulations (1969), empowers the holder of an
OPL to do practically anything in the area covered by the license {Section 15 (1)}, but
Section 15(2) holds such a holder responsible for all the actions of his agents and

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 4 of 11


CHAPTER 1 Introduction

contractors. Section 21 - 24 address the issues of licensee interfering with protected and
productive trees, venerated objects, fishing rights and safety of navigation while Section
25 requires the licensee to ''adopt'' all practicable precautions, including provision of up-
to date technology approved by Director of Petroleum Resources, "to prevent the
pollution of inland waters, rivers, creeks, the territorial waters of Nigeria or the high seas
by oil, mud or other fluids or substances which might cause, harm or destruction to
freshwater marine life, and where such pollution occurs or has occurred, shall take
control and, if possible, end it...". Where the licensee is not able, for whatever reason, to
comply with the provisions of sections 21-24 of these regulations, he shall pay adequate
compensation of the contravention to those concerned.

In section 44, the licensee is required to comply with all existing safety regulations and
all such instructions as may from time to time be given in writing by the Director of
Petroleum Resources for securing the health and safety of persons engaged on or in
connection with operations under his license or lease. An offshoot of this Act was the
Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria
(EGASPIN) published by the Department of Petroleum Resources in 1992, which was
revised in 2002. The DPR Environmental Guidelines and Standards of 1992 stipulated in
Part VIII (A), the manner of preparing EIA for Exploration and Production operations. The
content of detailed EIA Report is outlined in Section 5 of Part VIII (A) of the guidelines.

1.4.11 Forestry Law CAP 51, 1994


The Forestry Act 1958 of Eastern Nigeria which was amended as the Forestry Law CAP
51, (1994) prohibits any act that may lead to the destruction of or cause injury to any
forest produce, forest growth or forestry property in Nigeria. The law prescribes the
administrative framework for the management, utilization and protection of forestry
resources in Nigeria, which is applicable to the mangrove, and other forests of the Niger
Delta.

1.4.12 Land Use Act of 1978


The land-use Act of 1978 states that “… it is also in the public interest that the rights of
all Nigerians to use and enjoy land in Nigeria in sufficient quality … to enable them to
provide for the sustenance of themselves and their families should be assured, protected
and preserved”.

1.4.13 Rivers State Environmental Protection Agency Edict No 2 of 1994

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 5 of 11


CHAPTER 1 Introduction

Although the EIA decree No 86 of 1992 is the substantive law that regulates the sitting of
industrial projects that impinge on environmental elements in Nigeria, with part of the
project in Rivers State, this edict has a role to play in the overall EIA process as a matter
of law. The Edict setting up the Rivers State Environmental Protection Agency (RSEPA)
captioned as Edict No 2 of 1994 outlines the primary responsibilities of the agency,
which is to protect and develop the general environment of Rivers State.

1.4.14 National Inland Waterways Authority Act No 13 of 1997


This Act established the National Inland Waterways Authority with a view to improving
and developing inland waterways for navigation, providing an alternative mode of
transportation for the evacuation of economic goods and persons, executing the
objectives of the national transport policy as they concern inland waterways. The Act
also prescribes regulations and sanctions on the use and exploitation of resources of
inland waterways such as dredging, sand or gravel, mining and erection of permanent
structures within the right-of-way or diversion of water from a declared waterway.

1.4.15 International Laws and Regulations


Nigeria is signatory to several laws, treaties and conventions that govern the
environment.
Among these are:
(i) Convention on the Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention)

(ii) Convention of Biological Diversity

(iii) Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and National
Heritage Sites (World Heritage Convention) and

(iv) Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of


Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.

(v) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992).

(vi) United Nations Law of the Sea Convention.

Other international environmental guidelines

(i) World Bank Guidelines on Environmental Assessment {EA} (1991)

(ii) International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources


(IUCN) Guidelines

1.4.15.1 Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals


(Bonn Convention)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 6 of 11


CHAPTER 1 Introduction

The Bonn Convention concerns the promotion of measures for the conservation
(including habitat conservation especially for endangered species listed in Bonn’s
Appendix 1) and management of migratory species.

1.4.15.2 Convention on Biological Diversity


The objectives of the Convention include the conservation of biological diversity, the
sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising
out of the utilisation of genetic resources.

1.4.15.3 Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural
Heritage Sites (or World Heritage Convention)

The convention sets aside areas of cultural and natural heritage for protection. The latter
is defined as areas with outstanding universal value from the aesthetic, scientific and
conservation points of view.

1.4.15.4 Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of


Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

The convention focuses attention on the hazards of the generation and disposal of
hazardous wastes. The convention defines the wastes to be regulated and control their
trans-boundary movement to protect human and environmental health against their
adverse effects.

1.4.15.5 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992)


In order to achieve sustainable social and economic development, energy consumption
for developing countries needs to grow taking into account the possibilities for achieving
greater energy efficiency and for controlling greenhouse gas emissions in general. This
also includes the application of new technologies on terms which make such an
application economically and socially beneficial, determined to protect the climate
system for present and future generations.

1.4.15.6 World Bank Guidelines on Environmental Assessment {EA} (1991)


The World Bank requires the execution of an EIA on a proposed industrial activity by a
borrower as a pre-requisite for granting any financial assistance in form of loans. Details
of World Bank’s EIA procedures and guidelines are published in the Bank’s EA Source

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 7 of 11


CHAPTER 1 Introduction

Book vols. I -III of 1991. Potential issues considered for EA in the upstream oil and gas
industry include the following:
• Biological Diversity
• Coastal and Marine Resources Management
• Cultural Properties
• Hazardous and Toxic Materials and
• International waterways.

1.4.15.7 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources


(IUCN) Guidelines

The IUCN in conjunction with the Oil Industry International Exploration and production.
Forum presented a set of guidelines for oil and gas exploration and production in
mangrove areas. These guidelines are aimed at conservation of mangroves and
enhancing the protection of marine ecosystems during E & P activities. The document
also discusses the policy and principles for environmental management in mangrove
areas as well as EIA procedures, Environmental Audit and Monitoring.

1.4.16 SPDC’s Community Affairs, Safety, Health, Environment and Security


{CASHES} Policy

SPDC operates under the guidelines of Shell International and complies strictly with
them. Where national standards and regulations are more stringent than Shell
guidelines, SPDC’s policy is to comply with the existing national legislation. It is SPDC's
policy that all activities are planned and executed in a manner that:

• Preserves the health, safety and security of its employees, the employees of
SPDC contractors, and all members of the public who may be affected by
SPDC operation.

• Minimizes the impact of its operations on the environment.

• Is sensitive to the needs and concerns of SPDC’s host communities.

1.4.17 SPDC’s Environmental Assessment Policy


It is SPDC’s policy to:
• Carry out Environmental Impact Assessments and Evaluation in relation to all
aspects of the natural and social environment that may affect or be affected
by its activities;

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 8 of 11


CHAPTER 1 Introduction

• Identify any such interface for the complete life cycle of both new and existing
facilities and operations;

• Enhance positive effects, prevent intolerable impacts from occurring;

• Limit the nature and extent of any residual negative impacts, however
caused, such that they are as low as practicable;

• Consult relevant stakeholders;

• Leave the environment at the end of the useful life of any operation in a
condition suitable for future use;

• Routinely monitor the environmental status of each operation and take


corrective action as necessary.

1.4.18 SPDC’s Waste Management Policy


It is the policy of SPDC to:
• Take all practical and reasonable measures to minimize the generation of
solid and liquid wastes, as well as emissions from flares and otherwise;

• Not use mineral oil-based mud in drilling;

• Manage and dispose of wastes in an environmentally responsible manner;

• Track and maintain records of waste streams and provide an auditable trail as
to their management and disposal.

1.5 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT


The EIA report is divided into eight chapters as follows:
Chapter 1 presents the legal and administrative framework,
Chapter 2 discusses the project objectives and design considerations.
Chapter 3 describes the existing environment.
Chapter 4 highlights the predicted impacts of proposed project,
Chapter 5 presents the Mitigation of Impacts.
Chapter 6 provides the Environmental Management Plan,
Chapter 7 consultation, and
Chapter 8 the conclusion and recommendations.

1.6 TERMS OF REFERENCE


The EIA will establish the environmental issues associated with the project, predict their
impacts and magnitudes; suggest and evaluate project alternatives with regard to cost
effectiveness and environmental friendliness and recommend mitigation measures.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 9 of 11


CHAPTER 1 Introduction

The Terms of reference for this EIA are based on standard EIA requirements and
stakeholder engagement (community representatives, Federal Ministry of Environment
(FMENV), Rivers State Ministry of Environment (RSMENV) and Department of
Petroleum Resources (DPR).

The summary of the scope of the EIA as contained in the Terms of Reference (TOR) is
as follows;
EIA Scope
• Baseline Data Collection
o Literature review.
o Site visits.
o Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) to update information on socio-
economics and health status.
• Questionnaire administration (semi-structured).
• Assessment and Prediction of Potential Impacts.
• Determination of Appropriate Mitigation Measures.
• Environmental Management Plan.

The detailed scope of the baseline data is as follows:

Biophysical
• Climate and meteorology.
• Air quality and noise.
• Vegetation.
• Land use/cover.
• Wildlife.
• Geology and hydrogeology.
• Soil/sediment quality.
• Aquatic studies.
• Groundwater quality.
• Hydrobiology and fisheries.

Social
• Demography,
• Social conditions of communities,

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 10 of 11


CHAPTER 1 Introduction

• Socio-economic condition of the communities,


• Socio-political structure/organisation, political/dispute resolution institutions
and mechanisms,
• Archaeological and historical data,
• Social structure/trends and social groups,
• Social facilities,
• Social needs of the communities and
• Community perceptions/view/opinions/benefits of the projects.

Health
• Socio-economics/vital health statistics.
• Individual/family/community health determinant.
• Environmental health determinants.
• Institutional health determinants.
• Knowledge, attitudes and practices.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 11 of 11


CHAPTER TWO
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

2.0 INTRODUCTION
The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC), on behalf of the
Joint Venture Partners (Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Nigerian Agip Oil
Company, and TotalFinaElf), intends to embark on a river crossing pipeline replacement
project of the 14” Okordia – Rumuekpe Pipeline at the Sombriero River Crossing, in
order to comply with the statutory 5-yearly pipeline inspection requirement. The
proposed project will involve the replacement of 44 m Sombriero River Crossing faulty
section of the 14” x 33.4 km Okordia – Rumuekpe Pipeline.

2.1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION


2.1.1 Nature of Project
The proposed project involves the replacement of the 44 m Sombriero River crossing
section of the 14” x 33.4 km Okordia – Rumuekpe Pipeline. This exercise will involve the
replacement of the faulty pipeline section with a new section.

2.1.2 Project Justification


The 14” Okordia – Rumuekpe Trunkline has a design life of minimum 25 years. During
the design process, the basic assumption is that worse case scenarios will apply and
that the pipeline will be subjected to the worse possible environmental and degradation
factors. However, in reality, most of these factors do not come into play and conscious
efforts are made to reduce the rate of corrosion to the barest minimum by periodic
routine pigging, chemical injection, cathodic protection, coating and potential surveys,
etc. In addition, the remaining life of the pipeline (indicated by the corrosion rate and wall
thickness at any point in time) is reviewed during the statutory 5-yearly intelligent
pigging. Hence, although the 14” Okordia-Rumuekpe Trunkline is up to 25 years,
assessments show that it has the capacity to outlive the fields it currently evacuates.

SPDC Pipeline Operating Procedure includes routine bi-monthly cleaning to remove


debris and a 5-yearly DPR statutory requirement for internal inspection to monitor
pipeline wall losses and integrity. Such internal inspections or intelligent pigging (IP) of
pipelines, where they turn up areas of wall losses, indicate the need for quick
intervention strategies and remedial actions to be embarked upon before failure occurs
which could result in environmental degradation. However, prior to pipeline cleaning

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 1 of 11


CHAPTER 2 Project Description

(pigging), pre-IP runs are required to get the pipeline ready for the statutory 5-yearly IP
inspection. Previous pre-IP cleaning of this pipeline resulted in pigs getting stuck leading
to production deferments and costly operations to retrieve the pigs so as to restore the
pipeline transport capability. An analysis of the retrieved pig and the pipeline profile
shows a very steep gradient at the Sombriero River crossing, which could have
contributed to the difficulties in cleaning this pipeline. It has been resolved therefore that
the river crossing section at the Sombriero crossing be replaced with a less steep
gradient for improved sweep of debris through the crossing point during pigging
operations

2.1.3 Envisaged Sustainability


SPDC has operated various oil fields within her Eastern and Western Divisions in the last
30 years with crude oil as the main output. It is SPDC’s aim to grow her oil output from
about 1 million to 1.5 million barrels per day from 2006. The Adibawa and Ubie
flowstations are currently producing an average of 12,800 barrels of oil per day, through
Okordia – Rumuekpe pipeline. The latest forecast shows that this level of production will
be sustained till year 2011. The integrity of the transportation facilities must be ensured
to adequately evacuate this level of production.

2.1.3.1 Environmental Sustainability


The replacement of this river crossing section will allow for the re-commencement of the
bi-monthly cleaning runs and the 5-yearly inspection, thus assuring the integrity of the
line and reducing the risks associated with failure with adverse environmental
consequences. In addition, the Corporate Pipeline team of SPDC is ISO-14001
compliant and all environmental aspects will be managed in line with the aspirations of
this globally acclaimed international standard.

2.1.4 Project Alternatives


The Mineral Oil (Safety) Regulations Act of 1977, Section 43.4 requires that all
hydrocarbon-carrying pipelines must be internally inspected every five years in order to
ascertain their integrity. This statutory requirement has not been complied with, due to
the inability to carry out the pre-inspection pigging runs. There is no alternative to
carrying out the project since there is no other pipeline through which the production
from Adibawa and Ubie’s fields can be evacuated.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 2 of 11


CHAPTER 2 Project Description

2.1.5 Project Location


The project is located in Ahoada-East Local Government Area (AHOLGA) of Rivers
State (OML 22) within the Niger Delta (Fig. 2.0). The proposed pipeline replacement
section lies within the boundary co-ordinates, Eastings 467296.30 and 467387.82, and
Northings 1103290.89 and 110287.85. (Fig. 2.1).

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 3 of 11


CHAPTER 2 Project Description

Fig. 2.1: Location Map of the Proposed Okordia – Rumuekpe River Crossing
Pipeline Replacement Project

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 4 of 11


CHAPTER 2 Project Description

2.2 PROJECT ACTIVITIES


Construction/Replacement equipment shall include but not limited to the following:
• Side booms,
• Land excavators,
• Cranes,
• Centrifugal pumps – for line flushing/trench evacuation,
• Reciprocating pumps – for pressure testing,
• Trucks,
• Buses,
• Clam shell (Bucket) dredger,
• Welding Machines.

Movement of the 14” diameter line pipes and other construction equipment to site will be
by trucks from the Contractor’s Storage/transport facility. Movement of personnel (~25
persons) will be via a combination of trucks and buses to the site. Transportation of the
coated pipes shall be in accordance with 1API RP 5LW (recommended practice for
transportation of line-pipes). All racks, lifting and handling equipment shall be kept in
good condition, so as to prevent injury to the coating. The use of tongs, bare pinch bars,
chain slings, pipe hook without proper padding, ropes, chains or wire cables or any such
other handling equipment shall not be permitted.

Activities to be undertaken during the course of this project will include:


• Land-take for laydown area (for construction equipment);
• Site Preparation;
• Excavation and Trenching;
• Site Construction (Welding and Non-Destructive Testing [Radiography]);
• Pressure Testing of the new river crossing section;
• Flushing of the existing pipeline;
• Pulling in (laying) and Tie-in of new river crossing section;
• Commissioning of the new pipeline section;
• Backfilling;
• Decommissioning of the replaced river crossing section;
• Operations/Maintenance;

1
API RP 5LW – A recommended practice issued by the American Petroleum Institute for
transportation of line pipes. API is one of the international standards used in Oil and Gas industry
worldwide.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 5 of 11


CHAPTER 2 Project Description

2.2.1 Pipeline Routes


Of the 44 m to be replaced, about 30 m lies within the river crossing section, while the
tie-in points to the existing line extend to +7 m inland on both banks of the river (Fig. 2.2).
Table 2.0 provides information on the distribution of the proposed river crossing
replacement sections.

IHUOWO UP- RIVER IHUOWO


STREAM TIE-IN CROSSING DOWNSTREAM
POINT SECTION TIE-IN POINT

Ground
+7m 30 m +7m level

Pipeline
Profile

SOMBRIERO RIVER

Figure 2.2 Schematic Showing Pipeline Replacements

Table 2.0 Okordia - Rumuekpe River Crossing Section to be Replaced


Pipeline Section Distance (m)
River Sombriero Crossing 30
Ihuowo upstream tie-in point 7
Ihuowo downstream tie-in point 7
Total 44

2.2.2 Pipeline Construction


Pipeline construction methods differ depending on the geographical area, terrain,
environment and third party presence. In all cases, the construction of a pipeline should
comply with codes and standards imposed by the law and standards organizations. The
design for the proposed river crossing pipeline replacement shall be in accordance with
the most stringent of either the Shell Standard Construction Specifications, the American
Petroleum Institute Standards, or the Regulations of the Department of Petroleum
Resources. The applicable pipeline parameters are as follows:
Pipeline Grade - API 5L

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 6 of 11


CHAPTER 2 Project Description

Nominal Diameter - 14”


Wall thickness - 0.438” (Schedule 40)
Max. Flow Rate - 2 m/s
Design Pressure - 65 bar
Maximum Operating Pressure - 60 bar
Design Temperature - 42 oC
Corrosion Allowance - 3 mm

Land-take
There shall be no route survey of the pipeline since the proposed pipeline replacement
section is on an existing Right-of-Way (ROW). The existing 15 m corridor (width) of the
ROW should be adequate as laydown area for the pipeline replacement construction
equipment. In the event that this is not adequate, an additional 80 m2 land on any side of
the river may be acquired as part of the temporary laydown area for construction
equipment.

2.2.3 Site Preparation


A total area of approximately 800 m2 would be required for laydown of construction
equipment and shall be manually cleared of any grown vegetation. This will comprise
720 m2 on the existing ROW and the anticipated 80 m2 of additional laydown area for
construction equipment. The clearing activity will be carried out by community members
(approximately 10 persons). The vegetation cuttings shall be left in the field and allowed
to decompose.

2.2.4 Excavation and Trenching


The trenching in the Sombriero River shall be carried out using a bucket dredger. The
generated spoil from the bottom of the river, which usually possesses high
compactability and cohesive strength, shall be temporarily deposited on the ROW on
either side of the bank and eventually would be used to backfill the trench. The trench
shall have a maximum width of 3 m and a minimum depth of 1 m.

The excavation on the land sections shall be carried out with an excavator. The
excavated section shall be manually freed of roots, stones, or other hard objects that
may damage the pipe or its coatings. The maximum width of the excavated section shall
be 3 m with a minimum depth of 1 m.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 7 of 11


CHAPTER 2 Project Description

2.2.5 Construction work at site (Welding), Non-Destructive Testing [Radiography]

The stringing and welding of the pipelines shall be done on the ROW. Visual inspection
and 100% radiography (non-destructive testing) of the welds shall be done as the
welding progresses. Weld repairs shall be carried out where necessary, prior to pipeline
pressure testing.

In accordance with SPDC’s Standard Construction Specifications - Volume 2, Section


25, and other relevant regulatory and government standards, the pipeline in the river
crossing shall have a yard-applied concrete coating over the corrosion coating. The
integrity of the line shall be guaranteed by the installation of pipes of sufficient thickness
taking into consideration commercial activities in the vicinity of the pipeline. The pipeline
material specification shall comply with the American Petroleum Industry (API) standard
(API-5L-X52) which is specific to carbon steel pipelines with a specified strength of
52,000 psi. The design wall thickness for the crossing (from calculations) is 0.375” which
is far less than the 0.438” (Schedule 40) wall thickness of the SPDC specified linepipe to
be used for this river crossing. Thus, this increase in thickness will ensure stability of the
pipe as well as serve as corrosion allowance elongating the service life of the replaced
section. This shall be complemented by the provision of a functional pipeline protection
system consisting of the application of a three layer polyethylene corrosion coating and
concrete weight coating to ensure that the pipeline stays buried in the riverbed.

2.2.6 Pressure Testing of the New Pipeline Section


The proposed pipeline replacement spool shall be pressure-tested to 1650 psig for 24
hours to determine the integrity of the weld joints. The pressure testing shall be carried
out using water from the Sombriero River.

2.2.7 Flushing of Existing Pipeline


The existing Adibawa and Ubie production wells shall be shut-in to allow for the de-oiling
(flushing) of the entire length of the 14” Okordia – Rumuekpe pipeline. The entire 33.4
km pipeline shall be de-oiled before isolation at the Rumuekpe manifold to prevent
backflow of crude oil to the work site. To de-oil the existing pipeline, two foam pigs
separated by 100 m of water column shall be launched to clean the pipeline from
Okordia to Rumuekpe manifolds. The water used for flushing the pipeline will be
displaced to Bonny Terminal for treatment and subsequent disposal.

2.2.8 Pulling-in (Laying) and Tie-in

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 8 of 11


CHAPTER 2 Project Description

The installation of the newly constructed river crossing pipeline section (44 m) shall be
by surface pull technique using a crane. The pipe shall be pulled from the ROW and
carefully lowered into the trench such that it lies naturally along its entire length on the
bottom of the trench. Close observation of the lowered pipe shall be maintained to
ensure that the pipeline profile is as designed. The new section shall be tied-in (welded)
to the existing pipeline at both banks of the river (~ 7 m away from the river bank). All
field welds shall be coated using heat-shrinkable sleeves.

2.2.9 Backfilling
After the pipe has been inspected to confirm that it has been laid to the correct profile,
the pipeline trench will be backfilled using the previously excavated materials. Backfilling
on land shall be done manually, while the bucket dredger would be used for the river
trench.

2.2.10 Decommissioning and Abandonment of Replaced Pipeline Section


The replaced river crossing section (44 m), extending to about 7 m on both sides of the
river bank shall be recovered, cut into 12 m spools and transported to SPDC Kidney
Island scrap yard for re-cycling.

2.2.11 Commissioning of the New Pipeline Section


The shut-in Adibawa and Ubie production wells shall be re-opened and routed into the
pipeline. The trapped air and water in the pipeline shall be displaced using a foam pig
and crude oil from both flowstations. The construction equipment and personnel shall be
demobilized from site 24 hours after attaining normal operating pressure of about 40 bar.

2.2.12 Waste Generation and Management


It is anticipated that some form of waste would be generated during the sectional
replacement of the pipeline. The strategy for waste management will include:
• Waste segregation at source
• Waste reduction
• Waste recycling
• Waste reuse
• Treatment of toxic and hazardous wastes to make them innocuous before
disposal.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 9 of 11


CHAPTER 2 Project Description

The types of wastes generated during the construction activities shall be classified as:
solid wastes, liquid wastes, and gaseous wastes.

The solid wastes will include: excavated pipe, dredge spoil, food waste, papers, rags,
empty cans and bottles, pipe off-cuts, coating tapes, electrode butts and general
garbage. Liquid wastes will include: sewage, spent chemicals (adhesives, lubricants,
grease, detergent solutions etc). The gaseous waste will include dust particles and
smoke from heavy construction machinery. All these categories of wastes shall be
managed according to SPDC Waste Management (Appendix 2.1) and FEPA Guidelines.

2.2.13 Operations/Maintenance
After commissioning, the pipeline shall be hooked on to the cathodic protection system
for external corrosion protection. It shall also be placed on the SPDC bi-monthly routine
pigging for internal cleaning and debris removal. The five-yearly statutory internal
inspection by intelligent pigs for integrity checks shall be carried out. The pipeline will be
placed on the SPDC six-monthly cathodic protection and coating integrity survey
programme. The ROW shall be manually cleared of vegetation for maintenance and
emergency response purposes, as and when necessary.

2.3 PROJECT SCHEDULE


The SPDC Integrated Activity Planning (IAP) makes provision for planned production
deferments every year. The deferments are tied to shut down windows during which all
rehabilitation works that could lead to deferment are executed. The shut down window
for this river crossing replacement work is tentatively fixed for March 2006. Based on
this, the schedule below has been developed for the project. The proposed pipeline
sectional replacement will be completed within two months. Project mobilisation is
scheduled for February 2006.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 10 of 11


CHAPTER 2 Project Description
S/N WORK DESCRIPTION Q2, 2005 Q3, 2005 Q4, 2005 Q1, 2006 Q2, 2006 Q3, 2006 Q4, 2006 Q1, 2007 Q2, 2007
Procurement of
line pipes and
1 fittings/ coating
ESHIA study and
reporting/ FMENV
2 approval
Community
3 Engagement
Obtain permit
4 from NIWA
Mobilization for
5 site works
Site construction
6 works
Commissioning/
7 Demobilization
Figure 2.3 Project Schedule for the Proposed River Crossing Replacement

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 11 of 11


CHAPTER THREE

DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

3.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT


3.1 INTRODUCTION
Baseline data provide information on the present status of the environment, thus
establishing the condition of the various environmental (biophysical, social and health)
components that are likely to be affected by the proposed project.

The environmental baseline data in this report was culled from the following studies and
publications:
• Environmental Impact Assessment of the 20’’ X 37km Kolo Creek –
Rumuekpe Trunkline Replacement Project, Oct 2004

• Environmental Impact Assessment of the Gbaran/Ubie Integrated Oil and Gas


Project (IOGP), December 2004.

• Environmental Baseline Report (Wet Season) for the Ubie Node IOGP EIA,
December 2004.

• Impact Assessment Study, Rumuekpe – Bomu, April 1993


• Local Government Yearbook, 1998 Edition.
• National Extract of Statistics, 2000 Edition.
• National Population Commission, Final Results, Rivers State,1991.
• General Household Survey Report, Rivers State, 1994.

3.2 BASELINE DATA ACQUISITION METHODS


The methodologies used in acquiring the baseline data for the referenced reports, are
provided in Table 3.1. Additional information was also acquired via expert observation
and ground-truthing of some biophysical, social and health parameters during site visits
to the proposed project location.

The physico-chemical parameters measured and the analytical test methods employed
are summarised in Table 3.2.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 1 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.1 Environmental Components and Associated Methodologies


Environmental Components Methods*
Meteorology Literature Survey, Field Studies with Rain Gauge, Thermograph, Wind
Vane.
Air Quality Electronic Air Quality Monitor, High Volume Sampler.

Noise Noise Meter.

Vegetation Reconnaissance Survey and Ground-truthing, Transects, Quadrats,


Key Informant Interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGD),
Questionnaires and Direct Observations. A description of the
vegetation included overview of vegetation in the general area and
more specific description of the situation around the project location at
the Sombreiro River crossing. This is based on transect lines
extending to 1 km. on both sides of the proposed point of pipeline
crossing.
Land Use/Cover Observations, Interviews and Sample Collections. Environmental
Baseline Survey (EBS) by Remote Sensing (Satellite Imagery
Interpretation), Direct Physical Observations.
Fauna (Wildlife) Direct observations, Key Informant Interviews, FGD.
Terrestrial invertebrates,
Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds,
Mammals
Hydrogeology and Boreholes and Geophysical Measurements, Vertical Electrical
Geotechnics Sounding (VES).

Surface water/ Hydrodynamics Observations, Water Sampler, Current Meter, Secchi Disc,
pH Meter, DO Meter, Sediment Grab, TDS Meter, Turbidimeter and
Conductivity Meter.

Soil Quality Soil Sampling with an auger, and description of each sample with
British colour chart.

Microbiology Water Sampling with Hydrobios water sampler into sterile McCartney
bottles; Soil sampling with soil auger into aluminium foil; Sediments
sampling with van Veen grab sampler into aluminium foil.

Aquatic Studies
Sediment (Benthos) Collection with Van Veen grab
Phytoplankton Collection with plankton net
Zooplankton Collection with plankton net
Fisheries Observation, Collection, Interviews and Laboratory Analyses.
Social Status Reconnaissance Survey and Ground-truthing, Key Informant
Interviews, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Direct Observation,
Administration of Structured Questionnaires and Literature Review.

Health Status Key Informant Interviews, FGD, Administration of Structured


Questionnaire and Interviews, Physical Examination of volunteers,
Walk-through Survey and Literature Review.

Waste Management Physical Examination, Inventorisation and Walk-through Survey.


*Details of methodologies are presented in Appendix 3.1

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 2 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.2 Analytical Test Methods for Physico-Chemical Parameters

Parameters Analytical Methods


pH Corning pH meter
Temperature (OC) Mercury Thermometer
Turbidity (NTU) Turbidimeter
TDS (mg/L) Gravimetric method
TSS (mg/L) Gravimetric method
DO (mg/L) Alkali-iodide-azide method
BOD5 (mg/L) Five-day BOD
COD (mg/L) Reflux Dichromate method
Oil and grease content (mg/L) Xylene extraction followed by
spectrophotometry.
Salinity (Cl-) mg/L) Salinometer
Ammonia (NH4+) Nesslerization method
Conductivity (uS/cm) Conductivity meter
Anions
Nitrate (mg/L) Phenoldisulphonic acid method
Sulphate (mg/L) Turbidimetric method
Phosphate (mg/L) Ascorbic acid method
Nitrite (mg/L) Colorimetric method
Metals
Sodium (mg/L) Flame photometric method
Potassium (mg/L) Flame photometric method
Calcium (mg/L) Titration with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid
(EDTA) method
Magnesium (mg/L) Titration with EDTA method
Heavy Metals
Lead (mg/L) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS)
Cadmium (mg/L) AAS
Zinc (mg/L) AAS
Copper (mg/L) AAS
Chromium (mg/L) AAS
Mercury (mg/L) AAS
Manganese (mg/L) AAS
Total Iron (mg/L) AAS
Others
Phenolic Compounds (mg/L) Colorimetric method
TOC (mg/L) Potassium dichromate digestion followed by
ferrous ammonium sulphate titration
Cyanide (mg/L) Colorimetric method

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 3 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Fig. 3.1: Sampling Locations for the Okordia – Rumuekpe Study Area

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 4 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Plate 3.1: View of Pipeline ROW at Ihuowo

3.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Data used for the description of environmental baseline conditions as presented in this
report were obtained from recent studies on SPDC facilities within the general area of
the proposed project. In particular, the baseline reports for the Gbaran Ubie IOGP and
the Kolo Creek – Rumuekpe Trunkline Replacement Project included the present project
location and other closely similar freshwater ecosystems in the Niger Delta. They could
therefore be relied upon for a description of biophysical, health and social environments
of the present location. Specific data that were extracted from these documents were
those that included the immediate communities of the proposed project location as well
as those that had similar fresh water forest ecosystems. Additional socioeconomic and
health data were sourced from previous publications such as the Local Government
Yearbook, the National Extract of Statistics, the National census results for Rivers state
and the General Household Survey Report for Rivers state of the Federal Office of
Statistics. Further insight into the health situation in the study location was obtained from

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 5 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

examination of the health records of the NYSC Community Health Centre at Ihuowo and
interviews with the resident NYSC health personnel of the centre.

3.3.1 Biophysical Environment

3.3.1.1 Climate and Meteorology


The project location lies within the humid tropical belt of the Niger-Delta the characteristic
climatic features of which are influenced by the following factors:
a) The seasonality of the wind directions which control the motion of the two
dominant air masses. The Tropical Continental air mass from across the Sahara
is dry while the Humid Tropical Maritime from the Atlantic Ocean in the south is
moist. They are separated by the Inter-Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) zone which
oscillates seasonally depending on the apparent movement of the sun. These
determine the commencement of the dry and wet seasons respectively.

b) Location within the tropical latitudes and the apparent movement of the sun which
determine ambient temperatures in the region

c) The relative stability of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over the area
which controls the duration of the seasons [Federal Department of Meteorology,
Oshodi, Lagos – (Now Nigerian Meteorology Agency - NIMET)]

The major climatic/meteorological conditions considered in this report were rainfall,


relative humidity, temperature and wind pattern, details of which are provided in the
following sections

3.3.1.2 Rainfall
The mean annual rainfall in the region is high (above of 2200M) mainly due to the
moisture-bearing southwest trade winds blowing from the Atlantic Ocean. The rain falls
throughout the year peaks in June and September and lower amounts from November to
February (Fig. 3.2). Two seasons namely, wet and dry, characterize the area: the wet
season which extends from April to October and the dry season from November to
March.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 6 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

800

700

600
Rainfall, mm

500

400

300

200

100

0
Jan. Feb. March. April. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Months
Fig. 3.2: Rainfall Distribution in the Project Area
(Source: Federal Department of Meteorological Services, Oshodi, Lagos).

3.3.1.3 Relative Humidity (RH)


The annual pattern of relative humidity correlates with that of rainfall as described above.
High values (over 95%) are typical of the rainy season. In the dry season, relative
humidity drops to between 86.5 to 92.0%. The pattern of diurnal changes in relative
humidity is outlined in Fig. 3.3, which shows that it is generally high and stable (80-90%)
in the mornings up to about 08.00hr dropping to 60-70% between 13.00-14.00hrs.

100

90

80
R elat ive humidit y( % )

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

T ime ( h)

Fig. 3.3: Diurnal Pattern of Relative Humidity in the Project Area


(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 7 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.1.4 Temperature
The generally high temperatures of the area are typical of its tropical location. Air
temperatures range from 24.5 - 29.00C in the rainy season increasing to between 33.0
and 34oC in the dry season. Diurnal changes in air temperatures of the area are depicted
in Fig. 3.4 which shows fairly stable temperatures (24.5 – 280C) between 2100 and 0800
hrs increasing to (29 – 320C) between the hours of 0900 and 1700 hours.

40
Temperature

30

20

10

0
1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

Time

Maximum Temp. Minimum Temp. Mean Temp.

Fig. 3.4: Diurnal Ambient Temperature Pattern in Project Area


(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

3.3.1.5 Wind
Southwesterly winds prevail during the rainy season in the general area ranging in speed
from 0.3 - 3.2 m/s around Ahoada. In the dry season, the predominant winds may attain
moderate speeds of between 3.4-5.4 m/s. Calm periods prevail for about 41.7% of the
time (Fig. 3.5)

Wind directions in the rainy season in the area are mainly Westerly (W), South Westerly
(SW), North Westerly (NW) and Southerly (S). In the dry season, they are more of
Southwesterly (SW), followed by Westerly (W), Northwesterly (NW) and Southeasterly
(SE) directions.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 8 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

41.70

Percentage of Calm = 41.70%

3 5
1 Wind
2 Speed
4

Fig. 3.5: Wind Distribution Pattern (Rose) for Proposed Project Area (Dry Season)
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 9 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.1.6 Air Quality


Ambient air quality parameters taken during both dry and rainy seasons from a station
around Ahoada (Table 3.3) show that SPM, NO2, SO2, HC, CO are well within the
permissible limits of the FMENV. Ammonia was not detectable in the ambient air of the
area. It can be concluded that the project area is still fairly pristine in terms of air
pollutants.

Table 3.3: Ambient Air Quality of the Project Area/Location


STATION Ambient Air Parameter (µg/m3)

SPM NO2 SO2 H/C H2S CO NH3


R D R D R D R D R D R D R D
Ahoada 10.0 18.9 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 2.8 4.6 0.1 0.1 2.5 2.9 ND ND
Control 10.5 15.5 0.1 0.1 ND 0.1 2.1 2.5 ND ND 1.2 2.1 ND ND

FMENV 600 75-113 260 160 11.2


Note, ND = Not detected, detection limit = 0.001; R =Rainy season, D = Dry season
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

3.3.1.6.1 Gases
The low concentration of ammonia and carbon monoxide further highlight the pristine
nature of the area in terms of atmospheric pollutants. The high solubility of these gases
in water and the heavy precipitation over much of the year contribute to the effective
dispersal of whatever CO is generated from flares and fossil fuel combustion.

3.3.1.7 Noise Level


The background noise levels measured in several locations within the general project
area for both seasons are shown in Table 3.4 against the background of regulatory limits
of FMENV. Measured noise levels are well below the FMENV limits of 90 dB (A) for 8
hrs continuous exposure except for measurements taken in the proximity of a palm
kernel deshelling plant at Idu-Ekpeye. Ahoada being an urban location has higher noise
level values than the remote rural setting of proposed project location where the major
source of noise is the operation of chain saws by loggers in the area.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 10 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.4: Noise Level Measurements around Proposed Project Area

Stations Noise Level Mean dB(A)


Rainy Season Dry Season
Abua 52 54
Ahoada 51 53
Idu-Ekpeye 100* 55
Control 53 55
Rumuekpe 48 58
FMEnv Limits 90 dB(A)
Values obtained at a palm kernel de-shelling plant.
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003; B/S EIA Kolo Creek-Rumuekpe
Trunkline Project, SPDC, 2004)

3.3.1.8 Vegetation Types/Distribution


The vegetation types of the area include freshwater swamp/riparian forest, lowland forest
(mixed tropical rain forest), bush fallow vegetation, typical pipeline vegetation and
farmlands/plantations. They are described in terms of their floristic composition,
structure/physiognomy, and pathological manifestations. A checklist of plant species
which occur in the general area their life forms and relative economic importance are
presented in Table 3.5

3.3.1.8.1 Freshwater Swamp/Riparian Vegetation


Fringing the banks of the river on both sides is the typical freshwater swamp forest
/riparian vegetation (Plates 3.2, 3.3). This forest ecotype usually occurs where the
influence of fresh water river systems is noticeable. In the vicinity of the proposed
pipeline crossing, the forest shows signs of massive human interference evidenced in
the disturbed nature and open canopy. The forest is secondary in nature which is not
surprising given the considerable exploitation which is evident in this location

Table 3.5: Checklist of Plant Species around the Project Area


Species Common Name Life Form Economic Importance
Acacia sp S
Acrostichum aureum F
Alchornea cordifolia Christmas bush S M
Allanblanckia floribunda T
Alstonia boonei Stool wood M
Amaranthus hybridus H V
Ananas comosus H Fo
Andropogon gayanus G
Annona muricata T Fo
Anthocleista djalonensis T M
Anthocleista vogelii Cabbage tree T M
Anthostema aubryanum Sapling wood T
Antiaris africana T Tm
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 11 of 84
CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Species Common Name Life Form Economic Importance


Bambusa vulgaris Bamboo T
Baphia nitida T Fo
Bauhinia rufescens T
Berlina grandiflora T
Bidelia ferruginea T M
Breynia nivosa S
Bridelia micrantha T M
Caesalpinia pulcherrima S
Carica papaya Pawpaw T Fo
Casuarina equisetiifolia T
Ceiba pentandra T
Celtis integrifolia T
Citrus aurantifolia Lime T Fo
Citrus sinensis T Fo
Cleistopholis patens T
Clittoria ternantea St
Cnestis ferruginea S M
Cocos nucifera Coconut T Fo
Cola gigantea kola T F0
Cola millenii Cola T
Colocasia esculenta H Fo
Combretum nigricans C
Combretum paniculatum C
Combretum platypterum C
Commelina erecta H
Costus lucanusianus H
Crotolaria retusa H
Cyclosorus striatus F
Cymbopogon citratus H M
Cynodon dactylon G
Dacryodes edulis T F0
Dalbergia sp T
Desmodium retusa H
Dioscorea spp Yam Tw Fo
Diospyros mespiliformis T Tm
Eichhornia crassipes Water hyacinth A
Elaeis guineensis Oil Palm T F0
Eleusine indica H
Ficus exasperata T
Ficus mucoso T
Ficus spp Fig. T
Garcinia kola Orogbo T Fo
Gmelina arborea T
Heliotropium indicum H
Hevea brasiliensis T R
Icacinia sp C
Ipomoea aquatica A
Ipomoea involucrata Sc
Ipomoea pes-caprae A
Irvingia gabonensis Bush mango T F0
Irvingia smithii T
Ixora coccinea S M
Jatropha curcas S
Khaya grandifolio T Tm
Khaya ivorensis T Tm
Kyllinga nemoralis Sedge H

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 12 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Species Common Name Life Form Economic Importance


Lemna weltwischii T T
Lophira alata Iron wood T T
Mangifera indica Mango T Fo
Manihot esculenta Cassava S Fo
Milicia excelsa Iroko T Tm
Mimosa pigra H
Mimosa pudica H
Mitragyna inermis T T
Mitragyna stipulosa Abura Timber T Tm
Musanga cecropioides Umbrella tree T M
Musa parasidiaca Plantain T Fo
Musa sapientum Banana T Fo
Myrianthus arboreus T Fo
Nauclea diderrichii Obeche T Tm
Nauclea latifolia S M
Newbouldia laevis Akoko T M
Nymphaea lotus Water lily A
Panicum maximum Elephant Grass G
Psidium guajava T Fo
Pycnanthus angolensis T M
Raphia hookeri Raffia palm T F0
Rauvolfia vomitoria S M
Ricinodendron heudelotii T
Scripus cubensis G
Senna alata S M
Sida acuta Hornbeam Leaf H
Spondias mombin T Fo
Sporobolus pyramidalis Rat’s tail grass G
Starchytarpheta H
augustifolia
Sterculia sp. T
Symphonia globulifera T
Synedrella nodiflora H
Talinum triangulare H V
Tecoma stans T M
Telfairia occidentalis H V
Terminalia catappa T Fo
Terminalia superba Afara T Tm
Tetracarpidium T Fo
conophorum
Treculia Africana T Fo
Vernonia amygdalina Bitter leaf H V
Voacanga Africana T
Vossia cuspidata A
Key
T Tree Tm Timber G Grass sp Spices
S shrub Tw Twinner C Climber R Rubber
H Herb F Fern A Aquatic M Medicine
macrophytes
Sc Scrambler Fo Food (including fruits,
wine etc)
Sources: Baseline Studies for the Gbaran/Ubie Nodes, SPDC, 2003; Kolo Creek-
Rumuekpe Trunkline Replacement Project, SPDC, 2004)

Floristic composition is fairly diverse and dominated by the raphia palm species, Raphia
hookeri in terms of abundance (Table 3.6). The forest physiognomy shows a
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 13 of 84
CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

characteristic three-layer structure (Fig. 3.6). The emergent layer is approx 28-35m high,
dominated by Alstonia booneii, Piptaderiastrum africanum, Klainedoxa gabonensis. This
canopy is open and discontinuous. The second canopy layer is completely closed and
the close contact of the sclerophyllous leaves of species in this layer make penetration of
light into the ground floor of the forest difficult. Species in this layer are between 15 – 22
m tall and include Cleiostopholis patens, Raphia spp., Anthocleista vogelii, Uapaca
heudelotii, Pandanus sp.; Grasses, (Sporobolus pyramidalis, Cynodon dactylon,
Andropogon gayanus, Panicum maximum) ferns and sedges (Kyllinga nemoralis)
dominate the ground herbaceous layer.

Alstonia boonei

K. gaboensis

Raphia
hookeri
Pandanus sp

Fig. 3.6: Structure of Freshwater Swamp/Riparian Vegetation on Banks of the


Sombreiro at Proposed Pipeline Crossing

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 14 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Plate 3.2: View of Sombreiro Pipeline Crossing at Ihuowo showing Strata of


Freshwater Swamp/Riparian Vegetation (Photo from site visit)

Plate 3.3: Closer View of Swamp Forest Vegetation at Pipeline Crossing on the
Sombreiro River (Note Dense Stands of Raphia) (Photo from site visit)
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 15 of 84
CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.6: Plant Species Composition in Freshwater Swamp Forests of Project


Area
S/No. Botanical name Common Name Frequency of
Occurrence (%)
1 Alchornea cordifolia Christmas bush 2
2 Alstonia boonei Stool wood 3
3 Anthocleista vogelli Cabbage tree 5
4 Anthostema aubryanum 4
5 Ancistrophyllum Rattan palm 8
secundiflorum
6 Cercestis afsellii Bind the drum 5
7 Cyrtospermis senegalense Swamp arum 11
8 Elaeis guineensis Oil palm 4
9 Ficus trichopoda Fig 2
10 Hallea ciliata Abura 9
11 Lophira alata Iron wood 3
12 Nephrolepis biserrata 4
13 Raphia hookeri Wine palm 19
14 Pentadesma butyracea 8
15 Klainedosa gabonensis 1
16 Symphonia globulifera 2
17 Uapaca staudtii 5
18 Homanium spp. 2
19 Pandanus togoensis Screw pine 3
(Source: Baseline Studies for the IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

3.3.1.8.2 Lowland Rainforest (Mixed Tropical Rainforest)


Typical rainforest vegetation occurs in isolated patches in the immediate vicinity of the
pipeline crossing. The emergent canopy, over 40m high, is populated by tall tree species
such as Terminalia superba, Khaya grandifolia, K. ivoriensis, Milicia excelsa, and Antiaris
africana. The next canopy consists of trees that attain heights of up to 30m the most
dominant among which is the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis (Fig. 3.7). Below this is a
shrubby layer of mainly Alchornea cordifolia, Nauclea latifolia and Cnestis ferruginea.

Of importance is the patchy and discontinuous nature of this forest type in the area.
Stages of re-growth and maturity differ at different places along both sides of the
pipeline. Human activity mostly logging and extensive agriculture has greatly depleted
and transformed the initial structure and probably species richness of this vegetation
type in the locality. This is evident in the expanses of farm lands and other intervention
which have been concluded at the expense of the original lowland forest. At the present
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 16 of 84
CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

rate of exploitation tropical rain forest may disappear from the locality with the next two
decades except conscious conservation measures are put in place.

Antiaris africana

Triplochiton scleroxylon

Nauclea diderrichii
Alstonia boonei

Elaeis guineensis
Lophira alata

Manihot esculenta

Dioscorea sp.

Fig 3.7: Structure of Mixed Tropical Rainforest Vegetation around Ihuowo


Community

3.3.1.8.3 Secondary Forest/Farmland/Fallow Mosaic


This is the most dominant vegetation type in the immediate vicinity of the pipeline
crossing arising from the human activities, which has altered the original landscape. It is
therefore open and unstratified with the ground floor covered with herbaceous species.
Shrubs are the dominant woody species (Table 3.7) generally ranging in height from 1-
7m except for scattered emergent tree species like Chlorophora excelsa and Elaeis
guineensis which may attain heights of between 15-25m. The spread of this vegetation
type reflects the increasing demand by the human population for agricultural land under
the prevailing cultural farming practices of shifting cultivation.

3.3.1.8.4 Pipeline Vegetation – Secondary/Re-grown forest vegetation


The vegetation along the Pipeline ROW consists basically of grasses, sedges,
herbaceous annuals and perennials, few shrubs and ferns. These are constantly cut in a
bid to keep the ROW clean. The dominant species include Grasses: Ergagotis ciliaris,
Panicum maximum, Axonopus compresus, Acroceras zizanoides, Pennisetum spp.,
Sporobolus pyramidalis, Cyonodon dactylon, Centhotheca sp., Paspalum orbiculare,
Chrysopogon aciculatus and Eleusine indica; Sedges: Kyllinga nemoralis, Kyllinga
erecta, mariscus alternifolious, Cyperus digitatus, Cyperus dilatatus, Bublbostylis spp.,

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 17 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

and Fimbristylis spp.; Ferns: Diplazium sammantii, Pteridium aquilinum, Selaginella spp.,
and Pityrogramma calomelanus.

Table 3.7: Plant Species Composition and Frequency of Occurrence in Bush


Fallow Vegetation
S/No. Botanical Name Common Name % Frequency of
occurrence
1 Anthocleista vogelii Cabbage tree 3
2 Rauvolfia vomitoria Stool wood 5
3 Baphia nitida Cam wood 15
4 Albizia zygia Albizia 9
5 Sondia mombin Hog palm 2
6 Maesoboryra arborea 1
7 Aspilia africana Haemorrhage plant 23
8 Chromolaena odorata Siam weed 5
9 Elaeis guineensis Oil palm 35
10 Anthonotha macrophyllla 14
11 Imperata cylindrica Spear grass 5
12 Bambusa vulgaris Bamboo 2
13 Pentaclethra macrophylla Oil bean tree 4
(Source: Baseline Studies for the IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

3.3.1.8.5 Vegetation Around the Settlements


Economic tree crops are scattered around the homestead of the Ihuowo community
serving mainly for subsistence and family use. The different economic tree crops include
Cocos nucifera (coconut Palm), Annona muricata (sour sop), Cola acuminata (native
cola), Citrus sinensis (orange), Musa sapientum (Banana), Musa paradisiaca (Plantain),
Dacroydes edulis, Carica papaya (paw-paw), Spondias monbin (Plum), Psidium guajava
(guava), Chrysophyllum albidium, Persia americana, Eugenia spp., Azadirachta indica
(neem)and Hura crepitans. Also such vegetation as Telfaria occidentalis, Pterocarpus
soyauxii and Cucurbita moschata are cultivated.

3.3.1.8.6 Aquatic Macrophytes


Aquatic macrophytes occupy the numerous pools/ponds associated with the Sombriero
River course within 1 km on both sides of the proposed pipeline crossing point (Plate
3.4). The various species are listed in Table 3.8 dominant among which are water lettuce
and water lily which accounted for more than 75% water surface coverage.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 18 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.8: Composition, Habit and Cover of Aquatic Macrophytes


S/No. Scientific Name Common Name Habit % Cover
1. Eichhornia crassipes Water hyacinth Floating 2
2. Pistia stratioites Water lettuce Floating 4
3. Ceratophylum dermesum Swamp potato Creeping 11
4. Dryopteris felix mas Fern Emergent 12
5. Nymphaea lotus Water lily Floating leaves 35
(Source: On-site field Observation)

Plate 3.4: Stagnant Pool near Pipeline Crossing with Floating Aquatic Macrophytes

3.3.1.9 Phytopathology
Disease symptoms and their causative microorganisms isolated from diseased plants in
the project area are presented in Table 3.9. Visual and on-sight pathological
assessment showed that leaf spots were the most dominant disease symptoms affecting
several plants. Several organisms are associated with these symptoms which, on
account of the high humidity of the area, are mainly of fungal aetiology. Disease
prevalence in crops and plant species are comparable for the two seasons, both in their
nature and severity.

The state of health of the overall vegetation and the commonest species appeared quite
typical for the region. None of the diseases isolated were unusual to the plant species.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 19 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

There is no evidence of endemic vegetation problems in the area. However, it is


noteworthy that the cassava mosaic virus and such fungal pathogens as Phomopsis sp.,
Fusarium sp., Cercospora sp., Mycosphaerella sp. and Colletotrichum sp., isolated from
species along pipeline ROW in the area are all capable of causing epidemic disease
under favourable environmental conditions.

3.3.1.10 Plant Tissue Analysis


The concentrations of the trace metals (e.g. Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr), which are also the most
toxic ranged from below detectable limits to generally low levels from plant tissue
analysis results (Table 3.10). The relatively high concentrations of essential metals such
as Zn, Fe and Mn do not represent contamination. Manganese was accumulated more
than most of the other elements and this could be related to the easy formation of
manganous ions during anaerobiosis, which is common in lowland areas of the topical
rain forest.

3.3.1.11 Land Use /Cover


The percentage land cover of the project area was derived from estimates of Landsat TM
dataset of 1986, SPOT XI dataset of 1999 and Landsat TM dataset for 2002. These were
also used together to produce the time-lapse mapping for the area.

The area for the Sombriero River pipeline crossing project captured by satellite imagery
covers approximately 252.76km2 bounded by coordinates 457710E – 476635E and
102874.559N – 116230.484N. Seven main categories of land cover were identified
namely, Water, Forests I and II, Farmland, Sparse Vegetation, Bare Soil and
Urban/Industrial land covers. Fig. 3.8 shows the relative coverage ascribed to the
different land use forms in the area for the year 2002 as follows: Forest II (50%),
Farmland (4%), Forest I (9%), Urban/Industrial (5%), Sparse Vegetation (18%), Bare Soil
(13%) and Water (1%).

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 20 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.9: Diseases of Crops and Plants within the Pipeline ROW, and Causative Agents

Plant Sampled (leaves) Disease Symptoms Organism(s) Isolated

Elaeis guineensis Leaf spot Cercospora elacidis


Aspergillus spp.
Musa paradisiaca Leaf spots. Mycosphaerella musicola, Fusarium spp.
Marginal leaf scratching and chlorosis Probable mineral deficiency
Musa sapientum Sigatoga leaf spots Mycosphaerella musicola
Manihot esculenta Necrotic patches and chlorosis Cocliobolus lunatus, Collectotrichum spp. African cassava
Mosaic leaf blight mosaic virus.
Cola acuminata Powdery mildews Podosphearia spp.
Colocasia esculenta Leaf spot Curularia spp., Aspergillus spp.
Raphia hookeri Black leaf spots Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp.
Pterocarpus santalinoides Leaf spots, leaf curls, chlorosis Alternaria spp., Eurotium spp., Penicillium spp.
Costus afer Necrotic patches with raised borders Pestalotia spp., Colletotrichum dematium, Phomopsis spp.,
Alchornea cordifolia Dark, sunken necrotic patches and leaf spots. Colletotrichum spp., Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium
canadatum.
Cleostopholis patens Leaf spot. Pestalotia spp., Cercospora spp., Fusarium solani
Funtumia africana Black leaf spot Cercospora spp., Fusarium solani, Pestalotia spp.
Nephrolepis biserata Leaf spot and chlorosis Pestalotia spp.
(Source: Baseline Studies of Kolo Creek-Rumuekpe Trunkline Replacement Project, SPDC, 2004)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 21 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.10: Heavy Metals Content (mg/l) of Plant Species from the Study Area

Species V Ni Pb Cr Zn Cd Fe Mn Cu Hg

Alchornea cordifolia (Christmas bush) 0.04 0.37 0.03 BDL 29.65 BDL 2.7 34.45 6.82 BDL
Alchornea cordifolia (Christmas bush 0.01 0.14 BDL BDL 5 BDL 1.35 0.25 4.81 BDL
Raphia hookeri(Raffia palm) 0.02 0.16 0.03 0.008. 25.7 BDL 7.1 51 5.8 BDL
Pterocarpus santalinoides BDL 0.06 0.05 BDL 8.55 BDL 6.05 6.45 5.81 BDL
Antocleista vogelli (cabbage tree) 0.03 0.32 BDL 0.029 19.6 BDL 4.4 5.5 7.34 BDL
Diplazium sammanti 0.05 0.46 0.02 0.015 8.55 BDL 4.9 2.15 4.91 BDL
Costus afer (Ginger lily) BDL 0.24 BDL 0.002 2.1 BDL 5.15 3.7 5.61 BDL
Panicum maximum(Guinea Grass) 0.03 0.43 0.015 BDL 9.25 BDL 6.1 6.9 5.57 BDL
Panicum maximum (Guinea Grass) 0.07 0.1 BDL 0.021 11.8 BDL 4.6 7.4 6.03 BDL
Acroceras spp 0.04 0.3 BDL BDL 18.05 BDL 2.7 0.5 5.61 BDL
Manihot spp.(Cassava) 0.03 0.27 BDL 0.003 26.2 BDL 5.8 8.15 6.84 BDL
Manihot spp. .(Cassava) 0.02 0.11 BDL BDL 3.2 BDL 5.1 19.2 4.62 BDL
Harugana madagascariensis (Gum tree) 0.03 0.2 BDL BDL 34.35 BDL 1.9 8.6 5.59 BDL
Clappertonia ficifolia 0.04 0.16 BDL BDL 21.05 BDL 3.3 5.8 4.7 BDL
Cleistopholis patens (canoe wood) 0.03 0.25 0.01 BDL 20.55 BDL 5.85 14.2 5.65 BDL
Elaeis guineensis(Oil Palm) 0.17 BDL BDL BDL 12.9 BDL 16.3 19.1 2.6 BDL
Below Detection Limits of 0.01mg/l
(Source: Baseline Studies of Kolo Creek-Rumuekpe Trunkline Replacement Project, SPDC, 2004)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 22 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Urban/Industrial Water Forest 1


Bare Soil 5% 1% 9%
13%

Sparse vegetation 18%

Vegetation
Forest II
Farmland 50%
4%

Fig. 3.8: Land Cover Types in Proposed Project Area (2002)


(Source: Time Lapse Mapping of the 14” Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Crossing at
Sombriero River, SPDC, 2005)

3.3.1.12 Land Cover Trends


The trends in land cover/land use can be discussed under the individual land use forms
due to their discrete nature. Figure 3.9 summarizes the trends in land use/cover for the
different forms between 1986 and 2002.

Water
Water body constitutes less that 1% of the landcover of the area ascribable mainly to the
Sombriero River. The trend indicates an increase in water cover of about 0.15% between
1986 to 2002 representing a land gain of 0.4 km2 during the period. This must have come
mainly from riverbank erosion which is a pervading problem in the Niger Delta.

Forests
Undisturbed forest (Forest I) has decreased in total land cover from 42.0 km2 or 16.61%
in 1986 to 23.47 km2 or 9.28% cover in 2002. Between 1986 and 2002, therefore, over
18.5 km2 or 44 % of this forest type has been converted representing an annual decline of
approx 1.2 km2. Continuing decrease in Forest I could be attributed to the continuing and
evident exploitation of this vegetation type for various purposes in the area. At this rate,

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 23 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

and projected over a 5-year period, much of the undisturbed forest would have been
converted by 2010.

Correspondingly, Forest II (secondary forest) has increased, mostly at the expense of


Forest I from which it is derived. Time lapse satellite imagery shows that between 1986
and 2002, there has been an increase in this forest type in the area of interest from
45.24% in 1986 to 49.12% in 2002 representing an increase of approximately 10 km2.
The emergence of secondary forest does not fully account for the decrease in Forest 1
land coverage which indicates that this forest type is converted to other purposes such as
for farming and industrial /urban uses..

Farmlands
Land under farming presently accounts for 11.32 km2 or 4.5% of the total land cover of
the area of interest. The trend shows that this represents an increase of over 2% from the
value of 2.13% in 1986. In effect, an additional 10 km2 of land has been converted to
agriculture over the period. Farming activities increase as a consequence of increasing
population and human habitation of the area. Projection to 2010 would indicate further
increase in acreage of land under agriculture. Farmlands consisting of cultivated crops
and plantations are widely distributed in the project area. The predominance of
subsistence agriculture with shifting cultivation as the dominant cultural land use
technique makes a huge demand on land.

Sparse Vegetation
Sparse vegetation also showed a sharp increase within the time period under
consideration. From a total land coverage of 27.3 km2 representing 10.79% in 1986, this
land cover type jumped to approx 44.76 km2 or 17.71% of the area in 2002. This
represents an annual increase of about 1.1 km2. At this rate of expansion and projected
over a 5-year period, sparse vegetation and disturbed forest would together account for
over 80% land coverage of the area of interest. The spread of sparse vegetation
indicates slow regeneration of the forests and the increased intensity of human
interference.

Bare Soil
Bare soil decreased from a coverage of approx 53.1km2 or 21.01% in 1986 to approx. 13
km2 or 32.9% in 2002. Decrease in bare soil is also attributable to human interference
which converts such land cover types to other uses.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 24 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

50

45

40
Pe r ce nt age Ar e a Co ve r age

35

30

25

20

15

10

0 2002

1999
Water

Forest 1

Forest II

Farmland

Sparse Vegetation
1986

Bare Soil

Urban/Industrial
L a n d C o v e r / L a n d U s e Fo r m s

Fig. 3.9: Trends in Land Cover/Land Use in Project Area (1986 - 2002)
(Derived from: Time Lapse mapping of the 14” Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Crossing at
Sombriero River, SPDC, 2005)

Urban/Industrial
Human habitation and other infrastructure in the form of roads, public and private
establishments and industrial facilities accounted for 13.82 km2 or 5.47% of the total land
cover of the project area in 2002. This represents an increase of over 5 km2 from the
values of 1986. On the average, therefore, over 0.3 km2 additional land has been
converted to urban /industrial uses in the area on an annual basis. The generally upland
nature of the area and availability of relatively adequate communication networks
encourages human and industrial settlement, which should be expected to increase in the
near future.

Ecologically Sensitive Areas


Freshwater swamps including many stands of raphia particularly around the proposed
pipeline-crossing site could be considered as ecologically sensitive locations within the
project area. Such locations are rich in biodiversity containing a wide variety of economic
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 25 of 84
CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

plants, medicinal plants and animal life. Their rapidly declining land coverage as shown in
the analysis under land cover makes their preservation an environmental imperative.

3.3.1.13 Wildlife/Biodiversity
Information on wildlife was gathered from interviews, field observations and published
literature. Wildlife here will be considered in the restricted sense to refer to the larger
vertebrates. The other organisms, mostly invertebrates, can be considered under
biodiversity. Table 3.11 lists the various classes of terrestrial vertebrates (amphibians,
reptiles, birds and mammals) present in the project area. The Muridae dominated the
wildlife of the area in terms of species representatives. Sustained exploitation through
hunting, trapping and human–induced habitat alteration have combined to threaten or
endanger several species. Hunters claimed that civet cats (Viverra civetta) and grey
parrots (Psittacus erythacus) had become rare while leopards (Panthera pardus) were no
longer observed.

The presence in large numbers of rodents in particular, and the near absence of the
bigger mammals which make up the typical rainforest wildlife are indicative of the
changes in land cover/vegetation forms over the years. Among the avian species, the
most abundant were those commonly associated with farmlands and villages while those
typical of the rainforest environments were lacking. Amongst the Reptilia, the pythons,
monitor lizards etc typical of the dense rainforests were rare and/or absent in the area.
Generally, new and emergent colonizers of farmlands, swamps and the sparsely
distributed secondary forests have replaced the wildlife associated with the tall trees and
canopies of the dense tropical rainforests.

The freshwater swamp forest occurring around Rumuekpe Elele Alimini axis provide
habitat for numerous amphibians, fishes, snakes and piscivorous birds. The big games
visit the swamps at night according to hunters’ reports during which time they may be
trapped or shot. The cultivated farmlands as well as the bush fallow provide cover and
feeding ground for rabbits, cane rats, shrews, hedgehog, porcupine, birds and snakes.
Some wildlife constitutes a problem to cultivated farmlands.

The hunters interviewed attributed the low kill rate of wildlife and their average small size-
at-capture to excessive exploitation through hunting and trapping for food or sale. This is
typical for many tropical habitats where continuous exploitation severely endangers the
local wildlife (Happold, 1987).

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 26 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.11: Checklist of Terrestrial Wildlife in the Study Area


S/No Class Family/Order Common Names Zoological Names Habitat Remarks

1 MAMMALIA (i) Muridae Common rat Rattus rattus Forests ground and Very common
farmlands
2 Spotted grass mouse Lemniscomys striatus Forests ground and Common
farmlands
3 Giant rat Cricetomys gambianus Forests ground, soil Common
burrows
4 Jumping mouse Rattus morid Forests ground and Common
farmlands
5 (ii) Sciuromorpha West African ground Squirrel Xerus crythropus Forests, farmlands, Very common
arboreal
6 Giant forest Squirrel Protexerus strangeri Forests, farmlands, Common
arboreal
7 Pets flying Squirrel Anomalurus peli Forests, farmlands, Common
arboreal
8 Niger Flying Squirrel Anomalurus freseli Forests, farmlands, Common
arboreal
9 Sun Squirrel Heliasciurus gambianus Forests, farmlands, Uncommon
arboreal
10 Grass Cutter Thryonomys sunderianus Forests ground and Very common
farmlands
11 (iii) Thryonomidae Bush tailed Porcupine Anthemrus africanus Forests ground and Common
farmlands
12 West African hedgehog Erinaceus albiventris Forests ground and Very common
farmlands
Crested Porcupine Hystrix cristata Forests ground Common
13 (iv) Chiroptera Hammer heeded bat Hypsignatus monstrous Forest arboreal Less common
14 Pets pouched bat Taphozous peli Forest arboreal Less common
15 Common African least nosed Hipposideros caffer Forest arboreal Less common
bat
16 Free tailed bat Macrochiroptera spp. Forest arboreal Less common
17 (v) Manidae The black bellied pangolin Manis tetradachyta Forest ground Less common

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 27 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

S/No Class Family/Order Common Names Zoological Names Habitat Remarks

18 Long tailed pangolin Manis longicondata Forest ground Less common


19 (vi) Carnivora African civet Viverra civet Forest ground and arboreal Common
Viverridae
20 Common genet Genetta genetta Forest ground and arboreal Common
21 Forest genet Genetta maculata Forest ground and arboreal Common
22 Long mongoose Herpestes naso Forest ground and arboreal Common
23 Dwarf mongoose Herpestes sangerineus Forest ground and arboreal Common
24 Two spotted palm civet Nandina binotata Forest ground and arboreal Common
25 (vii) Soricidae Mann’s dusk shrew Crocidure manni Forest soil and ground Common
26 Dusky musk shrew Crocidure Occidontalis Forest soil and ground Rare
nigeriae
27 UNGULATE (viii) Bovidae Bush buck Tragelaphus scriptus Forest ground Common
S
28 Bates Dwarf Antelope Neotragus batesi Forest ground Common
29 Bushrel Syricapra grimmia Forest ground Common
30 (ix) Suridae Bush pia Polamocherous porcus Forest ground Common
31 AVES (i) Black shouldered Kite Elanus caerulus Forest, farmlands Common
32 Shitera Accipiter bacluis Forest, farmlands Common
33 African black kite Milvus migrans Forest, farmlands Common
34 Sparrow Hawk Accipiter erythropus Forest, farmlands Common
35 (ii) Aegyptidae Hooded vulture Necrosyrtes monochus Forest, farmlands Common
36 (iii) Corridae Pied crow Corvus albus Forest, farmlands Common
37 (iv) Bucerotidae Allied hornbill Lophoverus semifasciatus Forest, farmlands Common
38 Piping hornbill Bycanisters fistulator Forest, farmlands Common
39 Miropopidae Palm swift Cypsiurus parvus Forest, farmlands Rare
40 Little African swift Apus affinis Forest, farmlands Rare
41 (vi) Pycnonotidae Common Bulbul Pycononotus barbatus Forest, farmlands Very common
42 (vii) Ploceidae Orange crested waxbill Estridsa melopoda Forest, forests Common
43 Red headed weaver Malinibus rubricollis Forest, forests Common
44 Spectacled weaver Hyphanturgus Forest Common
prachypterus
45 (viii) Ardeidae Cattle egret Bubicus ibis Forests, grounds and “

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 28 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

S/No Class Family/Order Common Names Zoological Names Habitat Remarks

farmlands
46 Green-backed heron Butroides striatus Forests and farmlands “
47 Little African bittero Ixobrychus minutes Forests and farmlands “
48 (ix) Alcedinmidae Blue crested king fisher Halycon malimbicicus Farmlands, swamps “
49 Senegal kingfisher Halycon senegalensis Swamps, river banks “
50 (xi) Columbidae Laughing dove Stigmatopelia Forests and farmlands “
senegalensis
51 (xii) Anatidae African pigmy goose Nettapus auritus Swamps and River banks “
52 Water duck Anser spp. Swamps “
53 (xiii) Phasianidae Bush fowl Francohanus Forests, farmlands “
bicedcaratus
54 Crested Guinea fowl Gultera pucherani Forests, farmlands “
55 Jungle fowl Gallus gallus Forests, farmlands “
56 (xiv) Nectarinidae Olive bellied sunbird Cinnyris Chloropyguis Forests, farmlands Common
57 Copper Sunbird Cinnyris cupreus Forests, farmlands Very common
58 (xv) Muscippidae Spotted flycatcher Muscicapa strata Forests, farmlands Common
59 Fagans paradise flycatcher Tehitrea spp. Forests, farmlands Common
60 (xvi) Picidae Cardinal woodpecker Dendpicus fuscescens Forests, farmlands Common
61C REPTILIA (i) Aganidae Rainbow lizard Agama agama Forests, farmlands Very common
62 (ii) Geckonidae Forest gecko Hemidactylus gasciatus ‘’ Common
63 (iii) Sincidae Blandings kink Mabura blandingii ‘’ Very common
64 (iv) Columbridae The Boomsland Disphodus typus ‘’ Common
65 (v) Elapidae Green mamba Dendroapsis viridis ‘’ ‘’
66 Yellow cobra Naja nivae ‘’ ‘’
67 Forest cobra Naja melanolenca ‘’ Rare
68 Black spitting cobra Naja nigricollis ‘’ ‘’
(vi) Varanidae Nile Monitor Lizard Varanus niloticus “” Common
67D AMPHIBIA (i) Bufonidae Bufo regularis Forest ground Common
70 (ii) Rhacophonidae Tree frogs Hyperlolius spp. Forest and Swamps ‘’
71 Chiromantus spp. Forest and Swamps ‘’
72 (iii) Ranidae Forest frog Rama spp. Forest ground ‘’
73 Goliath frog Gigantorrim goliath Forest ground, swamp ‘’

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 29 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

S/No Class Family/Order Common Names Zoological Names Habitat Remarks

74 Dicroglossus occipentalis Swamp ‘’


75 (iv) Pipidae Water frog Xenopus tropicalis Rivers and swamps ‘’
(Source: Baseline Studies of Kolo Creek-Rumuekpe Trunkline Replacement Project, SPDC, 2004)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 30 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.1.13.1 Wild Life Abundance


The most abundant mammal in the area is the ‘grass cutter’ Thryonomys swinderianus
which takes of advantage of the predominantly sparse/grassy/fallow vegetation. Other
fairly abundant species include the giant rat Cricetomys gambianus, Erinaceus
albiventus, Syricapra grimnota and Tragelaphus scriptus. The genet, Gennetta and the
Pangolin, Mamarius tetradactyla are dwindling in number as they become more
vulnerable under increased hunting pressure. The Bates dwarf antelope Neotragus
batesi, bush-tailed porcupine (Artherurus africanus), long tailed Pangolin (Manis
longicondata), and all the birds of the falconidae family including the African black kite
(Milvanus migrans), Shitera (Accipiter baclius), Sparrow Hawk (Accipetra erythropeus),
and the black shouldered kite (Elanus caerubus), appear endangered in the area, while
other species such as Vivera civetta, Herpestes sanguineus and Nandida binotata are
rare.

During the dry season, the black kite, Milvanus migrans is the most abundant bird
species. Other birds which may be found in the general area in fair numbers include the
allied hornbill, Lophorerus semifasciatus, the pied crow, Corvus albus, the cattle egret
Bulbulcus ibis, the fowl, Francohanus bicedacaratus, and the guinea fowl Guttera
pulcherari.

3.3.1.13.2 Macro-Invertebrate Fauna/ Biodiversity


Table 3.12 lists the various macro-invertebrate fauna within the general project area, their
distribution and indication of abundance and significance.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 31 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.12: Terrestrial Macro Invertebrate Fauna of Project Location


Group and Common Distribution Level of Remarks
Scientific Name Names Abundance
Class Gastropoda Snail
Archachatina achatina Forest Common Handpicked in forest
Order Diptera Forest and farm Common Inflict painful bite
Family Tabanidae House fly
Family Muscidae Urban areas, farm forest, Very common
Musca domestica swamps
Family Culicidae Mosquito Swamp, forest, Common Inflicts painful bites, transmit
Culex sp diseases
Mosquito Swamp, forest Common ,,
Aedes sp Mosquito Swamp, forest, urban centres Common
Anopheles ,,
Family Ceratopogonidae Forest and farm Common Bite irritates
Order Coleoptera Beetle Forest and farm Occasional
Family Carabeidae
Family Curculionidae Beetle Forest and farm Occasional
Family Scarabeidae Dung beetle Forest, swamp, larvae in trunks Common Larvae sold by the road side
of palms
Order Hymenoptera Ants Forest and farms Common Some inflict painful bite
Family Formidae (Ant
Bees Yield honey, Inflicts painful bite
Family Apidae Forest and swamp Common
Apis mellifera

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 32 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Group and Common Names Distribution Level of Remarks


Scientific Name Abundance
Order Orthoptera Farm and forest Common Phytophagous
Family Tettigonidae Cricket Burrows in soil
Family Gryllotalpidae Farm Few
Family Mantidae Praying mantis Forest, swamp and farm Common Predatory an insects
Family Acrididae Grass hopper Forest, farms and swamp Very common Phytophagous
Order Isoptera Termites Forest and farms Common Edible
Family Termitidae
Order Lepidoptera Butterfly Forest, farm, swamp Common Pollinators
Family Bombycidae Moth Forest, farm, swamp Restricted Pollinators
Family Saturnidae Moth Forest, farm and swamp Restricted Pollinators
Family Noctuidae
Order Hemiptera Circada Forest Restricted Associated with circadian
Family Circadidae rhythm
Family Pyrrhocoridae Cotton stainer Forest and farm Restricted
Dysdercus sp
Order Odonata Dragonfly Forest, farm, swamp Very common Dragon flies were everywhere
Family Libellulidae
Order Plecoptera Swamps Common
Family Baetidae
Baetis sp
Pond skater Forest and swamp Very common
OTHERS
Class Arachnida
Order Aranae Spider Homes, forest, swamps, Spiders are very
farms common
Order Acarina Mites Forest and farm soils Common
(Source: Baseline Studies for the IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 33 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.1.14 Geology/Hydrogeology
Geologically, the area is underlain by quaternary sands belonging to the Sombreiro
deltaic plain of the Niger-Delta basin. Stratigraphy showed that topsoils are sandy clay in
nature while lower depths consist of sandy clay and sand. The particle size analysis of
borehole cuttings showed that the soil strata are made up of silt and sand with medium
dense grey white fine to medium sand predominating (Fig. 3.10)

Water Levels
Static Water Levels (SWL) for the area varies from 0.75 – 1.35m allowing the
communities to extract water for domestic use from the relatively shallow aquifers. This,
however increases the liability to pollution because of the nearness to the soil surface and
the nature of the overlying soil.

Groundwater Flow Direction


Groundwater flow direction computed geostatistically by means of a three-point solution
(Fig. 3.11) located around Ubie showed that groundwater flowed south eastwards in the
area. This is in conformity with the regional groundwater flow direction in the Niger Delta,
which is from the northern highlands towards the coast in the south.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 34 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Fig.3.10 Lithological Sections of the Boreholes around Project Area

BH BH BH
0 Sandy Clay
Sandy Clay

Sandy Clay
Loam

0.3
Sandy Clay
Loam

Sandy Clay Loam


Sandy clay
0.6
loam

Static water
level
Sandy
0.9

Static water
1.2 level
Sandy

1.5
Static water level

Key
Sandy Clay

Sandy Clay Loam

Sandy

Static water level

Y axis is in metres
BH- Boreholes

(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie, SPDC, 2003)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 35 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

BH2
BH 3
1.1 m 0.75 m

W E

Equipotential lines
join areas of equal
Hydraulic gradient

1.35 m
Direction of water flow (South-East wards)
BH1

Fig. 3.10 b Geostatistics for Direction of Groundwater Flowat Ubie zone

Fig. 3.11: Geostatistics for Direction of Groundwater Flow at Ubie

3.3.1.14.1 Groundwater Quality


The physicochemical characteristics of borehole water samples are summarized in Table
3.13. The pH of the borehole water samples was slightly acidic at pH of 5.37. This is quite
expected as the rains wash humic acid leachates from decaying forest vegetation into the
ground water. The low BOD and COD values indicate the near absence of dissolved
oxygen depleting substances. All the heavy metals analysed (except Zn, Fe, Mn, and
Cu) were below detection limits of the test equipment. The results show that the ground
water exhibited freshwater characteristics and the values are within recommended limits
for drinking water (FEPA, 1991; WHO).

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 36 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.13: Physico-chemical and Heavy Metal Content of Borehole Water


Samples Situated in the Study Area

Parameter Units Values FEPA* WHO


Potability Standards
Standards
Physico-chemical Characteristics
pH 5.37 7.0 6.5-8.5
TDS mg/l 26.3 - 1000
TSS mg/l 10.2 1
Turbidity NTU 0.45 5
Hardness mg/l 12 100
Alkalinity mg/l 18 200
DO mg/l 7.7 4 - 12 5
BOD mg/l <1.0 -
COD mg/l 1.5 -
O/G mg/l 0.042 -
THC mg/l 0.03 - 1.0
Conductivity µS/cm 58.3 -
NO3 mg/l 0.25 50 - 100
PO43- mg/l 0.04 0.1
-
Cl mg/l 6 200 250
Heavy Metal Content
V mg/l BDL -
Ni mg/l BDL -
Cr mg/l BDL 0.05
Pb mg/l BDL 0.5
Zn mg/l 0.106 0.1
Mn mg/l 0.12 5.0 0.1
Cu mg/l 0.01 0.05
Fe mg/l 8.78 0.3 0.3
Cd mg/l BDL -
Hg mg/l BDL -
BDL = Below Detection Limit of >0.01 mg/l
(Source: Baseline Studies of Kolo Creek-Rumuekpe Trunkline Replacement Project,
SPDC, 2004)

3.3.1.14.2 Groundwater Microbiology


Bacterial load of borehole samples were consistently lower than 10 cfu/ml (Table 3.14).
Faecal pollution indicators such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and
Clostridium perfringens were not detected nor were fungi isolated in borehole water
samples. The groundwater of the area therefore meets the required FMENV standards for
drinking water.

_____________________________________________________________
*The Federal Ministry of Environment accepts WHO standards

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 37 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.14: Microbial Contents of Borehole Waters from around the Project
Location
Sample Mean HF2, HDB3, HDF4, CC5 TS6 CF7 EC8
type HB1, cfu/ml cfu/ ml cfu/ml
cfu/ml

BH1 9 NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL

BH2 7 NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL

BH3 4 NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL


FMENV
Limit 10 Zero Zero Zero
BH 1 to 3 = Groundwater samples from boreholes 1 to 3 located on the outskirts of
Ahoada and Gbarantoru.
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

3.3.1.15 Soils
Rainforest soils constitute over 90% of soils in the project area. They are mineral soils
formed as a result of the weathering of siliceous sandstone fragments over varying
periods of time and range from the recently formed Entisols and Inceptisols, to the more
mature Alfisols and Oxisols.

3.3.1.15.1 Soil Physical Characteristics


The physical characteristics of soils in the area are discussed in terms of texture, colour,
porosity, bulk density and water holding capacity.

Nature of Soil
The soils of the location are predominantly loamy sand at top and mid-depth horizons and
sandy clay loam at bottom soil horizons (Table 3.15). Percentage sand content varies
from a mean of 59.26% in the topsoil, 44.26% in mid-depth and 39.7% in the bottom soil
horizons. Similar textural classifications of the soils were obtained in the dry season.
Mean percentage clay contents also vary with depth: 12.48% in the topsoil, 26.16% at the
mid-depth and 30.90% in bottom soil horizons. As typical for tropical soils, no significant
textural changes were observed over the two seasons (Ogunkunle, 1983).

1
Heterotrophic bacteria
2
Heterotrophic fungi
3
Hydrocarbon utilising bacteria
4
Hydrocarbon degrading fungi
5
Coliform count (MPN/100 ml)
6
Total Streptococcus faecalis count (MPN/100 ml)
7
Clostridium perfringens count (MPN/100 ml)
8
Escherichia col count (MPN/100 ml)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 38 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.15: Summary of Textural Analysis of Soils from Project Area


Percentage
Parameters Soil horizon Range Mean SD (±) Soil classification
Rainy Season
Top 2.02 - 85.72 59.26 27.71 Loamy sand
Sand Middle 1.00 - 70.50 44.26 25.59 Loamy sand
Bottom 0.61 - 70.25 39.7 27.8 Sandy clay loam
Top 0.04 - 38.32 14.93 12.07 Loamy sand
Silt Middle 0.04 - 34.96 15.45 12.26 Loamy sand
Bottom 0.06 - 38.18 14.9 13.3 Sandy clay loam
Top 0.04 - 84.16 12.48 9.90 Loamy sand
Clay Middle 0.06 - 66.11 26.16 25.80 Loamy sand
Bottom 0.06 - 74.42 30.9 31.3 Sandy clay loam
Dry Season
Top 0.92 – 90.06 66.22 31.15 Loamy sand
Sand Middle 0.91 – 90.61 59.03 30.80 Loamy sand
Bottom 0.90 – 90.66 55.80 31.48 Sandy clay loam

Table 3.15: Summary of Textural Analysis of Soils from Project Area


Continues
Percentage
Parameters Soil horizon Soil classification
Top 0.03 – 15.58 7.17 5.29 Loamy sand
Silt Middle 0.02 – 19.57 8.65 5.42 Loamy sand
Bottom 0.02 – 19.60 8.78 6.50 Sandy clay loam
Top 0.06 – 27.75 11.37 9.21 Loamy sand
Clay Middle 0.04 – 64.00 17.10 17.05 Loamy sand
Bottom 0.07 – 74.10 20.05 21.20 Sandy clay loam
SD = Standard Deviation
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Colour
The soils of the area show colour variations with depth. They are Entisols typical of the
Ahoada – Idu Ekpeye axis, greyish brown in the upper surface layers (10 YR 4/2) and
tending to grey in the deeper strata (5 YR 4/1).

Porosity
The soils are moderate to highly porous at the surface layers decreasing in porosity
towards the deeper soil strata. The highly porous soils around Ahoada contain many
macropores, which allowed easy passage of water and mineral salts that could be lost by
leaching through the profile. The porosity of tropical soils is directly related to their
percentage clay, sand and organic carbon contents (Babalola and Lal, 1977).

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 39 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Bulk Density
The soils show moderate to high bulk densities ranging from 1.24 – 1.32 gcm3 in the
surface layers to only slightly lower values of 1.24 -1.30 gcm3 in the bottom layers (Table
3.16). These values are typical of the Entisols of the Ahoada – Idu Ekpeye axis to which
the present project area could be assigned.

Available Water Holding Capacity (AWHC)


Available Water Holding Capacity (AWHC) refers to the capacity of the soil to absorb and
retain soil moisture and depends on the composition of the soil and other relevant
parameters. This parameter is directly related to the clay and organic matter content of
the soil. AWHC values for the area vary from 21.6 – 29% between the surface and
bottom layers respectively (Table 3.16). These values could be considered as low to
moderate

Table 3.16: Physical Characteristics of Surface and Subsurface Soils


around Project Area

Soil Characteristics Soil Layer

Surface Sub-surface Deep layers


(0-15cm) (15-30)cm (30 – cm)
Nature of Soil Loamy sand Loamy sand Sandy clay
Colour Greyish brown Greyish brown Grey
Consistency
Porosity (%) 24-36% 24-36% 24-36%
Bulk Density (gcm3) 1.24- 1.32 1.25-1.32 1.24 – 1.30
AWHC (%) 21.6 - 28.6 21.6 - 29 21.7 - 29
Effective Soil Depth (cm) 85 - 95
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Effective Soil Depth


The effective soil depth for the general project area ranges from about 95cm for the
Entisols of Ahoada to 125cm for the Oxisols of Rumuekpe. Theses values could be
considered as moderate to high soil depths

3.3.1.15.2 Soil Chemical Characteristics


Chemical properties of soils in the area are summarized in Table 3.17. Soil pH varied
from extreme (3.98) to moderate acidity (5.60) in the topsoil horizon. Similar ranges of
acidity were obtained for the mid-depth horizon and bottom horizons. Rainforest soils are

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 40 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

known to contain acidic cations that increase in concentration with an increase in


precipitation and waterlogged conditions (Ekundayo and Aghatise, 1997).

Mean organic carbon content is about 14% for the area. Nitrate-nitrogen and available
phosphorus, and sulphate concentrations indicate a fairly acceptable nutrient base for
soils of the area Low concentrations of soil oil and grease were measured in locations
around the project area. Values of 2.68, 2.38 and 2.30 mg/kg soil obtained for the top,
mid-depth and bottom soils respectively during the rainy season did not significantly differ
from the dry season concentrations of 3.86, 3.55 and 3.60 mg/kg soil). The low oil and
grease concentrations from this area indicate that the soils are still relatively free of
hydrocarbon contamination.

Table 3.17: Summary of the Nutrient Status of Soils from Project Area

Parameters Soil horizon Value of parameter


Range Mean SD (±)
Rainy Season
pH Top 3.98 - 5.6 4.59 0.50
Middle 3.92 - 5.6 4.44 0.48
Bottom 3.88 - 5.5 4.37 0.48
Organic carbon (%) Top 1.30 - 92.40 14.94 32.66
Middle 0.44 - 91.46 14.22 32.63
Bottom 0.26 - 92.08 14.0 32.80
Available Top 2.12 - 5.10 3.90 1.05
phosphorus Middle 0.64 - 4.66 2.63 0.09
(mg/kg) Bottom 0.92 - 4.78 2.18 0.86
Nitrate-Nitrogen Top 1.02 - 1.78 1.25 0.24
(mg/kg) Middle 1.02 - 1.62 1.26 0.20
Bottom 0.92 - 1.66 1.20 0.20
Top 1.30 - 4.01 2.59 1.05
Sulphate (mg/kg) Middle 1.02 - 3.62 2.24 0.95
Bottom 0.88 - 3.66 2.14 1.00
Top 12.10 - 60.10 31.19 13.32
Chloride (mg/kg) Middle 8.65 - 48.40 28.89 12.10
Bottom 8.10 - 41.50 26.8 11.7
Oil and grease Top 0.04 - 3.92 2.68 1.64
(mg/kg) Middle 0.02 - 5.10 2.38 1.57
Bottom 0.02 - 5.10 2.30 1.61
Dry Season
pH Top 2.86 – 4.96 3.80 0.60
Middle 2.62 – 4.70 3.70 0.66
Bottom 2.44 – 4.61 3.61 0.68
Organic carbon (%) Top 1.20 – 93.60 15.82 34.18
Middle 0.36 – 93.69 15.16 34.52
Bottom 0.20 – 93.78 14.94 34.67
Available Top 1.05 – 5.84 3.01 1.48
phosphorus Middle 0.36 – 6.80 2.18 1.91
(mg/kg) Bottom 0.21 – 6.92 1.99 2.00

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 41 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Nitrate-Nitrogen Top 0.01 – 1.06 0.48 0.47


(mg/kg) Middle 0.01 – 1.96 0.27 0.37
Bottom 0.01 – 1.06 0.21 0.36
Top 1.04 – 10.91 3.44 3.08
Sulphate (mg/kg) Middle 0.36 – 10.62 3.18 3.18
Bottom 0.20 – 10.44 3.12 3.33
Chloride (mg/kg) Top 4.90 – 56.92 20.08 14.94
Middle 3.30 – 57.14 18.67 15.11
Bottom 3.26 – 56.98 17.22 16.37
Top 0.01 – 14.02 3.86 4.95
Oil & grease Middle 0.01 – 14.26 3.55 4.75
(mg/kg) Bottom 0.01 – 14.78 3.60 4.86
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Exchangeable Cations (Alkaline earth metals)


Soil nutrient levels are related to their contents of exchangeable cations. Moderate to high
values were recorded for Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Calcium (Ca2+) and Magnesium
(Mg2+) ions (Table 3.18). Values do not significantly differ between the seasons.

Table 3.18: Summary of Alkaline Earth Metals of Soils from the Project Area
Soil Level, meq/100g soil
Parameters horizon Range Mean SD (±
±)
Rainy Season
Top 12.60 - 37.95 25.89 9.45
Sodium Middle 6.20 - 36.10 21.48 8.01
Bottom 5.84 - 33.20 21.00 8.12
Top 3.90 - 44.35 34.44 12.13
Potassium Middle 4.10 - 40.38 26.16 10.14
Bottom 3.60 - 33.40 26.1 8.57
Top 18.40 - 56.16 41.63 11.07
Calcium Middle 20.60 - 44.24 31.34 7.65
Bottom 18.66 - 38.65 25.6 8.60
Top 7.10 - 40.26 27.78 8.57
Magnesium Middle 8.20 - 31.75 18.45 6.92
Bottom 9.20 - 32.60 18.5 6.02
Dry Season
Top 10.12 – 34.90 19.54 7.94
Sodium Middle 8.06 – 31.26 20.02 7.80
Bottom 8.02 – 28.14 18.14 6.80
Top 16.19 – 46.61 29.69 9.81
Potassium Middle 16.90 – 51.06 30.00 11.90
Bottom 16.14 – 54.36 31.41 13.60
Top 14.26 – 56.22 39.42 10.06
Calcium Middle 12.20 – 62.90 37.81 16.10
Bottom 10.04 – 56.36 33.88 16.94
Top 12.30 – 37.42 27.26 7.37
Magnesium Middle 10.64 – 41.69 25.15 11.68
Bottom 12.42 – 44.72 26.97 13.11
SD = Standard Deviation
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 42 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Values of exchangeable acidity (Table 3.19) fell within ranges typical for similar
ecosystems in the Niger Delta. The dominance of non-expanding kaolinitic clay mineral
colloids in the soil aggregates of the region could enhance E.A. values. Cation Exchange
Capacity (C.E.C.) of the soils is quite high with values of 144.68, 113.30 and 107.0
meq/100g soil in the top, mid-depth and bottom soil horizons respectively in the rainy
season (Table 3.10a). Dry season values were not significantly different.

Table 3.19: Exchangeable Acidity and Cation Exchange Capacity


of soil of the Project Area

Parameters Soil Level, meq/100g soil


horizon Range Mean SD (±)
Rainy Season
Exchangeable Top 9.60 - 30.00 19.42 8.05
Acidity Middle 7.54 - 38.00 21.60 8.04
Bottom 7.0 - 36.40 20.4 8.08
Cation exchange Top 44.60 - 185.51 144.68 39.26
capacity Middle 71.72 - 162.14 113.30 30.96
Bottom 46.84 - 160.34 107.0 32.4
Dry Season
Exchangeable Top 12.60 – 35.00 23.30 6.95
Acidity Middle 14.36 – 34.00 26.00 8.08
Bottom 12.04 – 47.90 26.84 10.30
Cation exchange Top 78.84 – 192.33 135.20 38.34
capacity Middle 66.44 – 214.45 137.90 51.00
Bottom 59.26 – 222.28 137.23 56.82
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Heavy Metals
The concentrations of heavy metals in soils of the area measured in the two seasons are
shown in Table 3.20. Heavy metal concentrations fell within the range of values reported
for similar ecosystems in the Niger Delta. Seasonal alterations in metal concentrations
were not evident. The high concentrations of iron in all soil horizons during both the rainy
and dry seasons could be related to the dominance of red-coated oxides of iron and
aluminium in the Oxisols of Rumuekpe-Elele Alimini axis.

Heavy metal presence in the soil profile raise environmental concerns given the high
water table of the project area and the possibility of contamination.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 43 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.20: Heavy Metals of Soils in the Project Area


Heavy Metal Soil Layer
(mg/kg) Surface (0-15cm) Sub-surface (15-30)cm Deep layers (30- cm)
Mean SD (±) Mean SD (±) Mean SD (±)
Rainy Season
Iron 3.56 5.36 4.72 6.04 4.60 0.07
Lead 0.15 0.07 0.15 0.08 0.13 0.09
Copper 0.23 0.07 0.19 0.07 0.15 0.06
Chromium 0.17 0.09 0.15 0.09 0.10 0.07
Manganese 0.15 0.06 0.14 0.06 0.13 0.07
Zinc 0.54 1.13 0.49 0.81 0.30 0.46
Cadmium 0.27 0.18 0.24 021 0.16 0.09
Dry Season
Iron 3.68 5.41 4.77 6.12 4.66 7.83
Lead 0.17 0.06 0.13 0.07 0.14 0.09
Copper 0.23 0.09 019 0.07 0.19 0.09
Chromium 0.13 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.11 0.11
Manganese 0.15 0.07 0.14 0.07 0.16 0.09
Zinc 1.12 1.12 0.99 0.92 0.97 0.71
Cadmium 0.23 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.21 0.23
S.D = Standard Deviation
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

3.3.1.16 Soil Microbiology


Data on the microbial contents of soils from the area in both the rainy and dry seasons
taken from various locations are presented in Table 3.21. Top/surface soil layers were
expectedly rich in total heterotrophic bacteria with values ranging from 2.4 - 3.6 ± 2.9 x
106 cfu/g. Mid-depth and bottom layers showed slightly lower values of 1.1 ±
0.34x106cfu/g, and 0.3 ± 0.15x106cfu/g, respectively. Similarly total fungal load decreased
with depth of soil. The seasons did not seem to influence these parameters.

Of significance is the low proportion of hydrocarbon degraders among both fungi and
bacteria in the soils of the area. These low values, generally below 0.025%, indicate
absence of hydrocarbon contamination of soils in the area.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 44 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.21: Summary of Microbiological Characteristics of Soil Samples from Project Area
Soil Statistics Total Total fungal Hydrocarbon Hydrocarbon % %
Horizon heterotrophic count utilising utilising fungi Hydrocarbon Hydrocarbon
count (cfux106/g) bacteria (cfux102/g) utilising utilizing fungi
(cfux106/g) (cfux102/g) bacteria
Rainy Season
Surface 2.4 – 3.6 2.0 – 3.0 4.2 – 8.3 3.2 – 6.7 0.014 – 0.031 0.013 – 0.028
Mid depth Range 0.7 – 1.4 0.5 – 1.1 0.8 – 2.3 0.5 – 1.0 0.006 – 0.030 0.003 – 0.018
Bottom 0.1 – 0.6 0.1 – 0.4 0.1 – 0.4 0.1 – 0.2 0.002 – 0.040 0.003 – 0.020
Surface 2.9 2.5 7.1 5.0 0.025 0.020
Mid depth Mean 1.1 0.8 1.4 0.6 0.01 0.0098
Bottom 0.3 0.2 1.2 0.1 0.009 0.0078
Surface 0.35 0.28 1.20 1.00 0.006 0.004
Mid depth ±S.D 0.34 0.2 0.45 0.24 0.006 0.004
Bottom 0.15 0.09 0.10 0.05 0.009 0.006
Dry Season
Surface 2.5 – 3.6 2.6 – 3.4 3.6 – 8.2 3.7 – 7.3 0.0108 – 0.0292 0.0029 – 0.0252
Mid depth Range 0.9 – 1.9 0.9 – 1.6 0.7 – 2.0 0.5 – 1.5 0.0037 – 0.0189 0.0006 – 0.0156
Bottom 0.3 – 0.7 0.2 – 0.8 0.1 – 0.6 0.1 – 0.4 0.0019 – 0.0200 0.0013 – 0.0067
Surface 3.07 2.85 7.03 5.48 0.022 0.017
Mid depth Mean 1.37 1.30 1.33 0.91 0.010 0.007
Bottom 0.52 0.57 0.30 0.20 0.006 0.004
Surface 0.33 0.31 1.14 1.07 0.005 0.006
Mid depth ±S.D 0.27 0.23 0.44 0.30 0.004 0.004
Bottom 0.14 0.16 0.15 0.10 0.005 0.002
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 45 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.1.17 Aquatic Studies

3.3.1.17.1 Surface Water Hydrology


Surface water hydrology is required for an understanding of the movement of potential
pollutant inputs and their relationship with the water body. The Sombreiro River at the
point of the proposed crossing has hydrological features as summarized in Table 3.22.

Table 3.22: Major Hydrological Features of Sombriero River at Pipeline


Crossing
Hydrological Parameters Values

Flow rate 0.5m/s


Width at pipeline crossing. Approx. 20m
Discharge rate 30m3/s
Bathymetry 3m
Tidal regime. Tidal
Flooding regime for the area Seasonal
Seasonality Perennial
(Source: Data obtained from Site Visit)

The river is perennial around Ihuowo and navigable all the year round. Previous
observations show that the flood levels vary between the dry season and the rainy
season. Discharge is significant at the pipeline crossing point (approx. 30 m3/s) at a
reasonably fast flow rate of about 0.5 m/s. Consequently pollutant input in the river at
this point will speedily arrive at both upstream and downstream locations depending on
the tidal situation.

3.3.1.17.2 Water Use


The river is used for various purposes by the community including cassava and palm
produce fermentation and processing. There is no evidence of use for either industry or
aquaculture purposes although it is serves for the transportation of logs harvested from
the fringing freshwater swamp forests. The river is also used for drinking and domestic
water supply. Fishing is conducted in the open waters and the associated swamps.

3.3.1.17.3 Surface water Physico-chemical Characteristics

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 46 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Data for physico-chemical parameters refer to those obtained for the general project
area and considered valid for the specific location. A summary of the data on physico-
chemical parameters for both the rainy and dry seasons is presented in Table 3.23.
Mean surface water temperatures of 27.6ºC in the rainy season were significantly lower
that 30.7ºC obtained during the dry season. This seasonal variation is understandable
on account of the ambient atmospheric temperatures during the respective seasons.
Dissolved oxygen has an inverse relationship with water temperature and this is
reflected in the equally significant variations in DO values measured during both periods.
Turbidity values, though expectedly higher during the rainy (13.2±7.09 NTU) that the dry
season (7.8±1.75 NTU) remained within values consistent with the sustenance of
aquatic productivity. The levels of mineral nutrients (PO4, N-NO3, SO42-) were
consistently low during both seasons indicating absence of eutrophication

The values for the bottom water samples for the different parameters were not
significantly different (P<0.05) from those of the corresponding surface water samples.
Physico-chemical parameters in both seasons lie within FMENV limits for surface waters
except for oil and grease contents which at a mean of 2.25mg/l was significantly higher
than FMENV limits of 0.01mg/l. There is a need for continuous monitoring of this
parameter to determine the sources of oil/grease input into the aquatic system of the
area.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 47 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.23: Summary of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Surface Water at the Pipeline Crossing (Rainy Season)
Parameters FMENV Levels of Parameters
9
Limits Surface Bottom
Range Mean SD Range Mean SD
Rainy Season
Temp.(°C) 25.0 - 29.2 27.6 ± 1.40 25.4 – 29.4 27.7 ± 1.40
PH 7.0-8.5 5.2 - 6.4 5.8 ± 0.47 5.4 - 6.4 6.1 ± 0.49
DO (mg/l) 4.1 - 6.3 5.6 ± 0.63 4.4 - 6.6 5.8 ± 0.65
BOD5 (mg/l) 0.5 - 1.8 1.1 ± 0.38 0.5 - 1.8 1.1 ± 0.38
COD (mg/l) 8.8 - 17.9 13.3 ± 2.73 8.8 - 18.2 13.2 ± 2.79
TSS (mg/l) 1.0 - 3.8 1.84 ± 0.94 1.0 - 2.2 1.5 ± 0.41
TDS (mg/l) 23.0 - 420.3 153.2 ± 188.39 25.9 – 680.1 160.5 ± 196.52
Turbidity (NTU) 5.0 4.8 - 29.8 13.2 ± 7.09 4.9 - 29.9 13.1 ± 7.46
Conductivity. (µS/cm) 42.2 - 683.3 221.0 ± 345.73 42.2– 1233.5 228.7 ± 360.39
Chloride (mg/l) 200.0 11.8 - 630.3 104.8 ± 195.06 11.8 – 635.5 105.6 ± 196.58
NO2 – N (mg/l) 0.005 - 0.018 0.009 ± 0.0054 0.005 – 0.018 0.009 ± 0.0052
NO3 – N (mg/l) 0.3 - 1.1 0.55 ± 0.27 0.3 - 0.8 0.54 ± 0.23
PO4 – P (mg/l) 0.005 - 0.42 0.05 ± 0.13 0.005 – 0.42 0.05 ± 0.13
NH4 – N (mg/l) 0.1 - 0.5 0.26 ± 0.12 0.1 - 0.5 0.25 ± 0.12
Oil and grease (mg/l) 0.01 1.0 - 3.9 2.25 ± 1.43 0.9 - 3.8 1.92 ± 1.03
(Source: Baseline Studies for the Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

9
Highest desirable level

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 48 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.23b: Summary of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Surface Water at the Pipeline Crossing (Dry Season)
Parameters FMENV Levels of Parameters
10
Limits Surface Bottom
Range Mean SD Range Mean SD
Dry Season
0
Temp ( C) 28.7 – 31.6 30.7 1.4 29.1 – 31.8 30.9 1.3
pH 7.0-8.5 6.2 – 7.6 7.1 0.50 6.5 – 7.6 7.1 0.36
DO (mg/l) 2.1 – 4.8 3.8 0.84 2.5 – 4.9 3.8 0.78
COD (mg/l) 11.8 – 19.5 14.4 3.0 11.9 – 21.3 14.8 3.50
BOD5 (mg/l) 0.5 – 1.3 0.8 0.30 0.6 – 1.4 0.97 0.30
TSS (mg/l) 1.0 – 1.7 1.35 0.33 1.0 – 1.8 1.4 0.35
TDS (mg/l) 42.0 – 460.8 166.6 147.3 43.0 – 465.3 154.1 153.1
Turbidity (NTU) 5.0 4.9 – 10.2 7.8 1.75 4.9 – 10.2 7.8 1.75
-1
Conductivity (µScm ) 69.3 – 794.5 254.2 263.7 71.1 – 802.4 231.2 269.1
Chloride (mg/l) 200.0 12.4 – 780.3 125.6 288.7 12.5 – 782.2 125.9 289.3
NO2 – N (mg/l) 0.001 – 0.015 0.07 0.19 0.001 – 0.015 0.07 0.19
NO3 – N (mg/l) 0.3 – 0.83 0.51 0.21 0.3 – 0.85 0.51 0.24
NH4 – N (mg/l) 0.1 – 0.85 0.41 0.25 0.1 – 0.89 0.42 0.26
PO4 – P (mg/l) 0.004 – 0.014 0.026 0.05 0.004 – 0.015 0.026 0.05
2-
SO4 (mg/l) 200.0 17.2 – 62.8 27.8 16.11 17.5 – 63.7 28.4 16.25
(Source: Baseline Studies for the Gbaran/Ubie Nodes, SPDC, 2003)

10
Highest desirable level

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 49 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.1.17.4 Surface Water Heavy Metal Content


The concentrations of heavy metals (vanadium, nickel, chromium, lead, zinc,
manganese, copper, iron, cadmium and mercury) in surface and bottom water samples
from the area were generally low (Tables 3.24). The concentrations of zinc, manganese,
copper and iron, however, exceeded FMENV limits. The rather high concentrations of
these metals could be associated with the levels of industrial activities in the area.

Table 3.24: Heavy Metal Content of Surface and Bottom Water Samples from the
Project Location
Parameters FMENV Concentrations, mg/l
(mg/l)
Limits Bottom
(HDL) Surface
Range Mean SD Range Mean SD
Rainy Season
Vanadium 0.01 - 0.02 0.004 ± 0.004 0.01 - 0.02 0.02 ± 0.0
Nickel 0.01 - 0.02 0.01 ± 0.0 0.01 - 0.02 0.01 ± 0.006
Chromium 0.01 - 0.1 0.04 ± 0.05 0.01 - 0.05 0.025 ± 0.017
Lead 0.01 - 0.03 0.017 ±0.008 0.03 - 0.03 0.02 ±0.006
Zinc 5.0 0.5 - 2.4 0.88 ± 0.79 0.7 - 1.7 1.02 ± 0.67
Manganese 0.05 0.1 - 0.2 0.13 ± 0.048 0.1 - 0.2 0.15 ± 0.052
Copper 0.05 0.01 - 0.18 0.67 ± 0.075 0.01 - 0.2 0.06 ± 0.064
Iron 0.1 0.05 - 0.36 0.19 ± 0.11 0.05 - 0.3 0.18 ± 0.09
Cadmium 0.01 - 0.02 0.012 ± 0.004 0.01 - 0.2 0.015 ± 0.005
Dry Season
Vanadium 0.01 – 0.02 ND ND 0.01 – 0.02 ND ND
Nickel 0.01 ND ND 0.01 ND ND
Chromium 0.01 ND ND 0.01 ND ND

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 50 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.24: Heavy Metal Content of Surface and Bottom Water Samples from the
Project Location Continues

Parameters FMENV Concentrations, mg/l


(mg/l)
Limits Bottom
Surface
(HDL)
Range Mean SD Range Mean SD
Lead 0.01 – 0.02 0.015 0.005 0.01 – 0.02 0.015 0.05
Zinc 5.0 1.0 – 1.7 1.25 0.25 1.0 – 1.7 1.25 0.22
Manganese 0.05 0.1 – 1.3 0.4 0.52 0.1 – 1.3 0.5 0.56
Copper 0.05 0.01 – 0.10 0.05 0.04 0.01 – 0.10 0.06 0.04
Iron 0.1 0.1 – 0.2 0.16 0.04 0.1 – 0.2 0.18 0.08
Cadmium 0.01 – 0.02 ND –– 0.01 – 0.02 ND ––
Mercury ND ND –– ND ND ––
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

3.3.1.17.5 Aquatic Microbiology


A summary of the microbial load of surface and bottom water samples from the
Sombreiro River slightly upstream of the proposed pipeline crossing during the rainy and
dry seasons is presented in Table 3.25. Heterotrophic bacterial counts from surface
layers (0.74 ± 0.12 x 106 cfu/ml) were generally lower than those from bottom samples
(9.11±1.12 x 106 cfu/ml). Aquatic fungal load followed a similar trend with lower
concentrations (0.40± 0.13 x 106 cfu/ml) in surface than in bottom waters (5.6 ± 0.93 x
106 cfu/ml). Depositional effects of gravity on the microorganisms in the surface and
within the water column and the higher concentration of nutrients and detritus in the
sediment contribute to the higher microbial loads in the bottom waters.

The proportion of oil-degrading bacteria and fungi in surface waters of the area are low
(0.8 and 0.05% respectively). The values for bottom water samples were much lower
than 1% for both cases (Table 2.25). These values are within ranges for waters not
grossly polluted with oil (Atlas & Bartha, 1981). The river, however, showed high content
of coliforms incompatible with its current use as a source of drinking water.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 51 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.25: Summary of Microbiological Characteristics of Surface and Bottom water Samples from Project Location
11 12
Sampl Para- Total Total fungal Hydrocarbo Hydrocarbon % HDB % HDF Coliforms*
e type meters heterotrophi count n utilising utilising fungi (MPN/
6 2
c count (cfux10 /ml) bacteria (cfux10 /ml) 100ml)
(cfux106/ml) 2
(cfux10 /ml)
Rainy Season
S Range 0.51 - 0.91 0.12 – 0.61 0.01 – 0.23 0.01 – 0.12 0.0003 – 0.0022 0.0002– 0.0050 3.2 – 15.3
(cfu/ml)
S Mean 0.74 0.40 0.08 0.05 1.29 1.42 9.1
(cfu/ml)
S S.D ± 0.12 0.13 0.07 0.04 0.00086 0.0015 4.2
B Range 7.21 – 11.40 4.21 – 7.21 0.03 – 1.19 0.04 – 0.21 0.0001 – 0.0014 0.0001– 0.0017 5.7 – 21.7
(cfu/ml)
B Mean 9.11 5.6 0.59 0.09 0.00055 0.0003 11.8
(cfu/ml)
B S.D± 1.21 0.93 0.49 0.04 0.00048 0.00047 5.29
Dry Season
Range 0.0001 – 0.0012 0.0003– 0.0054
S (cfu/ml) 0.33 – 0.83 0.08 – 0.47 0.01 – 0.07 0.01 – 0.13 6 – 14
Mean
S (cfu/ml) 0.63 0.31 0.04 0.05 0.0006 0.0020 9.57
S S.D± 0.19 0.13 0.03 0.04 0.0011 0.0022 3.15
Range 0.0001 – 0.0030 0.0001 – 0.0013
B (cfu/ml) 6.72 – 12.02 3.52 – 9.41 0.09 – 2.42 0.08 – 1.02 11 – 31
Mean
B (cfu/ml) 8.96 7.07 0.74 0.29 0.0009 0.00062 19.71
S.D±
B 1.88 1.88 0.90 0.25 0.0011 0.00044 7.99
S = Surface water samples
B = Bottom water samples
WHO/FMENV Most Probable Number (MPN) limit for coliforms is 10/100 ml of samples. Samples containing greater numbers are not potable.
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

11
Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria
12
Hydrocarbon utilizing fungi

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 52 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.1.17.6 Sediment Physico-chemical Parameters


Physico-chemical parameters of the Sombreiro River sediment upstream and
downstream of the proposed pipeline crossing are shown in Table 3.26. The values for
alkaline earth metals as well as nutrients are consistent with freshwater environments
and are considered adequate for the sustenance of sediment biota. Chromium, nickel,
vanadium, cadmium and mercury were not detected in the sediment. Mean
concentrations obtained for iron (0.15 mg/kg), lead (0.02 mg/kg), zinc (1.5 mg/kg),
copper (0.05 mg/kg) and manganese (0.1 mg/kg) fall within ranges typical for the Niger
Delta area (Table 3.27).

Table 3.26: Sediment Physico-Chemistry in the Sombreiro River


Parameters Sampling Stations
Sombreiro R Sombreiro R Mean
(Upstream) (Downstream)
Na, meq/100g 23.2 31.9 27.6
K ,meq/100g 5.8 5.4 5.6
Ca, meq/100g 2.8 2.5 2.7
Mg, meq/100g 2.7 3.6 3.2
NO3-N µg/g 0.02 0.02 0.02
NO2-N µg/g <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
NH4+-N µg/g <0.001 0.04 0.02
pH 5.7 5.8 5.75
Oil & grease µg/g 2.6 0.6 1.6
Chloride µg/g 4.4 3.7 4.1
R = River, Detection limit = 0.001 mg/kg.

Table 3.27: Heavy Metal Content of Sediment from Locations on the Sombreiro River

Heavy metal Sampling stations


(mg/kg) Sombreiro R Sombreiro R Mean
(Upstream) (Downstream)
Iron 0.2 0.1 0.15
Lead <0.001 0.04 0.02
Zinc 1.2 1.8 1.5
Copper 0.1 <0.001 0.05
Manganese 0.1 0.1 0.1
Chromium <0.001 <0.001 0.001
Nickel <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Vanadium <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Cadmium <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Mercury <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 53 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.1.17.7 Sediment Microbiology


Total heterotrophic bacterial counts (cfu/g) in the sediments of rivers around the project
area including the Sombriero ranged between 1.24 – 2.52±1.88 x 108 during the rainy
season. Values for fungal loads were slightly lower (0.76 – 2.21±1.44 x 108) in the same
period. Sediment microbial load increased significantly during the dry season (Table 28).
The proportion of hydrocarbon degraders among both the bacteria and fungi during the
rainy season was low with a mean of 0.037% for the bacteria and 0.017% for the fungi
(Table 3.28) decreasing during the dry season. Low levels of hydrocarbon utilisers in the
sediment indicate low levels of hydrocarbon contamination.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 54 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.28: Summary of Microbiological Properties of Sediment Samples from


Project Area
Parameters Total Total Fungal Hydrocarbon Hydrocarbon % %
heterotrophic count/g Utilizing utilizing Hydrocarbo Hydrocarb
8
bacterial (cfu x 10 ) bacterial fungal count/g n utilizing on
4
count/g count/g (cfu x 10 ) bacteria. utilizing
8 4
(cfu x 10 ) (cfu x 10 ) fungi
Rainy season
Range 1.24 – 2.52 0.76 – 2.21 0.45 – 1.04 0.14 – 0.34 0.022 – 0.007 –
(cfu/ml) 0.058 0.029
Mean 1.88 1.44 0.67 0.23 0.037 0.017
(cfu/ml)
S.D± 0.38 0.50 0.20 0.07 0.013 0.006
Dry season
Range 1.76 – 3.02 0.91 – 3.92 0.72 – 2.01 0.31 – 0.51 0.0011 – 0.0013 –
(cfu/ml) 0.0067 0.0047
Mean 2.36 1.72 1.06 0.43 0.0040 0.0030
(cfu/ml)
S.D± 0.47 1.08 0.45 0.07 0.002 0.0012
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

3.3.1.17.8 Benthic Macrofauna


The proposed pipeline crossing point is characterized by essentially muddy sediment.
Organisms from the benthos and those associated with the abundant aquatic
macrophytes include nymphs of Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Odonata. Chironomid
and chaoborid larvae as well as oligochaete annelids occur in the area. Oligochaeta
dominated the benthos in both dry and wet season samples. Density of macrophyte-
associated forms ranged around 220 – 480 organisms/L in the rainy season (Kolo
Creek-Rumuekpe Trunkline EIA).

3.3.1.18 Hydrobiology and Fisheries


3.3.1.18.1 Phytoplankton
Data on the species composition, abundance and distribution of phytoplankton in the
Sombreiro River immediately upstream of the proposed pipeline crossing is shown table
3.29. Twenty two species of phytoplankton representing 4 classes were identified in the
river during both seasons.

Phytoplankton concentrations increased from a total of 31 organism/litre in the rainy


season to 106 organisms/litre in the dry season. This is normal and has to do with the
decreased turbidity and current speed at this time of the year. During the rainy season,

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 55 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

the desmids dominated the phytoplankton community accounting for about 48% in terms
of relative abundance. This dominance was taken over in the dry season by the diatoms
(Bacillariophyceae) which accounted for 40.6% of phytoplankton at this time.

3.3.1.18.2 Zooplankton
The zooplankton community consisted of one protozoan, five rotifers, one cladoceran,
one ostracod, three copepod representatives (Table 3.30). The zooplankton also
included larval stages of insects and crustaceans such as nauplii and copepod larvae.
The density of the zooplankton increased from 14 organisms/l during the rainy season to
19 organisms/l in the dry season. This is consistent with the slower current speed,
decreased turbidity and consequent higher primary productivity of the river at this time.

During the rainy season, the zooplankton population was dominated by rotifers (35.7 %),
followed by larval forms (21.4 %). This situation was reversed during the dry season
when larval forms dominated the zooplankton (36.8%) as against the (26.3%) of the
Rotifera. Larval stages were important components of the zooplankton during both
seasons. Their abundance indicated that the zooplankton populations were in active
reproduction

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 56 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.29: Species composition and Abundance (Organisms/l) of


Phytoplankton in the Sombriero River (upstream) during the
Rainy and Dry Seasons
Phytoplankton Groups Plankton Counts as Organisms/l
(%Relative abundance)
Rainy Season Dry Season

Cyanophyceae (Blue green algae)


Oscillatoria sp - 5
Anabaena sp - 16
Spirulina sp - -
Merismopedia sp - 10
Sub total 31 (29.2%)

Desmidaceae (Desmids)
Closterium sp 2 -
Cosmarium sp 3 5
Micrasterias sp 10 4
Sub total 15 (48%) 9 (8.5%)

Chlorophyceae (Green algae)


Protococcus sp - 4
Scenedesmus sp 3 12
Pediastrum sp 1 3
Eudorina sp 4
Algal filaments (spirogyra sp) 3 -
Sub total 7 (22.5%) 23 (21.7%)

Bacillariophyceae
Navicula sp 3 15
Synedra sp - 4
Amphora sp 2 -
Roya sp - 4
Melosira sp - 12
Tabellaria sp 2 2
Surirella sp 2 -
Campylodiscus sp - 2
Coscinodiscus sp - 2
Bidulphia sp - 2
Sub total 9 (29.0%) 43 (40.6%)

Total 31 (100%) 106 (100%)


(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 57 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.30: Species Composition, Distribution and Abundance of Zooplankton in


the Project Area
Zooplankton Groups Zooplankton counts (organisms/l)
(% Relative abundance)
Rainy Season Dry Season

Protozoa
Phacus 2
Sub Total 2 (14.3%) 0 (0.0%)

Rotifera.
Brachionus sp 1 3
Keratella sp. 2
Filinia sp 2
Lecane sp. 2
Lepadella sp 1
Sub Total 5 (35.7%) 5 (26.3%)

Cladocera
Alona sp 1 2
Sub Total 1 (7.1%) 2 (10.5%)

Ostracoda
Bosminopsis sp 1
Sub Total 1 (7.1%)

Copepoda
Acartia sp 1
Diaptomus sp 1
Mesocyclops sp 1 4
Sub Total 2 (14.3%) 5 (26.3%)
Larval Forms
Nauplii 2 4
Insect larvae 1 3
Sub Total 3 (21.4%) 7 (36.8%)
Total 14 (100%) 19 (100%)
(Source: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 58 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.1.18.3 Fish and Fisheries


Fish and fisheries data will refer to the fish fauna of the area and their exploitation. Fish
fauna of the Sombreiro River and its associated swamps which also may inhabit the
project location at different times are listed in Table 3.31. 29 fish species representing 13
fish families occur in the fish assemblage of the project area. They typically inhabit
shallow waters, swamps and rivers within the Niger Delta.

The Sombreiro River in its downstream sections may support significant fishing activities
which is, however, not the case in the more upstream locations including the proposed
project area. Fishing activities within 2 km stretch of the Sombriero on both sides of the
pipeline crossing is minimal, going by indicators of professional fisheries such as fishing
canoes and other gear. Reportedly, and by observation during the site visit, less than 10
professional fishermen operate within the relevant stretch of river, others are
occasional/part-time fishermen.

There is no mechanized fishing in any form within the vicinity of the proposed pipeline
crossing. Fishing activity is typical as for similar locations on the Niger Delta and is
conducted on an artisanal basis using mainly traditional fishing gear such as dug out
canoes, set nets and basket traps. Catch-per-unit of effort is low and the average total
daily catch per fisherman is below 4kg (Plate 3.5) comprising mainly Clariidae,
Gymnarchus niloticus and tilapines (Plate 3.6). Total daily fish production from the area
is probably below 20 kg for most parts of the year.

In other sections of the same river, however, fishermen operate different types of gears
such as cast nets, gill nets, beach seines, filter nets, long lines and encircling nets. Light
traps were used to exploit Pantodon sp and Pellonula leonensis. During the rainy
season, elaborate filtering devices are set across the width of small rivers (which were
less than 10 metres in width). Such devices trap large numbers of fishes including
juveniles. Basket traps are the gear of choice in the swamps. They are particularly
effective for exploiting Channa sp, Clarias sp, Synodontis spp and prawns.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 59 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Plate 3.5: Fisherman at Ihuowo in traditional fishing canoe in the vicinity


of the pipeline crossing on the Sombreiro River

Plate 3.6: Fresh catch of tilapia from the Sombriero at Ihuowo

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 60 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.31: Fish Fauna and Fisheries in Waters around Project Location
Fish Family and Common A.I Gear Habitat
Species name
Family Cichlidae
Tilapia zillii Tilapia C 1,2,3,4,5 Shallow waters / brackish areas
Sarotherodon galilaeus “ C 1,2,3,4,5 Shallow waters/ brackish areas
Hemichromis fasciatus Dwarf Cichlid C 1,2,3,4 Shallow waters / brackish waters
Hemichromis Dwarf Cichlid C 4,6 Swamps
bimaculatus Tilapia R 3,6 Swamps
Chromidotilapia guentheri Tilapia C 1,2,3,4,5 Shallow waters and swamps
Oreochromis niloticus
Family Clariidae
Clarias albopunctatus African catfish C 1,2,3,4, Swamps
Clarias buthapogon “ C 1,2,3,4 Swamps
Clarias gariepinus “ C 1,2,3,4 Swamps and shallow waters
H. bidorsalis ‘ R 1,2,3,4,5 Swamps and shallow waters
Family Channidae
Channa obscura Snake fish C 3,4 Swamps
Channa africana C 3,4 Swamps
Family Pantodontidae
Pantodon sp Butterfly fish C 8 Swamps, shallow flood plains
Hepsetidae
Hepsetus odoe African pike C 1,2,4 Open waters,
Family Schilbeidae
Schilbe mystus C 1,2 Freshwater rives and lakes
Eutropius niloticus Glass catfish R 1,2 Freshwater rives and lakes
Family Mochochidae
Synodontis schall Three-spined C 1,2,4 Freshwater rivers and lakes
S. membranaceous catfish C 1,2,4 Freshwater rivers and lakes
Synodontis occelifer « R 1,2,4 Freshwater rivers and lakes
Synodontis sp « R 1,2,4 Freshwater rivers and lakes
Family Polypteridae
Polypterus bichir Bony tongue C 1,2,3 Swamps
Calamoichthys Lung fish C 3 Swamps
calabaricus
Family Lepidosirenidae
Protopterus annectens R 1,2,3,4 Swamps
Family Gymnarchidae
Gymnarchus niloticus C 1,2,3,4 Freshwater rivers and lakes
Family Characidae
Hydrocyon forskhali C 1,2,3,5 Open waters of rivers and lakes
Alestes baremose C 1,2,3,5,6 Open waters of rivers and lakes
Alestes macrolepidotus R 1,2,3,5,6 Open waters of rivers and lakes
Family Anabantidae
Ctenopoma kingsleyae Climbing perch R 3 Mainly in swamps
Family Notopteridae
Xenomystus nigri R 1,2,3 Swamps
Key
1 = Cast net 6 = Lift net AI = Abundance Index
2 = Gill net 7 = Filter net C = Common
3 = Basket trap 8 = Light trap R = Rare
4 = Long line/hooks
5 = Encircling nets/Beach seine
(Modified from: Baseline Studies Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 61 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.2 Social Environment


3.3.2.1 Communities/Constituencies
The major stakeholder community to the Okordia-Rumuekpe Trunkline Replacement
project at the Sombriero River is Ihuowo. Ihuowo owns the land that borders the section
of the pipeline to be replaced on both sides. Rumuekpe shares boundaries with Ihuowo
on land that borders the pipeline section to be replaced on one of the sides. Ihuowo
belongs to the Ekpeye ethnic group in Ahoada East LGA of Rivers State. The community
belongs to the Upata Kingdom, which is one of the four sub-clans of the Ekpeye Clan,
the other sub-clans being Igbuduya, Ako and Ubie. The land in question, which borders
the section of the pipeline to be replaced on both sides belongs to the Agolo family of
Ihuowo.

3.3.2.2 Population
The current population for Ihuowo was estimated at 5215 people, based on projections
from the 1991 census figures.

The linear extrapolation model utilized for the population projections is shown in Box 1

Box 3.0: Linear Extrapolation Model Utilized for Population


Projection

Linear Extrapolation Model


Pn = Po + Na, where Po=the base population; a = growth per annum of 2.83%;
and n = time period in years.

3.3.2.3 Age – Sex Distribution


Demographic information from the area showed that the population structure was
bottom-heavy. Age bracket 0-14 made up 47.3%, almost half of the total population,
while persons of 65 years and above made up only 5% of the total population. (Fig 3.12)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 62 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

65 + (5%)

25-64(23%)

15-24(24.3%)

0-14 (47%)

Figure 3.12: Population Distribution Pyramid


(Source: Values taken from Rumuekpe-Bomu EIA, SPDC 1993)

The productive working age grade (24-64) accounted for 24.3% of the total population.
This category bears the burden of dependence of other age grades, including the
younger ones of 0-14, school goers of 15-24 and the old of 65-plus.

The 15-24-age bracket made up 24.3% of the population. This age bracket is considered
very sensitive, being students, dropouts and apprentices in their most volatile and
venturing phases of life, who commonly do not compromise their socioeconomic needs
without serious negative effects to family, society, oil companies and other important
stakeholders.

3.3.2.4 Household Size


The average number of persons that lived in one household in Ahoada area is compared
with that of other areas in Rivers State in Figure 3.13. The average household size in
Ahoada LGA was 6.1. It was equal to the household sizes in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni
(ONELGA), Abua Odua and Emohua LGAs, which were all higher than the state
average of 5.1.

Bonny LGA had the lowest household size (3.3) amongst the LGAs in Rivers state, while
Obi Akpor had 3.6, Degema 4.2, Port Harcourt 4.1, Okrika 4.3, Ikwerre 5.1, Khana and
Oyigbo 4.6.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 63 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

7
6
5
4
3 Household size

2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1.ONELGA , 2. Emohua, 3. Abua Odual, 4. Ahoada, 5. Obio- Akpor, 6. Tai-Eleme, 7. Ikwerre, 8.


Etche, 9. Akukutoru, 10. Bonny, 11. Oyigbo, 12. Degema, 13. Okrika,. 14. Khana, 15Gokana, 16.
Andoni orobo, 17 Port Harcourt

Figure 3.13: Household Size in Ahoada and other LGAs in Rivers State
(Source: FOS 1994)

More recent studies in the study area came up with higher household sizes than the
findings shown above. Ihuowo and Rumuekpe were amongst the communities covered
in the EIA for the Gbaran-Ubie node IOGP. Findings from this study showed that about
48% of the households had between 6-10 persons, 21% had between 1-5 householders
and 31% had above ten people living in a household (Table 3.32).

Table 3.32: Household Size in Study Area


Number of persons Number of Respondents Percentage
per household
1-5 151 21
6- 10 346 48
> 10 223 31
No response 0 0
Total 720 100
(Source: Survey Findings, Gbaran-Ubie IOGP, 2003)

The significantly larger households found in the more recent survey could be attributed
to the difference in perception of household in the two studies, with the previous survey
considering a household as a nuclear family comprising of a father, mother(s) and

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 64 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

children while the more recent survey considered other members of the extended family
living under the same roof

3.3.2.5 Marital Status


About 55% of the respondents in the project area were married while 18.3% were single.
The remaining respondents (17.7%) were divorced while 9% were widowed. (Fig.3.14).
Polygyny also occur in the community

Widow ed
Single 9%
18%

Divorced
18%

Married
55%

Figure 3.14: Marital Status in Study Area

3.3.2.6 Income Distribution


The income of the respondents was generally low. In a recent survey covering the study
area, more than 60% of the respondents earned below N5,000 as monthly income, 15%
earned between N5,000 and N10,000, 10% earned between N10,000 and N20,000
while another 15% earned above N20,000. (Table 3.33)

These findings depict income poverty, which is commonly found in rural communities
that depend solely on low yielding returns on agrarian economic activities.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 65 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.33: Income Distribution of Respondents in Study Area


Income (N) Number of Respondents Percentage
Below 5000 432 60
5000 – 10,000 108 15
10,000 – 20,000 72 10
Above 20,000 108 15
Total 720 100
(Source: Survey Findings, Gbaran-Ubie IOGP, 2003)

3.3.2.7 Living Conditions and Housing


Most community members in Ihuowo live in their own houses (FGD Response). Recent
studies corroborated this as a fact. 86.6% of the respondents in the Gbaran Ubie EIA
lived in their own houses, while 13.4% lived in rented accommodation.

Within Ihuowo community, majority of houses are of the modern type, built with cement
block and roofed with zinc. However, several mud houses with either zinc or thatch roofs
were observed in the community.

3.3.2.8 Electricity supply, Source of lighting/ Energy for Cooking


Expressed in local fashion, ‘There is no light in Ihuowo’. The community was not
connected to the national electricity grid (NEPA) at the time of study. Over 90% of the
households in the community depended on hurricane lanterns for lighting, while the rest
relied on generators. Firewood is the major source of cooking fuel followed by kerosene.

3.3.2.9 Transportation /Accessibility of the communities


The major means of transportation are bicycles and commercial motorcycles. A very
small percentage of the respondents use motor vehicles. Canoes are the main mode of
transportation to farms and fishing grounds. Access to neighbouring communities is
through the road linking Ahoada to Ihuowo as well as through footpaths. The community
is accessible by road all year round, although the main road linking Ahoada to Ihuowo
was in a critical state of disrepair at the time of the present observation.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 66 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.2.10 Education
The level of literacy of a community depicts its level of development. High levels of
tertiary and secondary education are statements of development, while on the other
hand, high numbers of persons lacking primary education indicate poverty and
underdevelopment.

Ihuowo and Rumuekpe were amongst the communities covered in the EIA for the
Gbaran/Ubie IOGP. Figure 3.15 shows the educational attainment in this area. The
numbers of people with no form of formal education were exceptionally high, depicting a
low level of functional literacy.

Higher Degree

Tertiary Education
(NCE, OND, A/L
Degree/HND)

FEMALE
Secondary School
MALE

Primary School

No formal Education

0 200 400 600 800 1000


Frequency

Fig. 3.15: Educational Attainment in Project Area

Previous studies of the area established that the challenges of education were not so
much the availability of primary and secondary schools, as the poor infrastructure,
staffing and equipments in schools. There were enough classrooms in the primary
school in Ihuowo. In addition, the primary school has a staff quarter that was donated by

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 67 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

SPDC. However, there were complaints of lack of adequate tables and chairs (poor
furniture)

Ihuowo has a primary school but no secondary school. Secondary school pupils walk 9
km to and from school in Edoha daily.

3.3.2.11 Occupation
Farming is the major occupation in the area. This is supplemented with fishing, palm
wine tapping and palm kernel processing. In addition, communities practice hunting,
logging and other traditional occupations commonly practiced in fresh water forest areas.
Aside from the traditional occupations, the most popular income generating activity is
petty trading. Others include contracting, welding works, motor mechanics and
carpentry, civil servants in the Local or State government service, company employees
as well as teaching (Fig. 3.16).

FEMALE
MALE
1000
900
800
700
Frequency

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
*Electrician,
Trading

*Contractor
*Carpentry,
Fishing

Civil Servant
Farming

*Tailoring,
*Driving,
Others

Occupation

Fig. 3.16: Occupational Patterns in Project Area

Cassava is the major crop cultivated in Ihuowo. Other crops cultivated are plantain,
banana, okra, vegetables, cocoyam, yam and maize. Crops were cultivated mainly for
subsistence, but some were grown in medium scale.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 68 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Local livestock and fish rearing are practiced. Local fowls and goats are the most
popular livestock found in Ihuowo. Females are as active as their male counterparts in
farming activities

Plate 3.7: Local Gin Distilling Shed on Banks of the Sombreiro at Ihuowo.

Farmers’ stocks for the previous year are the main source of planting materials. Planting
materials could also be sourced from other farmers and local markets. Fish fingerlings
are obtained mostly from the wild.

Decreasing agricultural production was expressed as a major concern, which was


attributed to loss of soil fertility, gas flaring and oil pollution. Other reasons could include
population pressure, pest and diseases, erosion, negative attitudes towards farming as
well as inadequate labor supply.

Farm labor was available but expensive. Farming operations requiring external labor
inputs include clearing, land preparation, staking, planting, weeding, harvesting,

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 69 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

processing, marketing and storage. The labor force used was family members, hired and
communal labor. Children, however, participated to some extent in the various activities.

Manual tools such as machetes and hoes are the major implements for agriculture.
There is no access to modern farm inputs and technologies. Some identified limitations
to agricultural productivity in Ihuowo include the lack of access to fertilizers, credit, agro-
chemicals (herbicides, pesticides etc) and tractors.

3.3.2.12 Cultural Environment


Origins
The Ekpeye ethnic nationality originated from the ancient Benin Empire. Due to wars,
the group left the Benin enclave and migrated to their present location. They first settled
into four sub-clan groups, namely Upata, Igbuduya, Ako and Ubie. It is known that
migrations occurred, resulting in lineages or families within the Ekpeye settlements
founding parallel settlements. Other families joined the principal founders to establish
new communities. For example, the Ishikokoko and Uchi lineage groups are found in all
Ekpeye communities.

Social Groups
Several social groups exist in Ihuowo community. Their origin depends on their intended
mission and objectives for which they were conceived. Church-related groups have
existed for several years and are interested in the spiritual well-being of their members.
Some elders that were interviewed stated that some key community organisations had
existed since the beginning of their communities. These organisations were:
 Women Associations
 Youth Associations
 Cooperatives
 Social Clubs
 Age Grades
 Community Development Associations

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 70 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Community Power Structure and Governance


The power structure of each community had the Paramount Ruler at the apex. The
council of chiefs, elders, CDC, youths leaders, women leaders and age grades assist in
decision-making and governance (Fig. 3.17).

Paramount Ruler:
(Onyenwe Ali)

Council of Chiefs

Community
Development
Committee (CDC)

Women Youth Group Other social


groups

Residents

Fig. 3.17: Traditional Hierarchy of Governance In Ihuowo

Village Heads convene meetings monthly or when required to discuss the welfare of
their settlements and to settle disputes between residents. The Council of Chiefs,
Community Development Committee (CDC) and Youth Council all work with the village
head and play different roles in the day-to-day administration of each community.

The Council of Chiefs consists of traditional chiefs among whom a Chairman is elected.
The responsibility of the council is to ensure peace, progress and stability in the
community.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 71 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

The CDC, which has representation from each section of the community, takes
responsibility for infrastructure and other aspects of community development. Its elected
chairman is usually an influential member of the community, who commonly serves as
the spokesman for the community in matters relating to community development.

The youth are most central for mobilizing for development. Both the youth and women
are key players in pushing home community advocacy agendas. For instance, it was the
Ihuowo women that were said to have denied Wilbros access to execute SPDC pipeline
construction/pigging activities in 1981 until commitments were made for community
development.

Church leaders, the local government councillor and other political office holders from
the community also assist in decision-making and governance. Table 3.34 shows the
different spheres of influence and lines of authority.

Table 3.34: Roles and Responsibilities of Traditional Authorities in Ihuowo


Community Chief Age CDC Church Women Youth
Grades Groups Group

Ihuowo 2,3,4, 3 3 3 3 1,3

Legend: 1= Mobilization; 2 = Decision making; 3 = Development; 4 = Enforce law and order

Religion and Belief System


Christianity and traditional religion are the two major religions practiced. This fact is
substantiated by the prominence of the Anglican Church in Ihuowo as well as several
shrines, sacred forests, mystic lakes etc

It is believed that the Ekpeye encountered strong mysterious forces and wars with other
human groups; hence they were “fortified” with mystic powers and weapons. Their belief
in deities and “Juju” is very strong among individual lineages. Hence, the existence of
several shrines, sacred forests, mystic lakes and totemic objects and masquerades.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 72 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

For instance, a recent study established that Ihuowo has 1 sacred shrine, 4 sacred lakes
and 4 sacred forests (Table 3.35) (Gbaran-Ubie IOGP, 2003).

Table 3.35: Sacred Shrines, Lakes and Forests in Ihuowo

Community No. of Shrines No. of Lakes No. of Forests

Ihuowo 1 4 4

However, discussions with the elders revealed that there are many more sacred places
than the numbers recorded, which includes the god of the Sombriero River that would
need to be appeased before the proposed construction can proceed.

3.3.3 Health Environment


The project community, Ihuowo was part of the Ubie node communities studied during
the Environmental Impact Assessment of Gbaran/Ubie Integrated Oil and Gas Project
and the Environmental Impact Assessment of the Kolo Creek – Rumuekpe Pipeline
Replacement Project. The health baseline data from these reports were used for this
study.

3.3.3.1 Disease Pattern


The disease pattern in the project communities leading to hospital admissions reported
during focus group discussions in 2003 is as shown in Table 3.36 below. These are
predominantly infectious diseases with malaria accounting for 46.16 %, diarrhoeal
diseases 20.5 %, and respiratory tract infections 13.58 %. Thus the infectious diseases
accounted for 80.24 % of the overall illnesses requiring admission in 2003 in the project
communities.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 73 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.36: The Disease Pattern in the Project Communities


Types of Diseases Number of *Proportional
Hospital morbidity
Admissions in (%)
2003 by
Respondents
Malaria 367 46.16
Diarrhoea 163 20.5
Respiratory tract infection 108 13.58
Tuberculosis 14 1.76
Accident/injuries 88 11.06
Hypertension 34 4.27
Visual impairment 14 1.76
Asthma 7 0.88
Total 795 100
*Proportional Morbidity = Number of cases x 100
Total Number of diseased
(Source: Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

The common symptoms/signs and diseases detected during physical examination of


individuals in the communities in 2004 are as shown in Table 3.37 below. There was a
preponderance of infectious diseases of the skin. However, there were a large number
of non-infectious diseases of the cardiovascular and alimentary systems.

Table 3.37: The Common Symptoms/ Signs and Diseases Detected During
Physical/Clinical Examination
Body Part Examined Physical Findings (Signs/ Percentage
Diseases) Incidence
Skin Pityriasis Vesicolor 20%
Tinia 10%
Scabies 30%
Ear Otitis Externa 2%
Eye Visual Problems 6%
Cataract (Senile / pathological) 5%
Mouth Poor oral hygiene 3%
Dental caries 6%
Cardiovascular system Anaemia 20%
Hypertension 12%

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 74 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Body Part Examined Physical Findings (Signs/ Percentage


Diseases) Incidence
Crepitations 2%
Irregular heart beats 10%
Respiratory system Wheezes/Rhonchi 10%

Crepitations 2%

Rubs 3%

Abdomen Umbilical defects 20%

Hepato splenomegaly 15%

3.3.3.2 Mortality

The leading causes of death (as given during the focus group discussions) among
children under five years of age were malaria, febrile convulsion, measles, and
diarrhoeal diseases, while in adults they were malaria, typhoid fever, rheumatism,
diabetes, hypertension and tuberculosis.

3.3.3.3 Healthcare Facilities and Services


The community has a NYSC Community Health Centre built through communal effort.
This healthcare centre was adopted by NYSC that seconds health personnel (Doctors/
Pharmacists) to manage the centre. The centre had a doctor, pharmacist and seven
community health extension workers (CHEW) at the time of visit. There were ten
admission beds, laboratory and surgical facilities.

The services rendered include both preventive (immunisation) and curative. The average
daily clinic attendance is twenty. The pattern of diseases commonly seen at the centre
was infectious diseases (malaria, respiratory tract infections, measles, diarrhoea),
malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, rheumatic diseases, complications of
pregnancy (early labour, spontaneous abortion,) etc.

The healthcare centre is easily accessible to members of the community. The needs of
the healthcare centre include generator for light, potable water, upgrading the doctor’s
residence, fence etc.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 75 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

• Medicinal Plants
The Ihuowo community relies on some medicinal plants for their healthcare. These
include ogbuchuru for wound healing, ugbola for treating malaria, ukwoline for eye
problems and udo for treating hernia etc.

3.3.3.4 Environmental Health Factors


3.3.3.4.1 Water Supply, Quality, Quantity and Housing Conditions
The sources of water for domestic use in the communities include pond, river, rain and
boreholes. Most of these sources (except borehole) were contaminated. The
communities do not treat their water before drinking.

Observations on environmental health factors within the community shows that the
volume of domestic water available to individuals is less than ten litres per day and less
than 10% of the population have access to potable household water (Table 3.38). A
large proportion of houses (98%) have no modern toilet facilities. The number of
occupants per room is three to five as opposed to a maximum of two adults or one adult
plus a child as stipulated by WHO.

Table 3.38: Indicators for Safe Water and Sanitation


S/No Indicator Unit of Communities Status WHO Standards
Measurement
1 Quantity of No of litres per <10 litres 50 litres / day /
water person per day person

2 Quantity of No of users per point <10% of the population


water (access) (Tap or Well) used a point (Tap or
Well)
3 Proportion of Percentage 80% - 90% < 5%
households
without safe
drinking water
supply
4 Access to safe Proportion with <10% Pipe borne water
water access to water should be within
within 200 m of a 200 m of reach.
standing tap or well
5 Sanitary Toilet Proportion of 98%
household without
sanitary toilet

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 76 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

S/No Indicator Unit of Communities Status WHO Standards


Measurement
6 Housing The houses were Maximum of two
built with mud and adults of
block and roofed with opposite
zinc or thatch sex/room
No more than one
Average no of 3 – 5 persons/room adult and a child
persons per room less than 12
(Adult and children) years old.
Proportion of Plumbing <5%
household with indoor Laterines <2%
plumbing, latrines or Refuse disposal <1%
refuse disposal
facilities.
7 Mosquito % sites/geographic 100%
Breeding area
places Proximity to 100%
populated area

3.3.3.4.2 Wastes

Sources of Wastes

The types of wastes generated in these areas are from domestic, agricultural, fishing,
commercial and trading activities. Human/animal faecal deposits constitute further
sources of wastes

Waste Inventorisation
The inventory of wastes generated from various sources in the area are provided in
Table 3.39

Table 3.39: Wastes Inventorisation from the Identified Sources in the Communities
Waste Sources Waste Types
Domestic activities Ashes, cassava peels, yam peels, macerated food remains, rags,
kitchen waste water, vegetable, fish and meat waste parts, palm
kernel and coconut shells, coconut fruit barks, plates, polythene
bags, plastic containers, sticks, wire gauze, paper, foot wears,
deformed unidentifiable solid objects, detergent containers etc.

Wastes from agricultural Palm fronds, cassava tubers, sticks, leaves, fishing nets/hooks,
and fishing activities sticks, shells, and baskets etc.

Wastes from commercial Papers and cartons, nylon bags, jute bags, cans/tins, polythene
and trading activities bags, paper, crates, detergents packs bottles, wigs, plastic kegs etc

Human/animal faecal Excreta, Urine etc


waste

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 77 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Waste Disposal Methods

The identified disposal methods in the communities included:


 Open dumping
 Bush dumping
 Pit latrine
 Rivers, streams/creeks

Wastes generated in the communities were disposed indiscriminately in bushes,


rivers/streams, creeks/creeklets. Domestic wastes were collected in baskets, old basins
or buckets, nylon bags, and paper cartons. Wastes from agricultural and fishing activities
were collected and disposed off at farm sites, riverbanks, bushes and open
dumpsites.Commercial/Trading centre wastes were also disposed of in bushes, surface
water bodies, and in open dumpsites. Human/animal faecal wastes were disposed of in
the bush. Most respondents in the communities affirmed that they occasionally dug
holes in the bush to defaecate. Pit latrines were found in the communities. In riverine
areas, defaecation into water bodies is common. Few water closet (WC) types are found
in the community.

Waste Recycling Techniques


There were no proper waste recycling mechanisms in the communities. Wastes were not
segregated at source into decomposable/non-decomposable types before disposal.
However, wastes generated from domestic, agricultural/fishing activities were deposited
in homestead farms, allowed to decompose and used as organic manure.

3.3.3.4.3 Air Quality/Noise


The air pollutants assessed in the communities were nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide,
carbon monoxide, volatile organic carbon and hydrogen sulphide. All these pollutants
were within FMENV regulatory standards. The ambient noise levels in the communities
were within acceptable limits of 95(dB).

3.3.3.4.4 Disease Vectors


The prominent disease vectors in the communities are mosquitoes, housefly, latrine fly,
cockroaches and rats

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 78 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.3.5 Lifestyle/ Habits


3.3.3.5.1 Nutritional Status
Starchy foods such as cassava, rice, yam and plantain are consumed in various forms.
The sources of animal proteins include seafood such as fish, shrimps, crayfish, and
snails etc.

Nutritional Status of Children under Five Years


The anthropometric assessment (body measurement) of the nutritional status of children
under five years with features of malnutrition and growth related problems is shown in
Table 3.40 below. The assessment showed that the children had very high wasting,
high under weight and moderate stunting, based on the WHO (1986) and Center for
Disease Control of USA (1987) recommendation for Z-score.

The prevalence of stunting was moderate in these communities, 24.4% (13.5% males
and 10.9% females) based on WHO classification. The moderate stunting rates reflects
long term or chronic nutritional inadequacy. The prevalence of underweight and wasting
were high (37.8% and 35.4% respectively), which indicates acute under-nutrition in
these communities.

The combination of moderate stunting and high/very high wasting as observed in this
area, is in keeping with the common pattern of malnutrition observed in many parts of
Nigeria; predominance of acute over chronic malnutrition.

These findings are in keeping with known patterns particularly in the developing
countries. Majority of the respondents in this study earned very poorly and probably,
were unable to afford balanced diet three (3) times a day. Repeated episodes of acute
infections from faeco-oral transmission might also have played an important role in this
picture of under-nutrition.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 79 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

Table 3.40: Nutritional Status of children Under Five in the Area Using
Anthropometric Indices
(n2 = 82)
Anthropometric
Indicator Male Female Total
No % No % No %
Stunting A 11 13.5 9 10.9 20 24.4
Underweight B 8 22.0 13 15.8 31 37.8
Wasting C 16 19.5 13 15.8 29 35.4
A = Height-For-Age less than –2 standard deviations below WHO reference value
B = Weight-For-Age less than –2 standard deviations below WHO reference value
C = Weight-For-Height less than –2 standard deviations below WHO reference value
n2 = Total sample of under five.

3.3.3.5.2 Cigarette smoking/ Alcohol Consumption


Fig. 3.18 shows the alcohol consumption, cigarette and tobacco smoking among the
respondents in the communities. The results showed that 49% of adults drank alcohol,
about 10.1% smoked cigarettes while 4% snuffed tobacco. No female among the
respondents smoked cigarette.

1600
1400
1200
Frequency

1000
800
600
400 MALE
200 FEMALE

0
Alcohol Cigarette Tobacco

Fig. 3.18: Alcohol


FIG Intake,
3.18: Alcohol Tobacco
intake, Use
tobacco use andand Cigarette
cigarette Smoking
smoking among among
15 years and 5 Years and
Above in the Study Areaabove in the area

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 80 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.3.5.3 Knowledge, Attitude, Practices and Behaviour on Sexually Transmissible


Infections
Fig. 3.19 shows that 20.5% and 9.1% of the community members were aware of the
existence of HIV/AIDS and gonorrhoea respectively. Presently, HIV/AIDS seems to be
the health problem that has attracted the highest attention among the sexually
transmissible infections from the Federal Government of Nigeria, through the National
Action Committee on AIDS (NACA) activities.

Other bodies such as the eight leading Industrialised Nations of the World (G8), WHO,
UNICEF, World Bank, USAID, major religious groups, the print/electronic media, local
and international NGOs, and professional groups etc. have also shown considerable
interest. This interest is not surprising because the national sero-prevalence rates for
HIV is 5.4% while Rivers States had 7.0% (State Ministry of Health 2003). These values
for Rivers States were in excess of the national figure. The high levels might have
contributed to the level of HIV awareness in the studied area.

800
700
600
Frequency

500
400
300
200
100
0

HIV Gonorrhea Don't know


Types of sexually transmissible infections

Fig 3.19: Awareness of Sexually Transmissible Infections among


Respondents in the Study Area

Sexual Behaviour
The highest number of multiple sexual partners kept by respondents was six (6) as
shown in Fig. 3.20. However, keeping of two (2) sexual partners were the most
commonly practised sexual behaviour. Negative social habits like the use of stimulants
such as drugs and alcohol (both found to be in use in these communities) are risk factors
in STIs and HIV/AIDS transmission. Drugs and alcohol are known to limit inhibitions and

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 81 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

increase sexual urge. These factors encourage unprotected sexual practice and having
multiple sexual partners. .

1400

1200

1000
Frequency

800

600

400

200

0
Single 2 3 4 5 6
No of Partners

Fig. 3.20: Frequency Distribution of Multiple Sexual Partners in the Study Area

3.3.3.6 Immunization Status in Children


The immunization coverage of under-fives in the area in 2003 were BCG 70%, oral polio
80%, and DPT 65%. The coverage for yellow fever and hepatitis immunization was very
poor accounting for less than ten percent each Fig 3.21.

3.3.3.7 Measurements of Respiratory Function


The peak flow rate (PFR) is the fastest rate a person can blow air out of the lungs after
taking a breath as deep as possible. This speed indicates the state of the lung function.
The PFR among the sampled adults (Fig.3.22) showed that, there might be
compromised lung functions in the communities. This might be due to the prevalent
respiratory tract infection, smoking habit and regular contact with smoke from cooking,
fish processing and vehicular emissions.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 82 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

90
80
70
60
Frequency

50
40
30
20
10
0
BCG Yellow fever Oral Polio Hepatitis DPT Measles
Vaccine
Immunization Type

Fig. 3.21: Immunisation status of children under five years in


Fig. 3.21: Immunisation Status of Children under Five Years in the Study Area
the area

700

600

500

400 P FR 1
Standard

300 P FR 2
Sample
200

100

0
20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-55 55-59 60-64 65-69 70+

AGE GROUP (YEARS)

Fig. 3.22: Peak flowrate among sampled adults compared to


standard for age

(Source : Gbaran/Ubie IOGP, SPDC, 2003)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 83 of 84


CHAPTER 3 Description of the Environment

3.3.3.8 Health Determinants


The following were noted as possible health determinants in the area and might have
contributed to the overall burden of diseases.
• Qualitative inadequacy of health facilities.

• Improper disposal of faecal material leading to faecal pollution of the


drinking water sources. This might have contributed to the frequency of
water and food borne diseases such as diarrhoeal diseases, typhoid etc.

• Improper domestic waste disposal methods common in the area which


promote the availability of disease vectors that constitute risk factors in
water and food borne diseases endemic in the community.

• Poverty and overcrowding in improper accommodation. Overcrowding


enhances transmission of communicable diseases such as skin infections
(scabies, taenia infections etc), respiratory tract infections (tuberculosis,
whooping cough etc).

• The non-consumption of a balanced diet, which leads to under nutrition as


was observed in the community. The commonly consumed foods in the
communities were predominantly carbohydrates.

• Lifestyle and habits such as the use of alcohol and cigarette smoking.
These habits lead to organ damage, could encourage multiple sexual
partners and predispose individuals to the risk of STIs and HIV/AIDS.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 84 of 84


CHAPTER FOUR
CONSULTATIONS

4.0 CONSULTATIONS
In line with SPDC procedures for proactive engagement of stakeholders, the EIA
process for the Okordia-Rumuekpe Trunkline Replacement at the Sombriero River
included consultations with regulators and communities.

Establishing and maintaining communications with these important stakeholders met the
following additional objectives of the EIA:
• Ensuring that stakeholders are adequately, correctly and timely informed of
the proposed project.
• Encouraging meaningful participation of stakeholders in the EIA process.
• Building mutual trust between stakeholders and SPDC.
• Identifying, analysing and evaluating stakeholders’ issues and concerns early
(at the planning stage).
• Raising the comfort level of decision makers.
• Bringing forward different views on the project at the planning stage.

The major Stakeholder Engagement Sessions implemented in this EIA were:


1. Meeting with community representatives in Ihuowo on the 28th of September,
2005. The minutes of the community engagement session is provided as
Appendix 4.1

2. Submission of proposal to the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMENV),


Abuja, April 2005.

3. Site verification visit, which involved traveling to the proposed project area
with FMENV representatives on the 19th of August 2005.

4. Meeting/Interview with doctor in the Community Health Centre.

The following interests were represented in the meeting held with community
representatives in Ihuowo.
o Paramount ruler of Ihuowo
o Council of Chiefs of Ihuowo
o Leadership of the Agolo family (owners of project land)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 1 of 7


CHAPTER 4 Consultations

o The CDC
o Community Youth
o Opinion leaders in community and former SPDC staff
o Federal Ministry of Environment,
o Rivers State Ministry of Environment
o SPDC Project Management/Engineer
o SPDC, Health, Safety and Environment
o SPDC Consultants (Biophysical, Social and Health)

Activities that were carried out in the community meeting were:


1. Technical presentation/Project description by the project manager;
2. Expression of concerns by community
3. Focus Group Discussion to fill data gaps, probe deeper into community
concerns and build consensus over potential impacts.

As an outcome, the stakeholder engagement session was able to deliver on its key
expectations. Community representatives were encouraged to make their views known
without restraint. The community participated actively and raised their concerns on the
project as follows:

• The god of the Sombriero River protects the community and would need to
be appeased before the proposed activity can proceed.

• SPDC should provide an alternative source of drinking water for the


community before the commencement of work as the river serves as a
source of drinking water, fermentation of cassava and processing of other
farm produce.

• Employ community members in the project

• SPDC to assist Ihuowo community in providing adequate tables and chairs at


the primary school.

• SPDC should provide 400 open market sheds.

Furthermore, the community provided information needed to confirm the validity of


secondary data, fill identified data gaps and clarify doubtful areas in the biophysical,
social and health aspects.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 2 of 7


CHAPTER 4 Consultations

As follow up on the above, there has been regular consultation between SPDC
Community Relations Officer and the community on the project.

Picture clips of Stakeholders` Engagement Session at the Palace of Nye Nwe Ele
Ihuowo, Chief C.I Elebra. 28/09/05.

Plate 4a: Cross section of community engagement for the Project at


Ihuowo showing Jeremiah Anietie of SPDC

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 3 of 7


CHAPTER 4 Consultations

Plate 4b: HRH Chief Clinton Elebra, The Onyenwali of Ihuowo (sitting middle)

Plate 4c: Cross section of community representatives at the stakeholder meeting

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 4 of 7


CHAPTER 4 Consultations

Plate 4d: Community spokesman stressing an issue at the meeting

Plate 4e: Community spokesman stressing an issue at the meeting

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 5 of 7


CHAPTER 4 Consultations

Plate 4f: SPDC SIA consultant in discussion with the Paramount Ruler

Plate 4g: SPDC and FMENV staff at the stakeholder meeting

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 6 of 7


CHAPTER 4 Consultations

Plate 4h: SPDC HSE staff at the stakeholder meeting

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 7 of 7


CHAPTER FIVE
ASSOCIATED AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS

5.0 INTRODUCTION
The 44 m of the 14” x 33.4km Okordia – Rumuekpe Pipeline replacement project at
Sombreiro River Crossing is likely to have some environmental (biophysical, social and
health) impacts. The objectives of this assessment are to identify these potential
impacts associated with the proposed project activities, evaluate the likelihood of
occurrence, magnitude and significance of the identified impacts. Thereafter, mitigation
measures will be proffered for the anticipated negative impacts, while measures would
be provided for enhancing the positive (beneficial) effects.

5.1 IMPACT PREDICTION METHODOLOGY


The assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project was
undertaken using an ISO 14001 and Hazard and Effect Management Process (HEMP)
tool. The process included impact identification, description and categorization. The EIA
process considered interactions between impacts of the various project activities and
environmental sensitivities, as well as the interactions among the environmental
sensitivities in an all-inclusive manner.

5.2 RATING OF IMPACTS


There are six stages in the sequence of rating environmental impacts illustrated as
follows:

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 1 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

STAGE 1: STAGE 2:
STAGE 3:
Description: Qualification: Likelihood
Qualification:
Five characteristics Five ratings:
Potential
 Positive/negative  High probability 80-
Consequence:
 Direct/indirect 100% (very likely)
Five rating definitions,
 Duration:  Medium high
for environment,
Permanent (long probability 60-80%
social, health and
term)/temporary (likely)
reputation.
(short term)  Medium probability
(see text)
 Magnitude: local 40-60% (possible
 Extreme
or widespread impact)
 Great
 Reversible or  Medium low
 Considerable
irreversible probability 20-40%
 Little
(unlikely)
 Hardly Any
 Low probability 0-20%
(very unlikely)

STAGE 4: STAGE 5:
Degree of Impact Table STAGE 6:
Significance of Lists each Impact Text
Impact impact, its Describes each
Four degrees of source and its impact, its
significance: rating source and its
 Major rating
 Moderate
 Minor
 Negligible

The details of the procedures for the EIA process are as follows:

Once an impact has been identified, it is described and a rating ascribed.

Stage 1: Description of impact


The following characteristics are used to describe each impact:
• Positive/negative (beneficial/adverse);
• Direct/indirect (directly/via intermediate factors that influence the
determinants of an impact);
• Duration: Permanent (long term)/temporary (short term);

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 2 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

• Magnitude: local or widespread;


• Reversibility/irreversibility: can the impact revert to previous condition or does
it remain permanent?

Once each impact has been described, a rating is allocated.


Stages 2 and 3: Qualification of Impact.
This is based on two assessment characteristics:
Stage 2: Likelihood of Occurrence – this is an assessment of the probability of the
effect happening.
Stage 3: Potential Consequence – this is the actual result and scale that an effect
might have.
The application of each of the two characteristics is described in Tables 5.0 and 5.1.

Table 5.0 Likelihood of Occurrence


Impact Probability Impact Likelihood Impact Frequency
High (80-100%) Very likely Very frequent
Medium high (60-80%) Likely Frequent
Medium (40-60%) Possible Occasional
Medium low (20-40%) Unlikely Few
Low (0-20%) Very unlikely Rare

The potential consequence of an impact depends on two things: the magnitude of the
potential changes to the environment caused by a hazard and the level of sensitivity of
the receiving environment. This is depicted in Table 5.1.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 3 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

Table 5.1 Potential Consequences Classification Matrix


Receptor Magnitude of Effect
Sensitivity Low Change Medium Change High Change
Trivial effect Slight effect Substantial effect
Low

Slight Effect Substantial effect Big effect


Medium

Substantial effect Big effect Massive effect


High

The interaction between the magnitude of effect and receptor sensitivity will determine
the rating for potential consequence as shown in Table 5.2.

Table 5.2: Potential Consequence


Effect Potential Consequence
Massive Extreme
Big Great
Substantial Considerable
Slight Little
Trivial Hardly any

The definitions for the potential consequence of environmental, social and health
impacts are as follows:
Definitions for the potential consequence of environmental impacts

Hardly any: An effect on the biophysical environment such as physical (noise, light,
air), geochemical (water, soil), and biological (flora and fauna) that may cause temporary
and/or sub-lethal effects on individual plants and animals and does not cause any effect
on population structure or size; causes only temporary and/or minor disruption to
habitats and ecosystems.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 4 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

Little: An effect on the biophysical environment that may cause small impacts with few
losses of individual plants/animals and some adverse effects on population structure and
size; may cause some degradation of habitat and ecosystem quality.

Considerable: An effect on the biophysical environment that may cause long term loss of
plant and/or animal species; local and temporary damage to habitats and dysfunction of
communities and ecosystems.

Great: An effect on the biophysical environment that may cause permanent loss of plant
and/or animal species, resulting in local extinctions of flora and fauna; permanent loss of
small areas of habitat and ecosystems.

Extreme: An effect on the biophysical environment that may cause permanent loss of
whole populations of plants and/or animals, with widespread extinctions; widespread and
permanent loss of habitats; and whole communities and ecosystems.

Definitions for the potential consequences of social impacts

Hardly Any: A trivial effect on the social environment, which causes almost no
nuisance or damage in the community. The local culture and lifestyle as well as the
social infrastructure are somewhat negatively affected, but the effect is only temporary.
The impact could result in some disagreement with stakeholder groups, but relationships
are likely to remain strong.

Little: A slight effect on the social environment that causes temporary changes in the
way of life of the community. The local culture and societal structure is negatively
affected. There is disagreement with stakeholder groups but the relationship remains
fairly strong.

Considerable: A substantial effect on the social environment. The way of life in the
community is disrupted and fundamental disagreement with stakeholder groups has
arisen. There is a breakdown of trust between the company and its stakeholders
although relationships have remained stable. A single stakeholder group might have
started campaigning against the company.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 5 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

Great: A big effect on the social environment. There is permanent disruption to


communal lifestyle. The local culture and the societal structure suffer greatly. There
now is a fundamental disagreement between the company and its stakeholders that
destabilizes the company-stakeholder relationship. This may affect the speed and
effectiveness of future decision-making processes.

Extreme: A massive effect on the social environment. There is sustained large disruption
of and changes to the lifestyle of a community leading to a reduction in quality of life.
Impacts have become a concern for all stakeholder groups, irreversible damage to social
structure, traditional culture, and infrastructure and total breakdown of stakeholder
relationships.

Definitions for the potential consequences of health impacts

Hardly Any: These are mere nuisances, not affecting work performance or causing
disability, e.g. non-toxic dusts (as an acute hazard), short sleep disturbance. There is
no need to seek medical services or consult a doctor. These health effects will
disappear within a short time.

Little: Illnesses that will need the attention of medical services/doctor. They need only
a few days to fully recover and will not have led to chronic diseases, e.g., colds, chicken
pox, skin infections and irritants, or many food poisoning infections.

Considerable: Diseases (agents) capable of irreversible health damage causing


permanent partial disability without loss of life. These health effects will need prolonged
continuous or intermittent medical attention. e.g., hypertension, obesity, noise-induced
hearing loss, chronic back injuries caused by poor manual handling tasks or inactivity,
chronic infections (like sexually transmitted diseases, schistosomiasis, hepatitis A),
chronic skin diseases or respiratory system diseases like asthma caused by external
agents and stress.

Great: Permanent total disability or low number of fatalities: diseases capable of


irreversible damage with serious disability. Low infectious communicable diseases like

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 6 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

Ebola, SARS, parasitic diseases (malaria, sleeping sickness), alcoholism and drug
abuse, road traffic accidents, cancer caused by known human carcinogens (small
exposed population), malnutrition, heat stroke, severe psychological stress leading to
suicide.

Extreme: Multiple fatalities: diseases with the potential to cause multiple fatalities: highly
infectious diseases like tuberculosis, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, parasitic diseases as
malaria, diseases caused by acute toxins (hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide),
cancers caused by human carcinogens (large exposed population).

Stage 4: Degree of Significance


Table 5.3 shows the impact significance with associated impact rating.

Table 5.3 Degree of Impact Significance


Impact Significance Impact Rating
Major Major
Moderate Moderate
Minor Minor
Negligible Negligible

Stage 5: Impact Assessment Matrix


The potential impacts are evaluated using the impact assessment matrix shown in Table
5.4.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 7 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

Table 5.4 Impact Assessment Matrix


Potential consequences

Likelihood Positive Negative

Hardly any Little Considerable Great Extreme

High Moderate Moderate Major Major Major

Medium high Minor Moderate Moderate Major Major

Medium Minor Minor Moderate Moderate Major

Medium low Negligible Minor Minor Moderate Moderate

Low Negligible Negligible Minor Minor Moderate

After the rating for each impact, the determination of mitigation measures follows. From
the table above, only moderate and major impacts were considered for impact mitigation.
Continuous improvement and standard practices will address low (minor and negligible)
impacts. The positive impacts shall be monitored and enhanced.

5.3 IMPACT IDENTIFICATION


The environmental sensitivities considered in the impact assessment process of the
proposed project are:
1 Air quality 38 Balance in gender
2 Light/Solar radiation 39 Balance in age
3 Level of noise and sound 40 Ethnic balance
4 Surface water quality 41 Religious balance
5 Groundwater table/quality 42 Functioning of family structure
and traditional institute
6 Soil and sediment quality 43 Functioning of government
services
7 Household water quality 44 Healthy and clean housing and
living conditions
8 Access to household water 45 Access to clean drinking water
9 Quality of fish 46 Access to a nutritious and
healthy diet
10 Availability of breeding grounds 47 Exposure to nuisance (dust,
and food for fish noise etc.)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 8 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

11 Access to fishing grounds 48 Level of disease vectors


12 Access to forests 49 Exposures to STIs/HIV/AIDS
13 Availability of markets for forestry 50 Exposure to marine and traffic
products accidents
14 Access to farmlands 51 Mortality rate
15 Availability of markets for 52 Morbidity rate
agricultural products
16 Quality of habitat 53 Lifestyle
17 Biodiversity/Genetic resource 54 Alcohol and drugs abuse/
violence
18 Estuary/Freshwater complex 55 Physical activity
(erosion)
19 Swamp forest complex 56 Hygiene
20 Rain forest complex 57 Exposure to commercial sex
workers
21 Farmland complex 58 Access to primary health care
22 Sense of place/well being 59 Access to secondary health
/aesthetic value care
23 Traditional value of land 60 Access to traditional medicine
24 Access to ancestral and 61 Access to emergency services
culturally significant sites (first aid, Medevac)
25 Traditional occupations 62 Access to voluntary health
organisations
26 Level of income and financial 63 Respect for human rights
flows
27 Cost of living and inflation 64 Respect for labour rights
28 Opportunities for contracting and 65 Promoting equal opportunities
procurement
29 Opportunities for local and 66 Promoting opportunities for
national employment representation
30 Access to housing 67 Social exclusion abatement

31 Access to transport 68 Poverty alleviation


32 Access to roads and waterways 69 Morals and family values
33 Access to electricity 70 Cultural values and languages
34 Access to communication 71 Religious/Traditional structures
facilities and customs
35 Access to learning and education 72 Attack by bees, snakes,
facilities scorpions, wild life
attack/poisonous plants contact
36 Access to recreational facilities 73 Third party agitation
(communities, NGO, CBO, etc.)
37 Access to sanitation and waste
Management facilities
The identification and management of impacts associated with the different phases (pre-
construction, construction, commissioning, operations and decommissioning) of the
project involved:
• The production of project activities and environmental sensitivities matrix;
• Determination of associated and potential impacts;

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 9 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

• Mitigation measures;
• Management plans.

5.3.1 Project Activities and Sensitivities Interaction Matrix


The interactions between the project activities and the above listed environmental
sensitivities, as well as the interactions between the environmental sensitivities were
evaluated. The results of the evaluation for the different project phases are provided in
Table 5.6. The figures (codes) in the table represent the identified sensitivities that could
be impacted by the corresponding project activity or affected sensitivity.

5.3.2 Determination of Environmental Impacts


The anticipated impacts of the proposed project activities on the biophysical, social and
health components of the environment were identified based on the interaction between
project activities and environmental sensitivities. The interactions among the
environmental sensitivities were also considered for impact evaluation and
categorization. The results of the impact assessment are presented in Tables 5.6A - E.

The identified negative impacts were rated as minor, moderate and major. Beneficial
impacts arising from the project were rated as positive and were therefore not classified
further.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 10 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

Table 5.5: Project Activities and Environmental Sensitivities Interaction Matrix

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 11 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

Table 5.6A: Associated and Potential Impacts: Pre-Construction Phase


S/No Project Type of
Sensitivities Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
. Activities Impact
1 Temporary land 12, 14, 16, 17, Reduction of access to E, S • Direct Medium Little Minor
acquisition for 19 20, 21, 23, the acquired land and its • Negative
contractor lay 24, 25, 26, 46, resources. • Short term
down area. 63, 73 • Local
• Reversible

Third party agitations S • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate


(land disputes, wrong • Negative
stakeholder • Short term
identification, leadership • Local
tussles) • Reversible
2 Site Preparation 4, 12, 14, 16, Destruction of E,S, H • Direct Medium Little Minor
17, 18, 25, 26, Vegetation (Medicinal, • Negative
28, 29, 45, economic and food)/ • Short term
46, 47, 48, loss of wildlife habitat • Local
52, 55,61, 64, • Reversible
72, 73

Exposure of workers H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate


and community • Negative
members to attack by • Short/Long
poisonous snakes, term
bees, scorpions, other • Local
wildlife and contact with • Reversible/
poisonous plants. Irreversible
2 Site preparation 4, 12, 14, 16, Increased erosion of the E • Direct Medium Little Minor
17, 18, 25, 26, cleared area • Negative
28, 29, 45, • Long term
46, 47, 48, • Local
52, 55,61, 64, • Reversible

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 12 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

S/No Project Type of


Sensitivities Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
. Activities Impact
72, 73 Increased access for E,S,H • Direct Medium low Little Minor
hunting and logging • Negative
• Short term
• Local
• Reversible

Opportunities for S, H • Direct High Positive Positive


employment • Positive
• Short term
• Local
• Reversible

Injuries during H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate


vegetation clearing. • Negative high
• Short term
• Local
• Reversible

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 13 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

Table 5.6B Associated and Potential Impacts: Construction Phase


Type of
S/No Project Activities Sensitivities Impact Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
.
3 Labour 26, 27, 28, Increased S, H • Direct High Positive Positive
requirement 29, 45, 46, employment, • Positive
47, 48, 52, services and • Short term
55, 61, 64, income • Local
72, 73 • Reversible

Pressure on S, H • Direct Low Little Minor


existing • Negative
infrastructure • Short term
(health, • Local
recreational, • Reversible
housing etc)

Increase in social S, H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate


vices (violence, • Negative
drug/alcohol abuse, • Short term/
teenage long term
pregnancies, • Local/
prostitution etc) widespread
• Reversible/I
rreversible

Third party agitation S, H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate


(over employment • Negative High
issues) • Short term
• Local
• Reversible

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 14 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

Type of
S/No Project Activities Sensitivities Impact Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
.
4 Excavation/ 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, Change in E • Direct Medium Little Minor
Trenching 8, 9, 10, 11, topography of the • Negative
17, 18, 19, area • Long term
24, 25, 25, • Local
26, 27, 28, • Irreversible
29, 31, 45,
46, 47, 50,
52, 55, 73
Impairment of water E,S, H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
quality by increased • Negative high
turbidity • Short term
• Local
• Reversible
Interference with E, S, H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
river based • Negative
traditional • Short term
occupations • Local
(fishing, cassava/ • Reversible
palm produce
processing etc).
Increased erosion E • Direct Medium low Considerable Minor
of the riverbanks. • Negative
• Short term
• Local
• Reversible

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 15 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

Type of
S/No Project Activities Sensitivities Impact Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
.
4 Excavation/ 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, Disturbance of E, H, S • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
Trenching 8, 9, 10, 11, aquatic life • Negative
17, 18, 19, (zooplankton, • Short term
24, 25, 25, phytoplankton, • Local
26, 27, 28, benthic • Reversible
29, 31, 45, communities,
46, 47, 50, fisheries etc)
52, 55, 73 Third party agitation S, H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
due to impairment of • Negative
surface water • Short/Long
quality from term
increased turbidity • Local
• Reversible
Increased S, H • Direct Medium Positive Positive
opportunity for • Positive high
business and • Short term
employment. • Local
• Reversible

Nuisance (Noise, E,S,H • Direct Medium Little Minor


emission, Vibration) • Negative
from heavy • Short term
machinery. • Local
• Reversible

5 Site Fabrication 1, 2, 3, 17, Generation of high E, H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate


(Welding) and Non 26, 27, 28, intensity welding • Negative
Destructive 29, 45, 48, flash and noise • Short term
Testing 52,73 • Local
(Radiography) • Reversible

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 16 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

Type of
S/No Project Activities Sensitivities Impact Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
.
5 Site Fabrication 1, 2, 3, 17, Burns/ injuries from H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
(Welding) and Non 26, 27, 28, welding sparks • Negative
Destructive 29, 45, 48, • Short term
Testing 52,73 • Local
(Radiography) • Reversible
Exposure to E, H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
radioactive emission • Negative
during radiography • Long term
with possibility of • Local
genetic mutation. • Irreversible

6 Waste Generation 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, Increased S, H • Direct Medium Positive Positive


(solids/liquid/gase 8, 9, 10, 17, opportunity for • Positive
ous) 18, 19, 20, business and • Short term
21, 22, 25, employment • Local
26, 27, 28, • Reversible
29, 45, 48, Third party agitation S,H • Direct Medium low Considerable Minor
52, 73 from improper waste • Negative
management. • Short term
• Local
• Reversible
Contamination of E, S, H • Direct Medium low Considerable Minor
surface/ ground • Negative
water and soil • Short term
• local
• Reversible

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 17 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

Type of
S/No Project Activities Sensitivities Impact Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
.
6 Waste Generation 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, Impairment of the E, S, H • Direct Medium low Little Minor
(solids/liquid/gase 8, 9, 10, 17, health of aquatic • Negative
ous) 18, 19, 20, and terrestrial flora • Short term
21, 22, 25, and fauna • Local
26, 27, 28, • Reversible
29, 45, 48, Increase in disease S, H • Direct Medium low Considerable Minor
52, 73 conditions like • Negative
diarrhoea/ • Short term
respiratory tract • Local
diseases. • Reversible
Increased level of E,S,H • Direct Medium low Considerable Minor
disease vectors • Negative
(mosquitoes, rats, • Short term
cockroaches, flies, • Local
e.t.c) • Reversible

7 Cutting of the 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, Contamination of ESH • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate


existing pipeline 9, 10, 11, 16, surface/ ground • Negative
after flushing 17, 18, 19, water and soil from • Short term
20, 21, 25, the residual flow • Local
26, 28, 29, back. • Reversible
39, 45, 73

8 Removal of 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, Change in E • Direct Medium Little Minor


replaced (old) 7, 8, 9, 10, topography of the • Negative
pipeline section. 11, 16, 17, area (land/ river • Long term
18, 22, 25, bed) • Local
26, 45, 46, • Irreversible
52, 73

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 18 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

Type of
S/No Project Activities Sensitivities Impact Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
.
8 Pulling out of the 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, Third party agitation S, H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
pipeline section to 7, 8, 9, 10, over inheritance of • Negative high
be replaced. 11, 16, 17, the disused pipeline. • Short/Long
18, 22, 25, term
26, 45, 46, • Local
52, 73 • Reversible
Nuisance (Noise, E, S, H • Direct Medium Little Minor
emission, Vibration • Negative
etc) from heavy • Short term
machinery • Local
• Reversible
Impairment of water E,S, H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
quality by increased • Negative high
turbidity • Short term
• Local
• Reversible
9 Pipeline Laying 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, Blockage of water S • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
and Tie-in 10, 11, 12, ways and possibility • Negative
14, 17, 18, of maritime • Short term
24, 25, 26, accidents • Local
27, 28, 29, • Reversible
31, 39, 45,
49, 50, 52,
73

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 19 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

Type of
S/No Project Activities Sensitivities Impact Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
.
10 Backfilling of the 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, Impairment of water E, S, H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
trenches. 8, 9, 10, 11, quality by increased • Negative high
16, 17, 18, turbidity • Short term
19, 25, 26, • Local
32, 45, 46, • Reversible
47, 50, 52, 73 Third party agitation S, H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
from increased • Negative high
turbidity • Short term
• Local
• Reversible

Table 5.6C: Associated and Potential Impacts: Commissioning Phase


S/No Type of
Project Activities Sensitivities Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
. Impact
11 Pressure testing of 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, Contamination of E, S, H • Direct Medium low Little Minor
the new Pipeline 10, 11, 16, surface water/soil by • Negative
section using 17, 21, 25, the water used in • Short term
water from the 26, 27, 45, the testing. • Local
Sombreiro River. 46, 49, 52, • Reversible
53, 57, 58,
59, 63, 73
Contamination of E, H, S • Direct Medium low Considerable Minor
fishing grounds • Negative
nursery and • Short term
fisheries • Local
• Reversible

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 20 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

Table 5.6D: Associated and Potential Impacts: Operations Phase


Type of
S/No Project Activities Sensitivities Impact Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
.
12 Pipeline 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, Contamination of E,S,H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
operations and 9, 10, 11, 12, soil, sediments, • Negative
maintenance 13,14, 15, 16, surface and ground • Long term
(cathodic 17, 18, 19, water from oil spill • Local/
protection) 20, 21, 22, incidents and wash widespread
23, 24, 25, out from pigging • Reversible
26, 27, 28, operations.
29, 39, 45,
46, 49, 50,
52, 53, 54,
55, 57, 58, Destruction of E,S,H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate
59, 61, 62, assets and • Negative
63, 64, 69, properties from oil • Long term
70, 73 spill fire incident. • Local/
widespread
• Irreversible

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 21 of 28


Chapter Five Associated and Potential Impacts

Table 5.5E: Associated and Potential Impacts: Decommissioning Phase


Type of
S/No Project Activities Sensitivities Impact Impact Description Likelihood Consequence Rating
.
13 Decommissioning 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, Increased S, H • Direct Medium Positive Positive
of the entire 18, 19, 26, opportunity for • Positive high
Okordia – 27, 28, 29, business and • Short term
Rumuekpe 39, 45, 46, employment from • Local
pipeline. 50, 52, 53, labour requirement. • Reversible
54, 55, 57,
58, 59, 61,
63, 64, 70, 73
Nuisance (Noise, E,S,H • Direct Medium Little Minor
emission, • Negative
Vibration etc) from • Short term
heavy machinery. • Local
• Reversible

Change in E • Direct Medium Little Moderate


topography of the • Negative high
area. • Long term
• Local
• Irreversible

Third party agitation S,H • Direct Medium Considerable Moderate


due to employment • Negative high
issues and loss of • Short/Long
benefits as pipeline term
communities. • Local
• Reversible

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 22 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

5.3.3 List of Identified Impacts


The identified negative (major/moderate) and positive impacts for the project activities are:

Pre-Construction Phase
• Third party agitations
• Attack of workers and community members by poisonous snakes, bees, scorpions, other
wildlife and contact with poisonous plants
• Opportunities for employment

Construction Phase
• Increased opportunity for employment and contracting resulting in increased income level
• Injuries from the use of sharp objects in clearing
• Increased social vices
• Third party agitation
• Impairment of water quality by increased turbidity
• Increased erosion of the riverbanks.
• Generation of high intensity welding flash and noise
• Emission of radioactive materials from radiography
• Burns (Injuries) from welding sparks
• Blockage of water ways/ possibility of maritime accidents
• Impairment of health of aquatic and terrestrial life.
Operation Phase
• Contamination of soil, sediments, surface and ground water from oil spill incidents and wash
out from pigging operations
• Destruction of assets and properties from any fire incident.
Decommissioning Phase
• Change in topography of the area.
• Contamination of surface and ground water from inhibited water used in mothballing
• Third party agitation due to employment issues and loss of benefits as pipeline host
communities.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 23 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

5.4 DESCRIPTION OF IMPACTS


The major and moderate negative impacts for the project are described below:

5.4.1 Pre-Construction Phase


5.4.1.1 Land Acquisition on Temporary Basis
Land could be required on temporary basis for contractor lay down area. The area of land to acquire
could be 10 x 8 m2. This land will be re-vegetated with indigenous plant species at the end of the
project and returned to the owners. The possible impact from the activity is:

• Third Party Agitations


Land acquisition could lead to third party agitation over compensation issues, wrong stakeholder
identification, land dispute and incoherence in leadership hierarchy. The impact was described as
direct, negative, short-term, local, reversible and rated moderate.

5.4.1.2 Site Preparation


The site preparation activity for the project will consist primarily of vegetation clearing within the
existing ROW and the temporary area that would be acquired. The potential impacts of this are:

• Exposure of Workers, Community Members to Attack by Poisonous Snakes, Bees, Scorpions,


other Wildlife and contact with Poisonous Plants
Forests such as found in the project area could provide habitat for dangerous animals like snakes,
scorpions, bees etc and poisonous plants. Field workers engaged in vegetation clearing could be
exposed to attack by these animals and plants. These attacks could result in injuries, poisoning or
even death. The impact was described as direct, negative, short/ long term, local, reversible/
irreversible and rated moderate.

• Opportunities for Employment


The site clearing will be done manually using local labour. Due to SPDC local content policy, this
could create opportunity for employment, contracting and increase in income for the communities.
The impact was considered as direct, short term, local, reversible and rated positive.

• Injuries from the Use of Sharp Objects in Clearing


The area on land where activities will take place will be cleared manually using machetes, cutlasses
etc. This could lead to injuries to the workforce from these sharp objects. The impact was described
as direct, negative, short term, local and reversible. It was rated moderate.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 24 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

5.4.2 Construction Phase


5.4.2.1 Labour Requirements
The labour required for the project could be sourced locally, nationally or internationally. Required
labour at the peak of construction phase could be about thirty-five. There could be other migrant
workers who will come to look for opportunities for employment thereby increasing the overall
population of the project area. The potential impacts from these are:

• Increased Employment, Services and Income


The project could offer employment for the indigenes at various stages. This could improve income.
The impact was described as direct, short term, local/widespread and reversible. It was rated
positive.

• Increased Social Vices


The increase in population could lead to social vices like violence, alcoholism, attraction of
commercial sex workers (CSW), substance abuse, teenage pregnancies etc. This could lead to
increase in sexually transmissible diseases (HIV/AIDS, syphilis, etc), injuries, loss of life or
properties. The impact was described as direct, negative, short term/ long term, local/ widespread
and reversible/irreversible. It was rated moderate on the basis of the short duration of the project
(about seven days).

• Third Party Agitation


Labour issues are always a source of friction between companies and communities and also among
community members. The agitation could be either due to requests for a certain number of labour
that could not be met or sharing the labour slots in the community. The impact was described as
direct, negative, short term, local and reversible. It was rated moderate.

5.4.2.2 Trenching/Excavation
The trenching/ excavation would be done on land and water using land excavators and Clamshell
(Bucket) dredger to a minimum depth of 1 m and maximum width of 3 m respectively. These could
have the following impacts:

• Impairment of Water Quality by Increased Turbidity


Trenching by bucket dredger could cause the loosening of the sediments in the water bringing a
huge amount of materials into suspension. The suspended materials could thus increase the
turbidity of the water over a stretch of the river thereby impairing its quality and rendering it
unsuitable as a source of household water. Turbidity values (4.8 – 29.8 NTU) of water samples from

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 25 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

the Sombreiro River showed that the water was relatively clear. The impact was described as direct,
negative, short-term, local, reversible and rated moderate.

• Interference with River based Traditional Occupations (Fishing, Cassava/ Palm Produce
Processing etc)
The increased water turbidity resulting from excavation/ trenching could interfere with the
community use of the river for fishing, and processing of cassava/ palm produce. The impact was
described as direct, negative, short term, local, reversible and rated moderate.

• Third Party Agitation


The increased turbidity of the river rendering it unsuitable for domestic use could trigger third party
agitations from the down stream communities, fishermen, NGOs, CBOs etc. The impact was
described as direct, negative, short term, local/widespread reversible and rated moderate.

• Increased Opportunity for Employment


This activity could create opportunity for employment and contracting resulting in increased income
level. The impact was described as direct, short term, local, reversible and rated positive.

• Disturbance of Aquatic Life (Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, Benthic communities, Fisheries)


The increased turbidity from trenching in water could likely cause respiratory problems for aquatic
organisms such as fish. The impact was described as direct, short term, local, reversible and rated
moderate.

5.4.2.3 Site Fabrication (Welding) and Non Destructive Testing (Radiography)


The welding and radiography done at site could lead to the following impacts:

• Generation of High Intensity Welding Flash


The welding activity generates high intensity welding flash. This flash could affect the eyes giving
rise to conjunctivitis. The impact was described as direct, negative, short term, local, reversible and
rated moderate.

• Burns/ Injuries from Welding Sparks


The sparks generated during welding activities could result in injuries on soft tissues of the body.
The impact was described as direct, negative, short term, local, reversible and rated moderate.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 26 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

• Emission of Radioactive During Radiography


The integrity of the welded pipeline joint will be checked visually and by 100% radiography.
Radioactive materials emitted during radiography could affect the health of the welders/
radiographers especially in the long run with a possibility of genetic mutations. The impact was
described as direct, negative, long term, irreversible and rated moderate.

5.4.2.4 Pulling-off of the old Pipeline Section


The replaced pipeline section will be pulled off from the ground and taken away. The predicted
impacts of this removal are as follow:

• Impairment of Water Quality by Increased Turbidity


The removal of the pipeline that had been buried for years could lead to the loosening of the
sediments in the water thereby bringing a good amount of sediment material into suspension. The
suspended material could thus increase the turbidity level of the water impairing its quality and
rendering it unsuitable as a source of household water. The impact was described as direct,
negative, short-term, local, reversible and rated moderate.

• Third Party Agitation


The community members at this stage could demand to be given the removed pipes. Non-
compliance by the project proponent could trigger agitation. The impact was described as direct,
negative, short term, local, reversible and rated moderate.

5.4.2.5 Pipe-Laying and Tie -in


The lowering of the pipeline into the excavated ditch could have the following impact:

• Blockage of Waterways and Possibility of Maritime Accidents


The whole length of the pipeline would be welded on land and then pulled into the excavated area
as one piece. This activity could temporarily lead to blockage of the waterways to other users. There
could be an accidental collision between the heavy machines for this activity and third party canoes/
boats. The impact was described as direct, negative, short term, local and reversible. It was rated
moderate.
5.4.2.6 Backfilling
The potential impact of this activity is:

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 27 of 28


CHAPTER 5 Associated and Potential Impacts

• Impairment of Water Quality by Increased Turbidity


The backfilling of excavated area in the water using the dredged spoil materials could increase the
turbidity of the river. The impact was described as direct, negative, short term, local, reversible and
was rated moderate.

• Third Party Agitation


The resultant turbidity during backfilling of the river crossing could disrupt third party usage of the
river downstream and this could provoke agitation. The impact was described as direct, negative,
short term, local, reversible and rated moderate.

5.4.3 Operational Phase


The potential impact of this phase is:

• Contamination of Soil, Sediments, Surface and Groundwater from Oil Spill Incidents and
Wash Out from Pigging Operations
A breakdown in the oil pipeline due to either mechanical failure or sabotage could lead to spillage.
The spilled oil as well as the wash out from pigging operations could contaminate the soil,
sediments or water bodies. The impact was described as direct, negative, long term,
local/widespread and reversible. It was rated moderate.

• Destruction of Assets and Properties from any Fire Incident


The oil spillage noted above could be followed by fire out break leading to loss of assets and
properties including that of third parties. The impact was described as direct, negative, long term,
local/ widespread and irreversible. It was rated moderate.

5.4.4 Decommissioning Phase


The decommissioning phase would be after 25 years when the entire Okordia – Rumuekpe pipeline
design life would have expired. The potential impacts from this are:

• Contamination of Groundwater from Inhibited Water used in Mothballing


The mothballed pipeline could rust, erode and spill the inhibited water. This could contaminate the
ground water. The impact was described as direct, negative, long term, local and reversible. It was
rated moderate.
• Third Party Agitation
This could arise from employment issues and loss of benefits within the pipeline host communities

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project 28 of 28


CHAPTER SIX
MITIGATION MEASURES

6.0 INTRODUCTION
Mitigation measures for the proposed replacement of the 44 m Sombriero River Crossing
section of the 14” x 33.4 km Okordia – Rumuekpe pipeline were proffered for the impacts
identified in chapter five.

There were no major negative impacts identified. Mitigation measures were provided for
the impacts rated as moderate, while recommendations were made for enhancing the
positive impacts. Continuous improvement and standard practices would address minor
and negligible impacts. The dual objectives of the mitigation measures were to reduce
the severity of the identified moderate negative impacts and enhance the positive
(beneficial) effects of the different phases of the project (Pre-construction, construction,
operations and decommissioning).

The residual impacts that could arise despite the mitigation measures were also
assessed. Information on these residual impacts as well as the plan for monitoring
compliance and effectiveness of mitigation measures are provided in the Environmental
Management Plan (Chapter Seven).

The mitigation measures proffered for the predicted environmental impacts from the
project took cognizance of:
• Environmental laws in Nigeria, with emphasis on permissible limits for waste
streams {FEPA (1991) now FMENV, DPR (1991, 2002)};
• Best Available Technology for sustainable development;
• Feasibility of application of the measures in Nigeria;
• Social well-being, etc.

SPDC is committed to ensuring the implementation of mitigation measures for the


various phases of the project which are summarized as follows:

6.1 PRE-CONSTRUCTION PHASE


6.1.1 Temporary Land-Take for Lay Down Area

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 1 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

The existing 15 m corridor of the ROW is expected to be adequate for the pipeline
replacement activities. However, there could be the need to acquire about 80 m2 of the
community land on any side of the river as temporary lay down area for construction
equipment.

Whereas this limited temporary land-take would not seriously reduce access to the
acquired land and its resources (minor impact), its potential to result in third party
agitation was rated moderate, thereby requiring mitigation measures

The mitigation measures proffered for reducing third party agitation are:

• Identification of the relevant stakeholders and legacy issues.

• Regular consultation with stakeholders (Govt., Community, NGOs, CBOs


etc.).

• Adequate and prompt compensation to affected land owners/parties.

• Constitution of a committee made up of representatives of government,


Rivers State Ministry of Environment, State Security agencies, communities,
contractors and SPDC, to guide land acquisition process/ MOU
implementation.

These mitigation measures should reduce the anticipated impact from moderate to
minor.

6.1.2 Site Preparation


The site preparation activities of the project would involve manual clearing of any grown
vegetation existing on the ROW and the acquired land. Potential impacts identified
were:

1. Exposure of workers and community members to attack by poisonous


snakes, bees, scorpions, other wildlife and contact with poisonous plants.

2. Opportunities for business and employment.

The potentials for attack of workers and community members by poisonous snakes,
bees, scorpions, other wildlife and contact with poisonous plants was rated moderate. To
mitigate these impacts:

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 2 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

• Workers shall be provided with PPE (coveralls, jungle boots, hard hat and
gloves) and their usage enforced.

• Awareness shall be created among site workers and nearby communities on


the likelihood of exposure to poisonous wildlife and plants.

• First aid measures and Medevac shall be in place.

• Anti-venom shall be provided on site.

These measures should reduce the potential impact from moderate to minor.

The potential for site preparation activities to create opportunities for business and
employment was identified as a positive impact. The positive effects of this anticipated
impact could be improved by the following measures:

• Indigenous contractors and qualified resource persons shall be used.


• SPDC shall develop procedures/criteria for indigenous labour
sourcing/employment.

Injuries from the use of sharp objects in clearing could occur during site preparation
activities. This impact was rated moderate. To reduce this potential impact from
moderate to minor:
• Workers shall be provided with PPE (coveralls, jungle boots, hard hat and
gloves) and their usage enforced.

• Toolbox meeting will be conducted before commencing site clearing


activities.

• First aid /medical facilities shall be provided at site, with critical cases
transferred to SPDC clinic at Port Harcourt or other appropriate health
facilities (Medevac).

6.2 CONSTRUCTION PHASE


6.2.1 Labour Requirement
Labour will be required for several construction activities. Some of these are the
excavation/trenching of pipeline route, site fabrication (welding) and non-destructive
testing (radiography), pipeline laying and tie-in, backfilling and pulling out of existing
pipeline section. The associated impacts that were anticipated are:
1. Opportunity for business and employment,

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 3 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

2. Increased social vices (violence, drug/alcohol abuse, teenage pregnancies,


Commercial sex workers (CSWs), etc);

3. Third party agitation.


Opportunity for business and employment, as a result of the labour requirements
was identified as a potential positive impact. To enhance the potential benefits of this
impact:
• Indigenous contractors and qualified resource persons shall be used.
• SPDC shall develop procedure/criteria for indigenous labour
sourcing/employment.

The anticipated increase in social vices (violence, drug/alcohol abuse, teenage


pregnancies, Commercial Sex Workers [CSWs], etc) was rated as moderate impact.
In order to reduce this impact to minor:
• Awareness campaigns shall be carried out to enlighten the communities/field
workers on the implications of drug and alcohol abuse, unprotected sex,
prostitution and the need to sustain cultural values.

• Condoms shall be made available at the site clinic.

• Alcohol consumption and drug use shall be prohibited during working hours in
line with SPDC policy.

• Tie in to existing government control programs for HIV/AIDS control

• Issues that could act as blockers/hindrances shall be identified and cleared to


avoid prolonged construction delays.

Third party agitation resulting from issues surrounding labour requirements at the
construction phase and implementation of MOU was anticipated. It was rated as a
moderate impact. Mitigation measures include;
• Identification and resolution of relevant stakeholders’ issues.

• Regular consultation with stakeholders (Govt., Community, NGOs, CBOs


etc.) to understand community perceptions, issues and concerns.

• Maintenance of effective liaison/communication channels with communities


(via Community interface coordinators/ community relations officers
[CIC/CROs]).

• Inclusion of community employment issues in the terms of reference for the


MOU.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 4 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

These mitigation measures are expected to reduce the impact rating from
moderate to minor

6.2.2 Excavation/Trenching of Pipeline Route


About 7m on both sides of the river and 30 m within the Sombreiro River shall be
excavated. The maximum width of the trench shall be 3 m with a minimum depth of 1 m
for both river and land sections. In addition, clearing of roots, stones and other hard
objects that may damage the pipe or its coatings will be carried out. The identified
anticipated impacts were:

1. Impairment of water quality by increased turbidity.


2. Disturbance of aquatic life (zooplankton, phytoplankton, benthic communities,
fisheries etc).
3. Interference with river based traditional occupations (fishing, cassava/ palm
produce processing etc).
4. Third party agitation from impairment of surface water quality
5. Opportunity for business and employment.

Impairment of water quality by increased turbidity was rated moderate. The following
mitigation measures were proffered for reducing the rating of this anticipated impact to
minor.
• Potable water shall be supplied to the affected communities during trenching
and excavation operations.
• The quality of surface/groundwater shall be monitored in line with regulatory
requirements.
Disturbance of aquatic life (zooplankton, phytoplankton, benthic communities,
fisheries etc) was rated as a moderate impact. The construction of a sedimentation
basin with effluent drains to allow water to gradually drain back into the river without
turbulence would mitigate this impact.

The excavation/trenching of the pipeline route could interfere directly and indirectly
with river based traditional occupations such as fishing, cassava/ palm produce
processing etc. This impact was rated moderate.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 5 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Adequately compensating the affected persons was recommended to mitigate this


anticipated impact from moderate to minor.

Third party agitation over impairment of surface water quality resulting from excavation
and trenching was rated moderate. Mitigation measures proffered to bring this
anticipated impact from moderate to minor include:

• Determination of the area of impact, identification and compensation of


community members directly affected.
• Consultation with stakeholders (Govt., Community, NGOs, CBOs etc.).
• Maintenance of liaison/communication channels with the communities (via
CICs/CROs).
• Implementation of the terms of the MOU with the community.

Increased opportunity for business and employment resulting in increased


income level was identified as a potential positive impact. This could be further
enhanced by the following measures:
• Engagement of indigenous contractors and qualified resource persons
• Application of existing SPDC procedure/criteria for indigenous labour
sourcing and employment.

6.2.3 Site Fabrication (Welding) and Non-Destructive Testing (Radiography)


The stringing and welding of the pipelines are necessary processes for the proposed
project. These activities will be done on the ROW. Visual inspection and 100%
radiography (non-destructive testing) of the welds shall be done as the welding
progresses. Weld repairs shall be carried out where necessary, prior to pipeline
pressure testing (Chapter 2). The anticipated impacts identified were:
1. Generation of high intensity welding flash and noise.
2. Burns (injuries) from welding sparks.
3. Exposure to radiation from radiography with possibilities of genetic mutation.

Generation of high intensity welding flash and noise was rated moderate. To
mitigate this impact:

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 6 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

• Awareness sessions on health risks and safety precautions of welding


operations shall be carried out for workers.
• Pre-employment medical certification shall be carried out for the welders.
• SPDC shall enforce the use of welder’s mask, earmuffs, jacket, gloves, boots
and cover alls, by welders during welding.
• Site clinic/ first aid delivery service station shall be provided.

These mitigation measures should reduce the impact rating from moderate to minor.

Burns/injuries from welding sparks was rated moderate. To mitigate this impact:
• Awareness sessions on health risks and safety precautions of welding
operations shall be carried out for workers.
• SPDC shall enforce the use of welder’s mask, earmuffs, jacket, gloves, boots
and cover alls, by welders during welding.
• Site/ first aid delivery service station clinic shall be provided.

These mitigation measures should reduce the impact rating from moderate to minor.

Exposure to radioactive emission during radiography was rated moderate. To mitigate


this impact:
• Health awareness training prior to commencement of activities shall be
conducted.
• Health awareness training shall be conducted prior to commencement of
activities.
• Staff shall undergo routine medical check-ups for radiation exposure.
• Radiation monitors shall be provided to monitor radiation levels above
threshold.
• The use of radiography aprons to protect the body from radiation shall be
enforced.
• Warning signs shall be provided during actual activities.
• The activity shall be carried out in accordance with standard construction
specifications.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 7 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

These mitigation measures should reduce the impact rating from moderate to
minor.

6.2.4 Project Activity Waste Generation (Solid/Liquid/ Gaseous)


Project activities will generate solid wastes such as excavated pipes, trenching spoil,
food waste, papers, rags, empty cans and bottles, pipe off-cuts, coating tapes, electrode
butts and general garbage; liquid wastes such as spent chemicals (adhesives,
lubricants, grease, detergent solutions etc); and gaseous waste such as dust particles
and smoke from heavy construction machinery. All these categories of wastes shall be
managed according to SPDC Waste Management (Appendix 2.0) and FEPA Guidelines,
thereby creating opportunities for business and employment.

This was identified as a potential positive impact, which could be further enhanced by
the following measures:
• Engagement of indigenous contractors and qualified resource persons.
• Compliance with SPDC procedure/criteria for indigenous labour
sourcing/employment.

6.2.5 Cutting of Existing Pipeline after Flushing


The identified potential impact associated with cutting of the existing pipeline after
flushing was contamination of surface and ground water. This impact was rated
moderate.

To reduce the rating of this anticipated impact from moderate to minor:


• Emergency response spill control/prevention equipment shall be provided
• Surface water quality within 1 km upstream and downstream of the river
crossing shall be analysed in line with DPR requirements

6.2.6 Removal of Replaced (Old) Pipeline Section


The replaced river crossing section (44 m), extending to about 7 m on both sides of the
river shall be recovered, cut into 12 m spools and transported to SPDC Kidney Island
scrapyard for re-cycling. The identified potential impacts associated with this activity
were:
1. Third party agitation over inheritance of scrap pipeline.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 8 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

2. Impairment of water quality by increased turbidity

The two impacts listed above were rated moderate. The mitigation measures that were
proffered to reduce their adverse effects are provided below.

Third party agitation area could be reduced from moderate to minor by:
• Clear communication on the intended future use of the recovered pipeline
section.

Impairment of water quality by increased turbidity could be mitigated through the


following measures:
• Provision of potable water to the affected communities during trenching and
excavation operations.
• Monitoring of the quality of surface/groundwater in line with regulatory
requirements.

These mitigation measures should reduce the impact rating from moderate to minor.

6.2.7 Pipeline Laying and Tie-in


The installation of the newly constructed river crossing pipeline section (44 m) shall be
by surface pull technique using a crane. The pipe shall be pulled from the ROW and
carefully lowered into the trench. This could result in blockage of waterways with
the possibility of accidents. It was rated moderate

Mitigation measures recommended to reduce the rating of this anticipated impact from
moderate to minor include:
• Awareness building on the implications of pipe laying activities.
• Provision of traffic warning signs during pipe laying activities for waterway
users.
• Conclusion of the activity within the shortest possible time to minimize
inconveniences to users of the waterway.
• Engagement of trained and experienced pipe laying and tie-in crew.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 9 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

These mitigation measures should reduce the impact rating from moderate to
minor.

6.2.8 Backfilling
The excavated pipeline trench will be backfilled using the previously excavated
materials. Backfilling operations shall be done manually, while the bucket dredger would
be used for the river trench.

The anticipated impacts that were identified include:


1. Impairment of water quality by increased turbidity.
2. Third party agitation over increased turbidity, disturbances of traditional
occupations and compensation issues.

Impairment of water quality by increased turbidity was rated moderate. To reduce


the rating of this anticipated impact from moderate to minor:
• Potable water shall be supplied to the affected communities during trenching
and excavation operations.
• The quality of surface/groundwater shall be monitored in line with regulatory
requirements.

Third party agitation was rated moderate. Mitigation measures recommended to


reduce the rating of this anticipated impact from moderate to minor include:
• Determination of the total impacted area, identification and compensation
of community members directly affected.

• Consultation with stakeholders (Govt., Community, NGOs, CBOs etc.).

• Maintenance of liaison/communication channels with the communities (via


CICs/CROs).

• Implementation of the terms of the MOU with the community.

These mitigation measures should reduce the impact rating from moderate to minor.

6.3 OPERATIONS/MAINTENANCE PHASE


6.3.1 Operations/Maintenance (Cathodic Protection)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 10 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

The operations phase of the pipeline project would require such activities as external
corrosion protection through hooking up to the cathodic protection system, bi-monthly
routine pigging for internal cleaning and debris removal, SPDC six-monthly cathodic
protection and coating integrity survey as well as manual clearing of the ROW.

The identified potential impacts were:


1. Contamination of soil, sediments, surface and groundwater from oil spill.
2. Destruction of assets and properties from oil spill related fire incident(s).

The two impacts listed above were both rated moderate. The mitigation measures that
were proffered to reduce their adverse effects are provided below.

Contamination of soil, sediments, surface and groundwater from oil spill could be
reduced from moderate to minor by the following mitigation measures:

• Pipelines shall be made of carbon steel materials and coated with a three-
layer polyethylene anti-corrosion coating while the weld joints shall be
coated with anti-corrosion heat-shrinkable sleeves and buried.

• Pipelines in marshy areas and at water crossings shall have a yard


applied concrete coating over the anti-corrosion coating.

• The pipeline shall be placed on routine pigging for internal cleaning and
debris removal.

• The five-yearly statutory internal inspection by intelligent pig for integrity


checks shall be carried out.

• The pipeline will be placed on the SPDC six-monthly cathodic protection


and coating integrity survey programme.

• The pipelines shall be designed to withstand the maximum possible


pressure within the pipeline network.

• The site-specific contingency plan shall be in line with the existing SPDC
oil/chemical spill contingency plan to prevent spills/leaks impacting on
environment.

• Toolbox meetings shall be held prior to any operations.

Destruction of assets and properties from oil-spill related fire incident(s)


could be reduced from moderate to minor by the following mitigation measures:

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 11 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

• Fire protection facilities (detection, fighting and control) shall be provided


at the flowstation and inspected and drills carried out.

• SPDC emergency response procedures shall be implemented, including


measures to quickly seek third-party assistance when necessary.

• Adequate compensation shall be paid to affected parties.

6.4 DECOMMISSIONING
The pipeline system and its ancillary installations have a design life of 25 years. A
decommissioning team shall be set up to plan and implement the laid down guidelines
on decommissioning. SPDC standard procedures for decommissioning shall be in
accordance with the pipeline Act of 1965. The identified impacts of the decommissioning
activities were:
1. Increased opportunity for business and employment
2. Change in topography of the area
3. Third party agitation due to employment issues and loss of benefits as
pipeline host communities

The first among the three identified impacts listed above was positive, while the other
two were adverse and rated as moderate. The mitigation measures that were proffered
to reduce the adverse and enhance the beneficial effects are provided below.

Increased opportunity for employment and contracting resulting in increased


income was positive, and could be enhanced by the following measures:
• Engagement of Indigenous contractors and qualified resource
• Compliance with SPDC procedure/criteria for indigenous labour
sourcing/employment.

Change in topography of the area could be reduced from moderate to minor by the
following mitigation measures:
• Care shall be taken to backfill the pipeline trench with excavated materials, in
the order of excavation.
• Trenching shall be limited to the minimum size required.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 12 of 13


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Third party agitation due to employment issues and loss of benefits as pipeline
communities could be reduced from moderate to minor by the following mitigation
measures:
• Identification and resolution of relevant stakeholders and legacy issues

• Regular consultation with stakeholders (Govt., Community, NGOs, CBOs


etc.).

• Constitution of a Project Advisory Committee (PAC) made up of


representatives of government, NGOs, State Security agencies, communities,
contractors and SPDC, to handle issues as they arise.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 13 of 13


CHAPTER SEVEN
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

7.0 INTRODUCTION
An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is incorporated for effective management of
the environmental concerns identified in an EIA. In specific terms, the EMP provides the
means for assessing the accuracy of the predicted project impacts and monitoring of the
effectiveness of the proposed mitigation measures contained in the EIA report.
Furthermore, it serves as an instrument for ensuring future compliance with legislation,
good environmental performance and integration of environmental issues into project
decisions

7.1 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING


The FMENV and DPR guidelines require an environmental monitoring plan as part of an
EIA. The aim of the monitoring programme is to ensure that the negative environmental
impacts already identified in this EIA are effectively mitigated in the design, construction,
operational and decommissioning stages of the project. It also instils confidence in the
project communities, the proponent of the project (SPDC) and regulatory bodies that the
identified impacts are adequately mitigated. Environmental monitoring of the project is
therefore advocated in order to ensure that the mitigation processes put in place have
adequately taken care of the predicted impacts. This will necessitate establishing
programmes to address the following:

• Alteration to the biophysical, social and health characteristics of the recipient


environment;
• Alterations to environmental parameters as a result of the interactions
between project activities and environmental sensitivities on one hand, and
interactions between the sensitivities;
• Determination of long term and residual effects;
• Identification of project specific cumulative environmental effects.

The detailed plan to monitor the effectiveness of the proffered mitigation measures are
provided in the EMP Tables (Tables 7.1a-d).

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 1 of 25


CHAPTER 7 Environmental Management Plan

7.2 HAZARDS AND EFFECTS MANAGEMENT PROCESS (HEMP)


Management of the hazards and effects of activities is central to effective project
environmental management. Hazards and Effects Management Process (HEMP)
ensures that hazards and potential effects are fully evaluated in an environmental impact
assessment. The four stages of the process as applied in Environmental Management
are:

• Identify hazards associated with project activity and the environment;


• Assess hazards and effects through assessment of their magnitude and
significance;
• Control hazards and effects through implementing techniques to eliminate,
manage the hazards and lessen severity of the effects;
• Recover from effects by developing plans to manage the consequences of
events.

The above form the fundamental principles of the management and control of
environmental impacts and effects in the EIA process. The impacts are enumerated
based on hazard identification, risk assessment and application of preventive measures.
Figure 7.1 shows the details of the Hazard and Effect Management Process. This
process will be fully incorporated in the Environmental Management Plan of the project.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 2 of 25


CHAPTER 7 Environmental Management Plan

Identify Hazards Characterise Receiving


Environment
Identify

Evaluate Effects and


Hazardous Events

Evaluate Threats to
Control Techniques
Are they
significant?

Yes
Is Control
No Practicable?

Assess

Monitor Yes

Implement Control
Techniques No
Control

Develop Corrective
Action Systems

Recover

Fig. 7.1 Hazard and Effect Management Process

7.3 SAFETY AND HAZARD IDENTIFICATION


The aim of managing the HSE risks associated with a system is to reduce them to a level
as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). The objectives for assessing these risks are
to:

• Eliminate the hazard;


• Reduce the probability of hazardous events occurring;
• Minimise the consequences, in the event of the occurrence of the events.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 3 of 25


CHAPTER 7 Environmental Management Plan

The activities involved in the construction/operation/decommissioning phases of the


proposed project are essentially: land take, site preparation (vegetation clearing),
construction (labour requirements, excavation/trenching, welding/radiography, waste
generation, pipeline laying/tie-in, backfilling, flushing of existing pipeline,
decommissioning /abandonment of existing/dented pipeline section), commissioning
(pressure testing of the new pipeline section) operations/maintenance and
decommissioning. The associated HSE risks were considered and addressed (Chapter
5).

The Environmental Management Plans (EMP) for the four phases, pre-construction,
construction, operation and decommissioning are provided in Tables 7.1a-d

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 4 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1A: Mitigation Measures/Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Pre-Construction Phase)
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Tempora Temporary Moderate  The relevant Minor SPDC Pipeline Pre- Documented Once Head
ry Land- Loss of stakeholders and team constru agreement. (during Pipeline
take for land legacy issues shall be -ction land-take) Maintenance.
lay down identified and
area. addressed. Records of
 Regular consultation minutes of
with stakeholders meeting with
(Govt., Community, relevant
NGOs, CBOs etc.) parties.
shall be carried out.
 Adequate and prompt
compensation shall be
paid to affected land
owners/parties.
 Committee made up
of representatives of
government, Rivers
State Ministry of
Environment, State
Security agencies,
communities,
contractors and
SPDC, to guide land
acquisition process/
MOU implementation
shall be set up.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 5 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1A: Mitigation Measures/Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Pre-Construction Phase).
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Site Exposure of Moderate  Workers shall be Minor SPDC Pipeline Prior to and Site Weekly Head
Prepar communities provided with PPE team during inspection throughout Pipeline
at-ion and workers (coveralls, jungle pipeline report site Maintenance.
to attack by boots, hard hat and constru- preparation
poisonous gloves) and usage ction Incident activities
snakes, enforced. reports
bees,  Awareness shall be
scorpions, created among site
other wildlife workers and nearby
and contact communities on the
with likelihood of
poisonous exposure to
plants. poisonous wildlife
and plants.
 First aid measures
and Medevac shall
be in place.
 Anti-venom shall be
provided on site.
Opportunities Positive  Indigenous Positive SPDC Pipeline During Contract Weekly Head
for business contractors and team pipeline documents throughout Pipeline
and qualified resource constructio site Maintenance.
employment persons shall be n Register of preparation
used. community activities
 SPDC shall members
develop employed
procedures/criteria
for indigenous
labour
sourcing/employme
nt.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 6 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1A: Mitigation Measures/Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Pre-Construction Phase).
Project Impact Rating Description of Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Mitigation Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Site Injuries Moderate  Workers shall Minor SPDC Pipeline Pre and Site inspection Weekly Head
Preparat- during be provided team during report throughout Pipeline
ion vegetatio with PPE pipeline site Maintenance.
n (coveralls, constructi Incident reports preparation
clearing. jungle boots, on activities
hard hat and Minutes of tool
gloves) and box meeting
usage
enforced.
 Toolbox
meeting will
be conducted
before
commencing
site clearing
activities
 First aid
facilities shall
be provided
at site
 Medevac
procedures
shall be put
in place

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 7 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1B: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Construction Phase).
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Labour Increased Positive  Indigenous contractors Positive SPDC Pipeline During Contract Weekly Head
Requir- employme and qualified resource team pipelin documents Pipeline
ement nt, services persons shall be used. e Register of Maintenance.
and  SPDC shall develop constru community
income procedure/criteria for ction members
indigenous labour employed
sourcing/employment.
Increase in Moderate  Awareness campaigns Minor SPDC Pipeline Pre Reports on Weekly Head
social shall be carried out to team and community throughout Pipeline
vices enlighten the during engagement constructio Maintenance.
(violence, communities/field constru sessions n activities
drug/alcoh workers on the ction
ol abuse, implications of drug and Site
teenage alcohol abuse, inspection
pregnancie unprotected sex, report
s, prostitution and the
Commerci need to sustain cultural Minutes of
al sex values. tool box
workers  Condoms shall be meetings
(CSWs), made available at the
etc) site clinic.
 Alcohol consumption
and drug use shall be
prohibited during
working hours in line
with SPDC policy.
 Tie in to existing
government control
programs for HIV/AIDS
control

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 8 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1B: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Construction Phase).
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Labour Third Moderate  Relevant Minor SPDC Pipeline Pre- Records of Weekly Head
Requir- party stakeholders’ issues team constru minutes of Pipeline
ement agitation shall be identified and ction meeting with Maintenance.
over addressed. relevant
employm  Regular consultation parties.
ent with stakeholders
issues (Govt, Community,
NGOs, CBOs etc.) Register of
shall be carried out to community
understand members
community employed.
perceptions, issues
and concerns
 Effective liaison/
communication
channels (Community
interface
coordinators/
community relations
officers [CIC/CROs])
from the communities
to the project
execution team shall
be maintained.
 The terms of
reference for the PAC
shall include
community
employment issues.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 9 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1B: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Construction Phase) cont.,
Project Impact Rating Description of Residual Impact Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Mitigation Rating for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation
Excavation/ Impairm Moderate  Potable water Minor SPDC Pipeline During Site Weekly Head
Trenching ent of shall be supplied team constructi inspection Pipeline
of pipeline water to the affected on report. Maintenance
route quality communities
by during trenching The quality of
increase and excavation surface/groun
d operations. dwater shall
turbidity be monitored
in line with
regulatory
requirements.

Compliance
monitoring
reports.
Disturba- Moderate  Sedimentation Minor SPDC Pipeline Pre & Site Nil Head
nce of basin with team during inspection Pipeline
aquatic effluent drains constructi report Maintenance.
life shall be on
(zooplan- constructed to
kton, allow water to
phytopla- gradually drain
nkton, back into the river
benthic without
communi turbulence
t-ies,
fisheries
etc)

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 10 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1B: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Construction Phase) cont.
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters for Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Excavati- Interfer-ence Moderate  SPDC shall Minor SPDC Pipeline During Site inspection Weekly Head
on/ with river determine area of team constru report. Pipeline
Trenching based impact, Identify and -ction Maintenance.
of pipeline tradition-al compensate Documentation
route occupant-ions community on
(fishing, members directly compensation
cassava/ palm affected paid.
produce
processing
etc).
Excavati- Third party Moderate  SPDC shall Minor SPDC Pipeline During Site inspection Weekly Head
on/ agitation from determine area of team constru and community Pipeline
Trenching impairment of impact, Identify and ct-ion engagement Maintenance
of pipeline surface water compensate reports
community members
route quality directly affected.
 Consultation with
stakeholders (Govt., Status of
Community, NGOs, implementation
CBOs etc.) shall be of grievance
sustained. procedures.
 Liaison/communicatio
n channels
(CICs/CROs)
between the
communities and the
project execution
team shall be
maintained.
 Project Advisory
Committee (PAC)
shall be set up to
develop and ensure
implementation of
grievance
procedures.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 11 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters for Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Increased Positive  Nigerian Positive SPDC Pipeline During Contract Weekly Head
opportunity for contractors and team constru documents Pipeline
employment resource (qualified) ction Maintenance
and business persons shall be Register of
used community
 SPDC members
procedure/criteria employed
for indigenous
labour
sourcing/employme
nt shall apply.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 12 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1B: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km
Okordia – Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Construction Phase) contin
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Site Genera Moderate  Awareness Minor SPDC Pipeline Pre/ Medical Weekly Head
Fabrication tion of sessions on health team during- certificates of Pipeline
(Welding) high risks and safety constru fitness. Maintenance
and Non intensit precautions of ction
Destructive y welding operations Minutes of
Testing welding shall be carried out toolbox
(Radiograph flash for workers. meetings/saf
y) and  Pre-employment ety briefings.
noise medical certification
shall be carried out Site
for the welders. inspection
 SPDC shall enforce reports.
the use of welder’s
mask, earmuffs, Results of
jacket, gloves, radiation tag
boots and cover monitoring
alls, by welders
during welding.
 A site clinic shall be
provided.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 13 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Site Burns/i Moderate  Awareness Minor SPDC Pipeline Pre/ Minutes of toolbox Head
Fabrication njuries sessions on health team during- meetings/safety briefings. Pipeline
(Welding) from risks and safety constru Maintenance
and Non welding precautions of ction Site inspection reports.
Destructive sparks welding operations
Testing shall be carried out
(Radiography for workers.
)  SPDC shall enforce
the use of welder’s
mask, earmuffs,
jacket, gloves,
boots and cover
alls, by welders
during welding.
 A site clinic shall be
provided.
 SPDC MEDEVAC
procedure shall
apply.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 14 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1B: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Construction Phase) cont.,
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residu Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before al for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Impact
Rating
Site Exposure Moderate  Health awareness Minor SPDC During Minutes of Weekly Head
Fabrication to training shall be Pipeline team - toolbox Pipeline
(Welding) radiation conducted prior to constr meetings/safe Maintenance
and Non from commencement of uction ty briefings.
Destructive radiograp activities.
Testing hy with  Staff shall undergo Site
(Radiograp possibiliti routine medical inspection
hy) es of check-ups for reports.
genetic radiation exposure.
mutation.  Radiation monitors Records of
shall be provided to medical
monitor radiation checks.
levels above
threshold. Results of
 The use of radiation tag
radiography aprons monitoring
to protect the body
from radiation shall
be enforced.
 Warning signs shall
be provided during
actual activities.
 The activity shall be
carried out in
accordance with
standard
construction
specifications.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 15 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Project Impact Rating Description of Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Mitigation Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Waste Increased Positive  Indigenous Positive SPDC Pipeline During Register of Weekly Head
Generatio opportunity contractors and team pipelin community throughout Pipeline
n for qualified e members site Maintenanc
(Solid/Liqu business resource constr employed preparation e
id/ and persons shall uction activities
Gaseous) employme be used.
nt.  SPDC shall
develop
procedures/crite
ria for
indigenous
labour
sourcing/emplo
yment.
Cutting of Contaminat Moderate  Emergency oil Minor SPDC Pipeline During Compliance Weekly Head Pipeline
existing ion of soil spill team pipelin monitoring Maintenance
pi-peline and water control/preventio e report.
after from n equipment constr
flushing residual shall be uction Site
flow back provided. Inspection
 Surface water report.
quality 500 m
upstream and
downstream of
the site location
shall be analysed
in line with DPR
requirements.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 16 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1B: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Construction Phase) cont.,
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Removal of Third party Moderate  Clear communication Minor SPDC Pipeline During Site Nil Head
replaced agitation on the intended future team constru inspection/ Pipeline
(old) use of the recovered ction scrap Maintenance
pipeline pipeline section. consignment
section. notes.
Impairment Moderate  Potable water shall be Minor SPDC Pipeline During Evidence of Weekly Head Pipeline
of water supplied to the affected team constru compliance Maintenance
quality by communities during ction
increased trenching and
turbidity excavation operations.

 The quality of
surface/groundwater
shall be monitored in
line with regulatory
requirements.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 17 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1B: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Construction Phase) cont.,
Project Impact Rating Description of Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Mitigation Impact for Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating Monitoring
Backfilling of Impairment Moderate  Potable water Minor SPDC Pipeline Pre/Du Site Weekly Head
the trenches of water shall be supplied team ring inspection Pipeline
quality by to the affected constru report. Maintenance
increased communities ction
turbidity during trenching Documenta
and and excavation tion on
disruption operations. compensati
of fishing  Affected on paid.
grounds fishermen shall be
adequately Complianc
compensated. e
monitoring
reports.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 18 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1B: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Construction Phase) cont.,
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsibl
Activity Before Impact for Monitoring Frequency e
Mitigation Rating Party
Backfilling Third Moderate  Determine area of Minor SPDC During Site Weekly Head
of the party impact, Identify/ Pipeline team construc inspection Pipeline
trenches agitation compensate tion report. Maintenan
from community members ce
increase directly affected. Community
d water  Consultation with engagement
turbidity stakeholders (Govt., report.
and Community, NGOs,
disruptio CBOs etc.) shall be
n of sustained. Documentatio
fishing  Liaison/communicatio n on
grounds n channels compensation
. (CICs/CROs) from paid.
the communities to
the project execution
team shall be
maintained.
 Project Advisory
Committee (PAC) to
develop and ensure
implementation of
grievance procedures

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 19 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1B: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Construction Phase) cont.
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters for Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Pipeline Blockage Moderate  Awareness on the Minor SPDC Pipeline During Reports of Weekly Head
Laying of water implications of pipe team constru minutes of Pipeline
and Tie- ways/incre laying activities ction awareness Maintenance
in ase in shall be carried out. sessions
maritime  Traffic warning
activities signs shall be Site inspection
resulting in provided for
increased waterway users.
accidents.  Trained and
experienced pipe
laying and tie-in
crew shall be used.

Table 7.1C Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Operations/Maintenance Phase).

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 20 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Respons
Activity Before Impact for Monitoring Frequency ible
Mitigation Rating Party
Operations/ Contaminat Moderate  Pipelines shall be made Minor SPDC Pipeline During Site inspection Six- Head
Maintenan- i-on of soil, of carbon steel team operation reports, monthly, Pipeline
ce sediments, materials and coated s/m- Compliance Five yearly Mainten
(cathodic surface and with a three layer aintenan monitoring ance
protection) groundwate polyethylene anti- ce reports,
r from oil corrosion coating while
spill the weld joints shall be Reports of
coated with anti- pipeline
corrosion heat- Integrity check
shrinkable sleeves and reports
provided with over-
pressurisation
protection system and
buried.
 Pipelines in marshy
areas and at water
crossings shall have a
yard applied concrete
coating over the anti-
corrosion coating.
 The pipeline shall be
placed on routine
pigging for internal
cleaning and debris
removal.
 The five-yearly
statutory internal
inspection by intelligent
pig for integrity checks
shall be carried out.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 21 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1C Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Operations/Maintenance Phase).
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Operations/ Conta Moderate  The pipeline will be Minor SPDC Pipeline During Site Six- Head
Maintenan- minati- placed on the SPDC team operation inspection monthly, Pipeline
ce on of six-monthly cathodic s/m- reports, Five yearly Maintenance
(cathodic soil, protection and aintenan Compliance
protection) sedime coating integrity ce monitoring
nts, survey programme. reports,
surface  The pipelines shall be
and designed to contain Reports of
ground at least the maximum pipeline
water discharge pressure of Integrity
from oil the flowstations/ check reports
spill manifolds, in order to
withstand pressure.
 The Adibawa and
Ubie flowstations are
equipped with
automatic and
emergency
shutdown, pressure
relief, leak detection
and audible/ visible
alarm early warning
systems.
 The site-specific
contingency plan
shall be in line with
the existing SPDC
oil/chemical spill
contingency plan to
prevent spills/leaks
impacting on
environment.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 22 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1C Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Operations/Maintenance Phase).
Project Impact Rating Description of Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters for Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Mitigation Impact Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Operation Destructio Moderate  Toolbox meetings Minor SPDC During Site After any Head
s/ n of assets shall be held prior Pipeline team operatio inspection incident Pipeline
Maintena- and to any operations ns/ reports. Maintenance
nce properties  Fire protection Maintena
(cathodic from oil facilities nce Evidence of
protection) spill fire (detection, fighting periodic fire
incidents. and control) shall drills.
be provided at the
flowstation and Evidence of
inspected and compensation
drills carried out. .
 SPDC emergency
response
procedures
(where assistance
could be quickly
sought from third
party
establishments, if
the fire cannot be
controlled by
SPDC) shall be
implemented.
 Adequate
compensation
shall be paid to
affected parties.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 23 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1D: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km Okordia –
Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Final Decommissioning Phase)
Project Impact Rating Description of Mitigation Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Decom Increased Positive  Indigenous Positive SPDC During Contract Monthly Head
mi- opportunity contractors and Pipeline team decom documents. Pipeline
ssionin for resource (qualified) missio Maintenance
g employment persons shall be ning Register of
and used. community
contracting  SPDC shall members
resulting in develop employed.
increased procedure/criteria
income for indigenous
labour
sourcing/employme
nt.
Change in Moderate  Care shall be taken Minor SPDC During Site Weekly
topography of to backfill the Pipeline team decom inspection
the area pipeline trench with missio reports.
excavated ning
materials, in the
order of excavation.
 Trenching shall be
limited to the
minimum size
required.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 24 of 25


CHAPTER 6 Mitigation Measures

Table 7.1D: Mitigation Measures/ Management Plan Table for the 44m section of the 14” X 33.4 Km
Okordia – Rumuekpe (Sombriero River) Pipeline Replacement Project (Final Decommissioning Phase)
Project Impact Rating Description of Residual Responsibility Timing Parameters Monitoring Responsible
Activity Before Mitigation Impact for Monitoring Frequency Party
Mitigation Rating
Decom Third Moderate  The relevant Minor SPDC Pipeline During Site inspection Weekly Head
mi- party stakeholders and team decom Pipeline
ssioning agitation legacy issues shall mission Community Maintenance
due to be identified and ing engagement
employ addressed. reports.
ment  Regular consultation
issues with stakeholders
and loss (Govt., Community,
of NGOs, CBOs etc.)
benefits shall be carried out.
as  Committee made up
pipeline of representatives of
commu government, Rivers
nities State Ministry of
Environment, State
Security agencies,
communities,
contractors and
SPDC, to guide land
acquisition process/
MOU implementation
shall be set up.

Note: SPDC Waste Management Plan shall apply to anticipated wastes from the proposed pipeline replacement project

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 25 of 25


CHAPTER EIGHT
CONCLUSION

8.0 CONCLUSION
The EIA of the Okordia – Rumuekpe Sombreiro River Crossing Project has been
carried out in accordance with the regulatory requirements established by the
Federal Republic of Nigeria, other statutory and international standards. The potential
impacts of the project on the existing environment have been identified and
evaluated, based on the interactions between the project activities and the various
environmental sensitivities (biophysical, social and health).

The magnitude of the anticipated impacts of the project activities on air, water, soils,
sediment, vegetation, fauna, fisheries, land use, waste management, socio-economic
and health issues were rated and mitigation measures proffered to reduce the
magnitude of identified negative impacts to a level as low as reasonably practicable
(ALARP) and further enhance the benefits of the positive impacts. These mitigation
measures are incorporated in the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed
specifically for this project and applicable to its entire life span (pre-construction
survey to decommissioning).

The diligent application of the proffered mitigation measures embedded in the


environmental management plan and the design provisions incorporated into the
project, will make it possible for the project to be executed and decommissioned with
very low negative impacts to the environment.

The approval of this EIA report for the execution of the project is hereby requested
for sustainable development.

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 1 of 1


Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDICES

APPENDIX 2.1

The Shell Petroleum Development Company


of Nigeria Limited.
Operator of the NNPC/Shell/Agip/Elf Joint Venture

WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM MANUAL

SPDC 2003-
2003-065
Revision 0, Ver. 01 March 2003

Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 1 of 88


List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

STATUS PAGE

Title: WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM MANUAL


Author: HSX-ENVW
Reviewed by:
by

I.C. Okoro (HSE-


(HSE-ENV)

A g r e e d b y:

J.A O’Regan (HSE) G.A. Ukong. (SSC)

Approved by:

C.C. Ibeneche (SVD) J.R. Udofia (DMD)

Document Owner: HSE-ENV


Document Number: SPDC 2003-065
Security:
Security: Non-confidential

Distribution:
Distribution All SPDC staff via Intranet, Corporate HSE Website
To be revised before: March 2004
Change history:
history
Revision Date Pages Reason
0 March 2003 All Initial publication

Language:
In this document the recommendations for a course of action are made with varying degrees of
emphasis. As a rule:
 The word ‘may’ indicates a possible course of action
 The word ‘should’ indicates a preferred course of action
 The word ‘shall’ indicates a mandatory course of action

Deviations:
Deviations:
This procedure supersedes all other earlier versions and the Document Custodian must agree to further
deviations in writing.

Document control
The only controlled and valid version of this procedure is the document on the SPDC HSE web page,
of which HSX-ENVW is the custodian.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 2 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................................... 3

LI S T OF F I G UR E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

LI S T OF A PP EN D I CE S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Er r or! B oo k m a r k n o t d ef in e d.

1 I N TR O D U C TI O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.1 BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................ 6
1.2 PURPOSE ............................................................................................................... 6
1.3 SCOPE ................................................................................................................. 6
1.4 RELATED DOCUMENTS ............................................................................................... 6
1.5 DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................. 10

2 L E A D ER S H I P A N D C O MM I T M E N T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1

3 P O L I C Y A ND S TR A T E G IC OB J E C TI V E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2
3.1 WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICY ................................................................................... 12
3.2 WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANNING .............................................................................. 12
3.3 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT ......................................................................... 12
3.4 REGULATORY AND LEGAL REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................ 13

4 . O R G AN I Z A T IO N, R E S PO N S IB I L I T IE S, R E S OUR C E S , S TA N D AR DS AN D
D O C U M EN T A T IO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4
4.1 ORGANISATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES .......................................................................... 14
4.1.1 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE .................................................................................... 14
4.1.2 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES ..................................................................................... 15
4.1.2.1 HSX-ENVW RESPONSIBILITIES ................................................................................ 16
4.1.2.2 SSC-CLN RESPONSIBILITIES .................................................................................... 17
4.1.2.3 SSX-WST RESPONSIBILITIES .................................................................................... 18
4.1.2.4 DWR-EVX RESPONSIBILITIES.................................................................................... 18
4.1.2.5 LINE DEPARTMENTS’ RESPONSIBILITIES ......................................................................... 19
4.2 RESOURCES AND COMPETENCE .................................................................................. 19
4.2.1 COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT .................................................................................... 19
4.2.2 TRAINING ............................................................................................................ 19
4.2.3 BUDGETING ......................................................................................................... 20
4.3 COMMUNICATIONS ............................................................................................... 20
4.4 CONTRACTOR MANAGEMENT ................................................................................... 20
4.5 STANDARDS ......................................................................................................... 20
4.5.1 REGULATORY STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE ................................................................... 20
4.5.2 WORKSITE SAFETY .................................................................................................. 20
4.5.3 WASTE SEGREGATION ............................................................................................. 20
4.5.4 WASTE CATEGORISATION ......................................................................................... 20
4.5.5 WASTE MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE INDICATORS .......................................................... 21
4.6 DOCUMENTATION AND RETENTION OF RECORDS ............................................................. 21
4.6.1 WASTE INVENTORY ................................................................................................ 21
4.6.2 DOCUMENT CONTROL ............................................................................................ 22

5 . H A Z A R D S A N D EFF E C TS M A N A GE M E N T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3
5.1 IDENTIFICATION ..................................................................................................... 23
5.1.1 WASTE IDENTIFICATION ........................................................................................... 23
5.1.2 WASTE CHARACTERIZATION ...................................................................................... 23
5.1 ASSESSMENT ........................................................................................................ 23

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 3 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

5.2.1 WASTE DISPOSAL SCREENING CRITERIA .......................................................................... 23


5.2.2 WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SENSITIVITY INDICES ...................................................................... 23
5.2.3 WASTE INCIDENTS ASSESSMENT ................................................................................ 23
5.3 CONTROL............................................................................................................ 23
5.3.1 WASTE HANDLING, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ................................................................ 23
5.3.2 WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES ............................................................................... 23
5.4 RECOVERY ........................................................................................................... 23
5.4.1 EMERGENCY RESPONSE ........................................................................................... 23
5.4.2 CONTINGENCY PLAN.............................................................................................. 23

6 . PL A NN I N G A N D PR O C E DU R E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4
6.1 PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES................................................................. 24
6.2 PROGRESSIVE REDUCTION OF WASTES ........................................................................... 24
6.3 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN OPERATING PROCEDURES .......................................................... 24
6.4 DEVELOPMENT, REVIEW AND PUBLICATION OF PROCEDURES.................................................. 24

7 . I M P L E M E N TA T I O N, MO N I T OR IN G AN D C OR R E C T IV E A C T IO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5
7.1 REGULATORY COMPLIANCE MONITORING ...................................................................... 25
7.2 NON-COMPLIANCE MANAGEMENT ............................................................................. 25
7.3 PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING ............................................................... 25
7.4 WASTE TARGET SETTING AND MONITORING ................................................................... 25
7.5 WASTE TRACKING.................................................................................................. 25
7.6 ASSET INTEGRITY .................................................................................................... 25
7.7 INCIDENT MONITORING, REPORTING, INVESTIGATION AND FOLLOW-UP ................................. 25

8. AUDIT ................................................................................... 26
8.1 WASTE MANAGEMENT AUDIT .................................................................................... 26
8.2 AUDITORS’ COMPETENCIES ....................................................................................... 26
8.3 FOLLOW-UP .......................................................................................................... 26

9 . R E V IE W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7
9.1 QUARTERLY & ANNUAL PERFORMANCE REVIEW ................................................................. 27
9.2 WMS REVIEW ...................................................................................................... 27
9.3 ORGANIZATION CHANGES ....................................................................................... 27

R EF ER EN C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8

A P P E ND I C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9
APPENDIX 1: WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICY ................................................................ 29
APPENDIX 2: ROLES & TASKS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT PROCESS………………………..….28
AP P EN D IX 3 : W A ST E I NV EN T OR Y M AS T ER S H EE T .............................................. 30
AP P EN D IX 4 : W A ST E M AN A G E ME N T F A C IL I T IE S ................................................ 37

A p p e n d i x 5: W AS T E MA N A G E M E N T F O C AL PO I N T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 9

List of Figures
Figure 1: WMS Manual With Group & SPDC Guidelines……………………………..……………6
Figure 2: Waste Management Planning Approach………………………………….………….…..10
Figure 3: Waste Management Organisational Chart…………………….…….………..………….12
Figure 4: Waste Management Roles & Responsibilities…………………..………………...……....13
Figure 5: Waste Management Classification Structure……………………………………..……….16

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 4 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

List of Tables

L i s t Of S P D C R el a t e d Do c u m en ts … … …. …… …… … … .. …… … … …… ..… … … . 7
Definitions And Abbreviations In This Document……………………………………….…………8

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 5 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
The deployment of a new Services Directorate in January 2003 prompted the review of the existing
waste management system. The re-organization, which gave rise to the setting up of an Integrated
Waste Management (SSX-WST) and Waste Management Technical Authority (SSC-CLN) teams in the
Logistics Department of the new directorate, has created changes in the existing waste management
process in SPDC.

As it were, Production Services, Utilities, Estate Services and General Services who were separate line
departments running waste management business in the old organisation, have come under the new
directorate, with all waste management activities being integrated and to be managed by SSX-WST
(Integrated Waste Management Team), with technical support from SSC-CLN.

1.2 Purpose
This Waste Management System Manual is developed to:
 Document SPDC’s waste management system
 Delineate the key roles and responsibilities for waste management delivery process
 Provide direction on the interface between the line departments and corporate waste
management team.

1.3 Scope
This document provides the relevant steer to managing waste (any material to be disposed of, as
being of no further primary use, but excludes aqueous and gaseous effluents) in SPDC. It is structured
to be in conformity with relevant Group HSE and Waste Management Guides as well as SPDC HSE-
MS Manual.

It shall be applicable to waste management process in all SPDC locations. In other words, activities,
assets or organization in the waste management business shall be guided by this document.

1.4 Related Documents


This document is derived from the Group Waste Management Guide and SPDC HSE-MS Manual.
Figure 1 illustrates it. Table 1 shows related documents in the HSE-MS framework.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 6 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Shell Group
Statement of
General Business

Policy Guidelines on
Health, Safety and
the Environment

Other Group Guides HSE Management


System
Other Functional
Guides HSE-MS Guidelines

Waste Management
Guide

SPDC

HSE-MS Manual

Other Guides

Waste Management
System Manual

Waste Management System Structure


Leadership and Commitment

Policy and Strategic Objectives


PLAN Organisation, Responsibilities
Resources, Standards & Doc.

Hazard and Effects Management


Corrective
DO Planning & Procedures Action FEEDACK

Implementation Monitoring

Corrective Action &


Audit
CHECK Improvement
Corrective Action &
Management Review
Improvement

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 7 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Figure 1. WMS Manual with Group and SPDC Guidelines.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 8 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 1. List of SPDC Related Documents

Document Name Reference


HSE Policy SPDC web
Waste Management Policy SPDC web
Material & Energy Policy SPDC web
Produced Water Policy SPDC web
Gas Flaring Policy SPDC web
Use of Chemicals Policy SPDC web
Asbestos Policy. SPDC web
HSE Competence Assurance Manual
The Register of HSE Critical Legislation 98-335
Contractor Management Guide SPDC 99-031
Worksite Hazard Information System Manual
Corporate Waste Management Plan
Procedure for Inputting Waste Data into WMIS SPDC – P?
Procedure for Compilation and Reporting of Waste Data SPDC – P?
Waste Prediction Modeling, Deployment and Monitoring Plan. SPDC – P?
SPDC SHOC Manual
Waste Management Manual SPDC web
Procedure for HSE Data Reporting and Record Keeping HSE-P-08
Procedure for Disposal of Obsolete Seismic Tapes DTE-GPH
Procedure for Hospital Waste Handling and Disposal MDE-OH
Procedure for Handling and Disposal of Photocopier Consumables HGX-GEN
Procedure for Disposal of Waste Toner and Replenisher HGX-GEN
Waste Classification Guide SPDC – G?
Procedure for Handling, Transporting and Disposal of Waste SPDC – P?
Waste Data Quality Management Plan SPDC – P?

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 9 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

1.5 Definitions & Abbreviations


Abbreviations
Definitions of special terminologies and abbreviations used in this document are presented in Table 2
below.

Table 2: Definitions and Abbreviations in this document.


Abbreviation/Term
Meaning
CMG Contractor Management Guide
DEE-HSE Central Engineering East- Health Safety Environment
DMP-HSE Major Projects – Health Safety Environment
DPR Department of Petroleum Resources
DTX-HSE Sub-surface Development - Health Safety Environment
DWR-EVX Well Engineering Risk – Environmental Management East or West
EGASPIN Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EP Exploration and Production
EPBM Exploration and Production Business Model
FEPA Federal Environmental Protection Authority
FRD Focused Result Delivery
HEMP Hazards and Effects Management Process
HSE - MS Health Safety Environment – Management System
HSE-ENV Health Safety Environment Function – Environmental Assessment Department
HSE-ENVW Health Safety Environment Function – Environmental Assessment Department,
Waste Management Section.
HSE-SYSA Health Safety Environment Function – Systems Department, Audit Section
Line Department All departments including SSX-WST involved in waste generation, segregation,
handling, transporting, treatment and disposal activities.
MEE Minimum Environmental Expectations
OU Operational Unit
PBX-HSE Western Swamp Area Production Team (East & West) - Health Safety
Environment
POM-HSE Production Offshore Division - Health Safety Environment
PPX-HSE Pipeline Integrity - Health Safety Environment
PTX-HSE Production Terminal East & West - Health Safety Environment
RAM Risk Assessment Matrix
RPL External Relations Lagos
SHOC Safe Handling of Chemicals
LSA Low Specific Activity
SIEP Shell International Exploration and Petroleum
SMART Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-based
SPDC Shell Petroleum Development Company
SSC Corporate Logistics Services
SSX-LOG Logistics Services Department - East
SSX-WST Logistics Services Department – Integrated Waste Management Section
SVD Services Directorate
VRL-ENV Ventures Representations Lagos - Environment
Waste Waste is any material to be disposed of, as being of no further primary use, but
excludes aqueous and gaseous effluents from company activities
WCN Waste Consignment Note
WMIS Waste Management Information System
WMS Waste Management System

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 10 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

2 LEADERSHIP AND COMMITMENT

SPDC’s waste management is given top management attention. Waste Management leadership is
vested in the Corporate Waste Management Team and all Line Departments. In SPDC, commitment to
waste management is visible as in:
 The allocation of resources for complying with the waste management policy.
 The participation of top management in waste management reviews, workshops and inspections.
 The approval of initiatives for waste management performance improvement.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 11 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

3 POLICY AND STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE


3.1 Waste Management Policy
The Managing Director signed, in March 1999 the company’s waste management policy. The policy
is presented in Appendix 1.

3.2 Waste Management Planning


The waste management planning provides the strategic guide to develop a systematic approach for
implementing the policy. The elements of the waste management principles include – inventorisation,
characterisation, segregation, minimisation, treatment and disposal. Fig 2 shows the relationship of
these elements in the overall waste management process.

Figure 2: Waste management planning approach

3.3 Environmental Impact Assessment


Management plan for risks and hazards from waste incidents form part of the Environmental
Management Plan in the EIA documents developed for every new project or redevelopment. This
waste risks and hazards assessment is conducted in line with the Hazards and Effects Management
Process (HEMP) in the HSE-MS.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 12 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

3.4 Regulatory and Legal Requirements


Compliance to legislation is a policy requirement. The Federal Republic of Nigeria has a body of
legislation governing the management of waste in the industrial sector and legislation specific to the
oil industry. Responsibility for legislation and enforcement lies with:
 The Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (General HSE in Industry)
 The Federal Ministry of Petroleum; Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) (Oil Industry)
 The Federal Ministry of Environment
Additional regulatory bodies exist at state level, specifically the State Environmental Protection
Agencies reporting to the Ministry of Environment.

The major regulatory guidelines and standards governing EP waste management business in Nigeria
include:
 DPR Environmental Guidelines & Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria - 1991
 FEPA Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria - 1991

Compliance with waste management legislation is a line responsibility and is assured by compliance
verifications conducted by HSE-SYSA. Non-compliance is reported and followed up until they are
closed out.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 13 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

4. ORGANIZATION, RESPONSIBILITIES, RESOURCES,


STANDARDS AND DOCUMENTATION
4.1 Organisation and Responsibilities
4.1.1 Organisational Structure
Figure 3 below shows the various line departments in the different directorates that are responsible for
waste management. The organigram is in line with management roles and not hierarchical, and so
shall not be used as representation of levels of authority.

SVD DMD

SSC Line Departments HSE

SSC-CLN SSX-WST HSE-ENV

HSX-ENVW

DWR-EVX
DMP-HSE
PTX-HSE
PAX-HSE
PBX-HSE
PCX-HSE
VRL-ENV
PPX-HSE
POM-HSE
DTX-HSE
DEE-SVC
RPL

Figure 3: Waste Management Organisational Chart.

Waste management activities are undertaken in various forms in the different Directorates in the entire
company with locations in Abuja, Logos, Port Harcourt, Warri and Offshore. The directorates
include:
1. Human Resources (HRD)
2. New Business and Exploration (BDD)
3. External Relations (RXD)
4. Commercial and Finance (CFD)
5. Development (DVD)
6. Production (PDD)
7. Services (SVD)

The industrial and domestic activities of these directorates generate waste, which are managed in line
with relevant SPDC guidelines and procedures. Except waste from drilling, all wastes shall be
transported, treated and disposed by the Services Directorate.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 14 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

4.1.2 Roles and Responsibilities


The roles and responsibilities in waste management process, which includes planning, inventorisation,
transportation, minimisation, treatment, disposal, reporting, inspection etc have been clearly
delineated into the various waste management line departments.

These departments are as follows:


1. HSE aspects of waste management - HSX-ENVW
2. Corporate waste management technical authority – SSC-CLN
3. Integrated waste management operations– SSX-WST
4. Drilling waste management – DRW-EVX
5. Other waste management lines in Production (Land, Swamp, Offshore), Seismic, Major
Projects, Terminal Operations, Pipelines, Office & Estate Services (PHC, Abuja, Lagos,
Warri), etc.
Figure 4. below shows a diagrammatic representation of the key roles of the various departments.

WASTE
WASTEMANAGEMENT
MANAGEMENTGT IN CORPORATE HSE
IN CORPORATE
HSE WMS process
• WMS process driver
• Research
Research& &
driver development
• development
Guidelines & & Standards
HSE guidelines
• Regulatory
Regulatorycompliance
standards compliancemonitoring
monitoring
WASTE MGT.
WASTE MGT. TECHNICAL
TECHNICAL (SSC) -CLN)
AUTHORITY
AUTHORITY
(SSC • Corporate
Corporateperformance
performance reporting
•Technical
Technical
reportingguidelines & standards
• support
Standards
Procedures &
procedures
• Waste Mgt.Plan

LINE
L DEPARTMENTS
WASTE MGT. TECHNICAL AUTHORITY (SSC)
SSX -WST
WST DWR -EVE OTHER LINES

Generate drilling waste Generate waste &


& segregate at source segregate at source

Inventorise, treat & Inventorise and report


dispose waste quantity via WMIS

Report performance
via WMIS
Liase with SSX -WST to
Transport waste from transport, treat &
Drilling & other sites dispose waste
to WM facilities
Generate other waste
& segregate at source
Recycle, treat and
dispose waste
Inventorise and report
quantity via WMIS
Report performance
to SSC -CLN
Liase with SSX -WST to
transport, treat &
dispose waste

Figure 4. Roles of various waste management team

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 15 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

The figure above shows waste management key roles and the relationship among the various waste
management teams namely HSX-ENVW, SSC-CLN, SSX-WST and other Line Departments. Details of
the specific roles in each waste management business activity and the overlaps within the various
teams are presented in Appendix 2. However high level responsibilities to be performed by HSX-
EVW, SSC-CLN, SSX-WST and the other Waste Management Line Departments are presented in
Sections 4.1.2.1 – 4.1.2.5 below.

4.1.2.1 HSX-
HSX-ENVW Responsibilities
The responsibilities of the Corporate Waste Management Team (HSX-ENVW) are as follows:

 Create awareness on corporate waste management issues.


 Develop waste management business planning procedure; challenge Line waste
management plans.
 Develop strategy on animal testing in line with Group standards; perform, and report to SIEP.
 Develop strategy, maintain and monitor waste management petitions.
 Develop strategy for waste forecast & reduction programme.
 Develop, disseminate, and maintain HSE guidelines and standards in waste management.
 Develop, maintain and carry out periodic review of the waste management system.
 Develop, maintain and review the hazardous waste register.
 Drive and monitor waste management aspects of MEE e.g. CFCs & halons phase-out,
LSA/NORM monitoring etc.
 Drive regulatory standards and compliance issues on waste management in liaison with HSE-
SYSA
 Drive the development and deployment of new waste management issues, standards and
requirements.
 Participate in the chemical management committee.
 Participate in waste management performance reviews.
 Perform inspections and audits of waste management processes and facilities
 Perform corporate waste data verification exercises.
 Perform research on new waste management initiatives and technologies in EP industry
 Provide support to SSC-CLN on waste characterization and analyses.
 Provide support to SSC-CLN in the review of the waste management master plan, and the
waste management manual.
 Review waste management plans in EIAs and monitor waste management aspects of the
EMP.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 16 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

4.1.2.2 SSC-
SSC-CLN Responsibilities
The responsibilities of the Corporate Waste Management Technical Authority team (SSC-CLN) are as
follows:
 Be custodian of Waste Inventory Process, which includes management of WMIS & WCN
and training of users.
 Carry out inspections and audits on waste management facilities in liaison with HSX-ENVW
 Collate waste inventory data from drilling, SSX-WST and other line departments, using
WMIS.
 Comply with MEE in all aspects of the waste management operations.
 Conduct characterization and analysis of wastes in liaison with HSX-ENVW
 Create awareness on standard waste management practice
 Develop and maintain 5-year corporate waste management master plan.
 Develop strategy and programme for waste minimisation based on waste forecast.
 Develop strategy for deploying new waste management issues to the line departments.
 Develop work procedures, instructions and technical standards of facilities, equipment and
systems for waste transportation, treatment and disposal.
 Identify improvement opportunities to existing waste transportation, treatment and disposal in
liaison with HSX-ENVW.
 Implement the Waste Management System requirements.
 Maintain and review the corporate waste management master plan in liaison with HSX-
ENVW.
 Plan and organize quarterly and annual waste management performance reviews.
 Provide standards for setting up, operating and maintaining waste management facilities.
 Participate in review of the waste management master plan and the waste management
manual.
 Develop, and deploy HEMP to line on waste management functions.
 Develop and maintain a database on waste management facilities capacities and
operational status vis-à-vis waste forecasts and reduction programmes.
 Provide support to HSX-ENVW on waste petition management.
 Quality-check waste inventory data from drilling and other line departments and report to
HSX-ENVW.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 17 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

4.1.2.3 SSX-
SSX-WST Responsibilities
The responsibilities of the Integrated Waste Management Team (SSX-WST) are as follows:

 Be custodian (asset holder) of waste management facilities.


 Carry out waste management inspections of disposal facilities in liaison with SSC-CLN.
 Collect and transport waste from designated collection points to disposal facilities.
 Create awareness on standards waste collection, transportation, treatment and disposal
issues.
 Implement HEMP in waste collection, treatment and disposal processes.
 Drive, maintain and operate primary and secondary waste segregation facilities
 Ensure compliance with applicable waste management aspects of MEE, and other standards.
 Ensure compliance with HSE and regulatory requirements on waste storage, transportation,
treatment and disposal.
 Implement applicable waste minimization strategies.
 Implement the Waste Management System requirements.
 Implement work procedures, instructions and technical standards of facilities, equipment and
systems for waste transportation, treatment and disposal
 Inventorize and report waste data to SSC-CLN.
 Participate in waste management audit of facilities.
 Participate in waste management performance reviews.
 Participate in review of the waste management master plan and the waste management
manual.
 Provide appropriate equipment for waste inventorisation, segregation and minimization (e.g.
recycling).
 Set-up, operate and maintain waste collection, transportation, treatment and disposal
facilities.
 Provide support to HSX-ENVW on waste petition management.
 Track waste movements using WCN, and maintain records.

4.1.2.4 DWR-
DWR-EVX Responsibilities
The responsibilities of the Drilling Waste Management Team (DWR-EVX) are as follows:

 Apply HEMP in drilling waste management activities.


 Carry out primary waste segregation (at source).
 Conduct drilling waste management inspections in liaison with SSC-CLN.
 Create awareness on drilling waste management practice.
 Develop waste management plan and send to HSX-ENVW for challenge.
 Develop, and implement work procedures, instructions and technical standards of facilities,
equipment and systems for drilling waste transportation, treatment and disposal.
 Ensure compliance with applicable waste management aspects of MEE.
 Ensure compliance with HSE and regulatory requirements.
 Implement the Waste Management System requirements.
 Implement applicable waste minimization strategies
 Inventorize and report waste data to SSC-CLN.
 Participate in audit of drilling waste management facilities.
 Participate in review of the waste management master plan and the waste management
manual.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 18 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

 Participate in waste management performance reviews.


 Provide drilling waste forecast and reduction plan.
 Set up, operate and maintain drilling waste management facilities.
 Track drilling waste movement using WCN, and maintain records.
 Transport and dispose drilling waste from point of generation to disposal.

4.1.2.5 Other Line Departments’ Responsibilities


Other Line Departments include but not limited to DMP-HSE, PTX-HSE, PAX-HSE, PBX-HSE, PCX-HSE,
VRL-ENV, PPX-HSE, POM-HSE, DEE-HSE, DTX-HSE, SLE-OFI, and RPL.

The responsibilities of these Line Departments are as follows:

 Apply HEMP in waste management operations.


 Carry out primary waste segregation
 Comply with HSE and regulatory standards.
 Create awareness on standard waste management practice.
 Develop waste management plan and send to HSX-ENVW for challenge.
 Ensure compliance with applicable waste management aspects of MEE.
 Implement applicable waste minimization strategies.
 Implement new waste management issues.
 Implement relevant technical standards, work instructions and procedures on waste
management.
 Implement the Waste Management System requirements.
 Inventorize and report waste data to SSC-CLN.
 Participate in waste management inspections.
 Participate in waste management performance reviews
 Participate in review of the waste management master plan and the waste management
manual.
 Provide waste forecast in liaison with SSC-CLN.
 Track waste movement using WCN, and maintain records.
 Transport waste from point of generation to point of collection.

4.2 Resources and Competence


4.2.1 Competence Development
The Human Resources Management System describes the structured framework for developing SPDC
staff. It is a line management responsibility to provide sufficient resources of the right competence for
all waste management activities and roles. Systems for competence assurance apply both to initial
recruitment and to selection for new activities, and to both staff and contractors. Details on
competence development of personnel for the effective performance of waste management duties are
provided in SPDC HSE Competence Assurance Manual and SPDC HSE Handbook for New Recruits

4.2.2 Training
A wide range of HSE training including waste management is made available to all SPDC staff. This
training can be sourced through the HR function, through the corporate HSE function and via line
management approval from external sources. The Corporate Learning & Development (HRW-LD)
‘Learning Guide’ provides details of training courses available to Company staff and Contractor
personnel, and describes the nominations and course attendance process.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 19 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

4.2.3 Budgeting
Every line department shall provide budget for the execution of its waste management work plan.
However a centralized budget for HSE training exists within the HR function.

4.3 Communications
Waste management work plans, standards, instructions, and performance are documented, discussed
in review meetings, shared via e-mails, published on the web, in newsletters or printed and distributed
to all responsible parties. Waste management process documents are available on the web @:
http://sww.phc.spdc.shell.ng/dir/pdd/hse/St3/environ/WMhome_page_1.htm

4.4 Contractor Management


Contractors are responsible for carrying out over 80% of SPDC’s front-line activities and therefore
contractor management guidelines are made available by the HSE MS to aid effective management
of contracted waste management activities. See the Contractor Management Guidelines (CMG) for
details.

4.5 Standards
4.5.1 Regulatory Standards and Compliance
Relevant regulatory standards such as the Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum
Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN) 1991, and the FEPA (now FME) Environmental Guidelines and
Standards for Pollution Control in Nigeria, 1991 provide the basic regulations on waste management
in Nigeria. State EPAs, and other relevant international laws and conventions ratified by Nigeria are
also complied with. Detailed regulatory review is provided in Section Five of the SPDC Waste
Management Manual, 2001.

4.5.2 Worksite Safety


Worksite Hazard Identification System (WHIS) is an electronic database that matches tasks to hazards
to operational controls. It applies equally to SPDC and contracted operations. It is used in tandem
with the Permit to Work (PTW) system to ensure basic safety standards are maintained on site such as
waste handling, treatment and disposal sites.

4.5.3 Waste Segregation


Waste segregation is implemented at source. It is the responsibility of the waste generators to provide
the segregation bins for the segregation scheme. However, the SSX-WST team shall manage central
segregation scheme in the residential and office areas. Segregation shall be in accordance with the
procedure presented in Appendix I of the Waste Management Manual.

4.5.4 Waste Categorisation


SPDC categorises her wastes in two standards.

1. SIEP standard: which include wastes from core exploration and production activities but excludes
aqueous and gaseous effluents. This category does not include domestic and office wastes, and
are called EP Wastes.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 20 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

2. SPDC standard: which include wastes from all forms of company activities, but excludes aqueous
and gaseous effluents. This category of wastes is called OU waste.
The figure below shows the waste classification structure. Detailed information is contained in the
Waste Classification Guide, 2002.

Figure 5 below is a diagrammatic representation of waste categorisation.

Figure 5. SPDC Waste Classification Structure

4.5.5 Waste Management Performance Indicators


Waste management performance is measured in line with the (2) standards as presented in 4.5.4.
above. The performance indicators include:

 EP Hazardous waste generated


 EP Hazardous waste disposed
 EP Non hazardous waste generated
 EP Non hazardous waste disposed
 OU Hazardous waste generated
 OU Hazardous waste disposed
 OU Non hazardous waste generated
 OU Non hazardous waste disposed

4.6 Documentation and Retention of Records


4.6.1 Waste
Waste Inventory
Waste is inventorized at source. The generator, who reports quantity generated to SSC-CLN via the
Waste Management Information System, also keeps the records. Monthly reports are compiled by
SSC-CLN and sent to HSX-ENVW. The waste inventory master sheet is presented in Appendix 3.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 21 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

4.6.2 Document Control


Waste management documents shall be in line with SPDC’s HSE-MS Document Management Control
Procedure & Document Classification. This is to ease understanding and facilitate communication.
Currently not all Waste management documents conform to these requirements and so plans are in
place to migrate all documents to this format.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 22 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

5. HAZARDS AND EFFECTS MANAGEMENT


5.1 Identification
5.1.1 Waste Identification
A list of waste identified in the company is presented in Appendix 3. However new waste streams
encountered shall be reported to SSC-CLN who shall liase with HSX-ENVW before characterisation
and adoption.

5.1.2 Waste Characterization


The chemical constituents of the various waste streams are presented in Appendix D of the Waste
Management Manual. This characterisation informs the segregation and classification principles.

5.2 Assessment
5.2.1 Waste Disposal Screening Criteria
Waste screening criteria shall be used to assess a waste before discharge. This assessment shall
indicate whether or not a waste is qualified for discharge or requires further treatment. The guide for
this assessment shall be developed.

5.2.2 Waste Disposal Site Sensitivity Indices


Waste disposal sites shall be monitored in operations. Environmental sensitivity indicators shall be used to
delineate the potential of contamination of such sites. The guide for this indexing shall be developed.

5.2.3 Waste Incidents Assessment


Waste discharge or other waste related incidents shall be investigated and its impact to the
environment, and human health assessed using the RAM. Procedure for waste incident assessment
shall be developed.

5.3 Control
5.3.1 Waste Handling, Treatment and Disposal
Methods for waste handling from generation to disposal are provided in the Procedure for handling,
transport and disposal of waste. Available and applicable treatment methods are presented in Section
6.9 of the Waste Management Manual.

5.3.2 Waste Management Facilities


Wastes, except the recyclable ones, are treated before discharged to the environment. A list of current
waste management facilities and their operational status are presented in Appendix 4.

5.4 Recovery
5.4.1 Emergency Response
Emergency response plan for waste related incident shall be developed.

5.4.2 Contingency Plan


Plan to manage waste in case of failure of existing facilities shall be developed.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 23 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

6. PLANNING AND PROCEDURES


6.1 Planning and Implementation Strategies
Waste management plans are developed in line with the Corporate HSE Business Plan. The business
plan for 2003 – 2007 shall be used to develop corporate waste management plan for the next four
(4) years. Business plans contain SMART work plans, budgeting and cost optimisation strategies. The
plans shall take into cognisance the 5-year waste forecast vis a vis capacity of waste management
infrastructures, to identify gaps for effective performance and put in place controls based on the gap
analysis. The Waste Management team in the Corporate HSE shall challenge these waste
management business plans.

6.2 Progressive Reduction of Wastes


At the background of waste management planning, is the strategic approach to reduce waste
generation. As it were, waste generation in SPDC is likely to increase in the next 5 years (SPDC
Waste Prediction Modelling, Deployment and Monitoring Plan). The challenge is therefore to adopt
effective waste reduction strategies to reverse this potential. The waste reduction plan shall be
developed when it is established that the forecast aligns with the actual. SSC-CLN shall drive this
activity.

6.3 Waste Management in Operating Procedures


Waste management plan is incorporated into project/activity HSE Plan. Guide for developing such
area-specific project or activity waste management plans is presented in Appendix E of the Waste
Management Manual. It is required that such plans be sent to HSX-ENVW for review before
adoption.

6.4 Development, Review and Publication of Procedures


HSE-ENVW and SSC-CLN shall be responsible for development of waste management guidelines,
procedures, work instructions, technical specifications etc within the scope of their respective activities.
Whereas HSX-ENVW shall provide the guides, standards and framework of the WMS
documentation, SSC-CLN shall be responsible for development of detailed procedures, work
instructions and technical specifications for the delivery of the process.
Currently available waste management documents include the following:

 Waste management manual, 2001.


 Procedure for inputting waste data into WMIS, 2002.
 Waste data quality management plan, 2002.
 Waste classification guide, 2002.
 Waste prediction modelling, deployment and monitoring plan
 Procedure for compilation and reporting of waste data, 2002.
 Procedure for handling and disposal of smoke detectors, 2002.
 Procedure for handling and disposal of burnt fluorescent tubes, 2002.
 Procedure for handling and disposal of asbestos waste, 2002.
 Procedure for handling, transport and disposal of waste

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 24 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

7. IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND CORRECTIVE


ACTION
7.1 Regulatory Compliance Monitoring
HSX-ENVW shall in liaison with HSE-SYSA monitory HSE regulatory compliance issues, and shall
report to relevant authorities as required.

7.2 Non-
Non-compliance Management
Non-compliance with HSE requirements and regulatory legislation shall be managed in line with the
Procedure for HSE MS Non Compliance and Corrective Action Reporting.

7.3 Performance Measurement and Reporting


Waste management performance is measured and reported to Line HSE focal points who shall report
it to SSC-CLN. Waste data is reported using the Waste Management Information System (WMIS)
and shall be in accordance with the Procedure for Compilation and Reporting of Waste Data. SSC-
CLN shall be the custodian of the WMIS.

7.4 Waste
Waste Target Setting and Monitoring
Waste target setting and monitoring against actual performance is used for the development of a
realistic waste reduction programme. Currently, waste target setting (forecasting) is being developed
and shall be monitored until it is validated and suitable for the development of a waste reduction plan.
Line Departments and SSC-CLN shall agree to set the targets thereafter the former shall be the sole
owner of the targets. The performance against targets shall be published and communicated to all
responsible parties. Deviations greater or less than 20% from actual shall be reviewed and
documented. Details are presented in SPDC Waste Prediction Modelling, Deployment and Monitoring
Plan.

7.5 Waste Tracking


Waste is monitored from source to final destination. The Line HSE Focal Point is accountable from
point of generation to point of transfer to SSX-WST, who becomes accountable to disposal.
Accountabilities are documented using the Waste Consignment Note (WCN). The procedure for
using WCN as well as the handling and disposal of wastes is provided in the Procedure for
handling, transporting and disposal of waste. SSC-CLN shall be the custodian of WCN.

7.6 Asset Integrity


Waste management facilities and associated assets are managed for asset integrity to ensure
acceptable HSE performance. The responsibility for asset integrity management is vested in the asset
holder. Details are available in SPDC Asset Integrity Management System Manual.

7.7 Incident Monitoring, Reporting, Investigation


Investigation and Follow-
Follow-Up
Waste incidents shall be reported and investigated in line with SPDC’s Procedure for Incident
Notification, Investigation and Follow-Up.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 25 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

8. AUDIT
8.1 Waste Management Audit
Waste management audit is planned, driven and conducted by HSX-ENVW in liaison with the Line
Departments. The audit shall cover all the waste management system elements, as shown in Appendix
L of the Waste Management Manual.

8.2 Auditors’ Competencies


As a minimum, auditors shall be Environmental Advisers with at least 3 years experience in waste
management operations.

8.3 Follow-
Follow-up
Waste management audits and inspections recommendations shall be tracked via an electronic
system. Recommendations shall be implemented and followed up by Action Parties until they are duly
closed out.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 26 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

9. REVIEW
9.1 Quarterly & Annual Performance Review
SSC-CLN shall hold quarterly and annual waste management performance reviews, where plans &
performance, waste data reports & forecast, facilities operational status etc shall be communicated.
All line waste management focal points are expected to attend these reviews. Appendix 5 presents
the list of waste management focal points in SPDC. HSX-ENVW shall participate in these meetings.

9.2 WMS Review


HSX-ENVW, as the custodian of the WMS manual, shall conduct review of the Waste Management
System every two years, and shall make recommendations for the improvement of the process.

9.3 Organization Changes


Top management drives waste management organisation changes. Corporate HSE shall be involved
in the structuring and alignment with the EP Business Model and Group HSE-MS structure.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 27 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

REFERENCES

1. Contractor Management Guide, SPDC 99-031


2. EP950100 Guidelines for the Development and Application of HSE Management
System. Report No. 6.36/210. July 1994.
3. HSE Competence Assurance Manual, SPDC.
4. HSE-MS Part 1, SPDC 99-025, August 2002.
5. Procedure for Compilation and Reporting of Waste Data, 2002.
6. Procedure for Disposal of Obsolete Seismic Tapes
7. Procedure for Disposal of Waste Toner and Replenisher
8. Procedure for handling and disposal of asbestos waste, 2002.
9. Procedure for handling and disposal of burnt fluorescent tubes, 2002.
10. Procedure for Handling and Disposal of Photocopier Consumables
11. Procedure for Handling and Disposal of Smoke detectors, 2002.
12. Procedure for Handling, Transporting and Disposal of Waste
13. Procedure for Hospital Waste Handling and Disposal
14. Procedure for HSE Data Reporting and Record Keeping. SPDC P –08. June 2002
15. Procedure for inputting waste data into WMIS, November 2002
16. SPDC SHOC Manual
17. The Register of HSE Critical Legislation, 98-335
18. Waste classification guide, 2002.
19. Waste Data Quality Management Plan, 2002
20. Waste Management Guide, Shell HSE Committee, SIEP. February 1996
21. Waste management manual, 2001.
22. Waste Prediction Modelling, Deployment and Monitoring Plan.
23. Worksite Hazard Information System Manual

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 28 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1: WASTE MANAGEMENT


MANAGEMENT POLICY

It is SPDC’s policy
• to take all practical and reasonable measures to minimize the generation of solid
and liquid waste, as well as emissions from flares and otherwise
• not to use Mineral Oil-based muds in drilling
• to manage and dispose of such wastes in a statutory and environmentally
responsible manner
• to track and maintain records of the full life cycle of waste streams and provide
an auditable trail as to its management and disposal

__________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 29 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 2: ROLES & TASKS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT PROCESS


S/no. Activity HSX-
HSX-ENVW SSC-
SSC-CLN SSX-
SSX-WST DWR-
DWR-EVX Other Line
Departments
1. Waste Management  Provide WMBP  Develop, monitor  Make input into the  Develop WMBP  Develop WMBP and
Business Plan (WMBP) tracking template and maintain 5-year SSC-LOG business and send to HSX- send to HSX-ENVW for
WMBP using the 5- plan. ENVW for challenge challenge.
 Challenge waste year forecast.
management plans
from all line
departments.
2. Waste Mgt. System  Develop, maintain  Implement the Waste  Implement the  Implement the  Implement the Waste
Development, and review the waste Management System Waste Management Waste Management Management System
Implementation & Review management system. requirements. System requirements. System requirements. requirements.

 Participate in WMS  Participate in  Participate in  Participate in WMS


review WMS review WMS review review
3. Waste Inventorization  Provide technical  Inventorize and  Inventorize and  Inventorize and
specifications for report waste disposed report data to SSC- report data to SSC-
necessary hardwares / to SSC-CLN CLN CLN
equipment for waste
collection.

 Continuous update  Provide


of the waste inventory appropriate
master list equipment for
inventorization

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 30 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 2 CONTD.: ROLES & TASKS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT PROCESS


S/no Activity HSX-
HSX-ENVW SSC-
SSC-CLN SSX-
SSX-WST DWR-
DWR-EVX Other Line
Departments
4. Waste Segregation at  Provide technical  Practice primary  Conduct primary  Conduct primary
Source support to SSX-WST to and secondary waste waste segregation waste segregation
perform waste segregation when
segregation effectively. necessary

 Drive the process


for waste segregation

 Provide
appropriate
equipment for waste
segregation
5. Waste Characterization &  Support SSC-CLN in  Conduct
Analysis matters of waste characterization and
characterization and analysis of wastes in
analysis liaison with HSX-
ENVW.
6. Waste Minimization  Harmonize waste  Develop strategy  Implement waste  Implement waste  Implement waste
minimization strategies and programme for minimization minimization minimization strategies
waste minimization. strategies (recycle strategies (reduce, (reduce, reuse, recycle
and reuse) reuse, recycle and recovery)
recover)
7. Waste Transportation  Provide technical  Collect and  Transport and  Collect waste at
support to SSX-WST to transport waste from dispose drilling designated collection
effectively carry out designated collection waste from point of points
waste transportation. points to disposal generation to
facilities. disposal facilities.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 31 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 2 CONTD.: ROLES & TASKS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT PROCESS


S/no. Activity HSX-
HSX-ENVW SSC-
SSC-CLN SSX-
SSX-WST DWR-
DWR-EVX Other Line
Departments
8. Waste Tracking  Perform waste data  Custodian of Waste  Track waste using  Track waste using  Track waste using
(WMIS/WCN) & quality assurance Inventory Process; WCN WCN WCN
Reporting assessment and advice WMIS and WCN;
on quality control train users on WMIS.  Report data on  Report was data to  Report waste data to
measures. waste disposed to SSC-CLN. SSC-CLN
 Collate data from SSC-CLN.
drilling, SSX-WST and
other line departments.

 Quality check data


and report to HSX-
ENVW
9. Waste Treatment &  Provide standards for  Setup, operate and  Set up operate
Disposal setting up, operating maintain waste and maintain drilling
and maintaining waste treatment and waste management
treatment facilities. disposal facilities. facilities.
10. HEMP application  Review waste  Develop, deploy and  Implement HEMP in  Apply HEMP in  Apply HEMP in
management plan for implement HEMP to waste management drilling waste waste management
EIA and monitor the Line waste activities. management operations
waste management management activities activities.
aspects of the EMP.
11. Inspections  Perform inspections  Carry out regular  Conduct waste  Conduct drilling  Participate in waste
of waste management inspections of waste management waste management management
processes and management facilities, inspections of inspections in liaison inspections of facilities
facilities. in liaison with HSX- disposal facilities in with SSC-CLN.
ENVW. liaison with SSC-
CLN.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 32 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 2 CONTD.: ROLES & TASKS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT PROCESS


S/no Activity HSX-
HSX-ENVW SSC-
SSC-CLN SSX-
SSX-WST DWR-
DWR-EVX Other Line
Departments
12. Audits  Perform audits of  Carry out audit on waste  Participate in  Participate in  Participate in waste
waste management management facilities waste management waste management management audit of
processes and audit of facilities audit of facilities facilities
facilities.
13. Waste Management  Participate in  Plan and organize  Participate in WM  Participate in WM  Participate in WM
Performance Reviews quarterly performance quarterly performance quarterly reviews and quarterly reviews and quarterly reviews and
review meetings and review meetings and annual workshops workshops workshops
annual workshops. workshops
14. Guidelines & Standards  Develop HSE  Provide technical  Implement  Develop and  Implement technical
guidelines and guidelines, standards and technical Implement technical specifications, work
standards on waste procedures specifications, work standards, work instructions and
management facilities/equipment/systems instructions and instructions and procedures on drilling
for waste transportation, procedures on waste procedures on waste waste management.
treatment & disposal. management. management.
15. Regulatory Standards &  Drive regulatory  Facilitate regulatory  Ensure compliance  Ensure compliance  Ensure compliance
Compliance standards and compliance in liaison with with regulatory with regulatory with regulatory
compliance issues in HSX-ENVW. standards. standards. standards.
liaison with HSE-
SYSA

 Maintain and
review the hazardous
waste register.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 33 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 2: ROLES & TASKS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT PROCESS


S/no. Activity HSX-
HSX-ENVW SSC-
SSC-CLN SSX-
SSX-WST DWR-
DWR-EVX Other Line
Departments
16. Waste Forecast &  Develop strategies  Provide technical  Provide drilling  Provide waste
Reduction Programmes for waste forecast & support for waste waste forecast and forecast and reduction
reduction programme. forecasting and reduction plan in plan in liaison with
reduction strategies. liaison with SSC-CLN. SSC-CLN.
 Be custodian of the
waste forecast
17. Chemical Management  Participate in the
chemical management
committee

 Perform & create


awareness on the
implementation of
group standards on
animal testing in SPDC.
18. Waste Mgt. Research &  Perform research on  Identify improvement
Development new waste initiatives to existing
management waste transportation,
improvement initiatives treatment and disposal
and technologies in EP activities in liaison with
industry. HSX-ENVW.
19. MEE Implementation  Drive and monitor  Facilitate the  Comply with  Comply with waste  Comply with waste
waste management deployment of waste waste management management aspects management aspects
aspects of MEE management aspects of aspects of the MEE of the MEE of the MEE
MEE to the line
operations.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 34 of 88
List of Appendices
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 2: ROLES & TASKS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT PROCESS


S/no. Activity HSX-
HSX-ENVW SSC-
SSC-CLN SSX-
SSX-WST DWR-
DWR-EVX Other Line Departments
20. New Waste Mgt Issues  Drive the  Deploy new waste  Implement new  Implement new  Implement new
implementation of new management issues to waste management waste management waste management
waste management the line operations. issues issues issues
issues, standards and
requirements
21. Awareness  Create awareness  Create awareness  Create awareness  Create awareness  Create awareness
on corporate waste on standard waste on standard waste on drilling waste on waste management
management issues management practices. collection, management practices.
transportation, practices.
treatment and
disposal.
22. Waste management  Maintain a database  Provide support to  Provide support to  Provide support to  Provide support to
petition matters for the management of HSX-ENVW in petition HSX-ENVW in HSX-ENVW in HSX-ENVW in petition
petitions on waste management petition management petition management management
issues.
23. Review of waste  Participate in the  Review the  Participate in the  Participate in the  Participate in the
management Manual review of the waste corporate waste review of the waste review of the waste review of the waste
management manual management manual. management manual. management manual. management manual.
24. Review of waste  Support SSC-CLN in  Review the  Participate in the  Participate in the  Participate in the
Management master plan the review of the waste corporate waste review of the waste review of the waste review of the waste
management master management master management master management master management master
plan. plan in liaison with plan. plan. plan.
HSX-ENVW.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 35 of 88
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
__

APPENDIX 3: WASTE INVENTORY


IN VENTORY MASTER SHEET
Activity Level Unit Solid and Liquid Wastes Unit
Hole length drilled with water-based mud (WBM) km EP Wastes
Hole length drilled with synthetic mud (SBM) km EP Non-hazardous waste
Total hole length drilled km
Air filters generated Tonne
Emissions to Air Unit Cement water generated Tonne
Halons and CFCs in stock and equipment Tonne Contaminated cement generated Tonne
Halons and CFCs lost to atmosphere Tonne Contaminated soil from fresh spill site generated Tonne
HCFCs and HFCs in stock and equipment Tonne Contaminated soil from saver pits generated Tonne
HCFCs and HFCs lost to atmosphere Tonne Contaminated soil from surge vessels generated Tonne
Drilled cement generated Tonne
Discharges to Water Unit Oil & Fuel filters generated Tonne
Total produced water m3 Oily rags generated Tonne
Produced water discharged to surface environment m3 Pigging waste generated Tonne
Produced water discharged to fresh/brackish water m3 Used absorbents generated Tonne
Produced water discharged to sea m3 WBM (whole mud) generated Tonne
Oil discharged with water to surface environment Tonne WBM cuttings generated Tonne
Oil discharged with produced water to fresh/brackish water Tonne Workover/completion fluids generated Tonne
Oil discharged with produced water to sea Tonne EP Hazardous waste
Oil discharged with other effluents to surface environment Tonne Batteries generated Tonne
Average oil concentration in produced water mg-1l blasting grit generated Tonne
Synthetic oil in SBMlosses to surface environment Tonne BOP fluids generated Tonne
Synthetic oil on SBM cuttings to surface environment Tonne Clinical waste generated Tonne
Total synthetic oil discharged to surface environment Tonne mercury waste /fluorescent tubes generated Tonne
Obsolete chemical generated Tonne
Oily sludge generated Tonne
SBM (whole mud) generated generated Tonne
SBM cuttings generated generated Tonne
Sewage generated Tonne
Spent chemicals generated Tonne
Spent lube oil generated Tonne

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 36 of 88
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 3 CONTD.: W ASTE INVENTORY MASTE R SHEET

OU Waste
OU Non-hazardous wastes OU hazardous wastes
Air filters generated Tonne Asbestos generated Tonne
Aqueous effluents (e.g kitchen waste water) generated Tonne Batteries (wet and dry) generated Tonne
Ashes generated Tonne Clinical + medical waste generated Tonne
Ballast water generated Tonne Mercury waste/fluorescent tubes generated Tonne
Blasting grit generated Tonne Obsolete chemicals generated Tonne
BOP fluids generated Tonne Spent chemicals generated Tonne
Cans and tins generated Tonne
Cement water generated Tonne
Computer toner cartridges generated Tonne
Construction and delomition materials generated Tonne
Contaminated cement generated Tonne
Contaminated soil from fresh spill site generated Tonne
Contaminated soil from saver pits generated Tonne
Contaminated soil from surge vessels generated Tonne
Dredge spoil generated Tonne
Drilled cement generated Tonne
Food generated Tonne
Garbage generated Tonne
Garden waste generated Tonne
Glass generated Tonne
Oil & fuel filters generated Tonne
Oily rags generated Tonne
Oily sludge generated Tonne
Paper generated Tonne
Pigging waste generated Tonne
Plastics generated Tonne
SBM (whole mud generated) generated Tonne
SBM cuttings generated generated Tonne
Scrap metals (include drums) generated Tonne
Sewage generated Tonne
Spent lube oil generated Tonne
Tyres and tubes generated Tonne
Used absorbents generated Tonne
water filters generated Tonne
WBM (whole mud generated) generated Tonne
WBM cuttings generated generated Tonne
Workover/completion fluids generated Tonne

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 37 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 4: WASTE MA NAGEMENT FACILITIES

Facility Name Location


Location Function Status
Eneka Dumpsite Eneka – East Biodegradable waste dumpsite Operational
Open Burner I.A – East Open burning of Operational
clinical/medical waste
Waste Recycling Depot I.A – East / Ogunu Reception and temporal storage Operational
West for recyclable wastes pending
collection by recycling vendors
Thermal Desorption Bonny – East / Thermal desorption of oil in Operational
Units Forcados - West contaminated soil
Sewage Treatment Edjeba – West Sewage treatment Operational
Plant
Medical Incinerator Ogunu – West Controlled high temperature Operational
burning of clinical/medical
waste
Jeddo Composting Jeddo - West Composting of food wastes Operational
Plant
Ughelli Engineered Ughelli - West Domestic waste dumpsite Operational
Dumpsite
Integrated Waste Umuakwuru – East Landfill, composting, sewage Under Construction
Management Facilities treatment, incineration
Medical Incinerator I.A – East Incineration of clinical waste Under Construction

Egbeleku Landfill Egbeleku - West Handling of some waste Under Construction


categories
Restaurant Wastewater I.A – East Treatment of restaurant waste Under Construction
Treatment Plant water
Elelenwo Dumpsite Elelenwo – East Domestic Waste Dumpsite Closed

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 38 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 5: WASTE MA NAGEMENT FOCAL


FOCA L POINTS

EAST WEST
Data Group Data Focal Point Activity Ref. Ind. Tel Data Focal Point Activity Ref. Ind. Tel Reportable Parameter

Activity Level Ejike, S. M Drilling Operations DWE-OPS 21488 Anighoro Sunny Drilling Operations DWW-OPS 42979 Hole length drilled with water-based mud (WBM
Hole length drilled with synthetic mud (SBM)
Total hole length drilled
Ayanruoh Henry Seismic DTW-GPH 42642 Seismic 3d Onshore/Offshore

Halons, CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs Nwosu, S.I AC Maintenance PSE-UAR 21393 Odeh Ben Utilities Maintenance PSW-UTL 47158 Halons and CFCs in stock and equipment
Ohwofasa Queen Utilities Maintenance PSW-UTL 46463 Halons and CFCs lost to atmosphere
Ezuma W.I Civil Maintenance PSW-CVL 47025 HCFCs and HFCs in stock and equipment
Imhoke Solomon Terminal Operations PTW-HSE 45030 HCFCs and HFCs lost to atmosphere

Oil-containing Effluents Adesina, T Production Data PIE-OGA 22773 Ofovwe Kevwe Production Data PIW-OGA 43469 Total produced water
Produced water discharged to fresh/brackish
water
Produced water discharged to sea
Produced water discharged to surface
environment
Oil discharged with produced water to
fresh/brackish water
Oil discharged with produced water to sea
Average oil concentration in produced water to
surface environment
Oil discharged with produced water to surface
environment
Oil discharged with other effluents to surface
Epidei, M.O Production Marine Services PTE-MAR 28514 environment

Synthetic oil in SBM losses to surface


Drilling Discharges Ejike, S.M Drilling Operations DWE-OPS 21488 Anighoro Sunny Drilling Operations DWW-OPS 42979 environment

Synthetic oil on SBM cuttings disposed to sea


Total synthetic oil discharged to surface
environment.

(Semi) Solid & Liquid Wastes Akpan, E.E Geomatics DTE-GEM 21601 Food, Plastic, Glass, Paper, Oil filters,
unsegregated waste, Carton, Battery
Onyeukwu, P.C Seismic DTE-HSE 21702 Ayanruoh Henry Seismic DTW-GPH 42642 Food, Plastic, Glass, Paper, Garbage, Garden,
Scrap metals, Sewage, Empty tins/cans, Oil filters,
Toner cartridges & Battery
Nnogo, C Office Services HGE-GEN 21798 Paper, Garbage, Restaurant water & Sewage
Ajiere, I Production Team A PAE-HSE 24607 Ehenemba Nicholas Production Operations PAW-HSE 42559 Food, Plastic, Glass, Paper, Garbage, Garden,
Scrap metals, Empty tins/cans, Oil filters, Oily
waste, Oil rags, Absorbents, Fan belt, Water filters
& Fluorescent tubes, Sewage
Amakiri, W.D Medical MDE-PUB 22442 Adeogun Kenny Medical MDW-OH 46854 Garbage, Medical/Clinical waste
Aigbotsua, P.P Production Team B PBE-HSE 20855 Adeyemi Adesoji Production Operations PBW-HSE 42534 Food, Plastic, Glass, Paper, Garbage, Garden,
Sewage, Scrap metals, Oily waste, Oil sludge,
Ashes, Contaminated soil, Medical/Clinical waste
& Fluorescent tubes, Oil & Fuel Filters
Nnokam, A.E Production Team C PCE-HSE 22261 Folashade Oladipo Production Operations PCW-HSE 42556 Food, Plastic, Glass, Paper, Garbage, Garden,
Sewage, Scrap metals, Oily waste, Oil sludge,
Ashes, Contaminated soil, Medical/Clinical waste
& Fluorescent tubes, Oil & Fuel filters
Aloba, P.O Pigging Operations PPE-OPS 21825 Neboh Candid Pipeline Operations PPW-HSE 43928 Pigging waste
Owowo, O.M Dredging PSE-CDR 24783 Alabi Sola Dredging Ioperation PSW-CDR 42978 Dredge Spoil
Nwosu, S.I AC Maintenance PSE-UAR 21393 HCFC Discharged
Anyanwu, O.C Estate Services PSE-CES 23120 Ezuma W.I Estate Servives PSW-CVL 47025 Food & Garden, Garbage, Glass, Plastic, Paper,
Sewage
Usiayo Samson Estate Servives PSW-CVL 44080
Odeh Ben/ Ohowafas
Eta, E.O Production Well Services PSE-WEL 24465 Queen Production Services Food, Paper
Odeh Ben/ Ohwofasa
Wachijem, I Production Workshop Serv. PSE-WKP 21817 Queen Production Services PSW-UTL 47158/46463 Scrap metals, Effluent water
Ufot Saviour, U Bonny Terminal Operations PTE-CAS 28727 Imhoke Solomon/ Dairo Terminal Operations PTW-HSE 45030 Food, Plastic, Glass, Paper, Scrap metals,
Vincent Sewage, Emty tins/cans, Oil/fuel filters, Oil rags,
Wood, Carton, Fluorescent tubes, Medical/Clinical
waste, Battery, Aerosol cans & Absorbents

Ejike, S.M Drilling Operations DWE-OPS 21488 Anighoro Sunny Drilling Operations DWW-OPS 42979 Food, Plastic, Glass, Paper, Garbage, Garden,
Cable, Sewage, Scrap metals, Empty tins/cans,
Spent lube, Oil/fuel filters, Drums, Construction
debris, Fluorescent tubes, Hole length drilled with
WBM, Hole length drilled with SBM, Oil in SBM
surface losses, WBM mud generated, SBM mud
generated, WBM mud recycled, WBM mud re-
injected, SBM mud recycled, SBM surface losses,
WBM surface losses, WBM cuttings generated,
SBM cuttings generated, WBM cuttings disposed,
SBM cuttings disposed, SBM on cuttings, Cement
water, Drilled cement & Workover completion fluid
produced

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 39 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 3.1

Methodologies for Sample Collection and Analysis Environmental,


Social and Health Components

Land Use
Evaluation of the degree to which a project will affect the main land use
potentials is carried out using the land-use component in an EIA study.
Thus, the study’s success is dependant on the quality and reliability of
the data adopted. This land-use component assesses the existing
human activities relative to the human and natural elements of the
proposed 14” x 44 m Sombreiro River Crossing Pipeline Replacement
Project.

The land-use components employed the interpretation of primary


remote sensing data, location maps and geographical information
systems (GIS), complemented with field reconnaissance and
groundtruthing. Land-use data and satellite imageries were compiled
from the under-listed maps.

• The Landsat (TM) image of the area (1995) and the SPOT-4 image
(1999).

• The state administrative map produced by the Ministry of Lands and


Survey, Port Harcourt (With special focus on the specific LGAs
within the defined project area).

• The Nigerian topographical maps produced by the Federal Surveys


Department at the scales of 1:50,000 and 1:100,000.

• The Vegetation and Land use Map of Nigeria produced by the


Federal Department of Forestry at a scale of 1:250,000.

• The Operational Maps of the SPDC provided in hardcopies at a


scale of 1:50,000 showing its main oil production facilities.

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 40 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

• Other sets of thematic maps at scales ranging between 1:250,000


and 1:1,000,000. They included: the Soil map (produced by the
Laboratory for Cartography, Remote Sensing and GIS of the
University of Lagos), Geology map (produced by SPDC and
Nigerian Geological Survey Department), the National Atlas and the
administrative map of Nigeria (all produced by the Federal Surveys
Department).

A sample zone of approximately 10-km around the proposed route was


focused upon. The space images were enhanced digitally and
interpreted accordingly on ER-Mapper (Ver.5.0) with adequate Ground
Control Points (GCPs). Based on the adopted classification scheme,
the images were interpreted following the successful completion of the
first fieldwork and using such elements like colour, pattern, association,
shape and texture. An Expedition II Global Positioning System (GPS)
was used for further geo-rectification, ground-truthing and
interpretation.

Climates and Meteorology


Relevant literature on the study area was collated with the primary
source being the Nigerian Department of Meteorological Services, and
the material was reviewed to ascertain usefulness and relevance. The
parameters analysed included rainfall, relative humidty, temperature,
and wind pattern. The information generated provided the framework
for baseline discussion.

Air Quality and Noise


Air quality, based on CO, SO2, NO2, NH3 and Hydrocarbons (WHO,
1976,1987) was monitored using link draw pump gas detector tubes.
To obtain readings, air was drawn in turns through the specific gas
detector tube for the respective gases and the colour change over its
length was noted (Saltzman, 1954). The corresponding concentration
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 41 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

of the gas was then read off. Standard Particulate Matter (SPM)
detection was done (UNEP/WHO, 1994) using a portable minimum
Aerosol Monitor Model PDM-3 (Lahman, 1992; Manahan, 1979; SKC,
2000).

Noise measurement was carried out at each sampling station using a digital sound
meter model 840029. To sample, the noise meter reading was allowed to
stabilize before results were recorded in decibel (dB) units.

Geology and Hydrogeology


The objectives of the geological /hydrogeological studies were to:
• Identify and describe regional and site-specific geological units in
the area;
• Determine the lateral extent and the vertical distribution of these
units;
• Determine mode and properties of groundwater occurrence and
aquifer types;
• Determine groundwater flow directions; and
• Determine the chemical conditions of the groundwater at the
proposed development sites.

Four (4) boreholes, (BH1 – BH4) were drilled (Fig 3.1). The boreholes
were drilled using percussion drilling method. The portable cable tool
used comprised of the tripod, the winch, the bailer, the drill line and
drilling accessories. Drilling was done by regularly lifting and dropping
the bailer in the borehole within a protective steel casing. The bailer
did the drilling and also bailed out soil samples for stratigraphic log
description.

After drilling, each borehole was properly cased, screened, and capped
with PVC materials. The borehole was then gravel packed, grouted and
provided with a concrete base. An Indian Mark II hand pump was used
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 42 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

to manually flush each borehole until there was clean water before
collecting water samples.

Three water samples were collected per borehole. The samples for
heavy metals were acidified while the others were for physico-chemical
parameters and microbiological analysis.

Groundwater Flow

The direction of groundwater flow was determined using the six


boreholes drilled. The boreholes were located in a triangular manner
and static water level was measured in each of them with the Fisher
Model WLT electric water level indicator. The elevation of each
borehole above mean sea level was also measured. The water level in
each borehole was subtracted from the elevation of the borehole to
obtain the total head of water in the borehole. The boreholes were
located on the map and a triangle was drawn on the map with the
boreholes and their respective total head values at the apices.
Equipotential lines were drawn using the total head data, and
perpendicular lines drawn to these equipotential lines gave the
groundwater flow direction in the area.

Hydraulic Conductivity

The hydraulic conductivity of the sands from the boreholes was


calculated from sieve analysis data (Black, 1965). After drying the
samples, each sample was sieved through a stack of five sieves with
the following diameter 2, 1, 0.425, 0.150 and 0.070 mm respectively.
The percentage passing each sieve was computed based on the
cumulative weight retained on any sieve and the total sample weight.
A plot of percentage passing versus the sieve opening was done on a
semi-log graph, d10 values, (effective diameter of grains) were
determined (k) using Hazen’s formula as follows:

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 43 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

K = Cd102

Where , K = Hydraulic conductivity


C = Constant = 100
d10 = effective diameter of grains
(10% on the y-axis of each graph).

Vegetation

Ecologically and economically, the plant components of the ecosystem are of prime
importance. The intent of vegetation studies were to:
• Determine the floristic composition and species diversity around the
proposed project area; and
• Document the plant species of economic importance within the
project areas prior to commencement of site preparation;
Sample plots (10 m x 10 m) were established in each of the sampling
locations around the proposed pipeline route. In each plot, plant
species were identified, tree species were enumerated and the
vegetation structure described. The vegetation types in which the plot
was established were noted. Unidentified plant species were collected
for identification in a herbarium.

Species identification and nomenclature followed the Flora of West


Tropical Africa (Hutchinson and Dalziel, 1954 &1968) and Trees of
Nigeria (Keay et al. 1964). Plant species composition and richness
were established for each vegetation type in the project area using the
data from the sample plots. Shoots of the commonly occurring plant
species of the vegetation types were chipped, collected, and oven dried
at 800C. The dried samples were ground for the following chemical
analyses, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, calcium,
magnesium, lead, zinc, manganese, iron and copper, using the method
of Allen et al (1974). The leaves of some plant species in the 10 m x
10 m plots were examined for disease symptoms.

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 44 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Aquatic Studies
Several physical properties of water are significant in characterizing the
aquatic environment and the forms of life, which inhabit it. Any adverse
change in these physical and chemical properties due to industrial
activities can bring about a concomitant change in the biotic
components of the ecosystem. It is therefore necessary to catalogue
the existing water quality status prior to any environmental alteration.

Sediment

At suitable sub-tidal area of the creek, sediments samples were taken


by means of a small modified Van Veen grab for physico-chemical and
benthos estimation.

PHYSICO-CHEMISTRY OF SEDIMENT
Two grab samples were taken per station in order to obtain sufficient
quantity of sediment for determination of physico-chemical parameters.

Benthos
Benthos were ascertained at each sampling station after the modified
methods of Olaniyan (1975) and Isebor (1983). These organisms were
immediately identified to species level and the numbers of each
species in an area of approximately 5 m by 5 m were counted. Benthic
fauna were ascertained by examining the grab sediment and by using
pond or tow net along the river or creek bed.

Plankton
A 55 µm mesh-size plankton net was used to collect plankton. The net
was either towed at a very slow speed or its open end was held at the
surface of the fast flowing water against the direction of water flow for 5
minutes. Collected plankton was preserved in 4% formalin. Each

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 45 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

plankton sample, on settling, was concentrated to 10 ml and aliquots of


these were investigated in several microscope fields under a binocular
M11 microscope as described by Lackey (1938). Identification and
counting of phytoplankton were done using Hendey (1964); Patrick and
Reimer (1966-1975); zooplankton by Davis (1958) and Olaniyan (1975)
methods. Plankton counts were recorded as number of cells or
filaments per ml of sample).

Fisheries
Fish and shellfish species and the indigenous fishing methods and gear
used were evaluated at the various sampling stations. During
interviews with the youths and some women in these human
settlements, coloured photographs of fish in the FAO Field Guide to the
Commercial Marine Resources of the Gulf of Guinea by Schneider
(1992) and in the West African Freshwater Fish by Holden and Reed
(1991) were shown to enable them identify the fish species present in
their waters. Fish and shellfish landed in canoes during the visits were
identified. Both dried and fresh fish in the town were observed and
identified. During the journeys to and from sampling locations, the
fishing methods and gears being employed in the various creeks and
rivers were noted. The fishing gears kept in and outside houses in the
settlements visited were also noted.
All other fisheries data such as spawning grounds, breeding habits and
migration pattern and routes were ascertained from literature reviews.

Water Quality
Using a map of the study area, twenty three (23) sampling points for
the aquatic studies were established along the Nun River water body. .

The sample locations were established with the help of a global


positioning system (GPS). At the place of sampling, samples were
collected at a distance of 3-5 m from the shoreline as representative
samples. Samples were collected at ‘top’ (0-5 cm), and ‘bottom’ (i.e.
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 46 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

near the river bed). Five (5) samples were collected, 3 with glass-bottle
and 2 with plastic-bottles

Water Physico-Chemistry

The physico-chemical parameters analysed are temperature,


pH/electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen
demand, transparency, flow velocity, chloride/salinity, depth, heavy
metals, oil and grease.

Temperature

This was measured with a mercury thermometer in situ.

pH and Electrical Conductivity

These were measured with a Consort pH and conductivity meter after


calibration at 25oC against buffer with pH 4.01 and pH 9.18.

Dissolved Oxygen

This was determined by the modified Winkler-azide method (APHA,


1980), Water samples were fixed in the field with Winklers reagent

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Water samples were incubated for 5 days at 20oC in the dark before
titration for oxygen using the modified Winkler-azide method (APHA,
1980).

Transparency

This was determined with a 20 cm diameter Secchi disc.


___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 47 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Chloride and Salinity

The chloride content of the samples was determined argentometrically


by titration against standard solution of silver nitrate from which the
salinity of the solutions was determined.

Depth

Water depth was measured with a depth sounder, Horiba U-7 multi-
polmorgraphic meter.

Heavy Metals

Heavy metals in the water samples were analysed using Perkin Elmer
Model 3110 atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Microbiology (Soil, Water, Sediment)

Soil samples were taken for microbial analysis to obtain information on


the microbial quality of the soil from the study area. Several steps were
taken to obtain the final sample. These included:

• The taking and mixing of a series of core samples from each area
sampled.

• Air-drying, grinding and sieving with 2 mm diameter sieve.

Augers were used in sampling to ensure collection of uniform cores of


equal volume to depths of 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm. In addition, soil core
samples were collected from seven drilled boreholes of varied depths,
from the various locations at an interval of 2.0 m.
Sediments from the bottom of the river and creeks at designated points
were collected with the aid of a sediment grab.

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 48 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Isolation and Enumeration of Soil/Sediment Bacteria and Fungi (APHA, 1975)

Total Heterotrophic bacteria population densities were estimated by


inoculating 0.1 ml aliquots of 10-3 dilution of each soil or sediment
sample onto the surface of Nutrient Agar plates and spread by means
of sterile bent glass rod. Cultures were incubated at 30oC for 48 hrs
before counting and identifying developed colonies.

Heterotrophic fungal counts were determined by inoculating 1 ml


aliquots of 10-3 dilution into McCartney bottles containing 9 ml of molten
Potato Dextrose Agar into which streptomycin (0.25 mg/ml),
chloramphenicol (0.25 mg/ml) and ampicillin (0.5 mg/ml) have been
added to suppress bacterial growth. The content in each bottle was
mixed, poured into sterile Petri dish, allowed to solidify and incubated
at 30oC for 48 hrs before counting and identifying the fungal colonies
that developed.

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial and fungal counts were determined


by the use of oil agar prepared by the addition of 1% v/v of 0.22 µm
Millipore membrane filter-sterilized crude oil to a steam-sterilized
minimal salt agar medium of the following composition: MgSO4.7H2O
(0.42 g), Na2PO4 (1.25 g), NaCl (10.0 g), KCl (0.29 g), KH2PO4 (0.83
g), NaNO3 (0.42 g), bacteriological agar (15.0 g).

These salts were dissolved in 1.0 liter of distilled water and autoclaved
at 1.0 kg/cm2 for 13 minutes. The oil was mixed in equal volume of
carbon tetrachloride before being used to coat the dry surface of the
minimal salt agar plates. The inoculated plates of filter papers
moistened with the crude oil were inverted and were placed in the lid of
the Petri dishes. These filter papers supplied the hydrocarbon by vapor
phase transfer to the innoculum. The Petri dishes were taped round
with a masking tape so as to increase the vapor pressure within the
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 49 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Petri dishes while the plates were incubated at ambient temperature.


Plates were counted after 7 days of incubation.

Water samples were collected from points along the creeks and rivers.
Surface and bottom samples were collected by means of a Hydrobios
water sampler. Borehole water samples were also collected.

Total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi as well as Hydrocarbon


degrading bacteria and fungi in the water samples collected were
counted using 1.0 ml of 10-3 dilution of the water on the same media
used for the different microbial categories in the soil samples.

Bacterial isolates were purified by sub-culturing and by the use of


selective media. Using morphological, cultural and biochemical
characteristics, pure isolates were identified according to the scheme of
Buchanan and Gibbons (1974) in Bergeys Manual of Determinative
Bacteriology. Pure cultures of fungal isolates were characterized and
identified by means of the scheme and keys in the illustrated Genera of
Imperfect Fungi by Barnett and Hunter (1972).

Fauna (Wildlife etc.)


Fauna (wildlife) plays significant ecological roles as primary and
secondary consumers and function in the maintenance of ecosystem
balance. Their presence or absence is a useful indicator as to the
status of the natural ecosystem.

The objective of fauna/wildlife studies is to identify and score the


prevalent animal species (including endangered species) in the study
areas.

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 50 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

A detailed account of inter-tidal and sub-tidal fauna in Nigeria coastal


brackish waters and mangrove is given by Olaniyan (1975), Isebor
(1983) and Powel et al, (1985).

Methodology for Wildlife


Sampling for wildlife was conducted with the assistance of two local
hunters twice daily (0530 – 1100 hrs and 1700 – 2300 hrs) using
binoculars, telescopic/ordinary camera, hunters carbide lamp/powerful
torch lights, dane guns (for protection only and no animal was killed),
cutlasses, Wellington boots, dark/dull clothes and canoes. Wildlife
population were estimated from sightings, and signs (footprints, trails,
faecal droppings, nests, food remains), vocalization – (calls and
sounds)

Soil
Random soil samples were collected at each location by means of a
soil auger at the centre and four radial points at each location. Surface
soils (0-15 cm) and subsurface soils (15-30 cm) were collected into
plastic bags and transported within 48 hours to the laboratory for
analysis. Parameters analysed include organic carbon, total nitrogen,
available phosphorus, extractable micronutrients and soil mechanical
properties.

Quality Control/Assurance

The Quality Control/Assurance covers all aspects of the study, including


sample collection, handling, laboratory analysis, data coding and manipulation,
statistical analysis, presentation and communication of results.

Sample collection and handling was carried out as far as possible in


accordance with DPR Guidelines and Standards (Part (VIII) D (2)
(Sampling & Handling of Samples). Where logistic and safety
considerations precluded strict compliance with the above guidelines

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 51 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

and standards, other proven, scientifically acceptable methods of


sample collection and handling were used.

The quality control/assurance (QC/QA) measures adopted for the


aquatic studies were in accordance with standard procedures
published by ASTM, FEPA and DPR. These procedures include:

• In-situ measurements of physico-chemical parameters such as pH,


temperature, and conductivity of the water samples using
appropriate instruments, which have been properly calibrated
against standards.

• Preservation of water samples at 4oC in cooler before transportation


to the laboratory for other laboratory analyses.

• Acidification of water samples that were collected for heavy metal


analyses, with 1 ml concentrated nitric acid per litre to preserve the
heavy metals in ionic forms and prevents precipitation and
adsorption.

• Fixing of water samples for the determination of dissolved oxygen


(DO) in the field by the addition of 0.1 M manganese sulphate
solution and alkaline solution of potassium iodide.

• Water samples for determination of biochemical oxygen demand


(BOD) were wrapped in black polythene bags and stored at 20oC in
cooler before transportation to the laboratory for further storage at
20oC for 5 days.

• Collection of water samples with separate containers as follows:


Gas stoppered glass bottles for samples intended for DO, BOD,
organics and heavy metal content determinations. Stopper plastic
bottles for other physico-chemical determinations.

The methods adopted were in accordance with published procedures


of ASTM, APHA, FEPA and DPR. Decontamination of sampling

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 52 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

bottles, equipment or instruments was with distilled water. Separate


bottles consisting of either plastic or glass bottles were used for
collecting and preserving the samples in the field. Hence, water quality
parameters such as organics, which may be affected by organic
containers, are stored in glass bottles. The samples were stored at
4oC with opaque containers or wrapped with black polythene bags and
stored in coolers. Transportation of samples from the creeks and rivers
to the laboratory was with speedboats and on land transportation was
with bus. Further storage was in a refrigerator with thermosetting
facilities.

For soil sample, the QA/QC measure included:

• All sampling equipment and containers were decontaminated.

• Samples were transferred immediately into containers as soon as


they were removed from the soil.

• Samples were stored in brown (amber) coloured bottles, Teflon


plastic containers and black polyethylene to prevent photolysis.

• Samples were kept as cool as possible without freezing to minimize


the potentials for volatilisation or biodegradation between sampling
and analysis.

• Soil samples were air-dried only.

The methods of laboratory analysis used were those specified in DPR


Guidelines and Standards and other International analytical Standards
such as APHA for water quality. Trace metal analysis was carried out
using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer duly calibrated using
standards. Physicochemical parameters were determined in situ using
DREL 2000 HACH Spectrophotometer, duly calibrated with standards,

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 53 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

as well as the Flame Photometer as described in Chapter 3 of this


report.

For statistical analysis, errors in field data included those resulting from
instruments and humans. With proper, sustained calibration of the
instrument and the use of standardised observational procedures,
equipment errors were brought to acceptable minimum. However, other
errors arise from the method of sampling. Errors often arise from two-
stage sampling or sub sampling, or even from the fact that the samples
collected are not representative samples of the medium. There are also
spatial variations of the same medium, e.g. soil and water. Thus, it is
necessary to determine the true mean and the estimated variance
among the number of samples taken, so as to establish a reasonable
level of confidence in the results obtained. A good result is obtained
when the variance is within 5% of the mean.

Data coding and manipulation in EIA studies, where reliable data banks
are non-existent, invariably involve acquisition of large amounts of
baseline data. To ensure preservation of the integrity of data collected,
data coding forms for use in the field, were designed in such a way that
field data could be directly entered into computer data sheets.

Samples were properly sealed and labelled. All samples collected were
labelled and the following information provided among others:
• Identification code or sample number
• Date and time of sampling
• Description of sample
• Methods of sampling.

Where samples were sent to another laboratory for examination, a duplicate copy of
this information was sent along with the sample to the laboratory, independent of the
sample. All movements of the samples were included on the samples’ record. Basic
information was recorded together with results of analysis, in a register.

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 54 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

SIA QUESTIONNAIRE

1 NEIGHBOURHOOD/COMMUNITY/SETTLEMENT
1.1 Name of interviewer: ---------------------------------------------------------------------
1.2 Date of interview:--------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.3 Neighborhood /comm./settle:------ ----------------------------------------------------
1.4 Local Govt. Area:--------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.5 State:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. RESPONDENTS PERSONAL INFORMATION


2.1 Sex (Male/Female):------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2 Age:
2.2.1 10-20 years
2.2.2 21-30 years
2.2.3 31-40 years
2.2.4 41-50 years
2.2.5 51-60 years
2.2.6 61-70 years
2.2.7 above 70 years
2.3 How would you describe yourself in this
community/neighbourhood?
2.3.2 Indigence
2.3.3 Settler
2.3.4 Visitor
2.3.5 Tenant
2.4 If you are a visitor/settler, where is your hometown?
_________________

2.5 How long have you lived in this community/neighbourhood?


2.5.2 less than 5 years
2.5.3 6-10 years
2.5.4 11-15 years
2.5.5 16-20 years
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 55 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.5.6 above 20 years


2.6 Marital Status
2.6.2 Single
2.6.3 Married
2.6.4 Divorced
2.6.5 Widow/widower
2.7 What position do you hold in this community
2.7.2 Traditional ruler
2.7.3 Religious leader
2.7.4 Family head
2.7.5 Chairman, Social club
2.7.6 Others
(specify)………………………………………………………………
2.8 What is your level of Education?
2.8.2 Primary
2.8.3 Secondary
2.8.4 Tertiary
2.8.5 No formal education.

3. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
3.1 Family size (Husband, wife/wives and children)
3.1.1 1-3
3.1.2 4-6
3.1.3 7-10
3.1.4 11-15
3.1.5 above 15
3.2 Sex: How many are:
3.2.1 Males------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
3.2.2 Females:-------------------------------------------------------------------------
------
3.3 How many births in your family in the last 12 months?
3.4.1 0
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 56 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.4.2 1
3.4.3 2
3.4.4 3
3.4.5 4

3.4 How many deaths in your family in the last 12 months?


3.4.1 0
3.4.2 1
3.4.3 2
3.4.4 3
3.4.5 4

4. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
4.1 What is your occupation?
4.1.1 Farming
4.1.2 Fishing
4.1.3 Hunting
4.1.4 Civil servant
4.1.5 Trading
4.1.6 Business
4.1.7 Industrial worker
4.1.8 Other (specify):---------------------------------------------------------------------
-
4.2 If farmer, what crops do you grow?
………………………………………………
4.2.1 Yearly quality of farm produce in the last 5yrs
…………………………
4.3 If fisherman, name some fishes
…………………………………………………..
4.3.1 Yearly quality of fish caught in the last
5yrs…………………………..
4. 4 How long have you been in the occupation?
4.4.1 0-5 years
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 57 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.4.2 6-10 years


4.4.3 11-20 years
4.4.4 21-30 years
4.4.5 above 30 years.
4.5 How many members of your household are employed in crude oil related
companies operating in this area?
4.5.1 None
4.5.2 1
4.5.3 2
4.5.4 3
4.5.5 4
1.5.6 5
4.6 Please state the number of your household who have attained 18 years
and above but are not employed.
4.6.1 None
4.6.2 1
4.6.3 2
4.6.4 3
4.6.5 4
4.6.6 5
4.6.7 6
4.6.8 others (specify)--------------------------------------------------------------------
4.7 Does any of the persons above have any form of technical training
related to the operations of oil companies in the area? If yes how many?
4.7.1 1
4.7.2 2
4.7.3 3
4.7.4 4
4.7.5 5
4.8 Please briefly specify the nature of the training and indicate the number of
persons who have such training
4.8.1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 58 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.8.2 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
4.8.3 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
4.8.4 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
4.8.5 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
4.9 How much do you realise from fishing in a week?
4.9.1 N0.0 - N250.00
4.9.2 N250.00 - N500.00
4.9.3 N501.00 - N750.00
4.9.4 N751.00 - N1000.00
4.9.5 N1001.00 - N1,500.00
4.9.6 N1,501.00 - N1,750.00
4.9.7 N1,751.00 - N2,000.00
4.9.8 Above N2,000.00
4.10 How much do you realise from other activities/sources in a week?
4.10.1 N0.00 - N500.00
4.10.2 N501.00 - N1000.00
4.10.3 N1001.00 - N1,500.00
4.10.4 N1,501.00 - N2,000.00
4.10.5 Others-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
4.11 What is your annual income?
4.11.1 N11,000 - N20,000
4.11.2 N21,000 - N30,000
4.11.3 N31,000 - N40,000
4.11.4 N41,000 - N50,000
4.11.5 N51,000 - N60,000
4.11.6 N61,000 - N70,000
4.11.7 N71,000 - N80,000
4.11.8 81,000 - N90,000
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 59 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.11.9 N91,000 - N100,000


4.11.10 Other range----------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
4.12 How much do you spend on your family a week?
4.12.1 N250.00 - N500.00
4.12.2 N501.00 - N1000.00
4.12.3 N1,001.00 - N1,500.00
4.12.4 N1,50100 - N2,000.00
4.12.5 2,500.00 - N3,000.00
4.12.6 N3,001.00 - N3,500.00
4.12.7 Other range --------------------------------------------------------------------

4.13 How much do you spend on?


4.13.1 Food items
4.13.2 Household item
4.13.3 Clothing
4.13.4 Education of Children
4.13.5 Medical care
4.13.6 Transport
4.13.7 Others (specify)-----------------------------------------------------------------
-----

4.14 How much are you able to save in a year?


4.14.1 No savings
4.14.2 N10,000 - N20,000.00
4.14.3 N21,000.00 - N30,000.00
4.14.4 N31,000.00 - N40,000.00
4.14.5 N41,000.00 - N50,000.00
4.14.6 N51,000.00 - N60,000.00
4.14.7 Other range----------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
4.15 Which of these properties do you own?
4.15.1 Bicycle
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 60 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.15.2 Motor cycle


4.15.3 Motor vehicle
4.15.4 Out board engine boat
4.15.5 Canoe
4.15.6 Others (specify)-----------------------------------------------------------------
-----
4.16 Do you own any land in the community? If yes, what is the size in
hectares?
4.16.1 0 - 1
4.16.2 2 - 3
4.16.3 4 - 5
4.16.4 6 - 7
4.16.5 above 7
4.17 What is the nature of land ownership?
4.17.1 Personal
4.17.2 Family
4.17.3 Communal
4.17.4 Lease hold
4.17.5 Free hold
4.17.6 Others (specify):----------------------------------------------------------------
-----
4.18 Do you have a house in the neighbourhood/ community?
4.18.1 Thatch roof/mud
4.18.2 Zinc roof block
4.18.3 Zinc roof /book
4.18.4 Zinc roof/wooden
4.18.5 Others (specify)-----------------------------------------------------------------
4.18.6
4.18.7 -----
5. SOCIAL/CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT
5.1 What is your religion?
5.1.1 Christianity
5.1.2 Islam
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 61 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.1.3 Traditional
5.1.4 Others (specify)--------------------------------------------------------------------
--
5.2 Which of the following do you have around this neighbourhood
/community: (Please show us the location)
5.2.1 Shrines
5.2.2 Sacred ground/forest
5.2.3 Historical / archaeological site
5.2.4 Religious houses
5.2.5 Others (Special)
5.3 What of these social problems do you have in your neighbourhood?
5.3.1 Youth /juvenile delinquency/unrest
5.3.2 Land dispute
5.3.3 Chieftancy problem
5.3.4 Inter-village problem
5.3.5 Inter-family problem
5.3.6 Unemployment
5.3.7 Others (specify)
5.3.8 None of the above
5.4 What is your source of water supply?
5.4.1 Pipe-borne water
5.4.2 Hand dug well
5.4.3 Streams
5.4.4 Rainfall
5.4.5 Others (please specify)
5.5 What are your sources of energy?
5.5.1 Wood
5.5.2 Kerosene
5.5.3 Gas
5.5.4 Petrol
5.5.5 Coal
5.5.6 Electricity
5.6 What are you fears about this proposed project?
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 62 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.6.1 Loss of land (land acquisition)


5.6.2 Damage of agricultural land
5.6.3 Cultural interference
5.6.4 Noise nuisance from working equipment
5.6.5 Pollution of fishing ground
5.6.6 Others (specify)
5.7 What benefits do you expect from SPDC in course of the execution of
this project and subsequent operations in the area? Please rank them in
order of importance by placing 1 against the most important, 2 against
next important etc.
5.7.1 Employment of indigenes
5.7.2 Scholarship for indigenes
5.7.3 Electricity
5.7.4 Primary school
5.7.5 Water project
5.7.6 Health centres
5.7.7 Others (specify):-------------------------------------------------------------------
--

6 SOCIAL STATISTICS
(For interviewer only) Note and record the following:
6.1 School statistics
6.1.1 Primary school enrolment data Primary 1 to IV
6.1.2 Secondary school enrolment data JSS 1-3, SSS 1-3
6.1.3 Other educational institutions
6.2 What are the common illnesses in this community?
6.2.1 Malaria
6.2.2 Yellow fever
6.2.3 Dysentery/diarrhoea
6.2.4 Measles/any other contagious disease
6.2.5 Cough
6.2.6 Skin diseases

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 63 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.2.7 Others (specify):-------------------------------------------------------------------


--
6.3 What are the common environmental problems in the
neighbourhood/community?
6.3.1 Flooding
6.3.2 Shoreline erosion
6.3.3 Deforestation
6.4 State of infrastructure
6.4.1 Roads
6.4.2 Building materials
6.4.3 Sanitation
6.4.4 Others (specify):-------------------------------------------------------------------
--
6.4.5 No idea

7 FISHERY AND WILDLIFE


7.1 Where do you usually fish?
7.1.1 Within a few nautical miles from the village
7.1.2 Open Sea fishing
7.1.3 Fish pond
7.2 Please list the types of fish you normally catch.
7.2.1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.2.2 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.2.3 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.2.4 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.2.5 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.2.6 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 64 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

7.2.7 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.2.8 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.2.9 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.2.10 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
7.3 In the last 5 years has your annual production of fish been:
7.3.1 Increasing
7.3.2 The same
7.3.3 Decreasing
7.4 If decreasing what do you think is responsible? (Record answer
verbatim).
7.4.1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.4.2 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.4.3 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.4.3.1.1.1.1 Please list the type of wild animal and birds you normally see or
catch in this area
7.4.4 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.4.5 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.4.6 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.4.7 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.4.8 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 65 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

7.5 In the last five years have you noticed any changes in the population of
animals and birds in the forest? What are the changes?
7.5.1 Increasing
7.5.2 The same
7.5.3 Decreasing
7.6 If decreasing what so you think is responsible (record answer verbatim)
7.7.1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
7.7 In the last 5 years have you noticed any changes in the types of animal
and birds in the forest?
7.7.1 Yes
7.7.2 No
7.8 If your answer to question 7.8 is yes, what are the changes (record
answer verbatim).
7.8.1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.8.2 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.8.3 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.8.4 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.8.5 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
7.9 In the last five years have you noticed any changes in the ways trees in
the forest and around the village have been growing? What are the
changes?
7.9.1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 66 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SURVEY

HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT

ADULTS

(A) SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES

(1) Name of Town /


Village…………………………………………………..

(2) Age (Last


Birthday)……………………………………………………….

(3) Sex: (a) Male (b) Female

(4) Marital Status: (a) Married (b) Single (c)


Divorced

(d) Separated (e) Widow

(5) How many babies have you had this year (For adult females
only)……………………………………………………………………
……

(6) Educational Status:

(a) No formal education

(b) Primary School

(c) Secondary school

(d) Tertiary (NCE / OND / AL / HND / Degree)

(e) Higher degree

(7) Occupation: (a) Farming (b) Fishing (c) Trading

(d) Civil servant (e) Others (specify)………………………

(8) In your work place, what health problems are you exposed
to:………………..……………………………………………………
…..………………………….…………………………………………
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 67 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

…………………………………………………………………………
………………….

(9) Income Per month (Adults


only)…………………………………………

(10) How much does it cost you to take care of your family in a
month?…………………………………………………………………
……

(11) Religion…………………………………………………………………

(12) Ethnic
group………………………………………………………………

(B) LIFE STYLE/ HABITS

(1) Do you drink alcohol? Yes No

(2) If yes, How often

(i) Every day

(ii) At least once a week

(iii) Occasional

(3) Do you smoke? Yes / No

If yes, how many sticks/day


………………………………………………

(4) Exercise: Yes / No

What type of exercise do you do? ……………………………………….

(C) COMMON HEALTH PROBLEMS IN THE COMMUNITY

1. During the last 12 months, have you been admitted in any


hospital because of ill health? Yes / No.

2. If yes, what was the cause?


___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 68 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

……………………………………………

3. List all the illness episodes you had in the last 12 months.
…………………….……………………………………………………
……

(D) NOISE:

1. What are the causes of noise in this community?


…………………………………………………………………………
…….

2. Do you think you having problem with hearing? Yes / No

3. If yes, what do you think is the causes?


…………………………………………………………………………
…….

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 69 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, PRACTICES AND BEHAVIOUR ON


SEXUALLY TRANSMISSIBLE INFECTIONS

1. Do you have sexual partners not married to you Yes No


2. How many are they? Yes No
3. Have you heard of sexually Transmissible Infections before? Yes
No
4. Have you ever had any sexually Transmissible Infections? Yes No
5. What symptoms (complaints) did you have then
_____________________
_________________________________________________________
__
6. Were you treated by a doctor, a nurse or by yourself?
• Treated by a doctor Yes No
• By nurse Yes No
• By self Yes No
7. How many times have you had STIs before?
_________________________
8. Have you heard of HIV/AIDS before? Yes No
9. Do you know how somebody can get infected by HIV/AIDS? Yes
No
10. Name the method by which somebody can get HIV/AIDS
_________________________________________________________
___
_________________________________________________________
___
11. Have you checked your HIV status? Yes No
12. Do you know anybody who has HIV/AIDS? Yes No
13. How many do you?
_____________________________________________
14. Has any member of your family, friend or community had or having
tuberculosis?
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 70 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Yes No

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

1. Skin - Diseased

- Normal

- Wasted

2. Eye - Pallor Yes / No

- JaundiceYes / No

- Discharge Yes / No

- Cataract Yes / No

3. Neck (Goiter) Yes / No

4. B/P Check…………………………………………………………………………..

TEST RESULTS:

(1) Urinalysis

TEST RESULT

Parameter Negative Positive

Bilirubin

Urobilinogen

Ketones

Glucose

Protein

Blood

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 71 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Nitrite

pH

Specific density

Leucocytes

(2) Peak Flow Meter Measurement:

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 72 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION


HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT

1. Name of Town/Village
………………………………………………………

Lifestyle/habits
2. What are the common types of food eaten in the community?
……………….……………………………………………………………
……..
3. Are there any food taboos? Yes / No
4. What is the average life span (expectancy) in your community?
(a) Male ………………………. (b) Female …………………………
5. What are the common health problems in your
community?…………………..……………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
……
6. When are these health problems common during the year
S/NO DISEASE RAINY SEASON DRY
SEASON

7. Which of these health problems pose the greatest threat to your


community (5 diseases to be listed in order of frequency)
…………………………………..…………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
……….……………………………………………………………………
……………..
8. What are the most important causes of death in your community?
Among :

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 73 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

(i) Children under 5 years


………………………………………………
(ii) Adults
………………………………………………………………….
9. How many deaths in the last one year among:
(i) Whole community
………………………………………………………….
(ii) Children under 5 years
……………………………………………………
(iii) Adults (Women of child bearing age)
……………………………….
10. What refuse do you generate?
………………………………………………
11. How do you store your refuse
……………………………………………….
12. How do you dispose your refuse?
…………………………………………..
13. What is your method of sewage disposal?
…………………………………
14. Do you have drainage in your community?
………………………………..
15. Does your community get flooded or water logged?
……………………..
16. What is the source of the
flooding?…………………………………………
17. What is the source of your drinking water?
……………………………….
18. Do you treat your water before drinking?
………………………………….
19. Do you wash your hands before eating/
……………………………………
20. Do you wash your hands after defaecating?
(Toileting)………………….
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 74 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

21. What are health facilities in your communities


……………………………
22. Do you think Oil and Exploration and Production is causing any
health problems in your community? Yes: No:
If yes, what are the
problems?………………………………………………
23. How do you think these problems can be minimized?
………………………………………………………………………………
…...
24. What do you think are the most important five health needs of your
community?
………………………………………………………………………………
…..
………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………….………………
…….
25. Do you have the following in your community?
(a) House Fly/cockroach/Mosquito/Lice/Black fly/Tsetse fly/and rats.

Thank you.

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 75 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SURVEY


HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT
CHILDREN

SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES
1. Name of Town/Village
………………………………………………………
2. Age (last Birthday)
…………………………………………………………..
3. Sex
……………………………………………………………………………
4. Educational status:
(a) Primary School
(b) Secondary School
(c) None
5. Religion
…………………………………………………………………………
6. Ethnic group
…………………………………………………………………

7. FOOD HABIT/PATTERN: MEAL (24 HOUR RECALL)

Fat Protein Carbohydrate Minerals Vitamins


Yesterday morning
Between meals
Yesterday afternoon
Between meals
Yesterday evening

8. COMMON CHILDHOOD PROBLEMS IN THE COMMUNITY


(i) Have you been admitted into any hospital in the past 12
months? Yes/No
(ii) If yes, what was the cause …………………………………………
(iii) List all illness episodes you had in the last 12 months.
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 76 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

9 IMMUNIZATION STATUS
Have you had any of the following vaccines doses?
DOSES
TYPE OF VACCINE 0 1 2 3
DPT
BCG
Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)
Measles
Confirm with home-based immunization card if available.

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
• Appearance of Individual
• Height:
• Weight:
• Mid upper Arm circumstance (for 2-4 years)
- Use shakir strip
• Hair
(a) Colour
(b) Quality - Normal
- Brittle and Pluckable

EYES
• Palor
• Jaundice
• Dischange (Purulent or tearing)
• Ulceration
• Others
………………………………………………………………………...

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 77 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

SKIN
• Normal
• Wasted
• Diseased

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 78 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

WALK THROUGH SURVEY

(A) ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CHECKLIST

(1) STATUS OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT:


CLEANLINESS STATUS OF THE PREMISES
S/No. Description Grade Remark

1 Unswept + weed /bush uncleared 1 Poor

2 Swept / weed / bush not cleared to ground


level or completely cleared to ground level 2 Fair
but unswept

3 Cleared to ground level and swept 3 Good

4 3 + packed or burnt 4 V. Good

NOTE:
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________

(2) REFUSE DISPOSAL (TYPE)


• Open dumping on land
• Thrown into the river
• Composting
• Incineration (or burning)
• Others p/s specify ……………………………………………….
S/No. Description Grade Remark

1 Full and over flowing / scattered around 1 Poor


2 Full and not over flowing or Incompletely 2 Fair
packed
3 Completed packed, clean, empty or not full 3 Good

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 79 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

NOTE:
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________

(3) SEWAGE
• Defecate into rivers / stream
• Defecate in the bush
• Bucket
• Pit toilet
• Trench
• VIP
• Others (P/S specify)

(4) STATUS OF TOILET FACILITY


S/No. Description Grade Remark

1 Sewage littering the whole place / 1 Poor


unflushed /unwashed
2 Clean surrounding and 2 Fair
Unwashed/unflushed
3 Clean / covered flushed and washed 3 Good

NOTE:
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
________________

(5) WATER
• Sources of drinking water
o Tap
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 80 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

o Well
o Stream
o Rain
Indicator Unity of Measurement Community Performance
Quantity of water No of litres per person per day
Quantity of water (access) No of users per point (of Tap or Well)
% of households without safe
drinking water supply

(6) HOUSING
(a) Type:
• Mud with thatched roof
• Mud with zinc roof
• Blockhouse with zinc roof.
(b) Number of persons living in a room
(c) Ventilation
• Cross ventilation
• No-cross ventilation
(d) Distance from high-tension cable/wire (Minimum 30m)

(7) TRAFFIC
• Means of transport
• Use of seat belts, helmets
• Status of vehicle (good motoring condition)
• Traffic regulations/sign boards

(8) HEALTH RELATED SOCIAL AMENITIES


• Electricity
• Tarred Roads
• Education facilities
• Recreational

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 81 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

CHECKLIST FOR ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF AVAILABLE HEALTH


FACILITY

A. Name of Community__________________________________________
• Name of Health
Institution____________________________________
• Outpatient and Inpatient (Delete not applicable)

B. Health professionals
S/No. Personnel Number Qualification Years of
Experience
1 Doctors
2 Nurses
3 Midwifes
4 Lab Scientists
5 Radiographers
6 Anesthetists
7 Record Clerk
8 Pharmacist
9 Others

C. Equipment
• Consulting table and chairs
• Examination couch
• Disposable needless and syringes
• Disposable suture kits
• Methods for sterilization
• Refrigerators
• Medical waste disposal methods
• X-ray facilities
• ECG
• Ultrasound
• Laboratory facilities
• Pharmacy (WHO Essential Drug List Available, List)
• No of beds
• Laundry facilities
___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 82 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

• Catering facilities
• Operating theatre.

D. Hospital Building with the following features


FEATURES YES NO
• Clean consultation room
• Clean waiting room
• Treatment/minor procedures room
• Privacy rooms
• Clean running water/hand washing
facilities
• Toilet
• Good light
• Good ventilation (or AC)
• Insect screens
Remarks

E. Administration
FEATURES YES NO
• Appointment system
• Health records
• Security
• Confidentiality
• Scale of changes
• Cleaning and maintenance routine
Remarks

F. LOGISTICS
• Accessibility of the health Institution (average radial distance of the
centre from the members of the community)
• Communications Telephone/radio
• Hospital Ambulance

G.
• Average daily clinic attendance:
• Common diseases treated:

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 83 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 4.1

14” Okordia – Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement at


Sombrierio River EIA Minutes of Community`
Engagement Session

Date: Wednesday, 28 September 2005


Venue: Palace of His Highness, Nye Nwe Ele Ihuowo
Time: 12:30 Pm
Attendance:His Highness, Chief Clinton .I Elebra Nye Nwe Ele
Ihuowo
Chief M.I Ishrima JP Eze Nwe Ula, Paramount
Ruler
Elder Friday Gogo Agolo Family Representative,
Landlord community
Mr Ben .C. Ojoh Vice Chairman, Community
Development Committee
Mr Vincent A. Origbo Secretary, Community
Development Committee
Mr Stephen Ojenamah Youth Representative

Ochuba A.N. Federal Ministry Environment


Okoro K.O Rivers State Ministry of
Environment

Professor Austin Obiekezie Biophysical Consultant


Dr John Amah Health Consultant
Mr Sola Ojo Social Consultant

Anietie Jeremiah Pipeline Engineer


Amechi Dim Quality Control Engineer
Emeka Okoli HSE Adviser, Pipelines
Edidiong Ekwere Environmental Adviser
Karol Ibidoja Environmental Inspector
Richard Michael Environmental Inspector

Objectives:

The aim of the engagement session was to acquaint the Ihuowo


Community on SPDC`s intention to replace a faulty pipeline across

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 84 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Sombrierio River and also afford ESHIA consultants ample opportunity


to:

• Visit the proposed project site and its environments;


• Conduct Focused Group Discussions and interviews to obtain
local information and knowledge;
• Ensure that regulators are properly engaged as part of the
process;
• Engage the community on their concerns as regards the
proposed project.

Introduction:

His Royal Highness welcomed us with a presentation and blessing of


kolanuts after which, Mr Anietie Jeremiah, the Projects Engineer, briefly
introduced the members from SPDC, Federal and State Ministries of
Environment and the Consultants teams. He explained the purpose of
the visit which was to acquaint the Ihuowo Community on SPDC`s
intention to replace a faulty pipeline across Sombrierio River. He
explained that SPDC, in compliance with statutory requirements, carries
out intelligent pigging (IP) on a five-yearly basis to ascertain pipeline
integrity and also routinely to remove sand and debris that comes in
with the oil and percolates at the base of crude transport pipelines.
During the last IP for the Okordia – Rumuekpe Pipeline, pigging could
not be completed because the pig kept on getting stucked. This may be
due to the use of the wrong pipe or gradient, thus the decision to
replace the faulty section at the Sombrierio river crossing.

He stressed that before the company commences activity on the


replacement session, it is required by law to first conduct an
Environmental, Social and Health Impact Assessment (EIA) of the
project on the community. This is to enable SPDC assess, identify and
mitigate impacts to a rating as low as reasonably practicable and
identify appropriate execution options. As part of this EIA processes,
SPDC needs to engage all the relevant stakeholders, particularly the
community so as to understand and capture their concerns as well as
suggestions and contribution to ensure smooth execution of the
proposed project.

Mr Vincent A. Origbo, who acted as spokesperson for the community,


thanked the SPDC contingent for coming and promised that they would
give the project their maximum support. He and other members of the
community however, raised some concerns.

Highlights and Concerns:


___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 85 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

 There are legacy issues and unfulfilled promises arising from


previous SPDC activities in the area. There is also an existing
MOU between the community and SPDC, which SPDC has
failed to comply with.
 The community drink, fish, process farm produce, wood,
ferment cassava etc, at the Sombrierio River. What will
become of these activities during the project? Thus, SPDC
should provide twenty mono pumps for the community before
commencing with the proposed project.
 SPDC should repair the main road and provide electricity.
 SPDC should provide furniture (chairs and tables) for the
community primary school.
 SPDC should ensure that the contractor employs youths from
the community. All manual labour should be handled by
community members.
 SPDC should provide 400 open sheds in the market square.
 SPDC should build a staff quarters’ in the primary school.
 SPDC should obtain a list of items from Nye Nwe Ele to
appease the gods of the Sombrierio river before commencing
with the proposed project
 SPDC should aspire to leave a good legacy at the end of the
project.

In response, Mr Jeremiah said SPDC would try to comply with any


agreement reached with the community on the project. However, he
iterated that the project team does not have the authority to make any
promises on behalf of the company but that all concerns and issues will
be incorporated in the Environmental, Social and Health Management
Plan (EMP) for the project and forwarded to the appropriate team in the
company.

The session ended at about 3:30 pm.

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 86 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 87 of 87
List of Appendices
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________
Final EIA Report for Okordia-Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project Page 88 of 87
15

14

13

12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3

2
1

and Health Sensitivities

Okordia - Rumuekpe Pipeline Replacement Project


Table 5.5: Interaction Matrix for the 14" x 44 m
Environmental, Social
span
Decommissioning of the entire pipeline at the end of life
Decommissioning Phase
Operations/Maintenance (cathodic protection)
Operations/Maintenance Phase
Commissioning of new pipeline section
Commissioning Phase
Backfilling
Pipe laying and tie-in
Removal of Replaced (old) pipeline section
Pressure Testing of new Pipe Line section(hydrotesting)
NDT (Radiography)
Flushing of existing pipeline
Waste generation (solids/liquids/gaseous)
Site fabrication (Welding )
Excavation/Trenching
labour requirements (35 persons)

Site Preparation
Land Take (15x20 m2)/ Land Acquisition (8x10 m2)
Pre-Construction Phase
Construction Phase

at Sombreiro River Crossing.


Interaction Zone
16, 17, 47, 52, 58, 59, 61, 64, 73. Air quality

1
1
1
1
1

Physico-chemical
52 Light/Solar radiation

2
2

environment
16, 17, 52, 64, 73. Level of Noise and Sounds

3
3
3

3
3
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27,
Surface water quality

4
28, 29, 45, 46, 52, 58, 59, 60, 61, 73.

4
4
4
4

4
4

4
17, 45, 52, 58, 59, 60, 73. Groundwater table / Quality

5
5

5
5

5
4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 7, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 25,
Soil and sediment quality

6
67
26, 28, 45, 52, 58, 59, 73.

6
6

provision
4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 44, 45, 46, 52, 56, 58, 59, 73. Household water quality

7
89

House
water
7

7
7

7
7

Protecting the Production Function


4, 5, 6, 7, 4, 45, 46, 52, 59, 58, 73. Access to household water

8
10
8

8
8

8
8

Estuary and sea


17, 25, 26, 27, 46, 52, 58, 59, 73. Quality of fish.

9
11
9

9
9

9
9

fisheries

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
10
9, 11, 16, 17, 25, 26, 46, 52, 58, 59, 73. Availability of breeding grounds and food for fish

10

10

10
10

10

10
10

10

11
25, 26, 27, 46, 52, 58, 59, 73. Access to fishing grounds

11

11
11

11

11

Forestry
12
13, 14, 15, 24, 25, 26, 27, 46, 47. Access to forests
12

12

12
12

13
25, 26, 27, 46, 60, 71. Availability of markets for forestry products
13

Biological Environment
14

farming
12, 13, 15, 24, 25, 26, 27, 46, 73. Access to farm lands

Mixed
14

14

14
14

15
7, 17, 21, 25, 26, 46, 60. Availability of markets for agricultural products
15

16
9, 17, 18, 19,20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 44, 52, 58, 59, 73. Quality of habitat

Ecosys.
16

16

16

16
16

16

16
16

comp.
1, 2, 9, 10, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 45, 46, 52, 58,

17
Biodiversity/Genetic resource
17

17

17
17
17
17

17
17
17
17

17
17
59, 60, 73.
4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27,

Ecosystem function
18
Estuary/Freshwater complex (erosion)
18

18

18

18
18
18
18

18
18

18

18
45, 52, 58, 59.

Protecting Integrity
4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27,

19
Swamp forest complex
19

19

19

19

19

19
19

19

19
45, 52, 58, 59.
4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27,

20
Rainforest complex
20

20

20

20
20

20
45, 52, 58, 59.

21
6, 14, 15, 23, 25, 26, 27, 46, 52, 58, 59, 73. Farmland complex
21

21

21

21
21

21

22
53 Sense of Place / Wellbeing
22

22

22

ecosystem
function

Social
23
26, 27, 53, 73. Traditional value of land
23

23

24
22, 32, 41, 70, 71, 73. Access to ancestral and culturally significant sites
24

24

24

24

25
26, 27, 28, 59, 60, 73. Traditional occupations

Supporting economic
25

25

25
25
25
25

25
25

25

25
25

27, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 42, 44, 46, 49, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 60,

development
26
Level of income & financial flows
26

26

26

26
26
26
26

26
26
26
26
26

26
26

68, 73.

27
30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 42, 44, 46, 48, 58, 59, 69, 73. Cost of living / inflation
27

27

27

27
27
27
27

28
25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 42, 44, 46, 53, 59, 73. Opportunities for contracting and procurement
28

28

28

28
28
28
28
28

28

29
25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 42, 44, 46, 53, 69, 73. Opportunities for local and national employment
29

29

29

29
29
29
29
29

29

Protecting and supporting


30
37, 44, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59. Access to housing
30

the built environment


31
8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 24, 25, 26, 27, 32, 33, 35, 36, 58, 59, 61. Access to transport
31

31

32
8, 11,12, 14, 15, 24, 25, 26, 27, 32, 33, 35, 36, 58, 59, 61. Access to roads and waterways
32
32

32

33
44, 53, 73. Access to electricity

34
53, 61, 73. Access to communication facilities

Protecting resources
35
53, 73. Access to learning and education facilities
36

Protecting and supporting the social


53, 58, 59, 73. Access to recreational facilities

1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 16, 18, 19, 29, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 44, 45, 47,
37

48, 52, 56, 58, 59, 60, 73.


Access to sanitation and waste mgt facilities
38

infrastructure
22, 25, 71. Balance in gender
38

39

25, 58, 70, 71. Balance in age


39

39

39

39

39

40

23, 69, 70, 71. Ethnic balance

Socio-economic environment
41

63, 69, 70, 71, 73. Religious balance


42

22, 53, 69, 71. Functioning of family structure & trad. institutions
42

43

29, 31, 32, 33, 35, 58, 73. Functioning of Government services
44

22, 52, 58, 59. Healthy and clean housing and living conditions
44

45

22, 52, 58, 59, 73. Access to clean drinking water


45

45

45
45
45

45
45

45

45

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
46

22, 52, 58, 59, 73. Access to a nutritious and healthy diet
46

46

46

46

46

46
46

Protecting and controlling health determinants


47

22, 52, 58, 59, 73. Exposure to nuisance (dust, noise etc.)
47
47

47
47

47

48

22, 52, 58, 59, 73. Level of disease vectors


48

48

49

22, 51, 52, 58, 59, 73. Exposure to STIs/HIV/AIDS


49

49

49

50

22, 51, 52, 58, 59, 61, 73. Exposure to Marine & Traffic Accidents
50

50

50
50

50

51

38, 39, 42, 59, 73. Mortality Rate


Protecting health
52

38, 39, 42, 51, 59, 73. Morbidity Rate


52

52

52

52
52
52
52

52
52
52

52

53

49, 52, 54, 57. Lifestyle


53

53

53

53

54

51, 52, 53, 58, 59, 61. Alcohol and drugs abuse/violence
54

54

54

54

55

25, 52, 58, 59. Physical activity (Ergonomy, etc.)


55

55

55

55
55

55

56

52, 57, 58, 59. Hygiene


57

49, 51, 52, 58, 59. Exposure to commercial sex workers


57

57

57

57

58

51, 52, 73. Access to primary health care


Direct health protection
58

58

58

59

51, 52, 58, 73. Access to secondary health care


59

59

59

59

60

25, 51, 52, 58, 59. Access to traditional medicine


61

51, 52, 73. Access to Emergency Services (First Aid, Medevac)


61

61

61

61

61

62

51, 52, 58, 59. Access to voluntary health organisations


63

22, 65, 67, 73. Respect for human rights


63

63

63

63

63

Supporting social equity


64

22, 63, 65, 67, 73. Respect for labour rights


64

64

64

64

64

Socio-cultural environment
65

22, 65, 67, 73. Promoting equal opportunities


65

65

66

22, 65, 67, 73. Promoting opportunities for representation


67

22, 65, 67, 73. Social exclusion abatement


68

46, 49, 52, 53, 54, 57. Poverty abatement


68

69

22, 42, 70, 71. Morals and family values


Protecting
69

69

69

69

integrity
70

22, 42, 69, 71. Cultural values and languages


70

70

70

70

71

22, 42, 69, 70. Religious / Traditional structures and customs


71

Bees, snakes, scopions, wild life, poisonuos plants


72

51, 52, 58, 59, 73.


Issues (that were not already identified as
STAKEHOLDER "ENVIRONMENT"
72

contacts/ attack etc


Third party agitation/ConfIct(Communities,
73

51, 52, 63, 69, 70.


73

73

73

73
73
73
73

73
73

73
73

73

NGOs,CBO etc).
sensitivities)