You are on page 1of 29

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II

Quantitative research

NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH


NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Content Standard Performance Learning Competencies
Standard
The learner demonstrates understanding The learner is able to The learner …
of: …
1. describes characteristics,
1. the characteristics, decide on strengths, weaknesses, and kinds
strengths, weaknesses, suitable of quantitative research
and kinds of quantitative CS_RS12-Ia-c-1
quantitative research research in 2. illustrates the importance of
2. the importance of different quantitative research across fields
quantitative research areas of CS_RS12-Ia-c-2
across fields interest. 3. differentiates kinds of variables and
3. the nature of variables their uses
CS_RS12-Ia-c-3
Practical Research II
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Session Objectives

This lecture-workshop aims to capacitate teachers with the


curriculum content, teaching strategies/pedagogies, and learning
assessment of Practical Research 2 specifically on:

Nature of Inquiry & Research


NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Activity 1 (by group)

Differentiate Inquiry from Research


NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Abstraction
• Inquiry, a term that is synonymous with the word ‘investigation’.
When you inquire or investigate, you tend to ask questions to probe
or examine something (HOTS questions)

• Research is a scientific, experimental, or inductive manner of


thinking, starting from particular to more complex ideas, execute
varied thinking acts that range from lower-order to higher order
thinking strategies reflected by the steps in the research process.
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Application
Determine whether inquiry or research is applicable to the given situations:
1. A person wants to know the occupant of one condominium.
2. A student wants to know the medicinal effects of guava leaves.
3. Mr. Cruz wants to know the technique to make his electric fan function
instantly.
4. Professor Gomez wants to discover the impact of social networking on
his students’ learning abilities.
5. Aling Rosa wants to know the reason behind the decrease of her sales for
the day.
6. A businessman wants to find out which between these two marketing
strategies: free tasting and attractive packaging could increase daily
sales.
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH

Qualitative VS Quantitative
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Characteristics of Quantitative Research
What is research?
• Research is systematic and objective creation of knowledge
Keywords: systematic (with a system or method, the scientific
method), objective (no bias, all angles presented), knowledge
creation (a creative process)

What is quantitative research?


• Uses quantities and numbers (scores, ratings, frequencies,
percentages, prices) to denote particular thing
• Numerical – pertaining to or denoting a number or symbol to express
characteristics of the thing being studied
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Characteristics of Quantitative Research

• Objective research, only the real or factual, not the emotional or


cognitive existence of the object matters greatly to the artist

• analogous to scientific or experimental thinking


NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Activity 2
Classify the following word/group of words if it is strength or
weakness of quantitative research:
Precise Uses Statistical Tool Inadequacy of Numbers
Less than 100% Accuracy Assumptions in Statistical Methods
Less prone to sampling bias Error can be Computed
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Strengths Weaknesses
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Strengths of Quantitative Research
• Precision of numbers
• Level of significance (statistical) can be determines – that results are
not due to chance alone
• Sample is less prone to sampling bias
• Error can be computed, e.g., sampling error

Weaknesses of Quantitative Research


• Inadequacy of numbers for total picture and depth of analysis
• Less than 100% accuracy in sampling, instrument construction and
administration
• Assumptions in statistical methods
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Addressing Weaknesses of Quantitative
Research

• Rigor in doing quantitative research procedures

• Addition of qualitative analysis using quotes of subjects (persons from


whom data are collected) to support statistical results
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Importance of Practical Research

• Helps solve recurring, long-term real-life problems, not emergencies!

• Provides data for better understanding of real-life concerns and


issues, individual or group (community, national, international)

• Makes recommendations to improve existing situations or realities


NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
What is a variable?
• A variable varies and has values. The values of variables under
study are the research data.

• Are these variables?


chair
shape of table
tweet
shirt style
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Kinds of Data (Values of Variables)

Ratio

Inter
val
Cate
Ordi gori
nal cal
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Kinds of Data (Values of Variables)

1. Ratio Data: most precise, e.g., 0-100 Zero is zero


Examples: temperature, age, height, weight
2. Interval Data: numbers have equal interval, zero is not necessarily
zero
Examples: test score, rating
3. Ordinal Data: ranks; intervals may not be equal; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, …
4. Categorical Data: least precise – categories
Examples: male/female, Catholic/Protestant/Muslim
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Classification of Quantitative Research
Two Kinds:
• Experimental
• true experimental, quasi-experimental, single subject, & pre-
experimental
• Quasi-experimental: matched comparative group, time series, and
counterbalanced quasi-experimental
• Non-experimental
• survey, historical, observational, correlational, descriptive, and
comparative research
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Common Kinds of Quantitative Research
• Descriptive survey
does not manipulate variables, describes patterns of data in
percentages, mean, median, and mode

• Correlation Causal
Correlation study determines relationship between two
variables: positive or negative; high, moderate, or low relationship
Causal study determines causation, dependence of variable on
one or more variables, stronger relationship than correlation
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Common Kinds of Quantitative Research
• Experimental (many designs)
True Experimental Design
Experimental Group R O1 X O2
Control Group R O1 O2
Where:
R = randomly sampled individuals in group
O1 = pretest (before treatment)
X = treatment or intervention
O2 = posttest (after treatment)
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Common Kinds of Quantitative Research
• Quasi-Experimental (intact groups)
Two Group Pretest-Posttest Design
Experimental Group O1 X1 O2
Control Group O1 X2 O2

Where:
O1 = pretest X1 = treatment or intervention
O2 = posttest X2 = existing condition with slight changes
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH

Differentiate quantitative from qualitative


research.
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Quantitative vs Qualitative Research
Standards Qualitative Quantitative
Mental survey of reality Results from social Exists in the physical
interactions world
Cause-effect relationship Explained by people’s Revealed by automatic
objective desires descriptions of
circumstance or
conditions
Researcher’s involvement Subjective; sometimes Objective; least
with the object or subject personally engaged involvement by the
of the study researcher
Source: Baraceros, E. Practical Research 2, 1st Ed. April 2016. Rex Bookstore. pp.9-10.
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Quantitative vs Qualitative Research
Standards Qualitative Quantitative
Expression of data, data Verbal language (words, Numerals, statistics
analysis, and findings visuals, objects)
Research plan Takes place as the Plans all research aspects
research proceeds before collecting data
gradually
Behavior toward research Desires to preserve the Control or manipulation
aspects/ conditions natural setting of of research conditions by
research features the researcher
Obtaining knowledge Multiple methods Scientific method
Source: Baraceros, E. Practical Research 2, 1st Ed. April 2016. Rex Bookstore. pp.9-10.
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Quantitative vs Qualitative Research
Standards Qualitative Quantitative
Purpose Makes social intentions Evaluates objective and
understandable examines cause-effect
relationships
Data-analysis Thematic codal ways, Mathematically based
technique competence-based method
Style of expression Personal, lacks formality Impersonal, scientific,
or systematic
Sampling technique More inclined to purposive Random sampling as
sampling or use of chosen the most preffered
samples based on some criteria
Source: Baraceros, E. Practical Research 2, 1st Ed. April 2016. Rex Bookstore. pp.9-10.
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Application

• Give the importance of quantitative research


NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Evaluation

1. What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative


research?

2. What are the different types of variables and give example for each.
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Activity 3 (Group Output)
By group:

Formulate quantitative research questions out of the given qualitative


questions:

1. What noontime TV program ranks as the most watched program all


over the Philippines?

2. What stand did the student leaders express about their school’s
new policy on tardiness and absences of students?
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Activity 4
• What teaching pedagogy / strategy do you think is appropriate in
teaching this content: Nature of inquiry and research?

• What possible learning assessment method/tool should be used to


effectively measure students’ performance
NATURE OF INQUIRY & RESEARCH
Activity 4

PRESENTATION & PROCESSING OF OUTPUT