You are on page 1of 9

Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering

ISSN: 1346-7581 (Print) 1347-2852 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tabe20

A Study on the Implementation of Non-Structural


Measures to Reduce Urban Flood Damage -
Focused on the Survey Results of the Experts-

Seok-Jin Kang, Seung-Jae Lee & Kyung-Hoon Lee

To cite this article: Seok-Jin Kang, Seung-Jae Lee & Kyung-Hoon Lee (2009) A Study on the
Implementation of Non-Structural Measures to Reduce Urban Flood Damage -Focused on the
Survey Results of the Experts-, Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 8:2,
385-392, DOI: 10.3130/jaabe.8.385

To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.3130/jaabe.8.385

© 2018 Architectural Institute of Japan

Published online: 24 Oct 2018.

Submit your article to this journal

Article views: 297

Citing articles: 1 View citing articles

Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at


https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=tabe20
A Study on the Implementation of Non-Structural Measures to Reduce Urban Flood Damage
-Focused on the Survey Results of the Experts-

Seok-Jin Kang*1, Seung-Jae Lee2 and Kyung-Hoon Lee3

1
Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Architecture, Korea University, Korea
2
Full-time lecturer, Division of Architecture, Mokwon University, Korea
3
Professor, Department of Architecture, Korea University, Korea

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to consider diverse non-structural measures to mitigate urban flood damage.
Examining related literatures and conducting interviews and surveys with a group of experts were carried out
in order to derive proper measures. As a result, non-structural measures have been categorized as follows: (1)
urban planning measures such as land-use, park and forestation plans, land acquisition and relocation plans, (2)
architectural planning measures such as elevating the building basement or site, dry and wet flood-proofing
techniques, facility maintenance and repair, structural retrofitting or reinforcement, building greening and
pavements with water permeability, and (3) regulatory system measures such as statutes, ordinances, flood
prevention standards, public awareness and education, flood warning systems and flood insurance. Most of
these categorized measures are feasible, but problems do exist, partially regarding insufficient legal support,
lack of techniques, and limited case studies. Even though the flood insurance system is in its early stages in
Korea, it may be an integral and crucial non-structural measure for an advanced disaster prevention policy if
the objective standards of risk assessment and various incentives are established.

Keywords: disaster management; non-structural measure; flood damage reduction; flood insurance

1. Introduction well as difficulties in forecasting the weather itself.


1.1 Background and purposes of the study The government continues its support and investments
South Korea has witnessed recurrent flood disasters in related research and development and is coming
every year through local torrential rains, typhoons, etc., up with industrial measures to minimize loss and
especially during the last several years. According to damage from storms and floods, but most government
the 2003 Annual Report on Disasters of the Ministry actions are directed towards structural measures such
of Government Administration and Home Affairs as building multipurpose dams, improving internal
(MOGAHA), flood disasters have accounted for a large drainage systems, supervising high flood risk areas,
portion of the natural disasters since the 1980's. Floods etc., at the expense of developing systems based on
in cities with a large population and property may result the concept of urban disaster prevention and an urban
in considerable amounts of loss and damage according planning approach.
to the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime This is partially because of the inactive research
Affairs (MLTM). During the years of 1995 to 2004, environment regarding disaster prevention in the
flood damages accounted for about 90% of damages in field of urban planning, as well as the government's
cities (MLTM, 2006), thus urban floods have become a preoccupation with structural approaches, for example,
major concern for Korea's water resource management the implementation of water control projects. With this
policies; however, it is not easy to take appropriate problem in mind, this study explores and categorizes
measures in dealing with floods because it has become non-structural flood damage reduction measures to
harder to predict the new aspects in damages and confirm the importance and feasibility of implementing
casualties due to the government's limited budget as such measures in Korea and to examine and verify
potential problems through a survey of the experts.
*Contact Author: Seok-Jin Kang, Ph.D. Candidate, 1.2 Scope of the study and methodology
Department of Architecture, Korea University, This study is planned and carried out by first
5 Ga-1, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-713 Korea examining related documents, materials, and
Tel: +82-2-3290-3903 Fax: +82-2-921-7947 reports to develop various frameworks. Interviews
E-mail: korea1905@paran.com and surveys within each framework are conducted
( Received October 8, 2008 ; accepted August 12, 2009 ) with a group of experts. To begin with, documents,

Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/November 2009/392 385


materials, and reports for this study were limited to a socio-economic and institutional perspective because
those in Korea, Japan, the U.S., and a couple other their implementation involves less work compared to
countries. These were analyzed into sub-categories structural measures and their environmental impact is
of urban, architectural, and regulatory measures, all relatively small (Miller et al., 1996; Zeid, 1997). For
under non-structural measures. The authors carried the non-structural measures to be effective, however,
out a feasibility study by conducting focused group there must be a given effort and cooperation from the
interviews with experts including urban researchers, residents in the flood hazard areas, as well as related
architects, public officials in the department of government authorities. This is because measures alone
disaster prevention, and insurance specialists. During do not guarantee their effectiveness and residents in
this study, the authors realized that a categorical flood hazard areas must be familiar with the measures
survey may not be appropriate because experts in so that they can effectively deal with the sudden
one field may not be familiar with the fields outside occurrence of disasters, thereby minimizing loss and
their specialties, and there are not many experts who damage.
have a broad understanding that range from disaster Disaster relief, including floods, and prevention
prevention to flood insurance applied to architecture measures consist of three phases (William J. Petak,
and urban planning. It was also concluded that for this 1985). The first phase involves rudimentary planning
study, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which measures for recovery and relief after the occurrence
requires the evaluation and comparison of various of disasters and the second involves the investment
elements, is not appropriate because detailed measures, in resources and efforts in structural flood control
especially in architecture, are usually carried out case measures, such as building dams or banks, drainage
by case. Therefore, the authors designed the survey improvements, and the maintenance of water reservoirs
by structuring it according to importance, necessity, and pump stations. The third phase, generally used
feasibility, and potential problems and carried out in developed countries, involves not only structural
the survey only after an explanation was given to measures, but also non-structural measures such
the experts concerning urban planning, architectural as management of flooded regions, land control
planning, and legal and regulatory measures. regulations, and a flood insurance system, etc.
Flood damage, unlike other natural disasters,
can be reduced and mitigated to a certain degree
by structural measures, but the problem remains
in that the total amount of damage is still the same
despite the increased frequency in design for flood
prevention structures. Increasing design frequency for
flood prevention structures, which usually requires a
100-year flood frequency, cannot be an alternative in
case a flood is bigger than expected. New designs may
contribute to a false sense of security. The limitations
of structural measures against flooding are reflected in
the amount of damage caused by floods that continue
Fig.1. The Scope and Process of the Study
to increase each year, despite the modernization of
flood prevention measures.
2. Literature Review and Case Studies 2.2 Studies on the Flood Damage Reduction
2.1 Structural and Non-Structural Measures Measures used in Several Countries
Commonly known flood damage reduction measures (1) Korea
can be divided into structural (technological approach) Korea introduced and developed non-structural
and non-structural measures (planning approach). measures: standards for facilities against damages from
Structural measures are mainly about the standards storms and floods in the field of urban and architectural
and installations of disaster prevention facilities: planning and a proposal for the standards of district-
channel improvement to reduce the effect of flooding based flood prevention, which is a manual produced
in flood hazard areas, building banks or dams, and by the National Emergency Management Agency
control systems incorporating the results of water flow (NEMA) concerning flood damage reduction measures,
analysis. On the other hand, non-structural measures primarily focusing on highly flood prone areas. These
can be sub-divided into institutional control, land use classified districts according to the degree of hazards
regulation, land acquisition and relocation, elevation and flood risks also suggest flood-proofing techniques
of buildings, flood prediction and warning systems, based on guides and comments from construction
and a flood insurance program, etc. (Faisal et al., 2000; and renovation cases, but they only list case-based
Hansson et al., 2006). Non-structural measures are declaratory content and there is doubt regarding their
especially related to urban and architectural planning1). feasibility and applicability, even if they contribute to
There is a growing importance in these measures from organizing categorized flood prevention measures.

386 JAABE vol.8 no.2 November 2009 Seok-Jin Kang


The government also enacted the Countermeasures for residents in flood hazard areas (KRIHS, 2003). The
Against Natural Disasters Act proposed by the plan has two levels, city and district, and considers
MOGAHA and the related laws to National Land and earthquakes and fires as well as floods. The process for
City Planning by the MLTM, which also have clauses the plan is as follows in Fig.2.
concerning disaster prevention. Aside from these
institutional measures, other measures include flood
forecasting and warning systems using cell phones
and TVs with an automatic signal receiving apparatus,
a flood insurance system that is being pilot tested,
and flood hazard maps, but the overall connection
with the related institutions and the efficiency of the
administration is insufficient.
(2) The U.S.
Developed countries like the U.S. or Japan, who
operate sophisticated disaster prevention systems,
have linked urban and architectural planning with
regulations or incentives to prevent or deal with natural
disasters such as urban flooding and apply organized Fig.2. Elements and Planning Process for the Construction of
preventative measures reflecting both the amount Disaster Prevention Cities in Japan4)
of damage and the existing regional characteristics.
The U.S. federal government has evenly applied Japan enacted a number of statutes for disaster
both structural and non-structural measures in policy prevention, among which the cornerstone is the
changes. A representative example is flood zoning Disaster Prevention Basic Act of 1961 that covers
based on the levels of flood hazard (FEMA, 2000). kernels of disaster prevention such as the duties
It implements strategies which include site planning and responsibilities of the government and public
ordinances, cluster developments, subdivision institutions, disaster prevention measures, emergency
regulations, planned unit developments, public land measures, and rehabilitation and support. The
preservations, and land acquisitions and relocations. conspicuous use of the term, "a disaster prevention city
On the other hand, according to the analyses on cases plan," is to embrace the disaster prevention plan related
of flood damage reduction in Mitigation Success Story to urban planning laws and regional disaster prevention
(2000, 2002), there are ten types2) of non-structural plans by the Disaster Prevention Standards Act.
measures currently being applied with land acquisition Construction of the aforementioned cities or villages is
accounting for the most. part of a bigger disaster preventing city plan (KRIHS,
2003).
Table 1. Mitigation Success Story Analysis
The work for flood disaster prevention involves the
2000 2002
Target cities 31 cities in 15 states 37 cities in 24 states
rehabilitation of towns and rivers, repairing hometown
Structural 26 cases 45 cases watercourses, riverbank and river disaster prevention
Non-structural 46 cases 56 cases stations, and resolving problems engendered in
Land acquisition rate 78% 45%
government actions by inducing and promoting the
Related laws and regulations in the U.S. have been participation of residents in a disaster prevention
developed based on the National Flood Act of 1968 plan, adjusting the conflicts of interest in the region,
and the Stafford Act of 1988. The concept of disaster providing tax benefits, and creating spaces for leisure.
prevention is reflected in urban planning through (4) Other Countries
several amendments of the statutes and one of the Canada built flood maps through the flood damage
institutional measures is the National Flood Insurance reduction program in 1975 and started to designate
Program (NFIP) implemented primarily by the Federal high flood risk areas. It also developed flood related
Emergency Management Administration (FEMA). policies throughout the 1980's and 1990's and to reduce
Architectural approaches, building codes called casualties, it has encouraged the construction of multi-
I-codes 3) (IBC, IRC, IPC, etc.), materials, and an purpose facilities such as parks rather than residential
application guide concerning structural techniques, etc., buildings near a floodplain, tightened regulations on
are requirements that must be satisfied to join the NFIP. construction based on the Hazel Flood Line (Rob
Other important non-structural measures are elevation De Loe, 2000). In addition, Canada introduced non-
of buildings, ground floor standards, and flood-proof structural measures such as flood zoning, flood-
treatments applying dry and wet construction methods. proof construction techniques, a flood forecasting
(3) Japan and warning system, and a flood insurance program
Japan initiated the creation of "a disaster prevention (Simonović, 1999).
city plan", whose characteristics involves restrictions The importance of non-structural measures is also
on residential buildings and encourages public places confirmed in Southeast Asia, which sustain huge

JAABE vol.8 no.2 November 2009 Seok-Jin Kang 387


amounts of damage from floods every year. Bangladesh a social function of redistribution of wealth because
carried out the Dhaka Integrated Flood Protection financial difficulties as well. Flood insurance in the
Project (DIFPP) based on the structural approach since residents living in flood risk areas tend to be in U.S. is
the great flood in 1988, but non-structural measures the only independent natural disaster insurance policy
such as flood forecasting and warning, preservation run by the NFIP that covers loss and damage from
of retention ponds, land use planning in highly flood storms or floods. The core of the NFIP is the Flood
prone areas, flood zoning, emergency services, and Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and Community Rating
flood-proof regulations were proven to be more System (CRS) that consists of 19 evaluation standards.
effective in the case of a flood (I.M. Faisal et al., It encourages construction to be above the 100-year
2000). Furthermore, there is the growing importance flood frequency (base flood elevation) and insurance
in non-structural measures, not just for the purpose of premium rates differ according to the degree of flood
flood prevention, but also for creating places for leisure risks or how the IBC in maintenance and repair of
and rest using water-friendly spaces or eco-friendly facilities is applied (CRS Application, 2002).
urban planning utilizing Low-Impact Development F o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s , h o w e v e r, f l o o d
(LID). insurance is still hard to introduce and promote in
2.3 Flood Insurance System underdeveloped countries including many Southeast
Flood insurance contributes to better government Asian countries. First, most floods recur in regions
finances and its utility as a measure for flood damage vulnerable to flood and residents in these regions
reduction has increased. The flood insurance system, with high flood risk tend to buy flood insurance and
along with rehabilitation support, is characterized as continually receive the insurance proceeds, leading

Table 4. Categories and Traits of Non-structural Measures for Flood Damage Reduction
Category Sub-category Contents and traits
District plan -Development control in high flood risk districts
-Control beyond the limitation of administrative authority
Land use plans Land use control -Guides on layout of streets, infra-structures, lot sizes and shapes, and drainage
installations
Water circulation plan -Plan urban rain circulation system
Park and Open area preservation and green -Apply eco-friendly standards and design techniques for natural drainage
forestation plans buffer zone development
Waterfront park development -Develop waterfront parks and restrict residential or commercial developments
Public -The Central and local government acquire land and plan development
development
Public/private -The Public/private partnerships acquire land and plan development
Urban planning
Land acquisition development
Measures Sale of -Transfer of Development Rights (TDR): reward land owners through the
and development
Land acquisition development development profits rather than tax benefit
and relocation rights -Purchase of Development Rights: allow individual land ownership and enable
plans the government to purchase development rights
Successive -Rehabilitate the flooded districts to maintain existing buildings
Land residence
Individual -Partial relocation after the rehabilitation of high flood risk districts
rehabilitation and
relocation
relocation Complete -Land acquisition of high flood risk districts and complete relocation
relocation -Move and relocate prefabricated or light buildings
Elevating the building basement or site -Elevate the ground floor beyond the flood line
-Install pilotis or piers and elevate the inner-floor or building by filling land.
• Dry flood-proofing
- sealing the exterior walls to prevent the entry of floodwater
- sealing all openings below the flood line
Dry and wet flood-proofing techniques • Wet flood-proofing
Architectural - allow the entry of floodwater but keep the same level of pressures between the
planning measures inside and outside building to mitigate damages on the structure including the
foundation
-Repair, maintain or protect electrical and mechanical facilities from flood
Facility maintenance, repair, and -Structural retrofitting or reinforcement to prevent buildings from destruction or
structural retrofitting or reinforcement being washed away by water pressure
-Build waterproof walls or fences
-Install roof garden, vertical garden wall, etc., directly or indirectly to mitigate
Building greening and pavements flood damage
-Pave façade, part, or hole of building with water permeable materials
-Prior review, designation of flood risk districts, evaluation of disaster effects,
Statutes and ordinances etc.
-Requirement of integrated regulations and institutions
Flood prevention standards -Develop categorical manuals or guidelines like the flood prevention standards
for each district or building code
-Emergency action plan, standard operation process
Regulatory system Public information and education -The importance of a publicity campaign through disaster prevention education,
measures distribution of materials, or resident participation
-Real time flood prevention and warning system, building evacuation facilities
Flood forecasting, warning, and evacuation systems and flood maps
-Emphasis on remote areas including mountains, farming or fishing villages as
well as cities
Flood insurance -Evaluation system of flood risk per district, flood mapping, and coordination
with urban architectural plans

388 JAABE vol.8 no.2 November 2009 Seok-Jin Kang


to instability of finances. Third, the standards of risk pavements with water permeability. The most effective
assessment to determine premium rates are very in damage reduction is found to be the elevation of
the problem of imbalance. Second, there may be a buildings and surrounding lands, but the problem with
problem in paying the insurance premiums due to the the other measures are that they are not effective in
complicated, "moral hazard" issues where the residents bigger flood cases. Regulatory system measures consist
make exaggerated false claims in commonly found in of statutes and ordinances, flood prevention standards,
all locations (I.M. Faisal et al., 2000). public information and education, flood forecasting
Korea introduced flood insurance to limited regions and warning, evacuation systems, and flood insurance.
of selected small and medium sized cities since The value and effectiveness of flood insurance is
May, 2006 after the NEMA's benchmarking cases of growing and the key to success is flood risk assessment
developed countries4). Flood insurance in Korea is still based on the analysis of regional traits. The standards
in its early stages and its role and function for damage are the basis for the calculation of premium rates and
mitigation are not satisfactory, and there are problems are related to government support and regulations. The
in how it is linked to urban and architectural planning CRS in the U.S., where flood insurance has become
measures. The government has also recognized popular, is the basis of flood prevention checks,
such problems and is considering gradual repeal of premium rate calculations, or even government permits
government subsidies for flood recurring in high-risk concerning urban and architectural plans. The number
regions, and instead adopting new measures such as of regions applying for the CRS continues to grow
the promotion and activation of flood insurance. (Flood Insurance Manual, 2003).

3. Categorization of Non-Structural Measures for 4. Survey Results


Flood Damage Reduction A survey with the experts was carried out from June
A study of cases led to the categorizing of non- 19 to July 20, 2007.
structural measures for flood damage reduction as
Table 5. Preliminary Study Results for Each Field
shown in Table 4. Urban planning measures consist
Archi- Urban Insurance Public Sum
of land use plans, park and forestation plans, and land tecture officials
acquisition and relocation plans. The characteristics of disaster
prevention
of urban planning measures are land use regulations, Number of 32 22 46 12 112
sub-categorizing the existing measures within the surveys
Years of 13.2yr 3.6yr 5.1yr 14.3yr 8.1yr
institutional limitations, and the introduction to eco- experiences
friendly components. The flood mitigation capability
of eco-friendly measures has been underestimated, but F o r t h i s s u r v e y, t h e e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d o f
the current emphasis on environmentally sound and architecture include experienced architects considering
sustainable development suggests the importance of that there are only a few disaster prevention experts. In
these measures. the field of urban planning, experts include researchers
Architectural measures consist of elevating the in the related institutes of Korea Research Institute
building basement or site, dry and wet flood-proofing for Human Settlements and Seoul Development
techniques, facilities maintenance and repair, structural Institute. Insurance carriers include Korea Insurance
retrofitting or reinforcement, building greening and Development Institute and other various insurance

Table 6. Survey Results of the Experts


Category Sub-category Importance Necessity Feasibility Problem
mean SD mean SD mean SD mean SD
(1) District plan 3.72 0.96 3.91 0.87 3.87 0.97 3.41 1.04
Land use plans (2) Land use control 3.67 1.06 3.81 0.99 3.13 1.03 2.43 1.02
(3) Water circulation plan 4.02 0.81 4.09 0.85 3.59 0.92 3.35 0.97
Urban planning (4) Open area preservation 3.96 0.73 4.02 0.79 3.85 0.83 3.28 0.92
measures Park and and green buffer zone development
forestation plans
(5) Waterfront park development 3.80 0.83 3.80 0.83 3.78 0.84 3.15 0.94
Acquisition and (6) Land acquisition, relocation, and 3.50 1.04 3.57 1.09 2.74 1.08 2.28 1.00
relocation plans development
(7) Building elevation 3.69 1.10 3.78 1.04 3.70 1.13 2.80 1.11
(8) Dry and wet flood-proofing techniques 3.06 1.12 3.41 1.07 3.07 0.95 2.81 0.89
Architectural
(9) Facilities maintenance, repair, and 3.61 1.00 3.85 0.92 3.83 0.84 3.24 0.78
measures
structural retrofitting or reinforcement
(10) Building greening and pavements 3.24 1.03 3.48 1.02 3.54 0.99 3.15 0.88
(11) Statutes and ordinances 3.92 1.38 3.83 1.40 3.83 1.19 3.00 1.13
Regulatory (12) Flood prevention standards (manual) 3.25 1.06 3.67 1.30 3.25 1.22 2.58 1.00
system (13) Public information and education 3.42 1.00 3.91 0.79 3.83 1.11 3.17 1.11
measures (14) Flood forecasting, warning, and evacuation systems 3.83 0.83 4.08 0.90 3.75 1.14 3.42 1.00
(15) Flood insurance 3.69 1.09 3.86 1.05 3.44 1.10 3.02 1.04
* Grades (1-point: not important, unnecessary, or unfeasible with a lot of problems ~ 5-point: important, necessary, and feasible with no problems)

JAABE vol.8 no.2 November 2009 Seok-Jin Kang 389


representatives, and public officials of the NEMA and scores in both importance and feasibility. Surveyees
those who are responsible for disaster prevention in noted that facility-oriented measures may not be
the local government were also included. The survey effective in the case of a bigger flood and elevating
used the aforementioned categorized non-structural buildings, even if technologically feasible, may not
measures, and the Likert scale (a five-point scale) was be possible due to insufficient guidelines and related
used for analysis. laws (29.6%), lack of law enforcement (22.5%), and
4.1 Analysis of Urban Planning Measures insufficient economic effectiveness (16.9%).
The validity of urban planning measures as a way of Dry and wet flood-proofing techniques received
flood damage reduction was 61.2% and feasibility, the lowest score in importance and necessity. Experts
importance, and necessity all show high scores. Among noted the lack of related technologies (27.0%),
the sub-categories, the highest were in importance insufficient economic effectiveness (23.8%), and
(M=4.02) and necessity (M=4.09) of a water insufficient guidelines and related laws (17.5%) as
circulation plan, and the importance (M=3.96) and potential problems. This seems to be the case because
necessity (M=4.02) of open area preservation and green dry and wet techniques are unfamiliar methods to the
buffer zone development, whereas the importance experts in Korea. With not many cases available, they
and necessity of land acquisition, relocation, and doubt the adoption of such techniques. Even in the U.S.,
development were relatively low. dry and wet flood-proofing techniques have been found
Feasibility was high in the order of district plan to lack economic effect.
(M=3.87), open area preservation and green buffer
zone development (M=3.85), and waterfront park Table 8. Potential Problems in Applying Architectural Planning
Measures
development (M=3.78), while experts thought the Building elevation Dry and wet Facility Building greening
feasibility of land use control (M=3.13) and land flood-proofing
techniques
maintenance,
repair, structural
and pavements

acquisition, relocation, and development (M=2.74) are retrofitting or


reinforcement
low along with importance and necessity. 1 14.1 3.2 6.6 4.5
2 29.6 17.5 18.0 16.7
Potential problems that were pointed out in applying 3 22.5 11.1 18.0 25.8
urban planning measures included insufficient 4 4.2 6.3 4.9 4.5
5 8.5 7.9 11.5 7.6
connections or support with related law, and the lack of 6 16.9 23.8 26.2 33.3
law enforcements in the planning stage. This is because 7
8
0.0
4.2
27.0
3.2
13.1
1.6
4.5
3.0
related authorities with duties and responsibilities Sum 100(%) 100(%) 100(%) 100(%)
1. Lack of Connection among Related Laws 5. Lack of Similar Cases
are divided between the MLTM and MOGAHA, 2. Insufficient Guidelines and Related Laws 6. Insufficient Economic Effectiveness

which reflects the reality of insufficient guidelines 3. Lack of Law Enforcement


4. Lack of Experts with Related Specialties
7. Lack of Related Technologies
8. Other
and systems related to non-structural measures. The
biggest problem noted for land acquisition, relocation, According to the survey results, the potential
and development is the lack of law enforcement problems in applying the architectural planning
and this seems to be reflected in concerns over the measures are summarized as follows: insufficient
infringement of private ownership, the resistance of economic effectiveness, insufficient guidelines and
residents, and undue costs of large land acquisitions related laws, and lack of law enforcement, etc. This is
and developments. because there are only a few cases (whether successful
Table 7. Potential Problems in Applying Urban Planning
or not) which apply each sub-category, leading to
Measures doubts concerning the verification of its economic
Land Use Plan Park and Forestation Plan Acquisition and Relocation feasibility. This also reflects the lack of institutional
District Land Water Open area Waterfront Land
Plan Use Circula- preservation Park Acquisition, guidelines in the Urban Planning Act, Building Code,
Control tion Plan and green
buffer zone
Development Relocation, and
Development
and flood damage related laws.
development 4.3 Analysis of Regulatory System Measures
1 23.4 23.8 6.2 1.7 7.8 7.0
2 31.3 20.6 23.1 17.2 17.6 14.0 For regulatory system measures, only public officials
3
4
15.6
4.7
28.6
0.0
13.8
16.9
24.1
3.4
25.5
3.9
42.1
1.8
responsible for disaster prevention were surveyed in
5 10.9 11.1 12.3 15.5 11.8 5.3 consideration of their expertise in the related field, thus
6 3.1 4.8 12.3 32.8 37.3 19.3
7 1.6 0.0 12.3 0.0 2.0 0.0 there were only 12 surveyees. While the importance
8 9.4 11.1 3.1 5.2 5.9 10.5 (M=3.92) and feasibility (M=3.83) of statutes and
Sum 100(%) 100(%) 100(%) 100(%) 100(%) 100(%)
1. Lack of Connection among Related Laws 5. Lack of Similar Cases ordinances, and importance (M=3.83) and feasibility
2. Insufficient Guidelines and Related Laws 6. Insufficient Economic Effectiveness
3. Lack of Law Enforcement 7. Lack of Related Technologies (M=3.75) of flood forecasting, warning, and evacuation
4. Lack of Experts with Related Specialties 8. Other
systems were high, the importance (M=3.25) and
4.2 Analysis of Architectural Planning Measures feasibility (M=3.25) of flood prevention standards were
Most experts (50.0%) showed a positive response relatively low. The most needed measures were flood
concerning the categorization for architectural planning forecasting, warning, and evacuation systems (M=4.08)
measures presented in this study. Among the sub- and public information and education (M=3.91). On
categories, elevating buildings, facilities maintenances the other hand, the importance (M=3.78) and necessity
and repairs, and structural reinforcement received high (M=4.00) of flood insurance as a measure of flood

390 JAABE vol.8 no.2 November 2009 Seok-Jin Kang


damage reduction was relatively high. Its feasibility flood insurance system because the government is
turned out to be low due to several practical problems considering separate measures for its activation6).
(Table 10.).
The surveyees pointed out potential problems in the 5. Conclusions
application such as lack of law enforcements (28.6%) The following are conclusions regarding the
and lack of connections with related laws (42.8%) for categorization of non-structural measures through
statutes and ordinances, lack of similar cases (41.7%) case studies and analyses of feasibility and potential
for flood prevention standards, lack of experts with problems through the survey of experts.
related specialties (35.7%), insufficient economic
effectiveness (21.4%) for public information and
education, lack of experts and cases (46.2%), and lack
of connection among related laws (30.8%) for flood
forecasting, warning, and evacuation systems.
Table 9. Potential Problems in Applying Regulatory System
Measures
Statutes and Flood prevention Public information Flood forecasting,
ordinances standards and education warning, and evacuation
systems
1 21.4 8.3 12.3 30.8
2 21.4 16.7 0.0 0.0
3 28.6 16.7 12.3 7.7
4 0.0 8.3 35.7 23.1
5 14.3 41.7 12.3 23.1
6 14.3 0.0 21.4 7.7
7 0.0 8.3 0.0 7.7
8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Sum 100(%) 100(%) 100(%) 100(%)
1. Lack of Connection among Related Laws 5. Lack of Similar Cases
2. Insufficient Guidelines and Related Laws 6. Insufficient Economic Effectiveness
3. Lack of Law Enforcement 7. Lack of Related Technologies
4. Lack of Experts with Related Specialties 8. Other

Especially at the moment, major obstacles in


activating a flood insurance system turned out to be Fig.3. Result of Analysis Concerning the Feasibility and
costly insurance premiums (18.8%), insufficient public Problems of Non-structural Measures
campaigning (17.5%), insufficient risk assessment
standards (14. 5 % ) , an d v olu n tar y r ather th an
mandatory subscriptions (12.9%).
Table 10. Potential Problems in Activating a Flood Insurance
System5)
Architec Urban Insurance Public Sum
ture official
Insufficient public 19.5 22.2 16.8 3.4 17.5
campaigning
Insufficient risk 14.6 15.9 16.0 3.4 14.5
assessment standards
Costly insurance 26.8 19.0 14.4 17.2 18.8
premiums
Voluntary rather than 4.9 11.1 16.0 13.8 12.9
mandatory subscriptions
Individual rather than 11.0 7.9 10.4 3.4 9.6
municipal subscriptions
Limitation of insured 3.7 4.8 6.4 10.3 5.6
goods(residential houses,
farm buildings, and
greenhouses)
Lack of architectural 4.9 3.2 0.8 0.0 2.3
and urban experts with
related specialties
Insufficient flood 3.7 4.8 8.8 3.4 6.3
insurance agents
Existence of 4.9 3.2 5.6 24.1 7.3
government aid for
disaster prevention
Lack of ability or 6.1 4.8 4.0 0.0 4.3
function related to Fig.4. Result of Analysis Concerning the Necessity and
public organizations
Importance of Non-structural Measures
Other 0.0 3.2 0.8 0.0 1.0
Sum 100 (%) 100 (%) 100 (%) 100 (%) 100 (%)
① Districtplan ⑨ Facilities maintenance, repair, and
② Land use control structural reinforcement
Insurance experts showed a negative response on the ③ Water circulation plan ⑩ Building greening and pavements
feasibility of activation and this seemed to reflect the ④ Open area preservation and green buffer ⑪ Statutes and ordinances
zone development ⑫ Flood prevention standards (manual)
reality and recognize the limitations and marketability ⑤ Waterfront park development ⑬ Public information and education
of flood insurance5). Public officials responsible for ⑥ Land acquisition, relocation, and ⑭ Flood forecasting, warning, and
development evacuation systems
disaster prevention, however, tend to have a positive ⑦ Building elevation ⑮ Flood insurance
outlook in terms of the feasibility for activating a ⑧ Dry and wet flood-proofing techniques

JAABE vol.8 no.2 November 2009 Seok-Jin Kang 391


Beginning with urban planning measures, the park Notes
and forestation plans and land use plans, currently 1)
This study focuses on non-structural measures since the urban
being partially applied, turned out to be important architectural approach enables them to be analyzed.
2)
The ten measures are flood control, structural retrofitting and flood-
and feasible. Especially, such sub-categories as proofing, building codes, CRS activity, acquisition and relocation,
water circulation plans, open area preservation, and elevation, land use planning and floodplain management, flood
green buffer zone developments align with the recent 3)
insurance, education and public awareness, and training.
emphasis in Environmentally Sound and Sustainable I-Codes is an abbreviation for International Codes. It is created
as flood damage mitigation measure which consists of standards
Development (ESSD). Thus, subsequent studies are and management protocols of facilities, material, and structure,
valuable and required for the creation of a better etc. I-Codes includes IBC (International Building Code), IRC
environment, as well as flood damage reduction. The (International Residential Code), and IPC (International Plumping
land acquisition and relocation plan, however, received Code), etc. (Code Compatibility Report, 1992).
4)
Presented by the National Institute for Disaster Prevention, A
a low score in terms of feasibility with a lot of potential Study on Disaster Prevention and Security Section of Urban Basic
problems, thus, measures to improve its feasibility are Planning (I), 2004.
5)
required, considering that they are one of the important Residential buildings, greenhouses, and farm buildings are covered
and it is applied to the limited scope of typhoon, flood, torrential
measures to protect residents and their assets in high rain, gale, storm waves, heavy snow, etc., with the government
flood risk areas. subsidy of 49~65% insurance premiums (Dongbu Insurance,
For architectural planning measures, elevating the 2006).
6)
ground floor and the height of the first floor turned The government (the NEMA) plans to expand the flood insurance
to a nation-wide system in 2008, but its success is called into
out to be the most effective whereas other measures question because its feasibility is doubted by private sectors. It
lack related technologies, cases, and sufficient lacks a government public campaign, leading to low awareness
economic effects making them less attractive as a by the people. Another problem is the government's inability to
measure for flood damage reduction. In addition, eco- suggest alternatives.
friendly building greening and pavements proved their
importance and necessity, but its feasibility is doubtful References
due to low economic effects. 1) Petak, William J. (1985) Emergency management: A challenge
for public administration. Public Administration Review, 5(1),
Especially, to implement a land acquisition and pp.101-117.
relocation plan concerning urban planning measures 2) Carlos E. M. Tucci and Adolfo O. N. Villanueva (1999) Flood
or sub-category measures of the architectural planning control measures in Uniao da Vitoria and Porto Uniao: structural
measures as a strategy to mitigate flood damage, the vs. non-structural measures. Urban Water, 1, pp.177-182.
3) I. M. Faisal, M. R. Kabir and A. Nishat (1999) Case study: Non-
amendment of related laws and various provisions of structural flood mitigation measures for Dhaka City. Urban Water,
incentives are critical. As an alternative to the previous, 1, pp.145-153.
the connection of flood mitigation measures with the 4) Slobondan P. Simonoviæ (1999) Social criteria for evaluation of
flood insurance system currently being pilot tested may flood control measures: Winnipeg case study. Urban Water, 1,
pp.167-175.
be considered. If these non-structural measures are 5) Raymond J. Burby (2001) Flood insurance and floodplain
applied in flood risk areas, providing incentives such management: the US experience. Environmental Hazards, 3,
as tax benefits and insurance premium deductions may pp.111-122.
be considered after verifying the effectiveness of flood 6) Iain White and Joe Howe (2002) Policy and Practice - Flooding
and the Role of Planning in England and Wales: A Critical Review.
damage mitigation. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 45(5),
The needed regulatory system measures are as pp.735-745.
follows: clarifying who is responsible within the 7) Nathalie Pottier, Edmund Penning-Rowsell, Sylvia Tunstall and
government for flood prevention, re-examining the Gilles Hubert (2005) Applied Geography, 25, pp.1-27.
8) Emma J. Treby, Michael J. Clark and Sally J. Priest (2006) Journal
regulations to support various urban and architectural of Environmental Management, 81, pp.351-359.
measures as well as a public campaign and distribution 9) K. Hansson, M. Danielson and L. Ekenberg (2007) A framework
of related information and education. In addition, for evaluation of flood management strategies, pp.1-16.
even though a flood insurance system is being used 10) FEMA (1981) Design Guidelines for Flood Damage Reduction.
11) FEMA (1987) Reducing Losses in High Risk Flood Hazard Areas:
in developed countries as a disaster prevention A Guidebook for Local Officials.
policy, it is still in its early stages in Korea. If the 12) FEMA (1998) Homeowner's Guide to Retrofitting.
objective standards of risk assessment are established 13) FEMA (2000) Above the Flood: elevating your flood prone house.
14) FEMA (2000) Reducing flood losses through the international
and incentives (insurance premium discounts, tax code.
deductions, and deregulations of facility construction, 15) FEMA (2002) CRS Application, Flood Publication NFIP/CRS.
etc.) and strategies for more subscriptions are 16) FEMA (2002) Mitigation Success Stories.
introduced through development policies and public 17) FEMA (2002) Getting Started building support for mitigation
planning.
campaigns, flood insurance systems can become an 18) FEMA (2002) Reducing flood losses through the international
integral and crucial non-structural measure for high code.
flood risk areas. 19) FEMA (2003) Flood Insurance Manual.
20) C. Moon, H. C. Yoon and G. P. Cho (2003) Managing and planning
disasters in urban areas: Japanese case and it's implication, Korea
Acknowledgements Research Institute for Human Settlements (KRIHS).
This study was supported by the 2003 Core 21) National Institute for Disaster Prevention (2004) A study on
Construction Technology Development Project disaster prevention and security section of urban basic planning (I).
(03-SANHAKYOUN-C01-01) through the Urban 22) FEMA (2005) Reducing Flood Losses Through the International
Codes.
Flood Disaster Management Research Center in
KICTTEP of MLTM KOREA.

392 JAABE vol.8 no.2 November 2009 Seok-Jin Kang