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BioChar: A Production of an Eco-Friendly Charcoal

A Research Presented to the Faculty Members of STEM

Senior High School

Urdaneta City National High School

In Fulfilment of the Requirements


for the Subject Practical Research I

By

Vivianne Lorriene L. De Guzman

Ayesha Mae S. Patacsil

Kaizer Paul A. Rosalin

Vladimer S. Tabonda

March 2017
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APPROVAL SHEET

This is to certify that this research entitled, “BioChar: A Production of An Eco-Friendly

Charcoal” prepared and submitted by Vivianne Lorriene L. De Guzman, Ayesha Mae S. Patacsil,

Kaizer Paul A. Rosalin, Vladimer S. Tabonda was successfully presented and approved on March

2017.

MARY JOY N. NITURADA


Critic Reader

BRUCE MARVIN M. RUARO


Adviser

RAMON CORMAN P. MALAG, MED REYNALD T. MAMASIG, Ph.D.


Panel Member Panel Member

KAREN C. CALIM
Chairman

This research is hereby accepted fulfillment of the subject requirements in Practical

Research I for the strand of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.

LEAH L. OLUA, Ph.D.


Subject Group Head

LARINA G. TABORDA
OIC Assnt. Principal II, SHS Academics

ALEXANDER A. PATACSIL, D.A., Ph.D.


School Principal IV
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The study became a reality with the kind support and help of many individuals.

The researchers would like to extend their sincere gratitude to the following people who

helped them to push their Research Study. The completion of this undertaking could not

have been possible without the participation and assistance of so many people. Their

contributions are sincerely appreciated and gratefully acknowledge. However, the group

would like to express their deep appreciation and indebtedness particularly following.

To the Almighty God who always look up and secure the safety of the researchers in

doing this project.

To the parents of the researchers who always guide and give words of wisdom to inspire

them in doing their very best in preparing the research study as well as giving their both

financial and emotional support. And for encouraging us when we seem like giving up.

Mr. Bruce Marvin Molina Ruaro, their diligent teacher who sincerely bestowed his time

to teach this subject, thank you for the support and encouragement that you have

shared through this study. They owe him something that no one will never get.

Miss Mary Joy N. Niturada, the researchers’ critic reader for her help and support to the

researchers and guiding in whatever she has to help and giving thoughts in a nice way

and her time to edit the manuscript.

Mrs. Karen C. Calim, the researchers Chairman of the Panel, who also contributed to

this particular work in terms of giving the researchers the idea on how to improve their
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work and for them to have an accurate study. And also the encouragement is there for

them to push on through no matter what the barrier is.

To their panel member, Mr. Corman Ramon P. Malag, also the one who understand

the researcher and on what problem there is. Who shared ideas for the study to be a

success. And for the improvement of the work.

Mr. Reynald T. Mamasig, MaEL, the other panel member who also gave his time and

effort for the work to be more precise.

They would like to show their gratitude to their teacher, Ms. Madonna Palaganas, for

sharing her pearls of wisdom with them during this research.

To all their friends and classmates who in one way or another shared their full support

to finish this study, thank you.

V.L.D.G.

A.M.S.P.

K.P.A.R.

V.S.T.
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DEDICATION

The researchers would like to dedicate this study to all the people who inspired

and urged them to finish this Research Project.

To God, for giving them the intelligence and strength to carry on even when they

feel like giving up already.

To their Research Teacher, Mr. Bruce Marvin Molina Ruaro, for his sage advice,

insightful criticisms, and encouragement.

To Ms. Mary Joy Namoca Niturada, their critic reader who aided the writing of

this research in innumerable ways.

To the researchers’ Parents, who not only financially support them but also

taught them that the best kind of knowledge to have is that which is learned for its own

sake, who taught them that even the largest task can be accomplished if it is done one

step at a time.

To their friends, thank you for being there for us!

To all their teacher who patiently lent us their time. To Ma’am Madonna

Palaganas, Sir Charlon Lari Aviles, Ma’am Karen Calim, Ma’am Leah Olua, Ma’am Kathy

Benavente, Ma’am Marvy Valdez, Teacher Crisanto Tomeldan, and to all our teachers.

Thank you for being a part not just in their life, but you will always be a part of their

success!
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Vivianne

Ayesha

Kaizer

Vladimer
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE PAGE

APPROVAL SHEET ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT iii

DEDICATION iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS vii

ABSTRACT ix

Chapter

1 THE PROBLEM

Background of the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 2

Research Hypothesis 4

Significance of the Study 4

Scope and Delimitation of the Study 5

Definition of Terms 5

2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY

Local Literature 6

Foreign Literature 9

Foreign Study 12

Synthesis of Reviewed Literature and Study 14

Theoretical Framework 15
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Conceptual Framework 16

3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design 18

Subject of the Study 18

Materials and Procedure 19

Collection of Data 21

4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Materials 22

Procedure 22

Interpretation of Data 26

5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary 27

Conclusion 27

Recommendation 28

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

CURRICULUM VITAE
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ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was designed to make a charcoal out of cow dung and

to investigate the potential uses of bamboo vinegar and denatured alcohol. This

research was produced to address the needs of the people who can’t have enough

money to buy an expensive tool for cooking. The researchers aimed to produce charcoal

out of cow dung. This study seeks the feasibility of cow dung as an alternative charcoal

in terms of its characteristic in appearance, effectiveness, odor and duration.

Experimentation was aimed to determine the appearance, odor, duration of the

study. A total of three different samples, Set A, Set B, and Set C (Commercial Charcoal)

were conducted to produce charcoal out of cow dung. Cow dung was collected from the

livestock market and it was mixed thoroughly with bamboo vinegar and denatured

alcohol and filled it into the molder. The mixed product was dried under the sun for 3-5

days then removed out of the molder.

The Bio charcoal was observed by the researchers and the observation was

based on how the materials such as bamboo vinegar and denatured alcohol react with

the cow dung. As observed in the study in Set up A, Set A contained 200 mL bamboo

vinegar, 15 mL denatured alcohol and 500 grams cow dung while in Set B contained 200

mL bamboo vinegar, 15 mL denatured alcohol and 250 grams cow dung.


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Based from the gathered data, both sets of biocharcoal are presentable in terms

of characteristic of cow dung in appearance and odor, the characteristic of bamboo

vinegar in terms of appearance and odor is presentable and is effective same with the

denatured alcohol.

The observation shows that the biocharcoal is comparable with the commercial

charcoal and can be an alternative in a cheaper and resourceful way.


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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM

Background of the Study

On the present day, wood has been used to supply the needs for cooking. Due to

the ongoing deforestation the households needs to change to other energy sources. The

purpose of this research is to help the environment to avoid the trees for cutting to

produce charcoal for cooking and to lessen up the environmental problem we are facing

right now. Using wood charcoal for cooking is a major cause of increasing deforestation,

indoor pollution and associated environmental problems (desertification, erosion,

floods, etc.) in developing countries. According to World Health Organization, around

two million people die worldwide due to indoor smoke impacting more women and

children compared to men. This shows that it is better to use cook-stoves than charcoal

because the smoke that’s producing the charcoal is dangerous for the health of people.

In the rainy season or in case of scarcity of wood as it is observed now due to

deforestation in many countries, people face problems even with advanced cook-stoves.

After all these efforts, traditional firewood cooking still exists for about three billion

people in the world.

When operational, the researchers will provide both environmental benefits.

Helping reduce carbon emissions, provide clean green energy and enable local farmers

to maintain current herds, with potential for future cattle increases. People around the
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world use wood and biomass as their primary fuel source. From China to Kenya,

Guatemala to India, half of humanity cooks over biomass fires. There has been much

effort in the past in improving stoves that burn wood or charcoal, but a great number of

people do not use or have access to wood fuel. Many of them use dung as their primary

fuel source. However, not much work has been done on improving stoves designed

specifically for burning dung. Testimonies from the field state that the burning of dung is

a smoky and inefficient process. In Aprovecho Research Center, they began efforts to

design better dung-burning stoves and just like with wood-burning stoves. It is believed

that with the implementation of advanced combustion techniques, significant

improvements in efficiency and emissions can be gained. In fact, dung can be as good or

even better than wood as charcoal.

Cow dung or manure, on the other hand, is commonly used as an organic

fertilizer and fuel. A cow dung when dry, is hard as rock. Fewer studies have been made

about the essentials of cow dung as an alternative charcoal.

Too much acquirement of clay can result to the destruction of local environment

caused by quarries. The researchers will come up with a study on making charcoal out of

cow dung in a simpler and more doable way. The cow dung will be made into charcoal

cubes without the need of any heating machine.

The main concern of this study is to use cow dung as an alternative charcoal or

to produce a biogas though it has been used in different countries and known by few.

The researchers thought of something which could make it useful.


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Statement of the Problem

This study seeks the feasibility of cow dung as an alternative charcoal with the

help of bamboo vinegar and denatured alcohol. Specifically, it sought answers to the

following questions:

1. What is the characteristic of cow dung in terms of:

a. appearance;

b. odor; and

c. duration?

2. What is the characteristic of bamboo vinegar in terms of:

a. appearance;

b. effectiveness; and

c. odor?

3. What is the characteristic of denatured alcohol in terms of:

a. appearance;

b. effectiveness; and

c. odor?

4. What is the scientific relationship between the characteristic of cow dung, the

characteristic of bamboo vinegar and the characteristic of denatured alcohol in the

production of a biocharcoal?
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Research Hypotheses

There is no scientific relationship between the characteristic of cow dung, the

characteristic of bamboo vinegar and the characteristic of denatured alcohol in the

production of a biocharcoal.

Significance of the Study

This study was conducted to make charcoal out of cow dung. This will provide

more resources on making charcoals and lesser money will be needed and there will be

a lesser possibility on the destruction of land by quarries producing clay.

Farmers. The product can help the farmers on making an alternative for

renewable sources of cooking materials such as using agricultural manure particularly

the cow dung. It will lessen the expenses of the community at the same time help saving

the environment in looking for alternatives that they will need not to buy usual

charcoals and other combustible and environmentally hazardous cooking machines.

Businessmen. The product can help grow businesses specially those who have a

company of producing renewable, cleaner and greener energy gas products.

Household. The product helps to provide an alternative cooking fuel in case of

being out of gasoline while cooking.

Community. This study helps to


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Future researchers. This study will help them to advance their knowledge

through using cow dung as an alternative charcoal and this study will also serve as their

guide.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study aims to produce an alternative and cheaper charcoal made out of cow

dung and determine its energy efficiency especially in cooking. The aspects look into

were the alternative charcoal, how it lessens the environmental pollution and

deforestation, safer disposal of animal dung, how it can sustain and renew the energy

sources and the performance of the product and the problems and proposed solution of

our product.

Definition of Terms

Lexical and operational are used to define in the following terms in the study.

Biocharcoal. It is refers to the study that was made out of cow dung.

Manure. It refers to the fresh excrement of a cow dung or large animals. It will be use in

the study as the primary ingredient of the alternative charcoal in the study.

Charcoal.A black, brittle substance that has a variety of uses.

Fuel. A material used to produce heat or power by burning.


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Biogas. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide produced by the bacterial

decomposition of organic wastes and used as a fuel.

Bamboo vinegar (Pyroligneous Acid). The ingredient used as a deodorizer and was put

on the cow dung. On the other hand, it is a byproduct from charcoal production.

Denatured alcohol. A flammable liquid which was mixed on the cow dung and wood

vinegar and to help the bio charcoal burn faster.


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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY

This chapter presents a discussion of certain concept of related literature and

study which have bearing on the study undertaken. Discussion of theories are also

included that gave richer background and direction in the preparation, conduct, and

interpretation of findings in the present study.

Local Literature

With the progress of developing countries like the Philippines comes the need to

utilize limited resources more efficiently. Nowhere is this becoming more apparent than

in the area of power generation, where renewables or greener energy sources are

coming to fore as one of the most viable and sustainable options (The Philippine Star,

October 2015).

At present, biogas is gaining significance as a renewable energy source, and

independent power producers are taking notice of the viability of greener energy

solutions. There is a huge potential for biogas energy in the Philippines. The population

of about 100 million is bound to generate abundant biogas resources including

agricultural crop residues, animal wastes and agro-industrial wastes. The Philippines’

feed-in tariff allocation right now is 250 megawatts for biomass. Other countries like

Germany, for example, have biomass by thousands of megawatts (Juan Alfonso, 2015).
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Fortunately, the government has taken the lead in pushing for more renewable

energy, which currently takes up about a third of the country’s energy mix. Biogas, for

one, is enjoying increasing significance as a viable energy source because of its

abundance and minimal carbon emission. Which means cow dung can be an alternative

fuel and a natural source of renewable energy because it has carbon and we don’t have

to wait a million years to have a fuel because cow dung or animal manure can be easily

found and could reduce wastes from livestock and everywhere.

But there are still issues that the Philippines is facing today including the

developing countries in the 21st century is the capability to have a dependable and

affordable renewable energy sources and sustainable development of the remaining

natural resources. Historically, the Philippines have been heavily dependent on

imported fossil fuel for its energy needs. In recent years, there is a global search and

development for alternative and renewable energy. The Philippines has an abundant

abandoned biomass resources from cellolusic residues of agricultural production and

processing, animal wastes, forest biomass residues, urban-industrial wastes and aquatic

biomass (i.e., water hyacinth, etc.). As early as ten years ago, other agro-forestry wastes

accounted, respectively of the national energy mix (Elauria et al.) and this contribution is

expected to increase especially due to continued increase in fuel prices.

The Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Environment and Natural

Resources (DENR), Department of Science and Technology (DOST), BIMP-EAGA Region

and other entities are currently promoting the development and widespread use of
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biomass resources by pilot testing, demonstration and commercial use of biomass

charcoal briquetting, combustion system, gasification and other system for power

generation, steam and heat generation including use of biomass for organic composting,

hand-made paper, animal feeds, etc.. The technologies gives an opportunity to dispose

of cellulosic wastes and at the same time cleans the community of unwanted wastes,

conserve the forest and reduce GHG emissions, provide alternative and additional

livelihood to the urban and rural poor communities.

This study discusses for renewable energy projects and in the promotion and

commercialization of making cow dung charcoal in the Philippines.

The poultry and livestock industries in the Philippines continued to grow to

address the demand for animal protein to support the increasing population. The large

animal population showed a positive growth rate between 0.76 to 5.19% during the last

15 years. The estimated amount of wastes from the animal production alone was more

than 30 million metric tons per year. The waste treatment processes in the country have

been minimal and continue to pose serious problem of environmental pollution in many

growth areas in the country. The change is the pattern of livestock and poultry

production from small to medium and large-scale operations and the increased

concentration of livestock and poultry establishments in a few animal production areas

resulted to environmental pollution problems. This is to reduce the animal waste from

the livestock and the use of wood charcoal and increase the biogas or biomass
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production in the Philippines. DENR also promotes it for mitigation of wastes and GHGs

from landfills, waste dumpsites and the livestock industry (The Philippine Star, 2015)

Foreign Literature

Cows dung is a most important source of bio-fertilizer and used in many

developing countries for generating energy. It is very effective's alternatives to chemical

fertilizers by enhancing productivity in long term with maintaining the soil health and

enhances the microbial population. Cow dung manure and vermi compost increases soil

organic matter content, and this leads to improved water infiltration and water holding

capacity as well as an increased cation exchange capacity. It is one of the renewable and

sustainable energy resources through dung cakes or biogas which replace the

dependence upon charcoal, fuel wood, firewood and fossil fuel etc. Beside it, application

of cowdung in proper and sustainable way can enhance not only productivity of yield

but also minimizing the chances bacterial and fungal pathogenic disease. Therefore,

improper use of cowdung should be stopped and use as organic manure for maintaining

productive and sustainable farming system. Introduction: Cows dung is a most

important source of bio-fertilizer but at the same time cow's urine, cow's horn and a

dead body of a cow can be used for preparing effective bio-fertilizer. Animals can play

an important role in the provision of energy either in negative way where livestock

keeping contributes to deforestation in large parts of forested area or in positively, such

as by transforming plant energy into useful work or by providing dung used for fuel
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through dung cakes or biogas to replace charcoal, fuel wood, firewood etc. Most

livestock products in mixed farming systems are derived from animals that are fed on

local resources such as pasture, crop residues, fodder trees and shrubs. The farm

animals (cows, bullocks and milk buffaloes) provide dung and urine to enrich the soil,

while crop residues and fodder form the bulk of the feed for these animals (Kesavan and

Swamina-than, 2008).

Biomass has become an increasingly important energy source in different parts

of the world. Being a carbon neutral energy source, it has already helped make a

significant contribution to the reduction of carbon emissions and lessen the effects on

the changing weather conditions of the world. The change in perspectives of every

country to neutralize their energy sources will become a major breakthrough in the field

of scientific discovery. It is for this reason that using cow dung as an alternative charcoal

will be seen as foreseeable in the near future. Yet the potential of using biogas has so

far been unexploited, especially in the form of livestock manure in the agriculture

system (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, N.D.).

The Philippines has been rarely conducting and using possibilities for this

potential of agricultural manures considering that they composed of elements essential

for a renewable energy source. The Philippines as a primarily agricultural country is well

known for its farming industry; approximately 65% of the land is used for agriculture,

emitting 18% of all greenhouse gases here, through methane and nitrogen. So farming

has an important part to play in the transition to a fossil fuel free society. The Danish
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government now wants up to 50% of livestock manure to be made into this green

energy supply.

Man has mostly relied on the energy from brute animal’s strength to do work.

Recently, man acquired control over coal, electricity, crude oil, natural gas, etc.

Sustainable resource management of waste and the development of alternative energy

source are the present challenges due to economic growth. The history of waste

utilization shows independent developments in various developing and industrialized

countries. Achieving solutions to possible shortage in fossil fuels and environmental

problems that the world is facing today requires long-term potential actions for

sustainable development.

In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most

efficient and effective solutions. A huge amount of wastes is generated daily from the

various processing industries in Nigeria. The wastes that are usually disposed of either

into the sea, river, or on the land as a solid amendment materials, which causes support

for breeding of flies, and constitute health hazards to people living around the area are

converted into biogas by anaerobic fermentation. What is considered as waste many

years ago have in recent time become useful that it can be inferred that in life, nothing

is a ‘waste’. They are only waste when they lack the useful technology for their

transformation and application. It is a heap source of energy due to the feed stock is

usually waste materials. The technology ensures energy independence as a unit can

meet the need of a family or community. The digester slurry is a good fertilizer. It is

claimed that its value as fertilizer could double crop yield. Cow dung has high nitrogen
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content and due to pre-fermentation in the stomach of ruminant, and has been

observed to be most suitable material for high yield of biogas through the study made

over the years. Cow dung helps in reducing forestation and desert encroachment is

produced through the conversion of this organic matter such as animal wastes into

charcoal. The objective of this study was to investigate the charcoal production

potentials of cow dung, wood vinegar and denatured alcohol.

RELATED STUDY

Foreign Study

Govt. of India‘s report (2002) on Evaluation Study On National Project on Biogas

Development, presents a preliminary study of two highly successful rural biogas models

wherein biogas is produced and utilized as a cooking fuel by the villagers. The two

models studied were the Community Biogas plant established by SUMUL Dairy at

Bhintbudrak, Gujrat and the Individual Biogas plants established by Bhagirath Pratisthan

(an NGO) in south Konkan region of Maharashtra. Various aspects including design,

operation, economics and benefits to the stakeholders had been described. The report

ends with a comparison of the two models studied on the basis of their design, vision,

performance, economics and benefits.

N. Stalin, et al(2007) modified three stage methane fermentation system was

developed to digest animal manure effectively. The digester having an effective volume

of 200 liter is constructed with central tube filled with burnt bricks. The burnt brick in
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the central portion of the digester increase the microbial concentration by immobilizing

the bacteria on the surface of the burnt brick. The size of brick materials is not more

than 3 to 5 mm size. The carrier materials used in the digester are 5%, 10%, 15%, and

20% of the total volume of the digester and also for each percentage 3.5kg of cow dung

and 3.5kg of water (1:1) is well mixed and added daily. The readings were taken

between biogas generations versus time for each percentage continuously up to 90

days. It was observed that 10 to 15 percentage of carrier material from the total volume

for microbial growth gave more gas generation. Operational temperature was from 30°C

to 50°C. The study examines the effect of microbe growth, temperature on biogas

generation and hydraulic retention time.

Bhumesh Singh, et al.(2011) study on biogas generation from dairy effluent and

control of water pollution has been viewed with the aim of control of water pollution

through treatment of dairy waste as well as generation of biogas. Environmental

parameters like Temperature, pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) & Chemical Oxygen

Demand (COD) was taken in to account. No change in the average value of temperature

and pH was recorded but BOD and COD reduced to the extent of 50 percent. All

parameters however showed statistically significant differences at 5 percent level

between inlet and outlet point. Gas generation fluctuated between .5m3 /day to

maximum 4.5 m3 /day with an average of 3 m 3 /day was recorded.This study shows

how the researchers made it as eco-friendly still by not changing the average value of
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temperature and pH but reduced its BOD and COD to the extent of 50 percent instead of

100 percent.

Suyog Vij (2010-11) present this Project was to create an organic processing

facility to create biogas which will be more cost effective, eco-friendly, cut down on

landfill waste, generate a high-quality renewable fuel, and reduce carbon dioxide &

methane emissions.

Chanakya, et al.(2012) present this paper the quest for a simple technology to

realize the goal of sustainable energy for all‘, the conversion of non-lignified soft‘ non-

woody biomass to biogas in modern anaerobic digesters is an important component.

Firstly, agro-residues, agro-industrial wastes, terrestrial/ aquatic weeds form a major

source of sustainably raised bio resources. Anaerobically converting them to biogas

provides a sustainable energy source to a large number of users and simultaneously

facilitates nutrient recycling (nutrient-rich compost) permitting nutrient-starved

agricultural systems in India to become more sustainable. When processed through

biogas plants, over 95% of all plant nutrients within can be recycled making India‘s

fragile agricultural soils more sustainable while also producing an energy source, biogas.

Synthesis Of Reviewed Related Literature And Study

According to Juan Alfonso (2015), there is a huge potential for biogas energy in

the Philippines because the population of about 100 million is bound to generate
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abundant biogas resources including agricultural crop residues, animal wastes and agro-

industrial wastes. The Philippines’ feed-in tariff allocation right now is 250 megawatts

for biomass. The Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Environment and Natural

Resources (DENR), Department of Science and Technology (DOST), BIMP-EAGA Region

and other entities are currently promoting the development and widespread use of

biomass resources by pilot testing, demonstration and commercial use of biomass

charcoal briquetting, combustion system, gasification and other system for power

generation, steam and heat generation including use of biomass for organic composting,

hand-made paper, animal feeds, etc.. The technologies gives an opportunity to dispose

of cellolusic wastes and at the same time cleans the community of unwanted wastes,

conserve the forest and reduce GHG emissions, provide alternative/additional livelihood

to the urban and rural poor communities. This study discusses for renewable energy

projects and in the promotion and commercialization of making cow dung charcoal in

the Philippines.

Theoretical Framework

According to Krishna Prakashan, in rural India, the cattle dung cakes acts as a

traditional fuel for cooking food and for other purposes. The thin dung cakes are

prepared from animal dung and died from the sunlight. The dried dung cakes are readily

used as a source of heat. In rural India, usually open furnaces called chulhas are used to

burn wood, agricultural wastes and animal dung. These traditional chulhas waste most
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of the heat energy and a lot of smoke is produced during the operation of these chulhas

due to incomplete combustion of wood etc. these problems of traditional chulhas are

overcome in newly designed smokeless chulhas which provides better combustion of

fuels.

Conceptual Framework

The variables used to conduct the study were categorized into three sets in

which are independent variables, dependent variables, and experimental variables.

Independent Variable Experimental Variable Process Output


Denatured Set A: 15 mL of
Alcohol Denatured
Alcohol, 200 mL
Bamboo Vinegar
of Bamboo Mashing
Cow Dung Vinegar, and 500
Mixing Biochar: A
grams of Cow
Production of an
Dung Molding
Eco-friendly
Set B: 15 mL of Drying Charcoal
Denatured
Testing
Alcohol, 150 mL
of Bamboo
Vinegar and 250
grams of Cow
Dung
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Figure 1. Conceptual paradigm presents the relationships between the variables.

Independent and experimental variable were combined. The independent variables

with the fix up measurement mixed to the experimental variable which is the cow dung,

the ingredients in the mixture that is changing in each samples.


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Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research design, instrument used, materials and

methods in the study. This chapter also discusses the specific methods on how the

researchers did with the study.

Research Design

The researchers used experimental method of research in this study. It is the

appropriate method to use in order to answer the specified problems. The study have

two different set-up, Set up A and Set up B. These set-ups were tested which of the two

will have a long duration together with its odor. The two set-ups were done to observe

the different characteristics of cow dung, wood vinegar and denatured alcohol in terms

of appearance, color, odor, effectiveness and duration between the two samples. The

set-ups was also done in which the researchers will compare the two set-ups to Sample

C (Commercial Charcoal) to know the difference of is efficiency especially in cooking.

Materials and Instruments Used

Cow dung. The primary ingredient that was used in the production of Biocharcoal.

Bamboo vinegar. A liquid ingredient that was used and mixed to remove the

unpleasant odor of the cow dung.


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Denatured Alcohol. A liquid ingredient that was used and mixed on the cow dung to

help it burn faster.

Gloves. Instrument used to protect the hand from the unpleasant smell of cow dung

and to avoid having a dirty hands.

Molder. Instrument used in shaping the cow dung.

Trowel. An instrument used to get and crushed the cow dung into pieces.

Measuring Cups and Spoons. An instrument used that measured the materials such

as cow dung, bamboo vinegar and denatured alcohol.

Container. Instrument used to where the researchers put and mixed the materials.

Procedure

This includes the steps by step done by the researchers.

Step 1. Gather all the necessary materials to make a Bio charcoal.

Step 2. Crush the cow dung and put 500g for set A, 250g for set B.
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500 g cow dung


250 g cow dung

Set A Set B

STEP 3. Pour 15mL of Denatured alcohol to set A and 25 mL to set B.

15mL Denatured alcohol


15mL Denatured alcohol
500 g cow dung
250g Cow Dung

Set A Set B

STEP 4.Add 200mL of Bamboo vinegar to set A, and add 150 mL to set B.

200mL Bamboo vinegar


200mL Bamboo vinegar
15mL Denatured alcohol 15mL Denatured alcohol
500g Cow dung
250g Cow dung

Set A Set B
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STEP 5.Mash the cow dung and put it into the molder, slowly removed the cow dung to

the molder and dry the charcoal made out of cow dung under the sun for 3-5 days.

200 mL amboo vinegar


200 mL bamboo vinegar
15mL Denatured alcohol
15mL denatured alcohol
500g Cow dung
Set A 250gSet
CowB dung

Figure 2. This figure shows the amount of materials contained. Set A contained 500 g of

cow dung, 25 mL denatured alcohol, and 200 mL of bamboo vinegar while Set B

contained 250 grams of cow dung, 25 mL denatured alcohol and 150 mL wood vinegar.

Materials and Procedure

The cow dung was crushed and was put into the container together with the

measured bamboo vinegar and denatured alcohol. After the materials were mixed, the

cow dung was mashed and put into the molder. The biocharcoal was dried under the

sun in 3-5 days then removed it from the molder.

Subject of the Study

The researchers used experimentation through observation in the study. They

observed the materials such as used cow dung, wood vinegar, and denatured alcohol in

terms of their characteristics.


33

Collection of Data

In terms of appearance, odor and duration, the data were collected through

observation and experimentation using the different set-ups. The set-ups were

assessed through observation within 15 minutes. The researchers observed how

effective the bamboo vinegar and denatured alcohol in the cow dung and how long the

biocharcoal last.
34

Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INPTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter provides the gathering of data and the researcher’s analysis and

interpretation of the possible results of the surveys to be distributed. The data will be

presented in a clear and concise form, most which used graphs and tables.

A. Presentation of Data

Characteristics of Cow dung Different Set-ups

in terms of:

Set A Set B

Appearance Presentable Presentable

Odor Presentable Presentable

Duration It can last up to 2-3 It can last up to 2-3

minutes minutes

Table 1. The table shows the characteristics of cow dung in terms of appearance

presentable, odor and duration.

Characteristics of Bamboo Vinegar Different Set-ups


35

in terms of:

Set A Set B

Color Presentable Presentable

Effectiveness Effective Effective

Odor Presentable Presentable

Table2. This table shows the characteristics of bamboo vinegar in terms of color,

effectiveness and odor.

Characteristics of Denatured Alcohol Different Set-ups

in terms of:

Set A Set B

Color Presentable Presentable

Effectiveness Effective Effective

Odor Presentable Presentable

Table3. This table shows the characteristics of denatured alcohol in terms of color,

effectiveness and odor.


36

Samples Appearance Odor Duration

Set A Presentable Presentable It can burn within 2-3

minutes

Set B Presentable Presentable It can burn within 2-3

minutes

Set C (Commercial Presentable Presentable It burns within 1-3

Charcoal) minutes

Table4. This table shows that the appearance and odor of the cow dung as an

alternative charcoal in three samples are presentable, and the duration of Set A and Set

B can burn within 2-3 minutes. The table also shows that both sets of biocharcoal and

Set C (commercial charcoal) are scientifically the same in terms of appearance and odor.

This means that the charcoal made out of cow dung is comparable to the Set C

(commercial charcoal).
37

Chapter 5

Summary, Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations

This chapter contains the summary of findings, conclusions, and

recommendations it includes the overall findings in order to recommend the study.

Summary

This study was conducted to make a Biocharcoal out of cow dung. The study

provides more resources on making charcoal. This study aimed to produce a cheaper

charcoal made out of cow dung. It sought to determine the characteristics of ingredients

that were used in terms of appearance, odor, effectiveness, duration and the scientific

relationship between the cow dung, bamboo vinegar and denatured alcohol.

The Biochar was made out of cow dung. This was done by mashing, mixing,

molding and drying. After drying under the sun for 5 days, the biocharcoal was tested

and observed by the researchers. There were no subjects and respondents were used.

The experimental method of the study was observed by the researchers and compared

the bioharcoal to the commercial charcoal. Based on the observation, the biocharcoal is

can be an alternative to wood charcoal or commercial charcoal.


38

Findings

The findings of the study show that cow dung, bamboo vinegar and denatured

alcohol could be used for charcoal production because it is compared to commercial

charcoal. Also, there is no need to put denatured alcohol because it did not affect the

relationship of cow dung and bamboo vinegar. The biocharcoal would not only provide

an alternative source of energy but would also be a means of waste disposal especially

in the Philippines.

Conclusion

The conclusion was based on the statement of the problem and, analysis and

interpretation of the findings obtained.

1. The characteristic of cow dung in terms of appearance, odor is presentable and the

duration it could burn based on the observation of the researchers was within 2-3

minutes and could last up to 5 minutes.

2. The characteristic of bamboo vinegar and denatured alcohol in terms of appearance

and odor are both presentable, and the characteristic of bamboo vinegar and denatured

alcohol is effective.

3. As shown on the findings of the study, there is a scientific relationship between the

characteristic of cow dung, the characteristic of bamboo vinegar and the characteristic

of denatured alcohol in the production of a biocharcoal.


39

4. The researchers also conclude that the higher the amount of bamboo vinegar and the

lower the amount of cow dung and denatured alcohol, the more it can react properly

when using biocharcoal.

5. The researchers also conclude that the biocharcoal can be an alternative for wood

charcoal and cooking fuel.

Recommendations

The researchers recommend the following:

1. The cow dung charcoal or Bio charcoal should be dried for at least a month to make it

more odorless.

2. People in the livestock market and farmers must collect the cow dung to produce a

biocharcoal for extra income besides of making it a fertilizer.

3. If don’t have a budget in buying bamboo vinegar for deodorizer, smoke out the inside

of the bamboo and let it liquefy. Collect the liquid.

3. People must be resourceful by preserving the waste may it be animal or plants to a

production of a natural human needs.

4. As observed by the researchers, denatured alcohol is not needed in producing a

biocharcoal.

5. The researchers recommend that with more time, the research must be continued to

further knowledge regarding the properties of the cow dung charcoal.


40

BIBLIOGRAPHY

REFERENCES:

A. Unpublished Research Papers

De Guzman, Wilbert Giuseppe L. et al. (2011). Moobrix.Urdaneta City National High

School: Urdaneta City, Pangasinan.

B. Online Resources

(2016). Charcoal from Carabao and Cow Dung, Coconut Shell and Corn Cob. Retrieved

form http://businessdiary.com.ph/4909/charcoal-from-carabao-and-cow-dung-coconut-

shell-and-corn-cob/

Busck, Ole and Christensen, David. (2012). Reinventing the Fire - Business Models for

Pellet Production as a Cooking Fuel in Developing Countries. Retrieved from

http://projekter.aau.dk/projekter/files/63642595/2012_EM10_Deepak_Ashwani.pdf

Manning, David et. al. (2006).Designing a Clean-Burning, High-Efficiency, Dung-Burning

Stove:

Lessons in cooking with cow patties. Retrieved from

http://stoves.bioenergylists.org/stovesdoc/apro/dung/Aprodung.htm

Agriculture (2006)

http://pinas.dlsu.edu.ph/gov/agriculture.html
41

Generation of Biogas from Cow Dung

Onwuliri FC*, Onyimba IA and Nwaukwu IA

https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/generation-of-biogas-from-cow-dung-2155-

6199.S18-002.php?aid=25675

Review of Literature

http://shodh.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/339/3/03_literature%20review.pdf

(The Philippine Star, 2015) Biogas Energy: Putting Waste to Good use

http://www.philstar.com/business-usual/2015/07/06/1473604/biogas-energy-putting-

waste-good-use

(Santiago R. Baconguis, October, 2007)Abandoned Biomass Resource Statistics in the

Philippines

http://nap.psa.gov.ph/ncs/10thNCS/papers/invited%20papers/ips-20/ips20-03.pdf
42

APPENDIX I

The pictures show how the researchers prepared and made the biocharcoal.
43

Testing the Biocharcoal


44

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-pg. 27 chapter 2

Figure 2
45

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1

Table 2

Table 3

Table 4
46

LIST OF FIGURES
47

CURRICULUM VITAE

A. Personal Data

Name: Vivianne Lorriene Lamsen De Guzman

Age: 17

Date of Birth: July 23, 1999

Place of Birth: Dagupan City

Address: San Vicente Central Urdaneta City Pangasinan

Civil Status: Single

Contact Number: 09776962237

Email Address: dathenajade.vldg@gmail.com

Name of Father: Wenceslao G. De Guzman

Name of Mother: Victoria L. De Guzman

B. Educational Background

Primary: Don Amadeo Perez Sr. Memorial Elementary Central School (Main)

Secondary: Urdaneta City National High School

Senior High School: Urdaneta City National High School

Track: Academic

Motto: Just because you’re right doesn’t mean I’m wrong. You just haven’t seen life
from my side.
48

CURRICULUM VITAE

A. Personal Data

Name: Ayesha Mae Sinampaga Patacsil

Age: 16

Date of Birth; July, 04, 2000

Place of Birth: Nancalobasaan Urdaneta City, Pangasinan

Address: #386 Zone 5 Nancalobasaan Urdaneta City, Pangasinan

Civil Status: Single

Contact Number: 09287305826

Email Address: ayeshamaepatacsil@rocketmail.com

Name of Father: Ramil Patacsil

Name of Mother: Evangeline Patacsil

B. Educational Background

Primary: Nancalobasaan Elementary School

Secondary: Urdaneta City National High School

Senior High School: Urdaneta City National High School

Track: Academic

Motto: “Trust yourself. You know more than you think you do.”
49

CURRICULUM VITAE

A. Personal Data

Name: Vladimer Soriano Tabonda

Age: 17

Date of Birth: October 26, 1999

Place of Birth: Urdaneta City Pangasinan

Address: Pantal, Manaoag Pangasinan

Civil Status: Single

Contact Number: 09568227440

Email Address: vladimertabonda@yahoo.com

Name of Father: Romulo S. Tabonda

Name of Mother: Merlita S. Tabonda

B. Educational Background

Primary: Urdaneta I Central School

Secondary: Urdaneta City National High School

Senior High School: Urdaneta City National High School

Track: Academic

Motto: “When nothing goes right, go left.”


50

CURRICULUM VITAE

A. Personal Data

Name: Kaizer Paul A. Rosalin

Age: 17

Date of Birth: April 8, 1999

Place of Birth: Camanang Riverside Urdaneta City Pangasinan

Address: #454 Zone V Camanang Riverside Urdaneta City Pangasinan

Civil Status: Single

Contact Number: 09179676085

Email Address: kaizerpaul.rosalin

Name of Father: LeopoldoRosalin

Name of Mother: MyleneRosalin

B. Educational Background

Primary: Urdaneta I Central School

Secondary: Urdaneta City National High School

Senior High School: Urdaneta City National High School

Track: Academic

Motto: “A journey to a thousand miles always start in a single step.”