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# UNIT III

## FUNCTIONS OF SINGLE VARIABLES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS AND

MULTPLE INTEGRALS

## Mean Value Theorems:

LAGRANGE’S MEAN VALUE THEOREM:
JACOBIANS
 u, v 
If u = u(x, y) and v = v(x, y) then the Jacobian of u, v with respect to x, y is defined as J  x, y  or
 

(u, v)
 u
x
u
y
 . The Jacobian determinant is used when there is change of variables while
(x, y) v v
x y
integrating a function over its domain. It is used as a multiplication factor within the integral.

Properties

(u, v) (x, y)
1) 1 or JJ   1
(x, y) (u, v)

Proof :

(u,v) u u (x, y) x x
 x y  u v
(x, y) v and (u, v) y y
v
x y u v
(u, v) (x, y) u u x x
   x y u v
(x, y) (u, v) v v y y
x y u v

u u x y
= x y u u (interchanging the rows and columns
v v x y
x y v v

## of the second determinant)

u x  u y u x  u y
y u 
= x u x v y v
v x  v y v x  v y

x u y u x v y v

u u 1 0
= u v 1
=
v v 0 1
u v

2) If u and v are functions of r & s and r & s are functions of x & y then

## (u, v) (u, v) (r, s)

(x, y) (r, s) (x, y)

Proof

(u, v) u u (r, s) r r
 r s and  x y
(r, s)  v v (x, y) s s
r s x y

(u, v) (r, s) u u r r
= r s x y
(r, s) (x, y) v v s s
r s x y

u u r s
= r s x x
v v r s ( interchanging the rows and columns of the
r s y y

second determinant)
u r  u s u r  u s
s x  u u
= r x r y s y = x y = (u, v)
v r  v s v r  v s v v (x, y)
 x y
r x s x r y s y

## (u, v) (u, v) (r, s)

 
(x, y) (r, s) (x, y)

WORKED EXAMPLES

(u, v) (x, y)
1. Verify 1 given that (i) x = u(1 – v), y = uv
(x, y) (u, v)

## (i) x = u(1 – v), y = uv

x x
(x, y)  u
 v 1 v  u = (1 – v)u – (-uv) =u

y y

(u, v) v u
u v

y y
x=u–y u = x + y v= =
u xy

u u
1 1 xy
(u, v) x y  xyy =
x y 1 1
 = y 2 
= = 
(x, y) v v (x  y) (x  y)2 (x  y) 2
x y u
(x  y)2 (x  y)2
x y

(x, y) (u, v)
= u (1/u) = 1.
(u, v) (x, y)

## (ii) x = sinucosv, y = sinusinv

x x
(x, y) cosu cosv  sin u sin v
 u v  = cos2v(cosu sinu) + sin2v(cosu sinu)
(u, v) y y cosu sin v sin u cosv
u v

## = (1/2) sin2u(cos2v + sin2v) = (1/2) sin2u

y
sin u  x y  y  x tan v or v  tan1 
 
 
cosv sin v  x 

## Also x2 + y2 = sin2ucos2v + sin2usin2v = sin2u(cos2v + sin2v) = sin2u

x y
u u
sin u cosu sin u cosu
(u, v)  x y y
 = 1
(x, y) v v x2 x2
2
x y 1 y 1 y
x2 x2

x2 y2 2

x 2  y 2 sin u cosu x 2  y 2 sin u cosu
= =
sin 2u

(x, y) (u, v) 2
=(1/2) sin2u = 1.
(u, v) (x, y) sin 2u

u, v, w
2. If u = x + y + z, v = x2 + y2 + z2, w = xy + yz + zx prove 0
x, y, z

u=x+y+z v = x2 + y2 + z2 w = xy + yz + zx

ux = 1 vx = 2x wx = y + z

uy = 1 vy = 2y wx = x + z

uz = 1 vz = 2z wx = x + y

ux vx
u, v, w
wx 1 1 1
= uy vy
x, y, z 
wy = 2x 2y 2z
uz vz wz yz xz xy

= 1(2xy + 2y2 - 2zx - 2z2) - 1(2x2 + 2xy -2yz -2z2) + 1(2x2 + 2xz -2y2 -2yz) = 0.

(u, v)
3. If u = x(1 + y), v = y(1 + x) prove 1xy.
(x, y)

u = x(1 + y) v = y(1 + x)

ux = 1 + y vx = y

uy = x vy = 1 + x

(u, v) ux uy 1 y x
= = = (1 + y)(1 + x) – xy = 1 + y + x + xy – xy = 1 + x + y
(x, y) v x vy y 1 x
x, y, z
4. If x = rcosθ, y = rsinθ, z =z , prove that =r
r, , z

Note – These are the transformation equations from Cartesian to cylindrical coordinates.

## x = rcosθ y = rsinθ z=z

xr = rcosθ yr = sinθ zr = 0

xθ = -rsinθ yθ = rcosθ zθ = 0

xz = 0 yz = 0 zz = 1

## xr x xz cos  r sin  0

x, y, z
= yr y y z = sin  r cos 0
r, , z 
zr z zz 0 0 1

= 1(rcos2θ+ rsin2θ) = r
x, y, z
5. If x = r sinθ cosφ, y = r sinθ sinφ, z = r cosθ, prove that = r2 sinθ
r,,  

Note – These are the transformation equations from Cartesian to spherical polar coordinates.

## xr x sin cos r cos cos  r sin sin 

x, y, z 
x 

= yr y y = sin sin r cos sin  r sin cos
r, ,  
zr z z cos  r sin  0

## Partial derivatives using Jacobians

If f1(u, v, x, y) = 0 and f2(u, v, x, y) = 0 are two implicit functions and if u, v are functions of x, y
then

( f1 , f 2 ) ( f1 , f 2 )
 
ux  (x, v) ( y, v)
( f , f ) uy  ( f , f )
1 2 1 2
(u, v) (u, v)

( f1 , f 2 ) ( f1 , f 2 )
 
vx  (u, x) vy  (u, y)
( f , f ) ( f , f )
1 2 1 2
(u, v) (u, v)

x
6. If u = xyz, v = x2 + y2 + z2, w = x + y + z find .
u

## Let f1(u, v, x, y) = u - xyz = 0, f2(u, v, x, y) = v - x2 + y2 + z2 = 0,

f3(u, v, x, y) = w - x + y + z = 0

( f1 , f 2 , f 3 )

x  (u, y, z)
u ( f1 , f 2 , f 3 )
 (x, y, z)

1  xz  xy
( f1 , f2 , f3 )
(u, y, z)  0  2 y  2z = 1(2y – 2z) = 2(y – z).
0 1 1

 yz  xz  xy
( f1 , f 2 , f 3 )
  2x  2 y  2z = -1[2xz – 2xy ] + 1[2yz – 2x y] -1[2y z – 2x z]
2 2 2 2 2 2

(x, y, z)
1 1 1

## = 2(y – z)[x(y – x) + z(x – y)] = 2(y – z)(x – y)(z – x)

x   2( y  z) 1
  
u 2( y  z)( x  y)( z  x) (x  y)(z  x)

## Dependency of two variables

If the functions u and v of two independent variables x and y are not independent, then
(u, v)
= 0.
(x, y)

## Let u and v be connected by a relation f(u, v) = 0 ------ (1)

f u f v
Differentiating (1) w. r. t ‘x’  0 -------------(2)
u x v x

## Differentiating (1) w. r. t ‘y’ f u  f v  0 -------------(3)

u y v y

u u
f f x y (u, v)
Eliminating and between (2) and (3) gives  0 i.e =0
u v v v (x, y)
x y

(u, v, w)
7. If u = x + y – z, v = x – y – z, w = x2 + y2 + z2 - 2xz show that = 0 and find their relationship.
(x, y, z)

u = x + y – z, v = x – y – z, w = x2 + y2 + z2 - 2xz

ux vx wx 1 1 1
(u, v, w)
= uy vy wy  1 1 1
(x, y, z)
uz vz wz 2x  2z 2 y 2z  2x

## = 1[-2z + 2x + 2y] - 1[2z - 2x + 2x - 2z] - 1[2y - 2z + 2x] = 0

u2 + v2 = (x + y – z)2 (x – y – z)2

## The relationship is 2w = u2 + v2.

(u, v)
8. Find the Jacobian of the transformation x = e2u cosv, y = e2usinv. Find also.
(x, y)

## yu = 2e2usinv yv = e2u cosv

x x
(x, y) 2e2u cosv - e2u sinv
J=  u v  = 2e2u cosv e2u cosv + 2e2u sinv e2u sinv
(u, v) y y 2e2u sinv e2u cosv
u v

## = 2e4u [cos2v + sin2v] = 2e4u.

(u, v) 1
Hence = 1 =
(x, y) j
2e4u

(x, y)
9. If x = au + av, y = bu – bv and u = r2 cos2θ, v = r2 sin2θ, find .
(r, )

## (x, y) (x, y) (u, v)

(r, ) (u, v) (r, )

x x
(x, y)  u v = a a
(u, v) y y b  b = -ab – ab = -2ab
u v

u u
(u, v) 2r cos2  2r 2 sin 2
 r   = 4r3 cos22θ + 4r3 sin22θ = 4r3.
(r, ) v v 2r sin 2 2r cos2
2

 r 

(x, y)
 = (-2ab)4r3 = -8abr3.
(r, )
x y -1 -1
10. If u  , v = tan x + tan y, find the functional relationship between u and v if it exists.
1  xy

## xy (1  xy)1  (x  y)( y) 1y2 (1  xy)1  (x  y)(x) 1  x2

u ux   ; u y  
1  xy (1  xy)2 (1 xy)2 (1  xy)2 (1 xy)2

1 1
v = tan-1x + tan-1y vx  vy 
1  x2 1 y2

1y2 1x2
(u, v) (1  xy)2 (1  xy)2 = 1 y 2  1 x 2 1 
1
  = =0
(x, y) 1 1 2 2 2 2
(1 xy) (1 y ) (1 xy) (1 x ) (1  xy)2
(1  xy)2

1x2 1y 2
tan(tan1 x)  tan(tan1 y) xy 
-1
tanv = tan[tan x + tan
-1
 
y] = u
1  tan(tan1 x) tan(tan1 y) 1  xy
The functional relationship between u and v is u = tanv.

## A functions f(x, y) of two independent variables x and y is said

(i) to have a maximum at (a, b) if f(a + h, b + k) – f(a, b) < 0 (is always negative).

(ii) to have a minimum at (a, b) if f(a, b) > 0, for all sufficiently small values of h and k.

f f
If f(x, y) attains an extremum act (a, b) then   0 at (a, b).
x y

## (i) Solve fx = 0 and fy = 0 to find (a,b)

(ii) Find the 2nd order derivative

 2f  2f 2 f
A = fxx = , B = fxy = , C = fyy = at (a, b) .
x 2 xy y 2

(iii) (a) If AC – B2 > 0 and A< 0 (or C < 0 ), then f(x, y) has a maximum at (a, b).

(b) If AC – B2 > 0 and A> 0 (or C > 0) , then f(x, y) has a minimum at (a, b).

(c) If AC- B2 < 0 then f(x,y) has no maxima or minima at (a, b). Such points are

(d) If AC-B2 = 0 nothing can be said about the maxima or minima. It requires further

investigation.

WORKED EXAMPLES

## 1. Discuss the maxima and minima of f(x, y) = x3 y2 (1 – x – y ).

f(x, y) = x3 y2 (1 – x – y )
f 22 32 2 3
fx = = 3x y – 4x y – 3x y
x

f 3 4 3 2
fy = = 2x y – 2 x y – 3x y
y

 2f
A = fxx = = 6xy2 – 12x2y2 – 6xy3
x 2

 2f
B = fxy = = 6x2y – 8x3y – 9x2y2
xy

2 f
C = fyy = = 2x3 -2x4 – 6x3y
y 2

f f
To find the stationary points solve the equations 0 and 0
x y

f
0 i.e. x2y2(3 – 4x – 3y) = 0  x = 0, y = 0, or 3 – 4x – 3y = 0
x

f
0 i.e x3y (2 – 2x – 3y) = 0  x = 0, y = 0, or 2 – 2x – 3y = 0
y

## x = 0, y = 0 satisfies both the equations, hence one point is (0, 0)

Solving

3 – 4x – 3y = 0 _

2 – 2x – 3y = 0

1 - 2x =0 x=½

## At (0, 0), A = 0, B = 0, C = 0. AC – B2 = 0 It requires further investigation.

At (1/2, 1/3),

1 1 1 1
A = 6(1/2)(1/3)2 – 12(1/2)2(1/3)2 - 6(1/2)(1/3)3 =    .
3 3 9 9
2 3 2 2 1 1 1 1
B = 6(1/2) (1/3) – 8(1/2) (1/3) - 9(1/2) (1/3) =   
2 3 4 12
1 1 1 1
C = 2(1/2)3 –2(1/2)4 - 6(1/2)3(1/3) =   
4 8 4 8

 1  1   1 
2
1 1 1
AC – B2 =       =   >0
 
9 8   12  72 144 144

## AC – B2 > 0 and A < 0 Maximum exists at (1/2, 1/3).

3 2
 1   1   1 1  1
Maximum value is f(1/2, 1/3) =     1    432 .
2 3   2 3 

2. . Find the maximum or minimum values of f(x, y) = 2(x2 – y2) – x4 + y4.

## fx= 0  4x  4x3  0  4x(1  x 2 )  0

 x  0, 1

fy = 0  4 y  4 y  4 y(1  y 2 )  0
3

 y  0, 1

## A = fxx = 4 – 12x2 B = fxy = 0

C = fyy = - 4 + 12y2

## AC – B2 = (4 – 12x2 ) (-4 + 12y2) – 0

= - 16 (1 – 3x2)(1 – 3y2)

## At (0, 0) , AC – B2 = -16 = negative. Hence (0, 0) is a saddle point.

At 0, 1 , AC – B2 = 32 > 0 and A > 0. Minimum exists at 0, 1. Minimum value is f 0, 1 = -1.

At 1, 0  , AC – B2 = 32 > 0 and A < 0. Maximum exists at 1, 0  . Maximum value is f 1, 0 = 1.

## 3. Prove that x3 + y3 – 3axy is maximum or minimum at x = y = a according as ‘a’ is

negative or positive.
Let f(x, y) = x3 + y3 – 3axy

fx= 0  3x  3ay  0  x 2  ay
2
---------------(1)

fy = 0  3y  3ax  0  y 2  ax ---------------(2)
2

## Solving the two equations (1) and (2)

y2
From (2) x 
a
2
 y 2
In (1),    ay  y 4  a3 y
 
a

 
y y 3  a 3  0 i.e. y = 0, a ( only real roots)

## 4. Find the maximum and minimum values of f(x, y) = x2 + y2 + x + y + xy.

f(x, y) = x2 + y2 + x + y + xy.

fx = 0  2x 1  y  0 -------------(1)

fy = 0  2 y 1  x  0 --------------(2)
Equation (1) – 2 x equation (2)

_ 2x + y = -1

2x + 4y = -1

-3y = 1 y = -1/3

## x = -2y -1 = -2(-1/3) -1 = 2/3 -1 = -1/3.

Stationary point is   1 ,  1  .
 
 3 3 

A = fxx = 2 , B = fxy = 1 and C = fyy = 2
1 1
At , , A = 2 , B = 1 and C = 2
 
 3 3 
 1 1

## AC – B2 = 4 – 1 = 3 > 0, and A > 0. Minimum exists at , .

 
 3 3 
 1 1

    = 3  2  1 .
Minimum value is f , = 1 1 1 1 1
 
 3 3  9 9 3 3 9 9 3 3

5. Discuss the maxima and minima of sin x sin y sin (x + y ) where 0< x, y <π.

## fx = 0  sin ysin x cos(x  y)  cos x sin(x  y)  0

 sin y sin(2x  y)  0

## But sin y  0 Since 0 <y < π. sin(2x  y)  0

i.e 2y + x = 0, π

## fy = 0  sin x[sin y cos(x  y)  cos y sin(x  y)]

 sin x sin(2 y  x)  0

## sin y  0 Since 0< y < π. sin (2y + x) = 0 2y + x = 0, π

2x + y =0  y = -2x
x + 2y =0  x + 2 (-2x) = 0  x = 0

y =0 Point is (0,0)
2x +y = π

- x + 2y = π ------  2

- 3y = - π y3

x = π – 2y =   2 3 = 
3

Point is ( 3 ,  3 )

## A = fxx = 2 sin y cos (2x +y )

B = fxy = sin y cos ( 2x +y) + cos y sin (2x +y) = sin (2x +2y)

## C = fyy = 2 sin x cos ( x + 2y) 

At (0,0) , AC – B2 = 0  (0,0) is a saddle point.

  3 
 2
3
 
At ( 3 , 3 ) , AC – B = ( 3)( 3)  
2
=3 9 0
4
 2  4

## A < 0  Maximum exists at (   )

3, 3

33
Maximum value is f( , ) = sin  sin  sin 2 = .
3 3 3 3 3 8

6. Divide a given positive number ‘a’ into three parts (+ ve) such that their sum is ‘a’ and product is
maximum.

## Let the three parts be x, y, z. To maximize xyz

Given x + y + z = a  z = a – x – y

## fy = ax – x2 – 2yx = x(a-x-2y) = 0---------- {2}

{1}  x = 0 , 2x + y = a

{2}  y = 0 , x + 2y = a

2x + y = a
- x + 2y = a  2

- 3y = -a y = a
3

x = a – 2y = a – 2a 3  a
3

3

## 3  0 and A < 0 maximum exists

At ( a 3 , a ) , AC – B2 = a
3

z = a - a - a = a
3 3 3
3
a
 f is maximum at ( a 3 , a ,a ). Maximum value is    a3 27 .
3
3 3  

7. Find a point within a triangle such that the sum of the squares of its distance from the three vertices
is a minimum.

Let (x, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) be the vertices of the triangle. Let (x, y) be an arbitrary point. The sum of
the squares of the distances from (x, y) and the 3 vertices of the triangle is given by

## f(x, y) = (x – x1)2 + (y – y1)2 + (x – x2)2 + (y – y2)2 + (x – x3)2 + (y – y3)2

fx = 0 is 2(x – x1 + x – x2 + x – x3) = 0

i.e 3x = x1 + x2 + x3

x1  x2  x3
x
3

fy = 0 is 2(y – y1 + y – y2 + y – y3) = 0

i.e 3y = y1 + y2 + y3

y1  y2  y3
 y 
3

## A = fxx = 6 , B = fxy = 0 and C = fyy = 6

 x1  x2  x3 y1  y2  y3  
 , 2 
At  , AC-B = 36 > 0 and A > 0 f is minimum at
 3 3
 x1  x2  x3 y1  y2  y3 
, which is the centroid of the triangle.


 3 3 

8. Prove that the rectangular solid of maximum volume which can be inscribed in a given sphere is a
cube.

## of the rectangular solid and ‘d’ the diameter

of the given sphere. The diagonal of the solid will be the diameter of the sphere.

d2 = x2 + y2 + z2 (Given)

## To maximize volume V = xyz

z2 = d2 - x2 - y2

## Let f(x, y) = V2 = x2 y2 z2 = x2 y2 (d2 - x2 - y2)

= x2 y2 d2 – x4 y2 - x2 y4

fx = 0  2xy d  4x y  2xy  0
2 2 3 2 4

## i.e d2 – 2x2 – y2 = 0 ( since x, y ≠ 0) --------- (1)

fy = 0  2x yd  2x y  4x y  0
2 2 4 2 3

## From (1) y2 = d2 - 2x2

Substituting in (2)

## C = fyy = 2x2d2 – 2x4 – 12x2y2

At (d/√3, d/√3), A = -8d4/9 = C and B = -4d4/9
2
  8d 4   8d 4    4d 4   48d 8 
2
AC – B =          0
 9  9   9   81 
  2

d2 d2 d2
and A < 0. f is maximum at (d/√3, d/√3) z  d 2   hence z = d/√3.
3 3 3

i.e x = y = z or length = breadth =height. Hence the solid is a cube with maximum volume.

## Constrained Maxima and Minima – Lagrange Multipliers

To obtain the relative maximum or minimum of a function f(x, y, z) where the variables x, y, z
are subject to a constraint equation φ(x, y, z) = 0 ----- (1)

## Consider g(x, y, z) = f(x, y, z) + λ φ(x, y, z). Here λ is a parameter which is independent of x, y, z

and is called a Lagrange multipliers. Form the equations

g g g
 0,  0,  0 -----------(2)
x y z

Solve (1) and (2) to get x, y, z and λ. The points obtained by solving the equations may be relative
maxima or minima or neither. In many applications, only the geometrical aspects or physical
considerations can say whether the points are actually a maxima or a minima. If the given fn is of n
variables that is f(x1,x2,--------,xn) subject to n –constraints as φ1(x1,x2,--------xn) = 0, φ2(x1, x2, ------- , xn) =
0------- φn(x1, x2, ------- ,xn) = 0

then the new equation. as g = f + λ1φ1+ λ2φ2 + -------- + λn φn and solve the

g  0, g  0,  , g
equation  0 together with the constrains to get values for the variables
x1 x2 xn
x1, x2, ------- , xn.

WORKED EXAMPLES

## 1. Find the maximum value of f(x, y, z) = x2y2z2 subject to the condition

x2 + y2 + z2 = a2.

f(x, y, z) = x2y2z2
φ(x, y, z) = x2 + y2 + z2 - a2 ------------- (1)

## (3) x (y) – (4) x (z)  (y2 – z2) λ = 0 i.e y2 = z2

Let x2 = y2 = z2 = k2

a
In (1) , k2 + k2 + k2 = a2 k = 
3
 a a a 
Extreme values are the eight points   , , 
 3 3 3 

2 2 2
 a   a   a  a6
Maximum value is        .
 3   3   3  27

## 2. Find the rectangle of perimeter L which has maximum area.

Let x,y denote the length and breadth of the rectangle respectively.

## gx = 0  y +2λ = 0  λ =  gy= 0  x +2λ = 0  λ =  x

y
2 2

L
 λ=  y =  x  x = y.In (1) , 2x + 2x – L = 0  x = = y
2 2 4

##   L L  L Hence the rectangle of maximum area is a square.

2
Maximum value = f L 4 , L  4 4 16
4

## 3. Using Lagrange’s method of multipliers , find the stationary values of

1 1 1
a3 x2 + b3y2 + c3 z2 subject to    1.
x y z

f(x, y, z) = a3 x2 + b3y2 + c3 z2
1 1 1
φ(x, y, z) =    1  0 -------- (1)
x y z

32 3 2 32  1 1 1 
Let g(x, y, z) = f + λ φ = a x +by+cz + λ  x  y  z 1

 
 
gx = 0  2a3x  0  λ = 2a3 x3
x2

g = 0  2b3y  0
y  λ = 2b3y3
y2

g = 0  2c3z  0
z  λ = 2c3z3
y2

##  2a3 x3 = 2b3y3 = 2c3z3  ax = by = cz.

4. Find the shortest and longest distance from the point (1, 2, -1) to the sphere

x2 + y2 + z2 = 24.

Let (x, y, z) be a point on the sphere. Distance between (x, y, z) and (1, 2, -1) is

## gz = 0  2(z + 1) + 2z = 0  2z(1 + λ) = -2 ----- (4)

(2)  (3)  x/y = ½ 2x = y

## (3)  (4)  y/z = -2 y = -2z

Hence 2x = y = -2z

y
2 2
y
Substituting in (1),    y     24
2

 2   2 

3y 2  
 24  y  16 i.e y  4  x  2,
2
z  2.
2

## At (2, 4, -2), f(2, 4, -2) = (2 – 1)2 + (4 – 2)2 + (-2 + 1)2 = 6

At (-2, -4, 2), f(-2, -4, 2) = (-2 – 1)2 + (-4 – 2)2 + (2 + 1)2 = 54.

Hence the minimum distance is √6 and the maximum distance is √54 = 3√6.

5. Find the shortest distance from the origin to the curve x2 + 8xy + 7y2 = 225.

Let the point on the curve be (x, y). Distance from the origin is (x - 0)2  (y- 0)2 .

## Solving (2) and (3)

 1 4
0 i.e (λ + 1)(1 + 7 λ) - 16 λ2 = 0
4 1 7

Case (i) : λ = 1

## Substituting x in (1), (-2y)2 + 8(-2y)y + 7y2 = 225.

2 225
i.e y2 (4 – 16 + 7) = 225  y  ( no real roots)
5
Case (ii) : λ = -1/9.

## Substituting λ = -1/9 in (2) then x(-1/9 + 1) + 4y(-1/9) = 0

i.e. x(-1 + 9) – 4y = 0 y = 2x
Substituting y = 2x in (1), x2 + 8x(2x) + 7(4x2) = 225.

## i.e. 45x2 = 225 i.e x2 = 225/45 = 5  x   5

y2 = 4x2 = 4 x 5 = 20.

## When x2 = 5 and y2 = 20 the shortest distance is x 2  y2  5  20  5units.

6. Find the dimensions of the rectangular box open at the top with maximum volume and given surface
area S.

## Let the length, breadth and height of the rectangular box be x, y, z.

Volume is xyz and surface area is S = xy + 2xz + 2yz (since it is open on top).

## gz = 0  xy  2x  2y  0 ------- (4)

(2) x (x)  xyz  x( y  2z) and (3) x (y)  xyz  y(x  2z)

(4) x (z)  xyz  z(2y  2x)  x( y  2z)  y(x  2z)  z(2x  2y)

## xy + 2xz = xy + 2yz  x = y. and xy + 2yz = 2xz + 2yz  y = 2z.x = y = 2z

 x x S
Substituting in (1), S  x  2 x x  3x 2  x 2 
2
 x  S  y  2z
 
 2 2 3 3

S  S  1 S  1  S 
32

Maximum volume =
3 3 2 3 2  3 

7. The temperature T(x, y, z) at any point in space is T = 400xyz2. Find the highest temperature on
surface of the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 1.

## T = 400xyz2 subject to φ(x , y, z) = x2 + y2 + z2 – 1 = 0 ------- (1)

Let g(x, y, z) = T + λφ = 400xyz2 + λ(x2 + y2 + z2 – 1)

## gx = 0  400 yz  2x  0 --------- (2)

2

gy = 0  400 xz  2 y  0 ----------(3)
2

## 800xyz2 = -4x2λ = -4y2λ = -4z2λ

z
4x2 = 4y2  x  y and 4x2 = 2z2  z  2x xy
2

## Substituting in (1), x2  x2   2x

2
1

1 . Hence y  1 , 1
4x2 = 1  x  z
2 2 2

 1  1  1 2
T  400     50 is the maximum temperature.
 2  2  2 

Curvature – Cartesian and Parametric coordinates

## The rate of bending of a curve is called curvature.

Curvature of a circle.

## Consider a circle with centre O and radius r

P be any arbitrary point on the circle.

## Let ψ be the angle made by the tangent at P with x-axis and

The arcual length PA be s. Now s = r ψ . This is the intrinsic equation of the circle

Differentiating w.r.t s,

d d 1
1= r or =
ds ds r

## of the radius and therefore a constant.

ds
For a straight line the change of ψ is zero and hence =∞
d

Let C be the given curve and P a point on it. Q and R be two neighbouring points on the curve C.
A circle can be drawn passing through three points P, Q and R. As P varies the circle also varies. Such a
circle is called the circle of curvature at P. The centre of this circle is called the centre of curvature and
its radius is the radius of curvature. Hence the reciprocal of curvature of a curve at a point is called the
ds
radius of curvature of the curve at the point. It is denoted by ρ.  ρ = .
d

d
. ρ is positive if is positive, that is as s increases, ψ also increases, otherwise ρ is negative.
ds
Generally, the radius of curvature is given as its absolute value.

## Formula for the radius of curvature (In Cartesian coordinates)

Let y = f(x) be any curve, P be any point (x, y) on the curve and ψ be the angle made by the
d
tangent at P with the x-axis. Then  tan . Differentiating w.r.t x
ds

d 2 y  2 d 2 d ds 1 1 sec3 
 2
sec   sec  

 sec
 

dx2 dx ds dx
 cos 

3 3
(sec2  ) 2 2
(1  tan)  2
=  
 

3
  dy  2 32
1  dx   1 y 2 2 2
2 3

1 dy
(1  tan  ) 2     where y dy y .
   1
 and
2
2
d y d2y y dx dx2
2
dx 2 2
dx
dy
NOTE: If the tangent at P is parallel to y-axis then ∞. In such cases the formula for ρ will be
dx
  2  3
dx  2
1    
  dy   

  .
d 2x
dy2

WORKED EXAMPLES

2 2 2

x 2 y 2 a 2

## Differentiating w.r.t x, we get 2x-2yy1= 0

x
2yy1= 2x or y1 =
y

 x 
y  x 
y  y x
2 2
y.1  xy1 
Differentiating again w.r.t x we get y2    .
y2 y2 y3

3
  x  2  2
 2 3 1   
1 y  2   y  

 1  
Hence   
y
2 y2  x2
y3
 3 3
 y 2  x2  23  y3  y 2  x 2  2 y 2  x 2  2
      
 y 2   y 2  x 2   y 2  x2   a2
   

.
 3
3 2  x2 ) 2
2 2
(y  x ) 2 ( y
    .
 a2 a 2

2. Find ρ at x = c on xy = c2.

## Differentiating {1} w.r.t x

dy dy y
1• y +x • = 0 -------- [2]   At (c, c) dy   c  1.
dx dx x dx c

## Differentiating (2) again w.r.t x

dy  dy  d 2 y   d 2y 2 dy At (c, c) d 2 y 2 2
         (1) 
dx x 2 
  

dx  0 dx2 x dx dx2 c c
dx

## 1 y 2  32 1  (1)2 3

2
 

   
1
= c(2√2)/2 = c√2.
y 2
2 c
1 1
3. Find the radius of curvature at the point ( , ) on the curve x  y  1.
44

x  y 1

Differentiating w.r.t x

1 1 y
 y1  0  y1  
 2 x 2y x

Differentiating again w.r.t x we get
 1  1   x ( y) y ) 
y
 x 2 y 1 y  
2x  2 y 2 x 1 1 y  x y
y   2  
x    =
x    x   x 2 2 x 
     2x x
   
 
14 1  1 1
1 1 4 4 1 2 1 2
At ( , ), y1   1, y2  1   4
4 4 1 2( ) 1 
1 14 

4 4 4 4

1  y  2
3
2 1  1  2
3
2
22 1
  1
   .
y2 4 4 2

3a
4. Prove that the radius of curvature of the curve xy  a  x
2 3 3
at the point (a,0) is .
2

xy2  a3  x3

## Differentiating w.r.t ‘x’ we get

x • 2yy 1 1• y2 = 0  3x
2

 3x 2  y 2 
2xyy1 =  (3x  y )  y1 
2 2 

2xy

dx
At (a,0) y1 = ∞ , hence consider
dy

dx  2xy dx
= At (a, 0) 0
dy 3x  y 2 2
dy

dx
Differentiating w.r.t y
dy
 dx   dx 
3x  y   2 y  2x    2xy 6x  2 y 
2 2

d 2x   dy   dy 
 
3x 2  y 2 

2 2
dy

At (a, 0),
d 2 x 3a2 (0  2a)  2(a)(o)(o)  6a3
  =  2
dy2 (3a2  o) 2 9a4 3a

 dx 2  2 
3

1  ( dy )  1  0 2  3a
3

ρ=  2
d 2x  3a 2
2
dy

3a
 ρ  3a  .
2 2

## 5. Find the radius of curvature at any point of the catenary y = c cosh x c . .

y = c cosh x c .
Differentiating w.r.t x
dy
dx
x 1
 c sinh   x  sinh x
c c c
 
 

Differentiating again w.r.t x

d 2y 

x 1 
cosh c *

2
dx c

  1  sinh     
3 3 3
2 2
(x ) c cosh 2 ( x ) c cosh3 ( x )
2 2 2
2
1  yy1
c 1 cosh(x )c c  x 2  .
x y
 2
cosh( c ) cosh( x c )
c cosh ( )
c c
c c

3a 3a
6. Find the radius of curvature at the point ( , ) for the curve x3 + y3 = 3axy.
2 2

x3 + y3 = 3axy
Differentiating w.r.t x

3x 2  3y 2 y  3axy1  y i.e. y1 (y2 – ax) = ay – x2 -------- (1)
1

2
 3a   3a 
ay  x  2    2 
2
3a 3a a
y1  2 . At ( , ) , y   2    1
y  ax 2 2 1
 3a   3a 
   a 
 2   2 

Differentiating (1) w.r.t x again we get y2 (y2 – ax) + y1(2yy1 – a) = ay1 – 2x

2ay  2x - 2yy2
y2  1 1
(y2 - ax)
 3a   3a 
2a(-1) 2 -2 (1)2
3a 3a      32
At ( , ) , y   22  2 =
2 2 2
 3a   3a  3a
  - a 
 2  2 

1  y  2
3
2 1  1 
2
3
2
2 2(3a)  3 2a 3 2a
  1
      .
y2  32  32 16 16
a

2 2 2
3
7. Prove that the radius of curvature at any point (x, y) of the hypocycloid x  y 3  a 3 is
3(axy)1/3.

2 2 2 2 13 2 13
x 3 y 3  a 3 Differentiating w. r. t x , x  y y1 0
3 3
1 1
 y1   y 3 x 3
1 1 4  1 1 2 
Differentiating again w. r. t x, y y 3
x 3
x 3
y 3
y .
2   3 1 

 3
 1 1
Substituting for y1  y 3 x 3 in y2 we get
1  1 4  1 13 23 
y  y 3
x 3
 x y  13 13 

  

  y x 
 
2
 3  3
1 
  3 

2
  1
3
4
3
2 1
3 3 1  23
4 1
3 3

x   x y y  x 

y x y
 3   3  
  y 3 x 3  a 3
2 2 2
1 43 13  23 
 x y a
 

 

3

1  y  1 23 2 23
3
2
y x 3 
2

 1
  
y2 1 43 13 23
x y a
3

3x 3  y 3  3a 3 
2 2 32 2 23

  4 1 2  
1

1 2
x(x 3 y 3 a 3 ) x y a 3 3 3

2 1 1
3aa 3 x 3 y 3

 3axy 
1
3

8. Find the radius of curvature at any point (x, y) on the curve y = clog sec (x/c).

## Differentiating w.r.t x , y1 c 1  x   x  1   x 

 x sec  tan   = tan  

sec   c  c  c   c 
  c 
 

Differentiating again w.r.t x, y 2 sec2  xc1c
  

 
3 
3
1 y  2
2 2  x   2  2  x  3  3  x 
1  tan c  csec   2 csec  

1  c  x 
=   c  =   c sec 
y 1 2  x  = 2  x  2  x   
2 sec   sec   sec   c 
c  c   c   c 
9. Find the points on the parabola y2 = 4x at which the radius of curvature is 4√2.

y2 = 4x

2
Differentiating w.r.t x , 2yy1 = 4 or yy1 = 2  y1 
y

## Differentiating again w.r.t x, yy2 + y1 y1 = 0.  yy2   y1

2

2
  2  4
y   y   3
2
y y

y 
 3
1 y 2 3 1
  y42 2 2
 4 3 2 y3
2
  y  4
 1   3
  4 3 
2 2
3
y
y  4( y ) 2 2
4
2

Given   4 2

 y  4
3
2 2
4
3
i.e 16
2   y 2  4
4
2 2 Squaring both sides

(16 2) 2  y 2  4  (4x  4) 3  3

8 = (x + 1)3 x + 1 = 2 or x = 1

## y2 = 4x. When x = 1, y2 = 4 or y =  2 .  The points are (1, 2) and (1, -2)..

10. Find the radius of curvature of the curve 4x2 + 4y2 – 4x + 12y – 6 = 0.

## 4x2 + 4y2 – 4x + 12y – 6 = 0.

Dividing throughout by 4,

x2 + y2  x  3y  3  0
2

 
2
 1 1 2 9
 x  2   4  y  3  4  32  0
  2

x  12   y  3 2  16
 
2
2
 . This is the equation of a circle with centre 12 , 3 2 and the
4
The radius of curvature of the circle = the radius of the circle = 2.

y = 4 sin x.

## At x   2 , y1 = 4cos π/2 = 0 and y2 = -4sinπ/2 = -4.

1  y  1  0 2
3 3
1
2 2
  1  
y 2
4 4

1  1 .
  
4 4

ax
12. Show that, for the curve y  , the radius of curvature ρ at (x, y) is related as
ax

 2  23 x2 y 2
   2  2 .
 a  y x

ax 

y ------------------- (1)
ax 
(a  x)a  ax.1 a 2  ax  ax a2
Differentiating w.r.t x , y1    .
(a  x)2 (a  x)2 (a  x)2

## (a  x) 2 .0  a 2 .2(a  x).1  2a2 (a  x) 2a2

Differentiating again w.r.t x , y2   
(a  x)4 (a  x)4 (a  x)3

 a4  2
3

 1  
1  y  (a  x)4 
3
2
  
2
  1
2 2
y 2a
(a  x)3
a  x  a  4 4
3
2
(a  x)3 a  x   a 
4 4
3
2

  2a 2 
a  x  4
3
2
2a a  x  
2 3

 ax  4  32
   a 4  
  y   ax i.e a  x  ax
   3   y 
ax  ax y
2a 2   
 y  

 x  4  3 2  x 2  x 2  3 2
a 6    1 a     1
 y     y   y  
 x
3   x
3

2a .a  
2 3
2 
 y  y 

 2   x 2 3 2  x 2 y 2  y 3  x2 y 2  32
      
 y 2 x 2  x3   y 2  x 2 
2 
 a y
      

 2  23 x2 y2
   2  2
 a  y x

13. Find the radius of curvature at any point of the curve x =a cos3 θ , y = asin3θ.

x =a cos3θ

dx

Differentiating w.r.t θ ,  3a cos  (sin )
2

d

## Differentiating again w.r.t θ ,

d 2x
  2
      
3a cos cos sin ( 2 cos sin )
d 2

 3a cos 3   2sin 2  cos 

y = asin3θ

dy
Differentiating w.r.t θ ,  3a cos sin 2 
d
Differentiating again w.r.t θ ,

d 2y 
d 2

 3a sin2 (sin ) 
cos
(2 cos sin ) 

 3a  sin 3   2 cos2  sin 

3
x2  y2 2 dx dy d 2x d 2y
   
where x , y , x , y
d d d

xy yx d 2
2

## = 9a2sin2θcos2θ (cos2θ + sin2θ) = 9a2sin2θcos2θ

3
 x 2  y 2  2 = (9a2sin2θcos2θ)3/2 = (3asinθcosθ)3
 

xy  yx =

  
(3a cos 2  sin  ) 3a  sin 3   2 cos 2  sin  - 3a cos sin 2  (3a) cos 3   2sin 2  cos 

## = -(3asin θ cos θ)2(sin2 θ + cos2 θ) = -(3asin θ cos θ)2

3
x2  y2 2 3a sin  cos 3
  
  3asin cos = 3asin θcos θ
xy  yx  3a sin  cos 2

## 14. Find the radius of curvature at ‘t’ on x = etcost, y = etsint

x = etcost

dx
Differentiating w.r.t ‘t’,  et ( sin t)  et cos t = et(cost – sint)
dt

y = etsint

dy
Differentiating w.r.t ‘t’,  et sin t  et cost = et(cost + sint)
dt
dy
sin tsin t 1
cost
e t (cost  sint)
dy tan t  1
dt  t

  = = -*tan(π/4 +t)+.
dx dx e (cost - sint)  cost  tan t 1
dt sin t  1
 sin t 
d2y d    dt    1
 2

  tan  t  

 

dx2 dt 4 dx sec   t   t
   4  e cos t  sin t 
 2   3 2 t
 
3
1 y 1  tan  4  t  e (cost  sin t)
2 2

  

1

y 2
2  
 
 sec  t 
4 


3
 2    2 t 
sec   t  e (cost  sin t) sec3   t 
    et (cost  sin t)
4
4 
    
 sec 2   t  sec2   t 
4  4 

e t (cost- sint)  et (cost- sint)
  

t

= sec(π/4 + t) e (cost – sint) = 

cos 4  t  cos 4 cost  sin 4 sin t
 

et (cost- sint)
  2et .
1 cost- sint
2

15. Find the radius of curvature of the parabola x = at2 , y =2at at ‘t’.

x = at2 y =2at

dx dy
 2at  2a
dt dt

## Differentiating again w.r.t ‘t’, 

d 2x  d 2y
  2a 0
2

2 
dt dt
x2  y2 23 2 2
3
2 2 3
2

4a  1 2 t
2

4a t  4a 
2 3

##    4a 2  2 1  t 2  2  2a1  t 2  2 .

2 1 3 3
 
xy yx 2at(0)  2a(2a)  4a

16. Find the radius of curvature at the point θ on the curve x = a(θ + sinθ),

y = a(1 – cosθ).

## x = a(θ + sinθ) y – a(1 – cosθ).

Differentiating w.r.t θ

dx dy
 a(1  cos )  a sin
d d

## Differentiating again w.r.t θ 

d 2x  d 2y
 
a sin   a cos
d 2

dt 2

a 1  cos  
3 3
x2  y2 2  a 2 sin 2 
2 2 2

 

xy yx a 2 cos (1  cos )  a 2 sin 2 
a  1  2 cos  cos   sin  
2
3
2 2 2
3
2
a2(1  cos  ) 
3
2
 
a cos  cos   sin  
2 2 2
1  cos

  
 2a 21  2 cos 2 1   4a cos 2 .
 2 

## Centre and Radius of Curvature – Circle of Curvature

Let y = f(x) be the given curve and P a point on it. Q and R be two neighbouring points on the curve. A
circle can be drawn passing through P, Q and R. Consider the circle

of curvature at P.In the figure, let C be the centre of curvature with coordinates x, y , PC the radius ρ.
Let the tangent at P make an angle ψ with the x – axis, then y1 = tan ψ

y1 1 1 y2 23
sin   and cos  with  
 1
.
1  y1 2
1  y1 2
y
2

1 y 2 32
 
 x  x  PB  x   sin  x   1  1 y
 
 y2  1  y 2 
1

2
y (1 y )
 x 1 1
y2

1 y 2 3 2
 1   
y  y  AB  y   cos  y 
1 
 
 1  y1
y 2
2 

(1  y 2 )
 y 1
y2

2 2 2

WORKED EXAMPLES

## 1. Find the centre of curvature and circle of curvature at (c, c) on xy = c2.

The parametric equations of xy = c2 are x = ct and y = c/t

## Differentiating x and y w.r.t ‘t’ twice we get,

dy c
dy
dx
c
dy  c
 2 y  
dt  t 2  1
1
dt dt t dx dx c t2
dt

d 2y d  dy  dt d   1 1 2
     
y
2 dx 2 dt  dx  dx  
dt  t 2  c ct 3

At t = 1, y1 = -1 and y2 = 2/c.

3
1 y2 2
(1  1)3 2

1
  2 2c  c 2
y 2 2
2 c
y (1 y 2 ) (1)(1  1) 2c
xx 1 1
= c   c   2c .
y2 2 2
c
(1 y 2 ) (1  1)
y  y 1 = c   c  c  2c
y2 2
c

The coordinates of centre of curvature is (2c, 2c) and radius of curvature is c√2.

##  Equation of circle of curvature is  x  2c    y  2c   2c .

2 2 2

2. Find the centre of curvature at the point (am2, 2am) on the parabola y2 = 4ax.

y2 = 4ax

1
2yy1 = 4a  y1 
(am2 ,2am) m
 Ym2 1
 y 2
y12 + yy2 = 0  y 2 2 = 1
= =
(am ,2am) y (am2 ,2am) 2am 2am3
1
y (1  y 2 ) 1
xx 1 1
 am m (1 
2
2
)  3am2  2a
y2 1 m
2am3

2 1  1
y  y 1 y1  2am   m 2  2am3
 
y 1
2
2am3

## (x, y)  (3am2  2a,2am3 ).

 a a 
,
x y a
3. Find the circle of curvature of the curve  at thepoint  4 4 .
 

## x1/2 +y1/2 = a1/2 .

1 1 1 1 1 1
Differentiating w.r.t x , x 2  y 2 y0
1
2 2
1
y 2
y1 a a  1
y1 = 1 ( , )
x 2 4 4
1 1 1 1
x 2  y 2 y0
1
2 2
1 3 1 3 1
Differentiating again w.r.t x , x 2  y 2 y 2 y 2 y 0.
1 2
2 2

 a a  1  4 3 2 1  4 3 2 2  4  12
, .
At   ,       (1)    y2  0

2  a 

4 4  2  a   a 
 
3
 4  2  4  2
    y2  0
1

 y2 
4 a  3
2

4
.
a  a  4 a  1
2
a

## The circle of curvature is given as x  x    y  y    .

2 2 2

1 y2 23
1  1 2
3
a

1 2 2a
  
y 4 4 2
2 a
y (1  y 2 ) a (1)(1  1) a a 3a
xx  1 1
    
y2 4 4 4 2 4
a
1  y2 a (1  1) a a 3a

y y 1     
y2 4 4 4 2 4
a
2 2 2
 3a   3a   a 
Circle of curvature is  x     y     
 4`   4  2 
2 2
 3a   3a  a2
i.e  x     y    .
 4`   4  2

x2 y2 
4. Prove that if the centre of curvature of the ellipse 
  1at one end of the minor axis has at
a2 b2
1
the other end, then the eccentricity of the ellipse is .
2

Coordinates of one end of minor axis is (0, b) and the centre of curvature is the other end of the minor
axis i.e (0, -b).

 x  0, y  b

x2 y2 
  1
 

a2 b2
2 yy 2x  x  b2 
 1  0
Differentiating w.r.t. x ,  y1  2  
a2 b2 a  y 

Differentiating again w.r.t x,
a
1
2
1

 2 y1 2  yy2  0
b

1 b2  b
 y1 (0,b)  0 and y2 (0,b)  2   
a  y  (0,b) a 2

y (1  y 2 )
xx  1 1
= 0 - 0 = 0.
y2
1  y2 1 a2 b2  a2
y y  1
 b  b  .
y2  b b b
a2

b2  a 2
But y  b b  or -b2 = b2 – a2
b

b2 1
i.e. 2b =2 a or
2 
a2 2
But for an ellipse b2 = a2 (1 – e2) where e is the eccentricity.

b2 b2 1 1
 1  e2 or e2  1  1 
a2 a2 2 2

1
e
2
2 2 
 5. Find the centre of curvature of the ellipse x2  y2  1 .
a b

x = a cosθ, y = b sinθ
dx
 dy  dy b
 a sin  b cos  cot
d d
   

dx a

d 2 y  b cosec3

 2
dx2 a
y (1 y2 )
x  x 1 1

y2
b
cot  b 2 2 
= a cos  a
  a2 cot  
1 
b 3

cosec   
a2
a cos sin2   a2 sin2   b2 cos2  
= a cos   
a2  sin2  

=
1
a 2
cos (1 sin  )  b cos  2 2 3
= a 2
 b 2  3
cos  .

a a
(1 y 2 )

y  y 1
y2
 b2 2  1
= b sin  1  2 cot  
b 3  a 
2
cos ec 
a

=
1
b 2
sin  sin3 a2  b2 cot2   
b

1
b  b  a sin 3 .
 
2 2
sin  1cos   a sin  =
2
= 2 3 2
b b
Hence the centre of curvature is (
a 2
 b 2  3

cos  ,
b2  a2 3
sin  ).
a b

Evolutes

The locus of the centre of curvature of the given curve is called the evolute of the curve. The given curve
is called the involute of its evolute.

To find evolute:

##  Use parametric coordinates for the curve

 Find x, y
 Eliminate the parameter from x, y
 Locus of x, y is the evolute.

Properties

1. The normal at any point of a curve touches the evolute at the corresponding centre of
curvature.
2. The length of an arc of the evolute is equal to the difference between the radii of curvature at
the points on the original curve corresponding to the extremities of the arc.

WORKED EXAMPLES

## Consider the parametric equations of the parabola y2 = 4ax as x = at2, y = 2at.

dx dy
 2at ,  2a  dy  1
dt dt dx t
1 1
 
d2y
 
dt 2 t 2 2at
1 1  1 
y (1 y2 ) t 2 

x  x 1 1
= at  t
2 
1
y2 3
2at

2 1 
= at  2at 1 
2
= 3at2 + 2a

 


t2 
x  2a
x  2a  3at2 t 2 
3a
(1 y2) 3 1 
y y  1
= 2at  2at 1  
2 

y2  t 

## = 2at – 2at3 -2at = -2at3.

 y   x  2a 
2 3

t    = 
6

 2a   3a 

i.e 27 a 3 y 2  4a 2  x  2a  or 27 ay  4 x  2a 
2 3 3

Locus of x, y is 27 ay  4 x  2a 
2 3
which is the required evolute.

x2 y2 

 
2. Find the equation of the evolute of the ellipse 1.
a2 b 2

x = a cosθ, y = b sinθ
dx
 dy  dy b
 a sin  b cos  cot
d d
   

dx a

d 2 y  b cosec3

 2
dx2 a
y (1 y2 )
x  x 1 1

y2
b
cot  b 2 2 
= a cos  a
  a2 cot  
1 
b 3

cosec   
a2
a cos sin2   a2 sin2   b2 cos2  
= a cos   
a2  sin2  

a  = a  b 2  3
1 2
cos (1 sin2  )  b2 cos3  cos  .
2
= 

a a
(1 y 2 )

y  y 1
y2
 b2 2  1
= b sin  1  2 cot  
b
2
cos ec3  a 
a
=
1
b 2

sin  sin3 a2  b2 cot2  
b

b   b  a sin 3 .

1 2 2
sin  1cos2   a2 sin 3  =
2
=
b b

 
2
ax  a 2  b 2 cos3   ax  3
cos2    a  b 
 
2 2

 
2
by  b 2  a 2 cos3   by  3
sin    b  a 
2

 
2 2

2  ax  2 3   2by 2 23
2
cos θ + sin θ = 1  1   2  b a 
 a  b2   

2 2 2
i.e (ax) 3  (by) 3  (a2  b2 ) 3 .

2 2 2
Locus of x, y is (ax) 3  (by) 3  (a2  b2 ) 3 which is the required evolute.

x2 y2 

3. Find the evolute of the hyperbola   1.
a 2 b2

x = a secθ
dx
y = b tanθ
 dy  dy b
 a sec tan  bsec  2
 cosec
d d
   

dx a

d 2 y  b cot3 

 2
dx2 a
y (1 y2 )
x  x 1 1

y2
b
cosec  b 2 
= a sec  a
 b 3   a 2 cosec 
1 2


cot   
a2

= a sec  a sin   b 2 
2
.

 a 2
 
a cos  
2 3
sin  
2

## a sin 2  b2 a(1 cos2  ) b2

= a sec   = a sec  
cos3  a cos3  cos3  a cos3 
=
1
a 2
 b2 sec3  
a
 ax  13
sec   
a  b2 
2

 

(1 y 2 )

y  y 1
y2
1  b2 2 
= b tan  1  2 cosec  
b a
cot3   
a2

## = b tan  a sin   a 2 b 2 

2 3

 
a2b cos3   sin2  

 

a2 3 2
= b tan  tan   b tan sec 
b

b a2 2
 3
= tan  .
b

tan    by  31
a  b2 
2

 

 ax  2 3
2  2 by 2  2 3
2  
sec    2 2  and tan b a 
a  b   

 ax  3   2by 2  3
2 2
2 2
sec θ - tan θ = 1  1   2  b a 
 a  b2   

2 2 2
i.e (ax) 3  (by) 3  (a2  b2 ) 3 .

2 2 2
Locus of x, y is (ax) 3  (by) 3  (a2  b2 ) 3 which is the required evolute.

## 4. Find the evolute of the curve x 3  y 3  a 3 .

2 2 2

x = acos3θ

dx
y = asin3θ
 dy
 3a cos2  sin  3a sin2  cos
d d
1
y1= - tan θ , y2 = 
3a sin cos4 

y1
x  x  (1  y2 )  a cos3   3a sin2  cos

1
y2
1 y2
y  y 1  a sin
3 2
  3a sin cos 
y2

2
a 3

##  x  y 2 3 1 2cos sin 

2
a 3

x  y  3  x  y  3  a (1
2 2 2 2
3
1)  2a 3

## Locus of x, y is (x + y)2/3 + (x – y)2/3 = 2a2/3 which is the required envelope.

Envelopes

A curve which touches all the curves of a family is called the envelope of the family.

Let f(x, y, α) = 0 represent a family of curves with α as parameter. Then eliminating α between
f (x, y, )
 0 gives the envelope. If  A(x, y)  B(x, y)  C  0 represents the
2
f(x, y, α) = 0 and

family of curves then B2 – 4AC = 0 gives the equation of the envelope.

## Consider a two parameter family of curves given by f(x, y, a, b) = 0 ----- (1)

Suppose the parameters a and b are connected by the relation g(a, b) = 0 -------- (2)

db
f a  fb  0 ----------- (3)
da

db
g a  gb  0------------(4)
da

fa fb
    fa   ga and fb  gb -----------------(5)
g a gb

Eliminating a, b and λ from (1), (2) and (5) we get the required envelope.
Properties of envelopes and evolutes

1. The normal at any point of a curve is a tangent to its evolute touching at the corresponding
centre of curvature.
2. The difference between the radii of curvatures at two points of a curve is equal to the length of
the arc of the evolute between the two corresponding points.
3. There is one evolute but an infinite number of involutes.

WORKED EXAMPLES

1. Find the envelope of the family of straight lines y = mx + am2, m being the parameter.
Given am2 + am – y = 0 (Quadratic in m)

## Envelope is given by B2 – 4AC = 0

i.e x2 + 4ay = 0.

2. Find the envelope of the family of circles x2 + y2 – 2axcosθ – 2aysinθ = c2, where

θ is the parameter.

## 3. Find the envelope of y  mx  a2m2  b2 , where m is the parameter.

y  mx  a2m2  b2 .

## Squaring both sides

 y  mx 2  a 2 m 2  b 2
m2(x2 - a2) – 2mxy + y2 – b2 = 0 (Quadratic in m)

## Envelope is given by B2 – 4AC = 0

i.e 4x2y2 – 4(x2 – a2)(y2 – b2) = 0

2 2 

i.e x2  y 2 1 .
a b

## 4. Find the envelope of (x – α)2 + y2 = 4α, α being the parameter.

Given (x – α)2 + y2 = 4α

## i.e y2 = 4(x + 1).

xy
5. Find the envelope of   1where a and b are connected by a2 + b2 = c2, c being
a b

a constant.
x y
 1
a b

## Differentiating with respect to ‘a’

x y
2 da  db  0 ---------- (1)
a b2
a2 + b2 = c2

## (1)  (2) gives

x y
2 
a  b2 

2a  2b

x y x y
a b a b 1
By ratio property, we have   
2a2 2b2 2(a2  b2 ) 2c2

## Hence a3 = c2x, b3 = c2y

a2 + b2 = c2 now becomes (c 2 x) 3  (c 2 y) 3  c 2
2 2

i.e x 3 2 y 3 2 c 3 . 2

y x
6. Find the envelope of   1where a and b are connected by ab = c2, c being a
a b

constant.
x y
 1
a b

## Differentiating with respect to ‘a’

x y
da  db  0 ---------- (1)
a2 b2
ab = c2

## (1)  (2) gives

x y
a  b2
2

b a

x y x y
a b a b 1
By ratio property, we have   
ab ab 2ab 2c2
x 1 x 1
 i.e  or a = 2x
a2b 2c2 ac 2
2c2
y 1 y 1
2
 2
i.e  or b = 2y
ab 2c c2b 2c2

## y + xt = at3 + 2at---------------- (1)

Differentiating (1) with respect to ‘t’,

x = 3at2 + 2a

x  2a  12
t  
 

3a 
Substituting t in (1)

##  x  2a 12  x  2a 32  x  2a 12

y + x   = a   + 2a 
 3a   3a   3a 

 x  2a 12   x  2a  
y=    x  a   2a
 3a    3a  

2  x  2a 12
= (x  2a) 
3  3a 

Squaring both sides,

9(3a)y2 = 4 (x - 2a)3

## 8. Considering the evolute as the envelope of normals find the evolute of

x2 y2 

  1
.
a 2 b2
Equation of the normal of the given ellipse at (acosθ, bsinθ) is

ax  by
sin  a  b --------------(1)
2 2

cos

## Differentiating with respect to θ,

ax(sin ) by cos
 0
cos2  sin2 

sin3   by
 
cos3  ax
  by 13
Hence tan   
 ax 

1 1
(by) 3 (ax) 3

(ax)  (by) 3
3
(ax)  (by)
3 3

## Substituting sinθ and cosθ in (1), we get

 ax by    a2  b2 .
   (ax)
2

3
(by)
2
3

(by) 3 
1 1

(ax)
3

i.e (ax) 3  (by)
2 2
3

3
2
 a 2  b2 .

2 22 2 2

## UNIT V MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

The multiple integral is a type of definite integral extended to functions of more than one real variable
for eg. f(x,y) or f(x,y,z). The double integral of a positive function of two variables represents the volume
of the region between the surface defined by the function and the plane which contains its domain.
When integrating a function of two variables we will integrate over a region of R2( two dimensional
space).

x2 y2

## For the purpose of evaluation a double integral is expressed as

 f (x, y)dydx which is called a
x1 y1

repeated integral.

Case (i) When x1 and x2 are functions of y and y1 and y2 are constants - Here f(x,y) is first integrated
w.r.t ‘x’ regarding ‘y’ as a constant and the resulting expression which is a function of ‘y’ is integrated
y2 x2 h2 ( y)

## w.r.t ‘y’. i.e.  f (x, y)dxdy   

R y1 x1 h1 ( y )
f (x, y)dxdy.

Case (ii) When y1 and y2 are functions of x and x1 and x2 are constants - Here f(x,y) is first integrated
w.r.t ‘y’ regarding ‘x’ as a constant and the resulting expression which is a function of ‘x’ is integrated
x2 y2  g2 ( x)

## w.r.t ‘x’. i.e.  f (x, y)dxdy   

R x1 y1  g1 ( x)
f (x, y)dydx.

Case (iii) When x1 and x2 and y1 and y2 are constants - In this case the order of integration is not taken
into account provided the respective limits are substituted for the variables.
x2 y2 y2 x2

## i.e.  f (x, y)dxdy   f (x, y)dydx =  f (x, y)dxdy

R x1 y1 y1 x1

Note: In case (i) and (ii) ,the limits of the inner integral should always be a variable and the limits of
the outer integral are constants and the inner integral is always evaluated first.

R R R

## (ii)  f (x, y)dxdy   f (x, y)dxdy  f (x, y)dxdy

R R1 R2
provided R1 and R2 are disjoint sub-regions of R.

ab

1. Evaluate I =   (x 2  y 2 )dxdy .
00

The inner and outer integral has constant limits and the order is dxdy.

a
xb 2 2 
I=   (x  y )dxdy
0 x0 

xb
x
a
2 
3

=    y x dy
0 3 x0

a
b3 
= 0 3  
 
2y b dy

 
 b3 yb
a3 
=  ( y)  b( )
3 3  y 0

ab
=
3

a2  b2 . 
a b
dydx
2. Evaluate 
11
xy
.

The limits for the variables ‘x’ and ‘y’ are constants and the order of integration is dydx.
ab
dydx
Let I = 
1 1
xy
 1 y b dy 
a

=    dx
1 
x y 1
y 


1 yb 
a

=   x  log y  y1 
dx
1 

 1 
a

= log b  dx
1  
x

xa

## = (log b)(log a).

32

   x  y
2
3. Evaluate dxdy
41

32

   x  y
2
Let I = dxdy
41


3 x2 
    x  y
2
= dx dy
4  x1 

x2
4
 1

=    x  y   dy
3
 x1

## =   (2  y)1  (1  y)1 dy

3

 1
4
1 
=   dy
3 1 y 2  y 

= log 1  y   log  2  y  
4

= (log 5  log 6)  (log 4  log(5)) = 2 log 5 – log 6 –log 4= 2 log 5 – (log 4 + log 6)

 
22

## 4. Evaluate   sin(x  y)dxdy

00

 
22
Let I =
  sin(x  y)dxdy
00
2
x 

=  [cos(x  y)]x0 2 dy
0


2

## =  (sin y  cos y)dy

0

x 
=   cos y  sin y x0
2 
=2

2x
1
5. Evaluate  dxdy
10
x2  y 2

The limits of the inner integral are functions of ’x’. Therefore the integration is performed w.r.t ‘y’ first
and then w.r.t ‘x’.
2x
1
Let I =  x2  y 2
dxdx
1o

2 y x 1 
=   x2  y2 dy dx

1 
 y 0  

1 
2

1
=  [tan 1
(1)  tan (0) dx

1 x 

 21
4 1 x
= dx

=
log xx2
x1
4

= log 2 .
4

1y

6. Evaluate I = 
0 y
xydxdy

The limits of the inner integral are functions of ’y’. Hence we first integrate w.r.t ’x’ regarding ‘y’ as a
constant
x y
1
 2
I=  y x 
2
dy
0   x y

y 1
= 1  y  y4 
3

2 3  4 
  y 0

11 1
=
 ( y  y )dy = .
2 3

20 24

1 xy

7. Evaluate I =  e x dydx
00

yx
 y
1

I =   xe x  dx
0  y0

  x(e  e0 dx
1
=
0

x1
 x2 
=  e 1  
 2  x0

e 1
= .
2

a a2  x2

8. Evaluate
0
 
0
a2  x2  y2 dxdy

a a2  x2

Let I =  
0 0
a2  x2  y2 dxdy

y a2  x2
y
a
y 
= a2  x2  y2  a  2x sin1
2 2

 dx
0 
2 a2  x2  y0

 a 2  x 2  
a

=  1
sin (1)dx
0
2 

  x3 
xa

=  a 2
x  
4  3 x0

 a3
= .
6
1 1 x2 1
  1 x  y
dydx
9. Evaluate 2 2
0 0

1 1 x2 1
  1 x  y
dydx
Let I = 2 2
0 0

y 1 x2
 1 1
y 
=  tan1  dx
0  1 x 1 x2  y0
2

 1  1
4 0  1 x2 
=  dx

  2
x1
1 x ) x0
= log(x 
4

= log(1  2)  .
4 

a a2  x2 
10. Sketch the region of integration in  
0 ax x2
dxdy

y  ax  x2 , y  a2  x2
The given limits are
y2  ax  x2 , y2  a2  x2
x2 + y2 = a2 is a circle with centre at the origin and radius ‘a’ units.

## x2 + y2 - ax = 0 is a circle with centre at (a/2, 0) passing through the

origin and radius a/2 units. X = 0 is the Y-axis and x = a is a line parallel

## to Y-axis .The point of intersection of the two circles is a2 - ax = 0

i.e. x = a and y = 0.The region of integration is the shaded part in the figure

## 11. Find the limits of integration in

 f (x, y)dxdy
R
where R is the I quadrant bounded by x = 1, y = 0, y2

= 4x.

##   y 2 .The other end

The end P touches the parabola y  4x2
x
4

y2
Q touches the line x=1.Therefore x varies from to 1. To get
4

the limits for y slide the strip PQ vertically so that it covers the entire region of integration. The
minimum value of y i.e y = 0 is the lower limit and the maximum value of y i.e y = 2 is the upper limit
.Therefore y varies from 0 to 2.
2 1

##  f (x, y)dxdy =  f (x, y)dxdy

R 0 y2
4

OR

12x

Consider a strip PQ parallel to the Y-axis. Then  f (x, y)dxdy =   f (x, y)dydx
R 0 0

R

## Y-axis, y varies from 0 to1- x and x varies from 0 to 1.

1 1 x

 dxdy =   dydx
R 00

=   y  yo dx
y1 x

= 1 xdx
0

 2

x1
= x  x 1
  = .
 2 x0 2

 x dxdy where R is the region bounded by the hyperbola xy = 4 and the lines y = x,
2
13. Evaluate
R
y = 0 and x = 4.
Solving xy = 4 and y = x we obtain the coordinate of A as (2,2).Solving xy = 4 and x = 4 we obtain the
coordinate of B as (4,1).

To get the variable limits for ‘y’ we divide the region R into two sub-regions R1and R2.R1 is the region
OAC and R2 is the region ACDB.

2

R R1 R2

## Taking the vertical strip

PQ in regions R1 and R2

2x

 x dydx =  x
2 2
dydx
R1 00

x2
2
 x4 
=  x dx =  4 
3 =4
0   x0
4
4 x

 x2dydx =  x
2
dydx
R2 2 0

4 4/x

xy dx
2
=
2 0

= 4xdx
2

 
= 2x 2 2 = 24
4
Therefore  x2dydx = 4 + 24 = 28.
R1

## CHANGE OF ORDER OF INTEGRATION

If the limits of integration in a double integral are constants then the order of integration is immaterial,
provided the relevant limits are taken for the concerned variables.

If the limits of the integration are variables, a change in the order of integration will result in
b g2 ( x)

changes in the limits of integration. i.e the double integral   f (x, y)dydx will tale the form
a g1 ( x)
d h2 ( y)

  f (x, y)dxdy . The new limits of the integration are identified by drawing the rough sketch of the
c h1 ( y )

region of integration. This process of writing the equivalent double integral of the given one with order
changed is called the change of order of integration.

2x

0 0

## The region of integration R is bounded by the lines y = 0,

y = x , x = 0 and x = 2 which is shaded in the Figure..In the given integral we first integrate w.r.t ‘y’
regarding ‘x’ as a constant. By changing the order of integration we first integrate w.r.t ‘x’ regarding ‘y’
as a constant.

To find the limits for ‘x’, consider a strip PQ parallel to the X-axis.

The end P touches the straight line x=y(lower limit) and the
end Q touches the line x=2(upper limit). x varies from y to 2.

To get the limits for ‘y’, move the strip PQ vertically so that it covers the entire region R.The minimum
value of y, i.e y=0 is the lower limit and the maximum value of y, i.e. y=2 gives the upper limit. y varies
from 0 to 2.
2 x 22

0 0 0y

a 2a x

## 2. Change the order of integration in 

0 x2
f (x, y)dydx.
a

Given y = 2a - x i.e is the straight line x + y = 2a, y = x2/a i.e x2 = ay the parabola, x = 0 and x = a.The rough
sketch of the region of integration is shown in the Figure.

The point of intersection of the parabola and the straight line is obtained by solving the equations x + y =
2a, y = x2/a which is A(a,a). Consider a strip PQ parallel to the X-axis. From the diagram if we take the
strip in the region OAC the end Q touches the parabola e x2 = ay, whereas if we take the strip in the
region ABC the end Q touches the straight line x + y = 2a. So we divide the region of integration into two
sub-regions R1 and R2

and the given integral is the sum of the integrals in R1 and R2.

## In R2 x varies from 0 to 2a - y and y varies from a to 2a.

a 2a x a ay 2a 2a y

  f (x, y)dydx =  
0 x2 0 0
f (x, y)dxdy + 
a

0
f (x, y)dxdy .
a
a a

  (x  y 2 )dydx .
2
3. By changing the order of integration evaluate
0x

aa

Let I=   (x 2  y 2 )dydx .
0x

## x varies from 0 to y and y varies from 0 to a.

ay

  (x  y 2 )dxdy
2
I=
00

x y
 x3  2 
a

=   y (x) dy
0  3 x0
a 3 
= ( y y3 )dy
0 3
a
 y4 
=  
 3 0

a4
= .
3
1 1
x
4. Change the order of integration and hence evaluate  dxdy .
0x
x  y2
2
Given y = x and y = 1, x = 0 and x = 1Taking horizontal strip we get

1 y
x
I=  x  y 2 2
dxdy
00

x y
1
1
2 
=   log(x  y )  dy
2

0 2 x0

1 1
2
 log y2 )dy
=
20 (log 2 y
1 1
1
=
20 (log 2)dy =
2
log 2 .

1 y
x
5. Change the order of integration and hence evaluate  x  y2
2 dxdy .
0y
y

1
Let I = x dxdy . Given x = y, x =√y ,i.e.x2 = y,
0y xy 2 2

1 x
x
 I= 
0 x2
x2 y 2 dydx

1
1
y y  x
 
1
= x (tan ) dx
0 x x  yx 2

## =  (tan (1)  tan (x))dx

1 1

  1 1
2
1
=   x tan x 
log(1  x )
 (on integration by parts)
4 2  0

1
= log 2 .
2
42x

0 x2
dydx

## the two parabolas is A(4,4). Consider the strip PQ parallel to

y2
the X-axis then x varies from to 2 y and y varies from 0 to 4.
4
42y 4 x2 y

I=   dxdy =   x 
2 0 x
y2
dy
0y
4
4

 4y2 16
=  2 y  dy = .
4  3
0

a 2a x

7. Evaluate by changing the order of integration in   xydydx and hence deduce the value of the
0 x2
a
1 2x

integral 
0 x2
 xydydx .

a 2a x a ay 2a 2a y

## Let I =   xydydx =   xydxdy +  

0 x2 0 0 a 0
xydxdy .
a

= I1 + I2.

x ay
y  x 
a 2
I1 =  dy
0  2  x0
a
y2 a4
=
a
0 2
dy =
6
.

 2a  y 
2a 2

I2 =
y
a
2 dy
1 2a 2 2 3

2 a
= (4a y  4ay  y )dy

1  2 2 4ay3 y4  y 2a
= 2a y   
2 3 4  ya

5a4
=
24
a4 5a4 3a4 1 2x


3
24 = 8 . Put a = 1 in the value of I. Therefore 
I= + xydydx = .
6 8
0 x2

2 4 x2

(x  y)dydx
8. Change the order of integration and hence evaluate 
1 0

2 4 x2

Let I =   (x  y)dydx .
1 0

## and y varies from 0 to 3.

3 4 y

I=   (x  y)dxdy
0 1
 x2  
3 x 4 y

=  xy   dy
0  2  x1

 4 y 
3
1
=   2 y 4  y  y dy
2
0 

3 3y 
3

=   y 4  y  dy
0 
2 2 

3 3y 
3

=    ( y  4  4) 4  y  dy
0 
2 2 

3 8 3
2 5

y3
=  y  (4  y) 2 (4  y) 2  3 y2 

2 3 5 4  y0

241
= .
60

1 2x2
x
9. Change the order of integration and evaluate  
0 x x y
2 2
dydx .

1 2x2
x
Let I =   dydx .
0 x x2  y2

Given y = x, y  2  x2 i.e the circle x2 + y2 = 2, x = 0 and x =1.(1,1) is the point of intersection which is
obtained by solving x = y and x2 + y2 = 2.The region R is divided into two subregions R1 and R2. Consider
the strip PQ parallel to X-axis in both the regions In R1, x varies from 0 to y and y varies from 0 to1.
1 y
x
 I1 = 
0 0 x y
2 2
dxdy , Put x2 + y2 = t, 2xdx=dt, t varies from y2 to 2y2
1 2 y2
1
=  2 t dtdy
0 y2

=  ( 2 1) ydy
0

2 1
= .
2

## In R2 x varies from 0 to 2  y2 and y varies from I to 2.

2 2 y2
x
I2 =  
1 0 x2  y2
dxdy

2 3
( 2  y)dy  2.
=

1
=
2

2 1 3
Hence I = +  2
2 2

1
=1 .
2

y y2
 x
dxdy .
10. Change the order and hence evaluate  ye
00

## integration we get y varies from x to  and x varies from 0 to  .

 y y2  y2
 
I =  ye
00
x
dxdy =  ye
x
dydx put y2 = t ydy = dt/2
0x
1 t x
2 
= e dtdx when y = x, t = x2 ; y =  ,t =  .
0x 2

1  x
2 0
= xe dx

1 x x
x 1
=
2

xe e  = .
x0 2

## Double integration in polar coordinates

x2  y2 and tan  .  is
y
The polar coordinates conversions are x  r cos , y  r sin , r 
x
2 r2

## always assumed to be given in radians. To evaluate

 f (r, )drd ,we first integrate w.r.t ‘r’ within
1 r1

the limits r1 and r2 regarding  as a constant The resulting expression is integrate w.r.t  between the
limits 1and2 .In the region of integration to get limits for r and  we consider a wedge PQ of angular
thickness  .

 

22

1. Evaluate  rdrd.
00

  
r 2
 r2 
 

2 2 2 2

Let I =  rdrd. =
   d =  2d =  .
00 0  2  r 0 0

 sin

2. Evaluate I =   rdrd.
0 0

r sin
I   r2  d
2

 r 0
0

1 
= sin 2 d
2 0
1   1 cos 2 
=  d
2  2 
0

 1  sin 2   
 
= .
  2  0 = 4
4
3. Evaluate  r4drd over the area of the circle r  a cos .

r  a cos is a circle passing through the origin with centre at (a/2,0)and the region of integration is
the shaded portion in the figure.Consider a wedge PQ as shown in the figure. From the ends P and Q of
the wedge the lower limit for r is r = 0 and the

upper limit is r  a cos .By rotating the wedge PQ to cover the angular distance we get the limits of 
 
.When we rotate over the entire circle  varies from to .
2 2

2 a cos

4 4

 0
2


r a cos
 r5 
2
=   d
  5  r 0
2


cos5   

52
a
=
5 
  d

2a5 2

= cos5   



5 d
0

2a5 4 2 16a5
= .. = .
5 5 3 75

## AREA AS A DOUBLE INTEGRAL

The area enclosed in a region R in cartesian coordinates is  dxdy and the same in polar coordinates is
R

 rdrd.
R

x2 y2 
4. Find the area of the ellipse 
 
a2 1 by double integration.
b2

R

## Considering vertical strips x varies from 0 to a and

b
y varies from 0 to a2  x 2 .
a

 
b
a2  x2

  dydx = 4 b a2  x2 dx
aa a
Required area = 4
o 0 o
a

4b  x 2 a2 1  x 
xa
=  a  x 2
 sin  
a 2 2  a x0
xa
4b  a2   
=    = ab .
a 2 2
    x0

## Considering horizontal strips y varies from 0 to a and x varies from 0 to a2  y2 .

a a2  y2

 4  dxdy = 4 
R o

0
dxdy

=4  a  y dy
2 2

 y 2 2 a2 ya
=4 a  y  sin1  y  =  a 2 .
2 2  a  y0

R

## r varies from 0 to a and  varies from 0 to 2 .

2 r a
 r2 
2 a a2
required area =   rdrd =     2 =  a .
2

o
2 r 0 d  =
2   0
 

0 0

6. Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines x + y = 2, y = x and the Y- axis.
1 2 x 1 x1
dydx = (2  2x)dx = 2x  x2  = 1.
Area =
0

x
 o
 x0

2 4 y2 

## Required area =  dxdy =   dxdy

R 2 4 y 2
4
4  y2
2

 (4  y (
2
= ))dy

2
4

 3 y 2

= 3 y  y  = 8.
 4
  y 2

8. Using double integral find the area bounded by the line y = x and the parabola y = x2.

The line and the parabola intersect at the origin and at (1,1).

1x

R 0 x2

= (x  x2 )dx
0

1
 x2 x  1
3

=  = .
2 3 0 6

## 9. Find the smaller of the areas bounded by y = 2 – x and x2 + y2 = 4.

The shaded portion in the figure gives the required area.

2 4 x2

## Required area =   dydx

0 2 x

= ( 4  x   2  x)dx
2

x
x2
4 sin1 ( x)  2x  x2  =   2 .
 4  x  
= 2

2 2 2 2 x0

## 10. Find the area of the cardioid r  a1cos  .

 a(1cos )
Required area = 2  rdrd. = 2   rdrd
OABO 0 0



##  a 1 cos   d

2 2
=
0

= a2
  2 cos   d
2
2 
2
0


= 4a2
  cos    d
4
2
0

 

4

3 1  3 a2
=28a . . . = .
4 2 2 2

## Required area = 4(area of one loop) = 4(area of OABO).

 
4 a cos 2 ) 
 

4
=4  
0 0
rdrd = 2
 a cos 2d = (a sin 2 )
2 2
04 = a2 .
0

12. Find by double integration The area lying inside the circle r  a sin and outside the cardioid
r  a(1 cos ).

## To find the point of intersection of the two curves,

a sin  a(1 cos ) 
       
2 sin cos  2 sin2    varies from 0 to .
2    2
      2
   
cos  sin   2 
   
 2  2 2


2 a sin

0 a(1cos )
rdrd


a2 2
2 2

2 0 (sin
=


a2 2
2 2

##  1 cos   2 cos )d

=
2  (1 cos
0


2
2
2 2   
= a (cos  cos  )d = a  1

0
 
.
4 

13. By transforming into polar coordinates find the area enclosed between the circles

## The circles are r = a and r = b.

The region is the shaded portion in the figure. The limits for the shaded portion are 0    2 ,
arb.
2 b
b2  a2 2
d =  (b  a ) .
 2 2
Required area =   rdrd = 

0 a 2 0

CHANGE OF VARIABLES

Sometimes, change of variables technique is used to evaluate a double or triple integral in a simplified
manner. The equations that define the change of variables are known as transformations. The region R
in xy coordinate can be transformed into a region R1 in uv coordinates by the transformation x = g (u,v)

## and y = h(u,v) then  f (x, y)dxdy

R
will be transformed to  f (g(u, v), h(u, v)) J dudv where
R

x x
(x, y)  u v
J  is the Jacobian of the transformation from xy coordinates to uv coordinates.
(u, v) y y
u v
While converting from Cartesian coordinates to plane polar coordinates the transformations are
cos r sin
x  r cos , y  r sin , J  = r. dxdy=rdrd
sin r cos

## Hence  f (x, y)dxdy =  f (r, )rdrd .

R R
1

a a
x2
1. Express in polar coordinates  3 dxdy .
0 y
x 2
 y2  2

## x  r cos , y  r sin , and dxdy = rdrd

x2 r 2 cos2  cos2 
3
 3
 r .
x 2
y 
2 2
r  2 2
 .
The polar equations of the line x  y  r cos  r sin  cos  sin   
4

## Similarly y  0    0, y  a  r  a cos ec .


r varies from 0 to asec and  varies from 0 to .
4

cos2  rdrd =


   cos drd
4 a sec 4 a sec
 

a a
 x2
 
2
3 dxdy = .
x  y2  2
0 y 2 0 0
r 0 0

1 2 x2 4xy ( x2  y2
2. Transform to polar coordinates:   x  y2
2
e )dydx .
0 x

The polar transformations are x  r cos , y  r sin and dxdy = rdrd .The region of integration is
bounded by the circle x2 + y2 = 2, the line passing through the origin y = x, the Y-axis, x = 0 and x = 1.

## In polar coordinates the circle x2 +y2 = 2 is r  2,

 
x = y   , x = 0   .
4 2

## From the region of integration r varies from 0 to 2 and

 varies from  to  .
4 2
4xy 
e( x  y2
2
)dydx =
 4r 2sin cos e 2r rdrd
1 2 x2 2 2

 
0 x
x2  y2 
0 r2
4
 
2 2 22

##   4r sin  cose drd =   2re sin 2 drd .

r r
2 2
=
 0 0
4 4

2 2 x x2
x
3. By converting into polar coordinates evaluate  
0 0
x  y2
2 dxdy

## which passes through the origin. r varies from 0 to 2cos


and  varies from 0 to . Putting x  r cos , y  r sin
2

## and dxdy = rdrd the integral becomes

2 2 x x2
x
dxdy =

2 2cos

r cos rdrd =
 

2 2cos cosdrd =

2

cos   r 
r 2cos 
d
  x2  y 2  
0 0
r2  
0 0

0
r 0
0 0

 
1  

 2 cos d
2
= = 2. . = .
0 2 2 2
a a
x
4. Evaluate   x
0y
2
 y2 
dxdy by changing to polar coordinates.

Putting x  r cos , y  r sin and dxdy = rdrd the given integral in polar coordinates is

  
4 a sec a
  

4 4
  cosdrd =  cos (a sec )d 
0 4
0 0 0



## 5. Change into polar coordinates, evaluate  e( x  y2 )

2
dydx and show that
0 0


 x2  .

0
e dx =
2

The region of integration is the first quadrant In polar coordinates r varies from 0 to  .  varies from 0

to .
2

2



   
r 2  1 
r2 r2  
The given integral in polar form is  e rd dr =  re    re .  .

2
 0
dr = dr =
0 0 0 2 0 2 2 4

 ( x2  y2 ) 
Hence
 e
00
dydx = 4 .

  2   2    2   2  
 e dx  e dy  =   e x dx  e x dx =
x y

0 0  4 0  0  4

 2 2   2 
    e x dx =  .
 e dx =
x

0  4 0  2


2 2cos

0 0

## x  r cos , y  r sin and dxdy = rdrd .Also x2 + y2 = r2,   tan1  .

y
x

x 
cos = = x
.The given limits are r  2cos and r = 0.
r x2  y2

##  = 0 and    are X and Y axis respectively.The region of integration

2

is the shaded part in the figure. From the figure the limits of y are y  0, y  2x  x2 .

x varies from 0 to 2.


2 2cos

2 2 xx2
x
  r cosdrd =   x2  y2
dydx .
0 0 0 0
 
7. Change into polar coordinates and evaluate I =   dxdy
3

 
a 2
x y2

2 2

## Hence r varies from 0 to  and and  varies from 0 to 2  .

rdrd = 2. 
 2  
I=  1
3 rdrd =  1
 20 rdrd = 2  1 3
 a
3
0 0
a 2
 r 2 2 0
a 2
 r2 2 0
a 2
 r2 2

Triple integration

For the purpose of evaluation triple integral is expressed as a repeated integral of the form
z 2 y2 x2

   f (x, y, z)dxdydz .The order of integration can be decided once we determine the limits from the
z1 y 1 x1

region of integration.

1 2 2

## 1. Evaluate the following triple integral  xydxdydz .

0 01

The limits are constant limits and the order of integration specified is dxdydz. x varies from 1to2, y
varies from 0 to 2 and z varies from 0 to 1

x2
122 12
 2
 xydxdydz =   x  dydz
2
001 0 0  x1

 3 
12

=   2  dydz
00

= 3dz = 3.
0

2  a

## 2. Evaluate the following triple integral

 r sindrdd
4

001

The order of integration is first w.r.t ‘r’,secondly w.r.t  and then w.r.t  .
2  a

Let I =  r
4
sindrdd
001

2  r a
 r5 
=

0
0  5 r 1 sin dd

2  r a
 r5 
=

0
0  5 r 1 sin dd

 a5 1  2 
=    sin dd
 5 00
 a5 1  2  
=     cos   0
d
5
 0
 a5 1 2
=    cos   cos 0d
 5 0
 a5 1 2
=    2d
5
 0 
 a 1 
5
 2  a5 1
=    o = 4 
2
.
 5
   5 

1 1 z y z

   e dxdydz
x
3. Evaluate the following triple integral
0 0 0

The inner integral contains the limits with two variables y and z  x varies from1 to y + z.The limit of the
middle integral involves the variable z. Therefore y varies from 0 to 1- z and z varies from 0 to1.
1 1 z

I=  e 
x x y z
dydz
x0
0 0

1 1 z

  e 1dydz
y z
=
00

1
=  ez ey    y dz
y1 z y1 z

0
1

## =  e  e z 1 zdz

0

 2 z 1
z 
= e  e  z  
z
 2  z 0


1 1
= e- e +1-1+ = .
2 2

## 4. Express the region x  0, y  0, z  o, x  y  z  1 by triple integration.

2 2 2

The given region is the positive octant of the sphere x  y  z  1. We should first define
2 2 2

octant. Just as the two-dimensional coordinates system can be divided into four quadrants the three-
dimensional coordinate system can be divided into eight parts called as octants. The first octant is the
octant in which all three of the coordinates are positive.

To get the limits for x, y and z , from any point P on the surface drop PQ perpendicular to XY-plane. This
perpendicular is moved from a point on the X-axis say M to a point N on the curve of intersection of the
sphere and XY plane. This process generates a plane. This plane is covered from O to A to cover the
entire region enclosed by the sphere in the positive octant.

At P z = 1 x2  y2 and at Q, z = 0.

At M y = 0 and at N, y = 1 x2

At O x = 0 and at A, x =1

1 1 x2 1 x2  y2 
  f (x, y, z)dV =  
R 0 0

0
f (x, y, z)dzdydx .
dxdydz
 over the positive octant of the sphere x  y  z  a
2 2 2 2
5. Evaluate
R a2  x2  y2  z 2

## Finding the limits as in the previous example the given integral .

a
dxdydz a2 x2 a2 x2  y2 dzdydx
 =   
R a2  x2  y2  z2 0 0 0 a2  x2  y2  z2


z  a2  x2  y2
a a2  x 2 z 
=   sin1  dydx
0 0  a2  x2  y2 
z 0

a a2  x 2

## =   sin 1 1 sin 1 0dydx

0 0

 a

=
2 
0
a2  x2 dx

 x a2 xa
=  a  x  sin x2 2 1

2 2 2  x0

=   a .  
2

2  2 2 

= a .
2 2

6. Evaluate (x  2 y)dxdydz where R is the tetrahedral region bounded by the planes x=0, y=0, z=0
R

and x+y+z=3.
Let I = (x  2 y)dzdydx The limits of the inner most integral
R

## The limits for y are 0 to 3-x and for x are 0 to 3.

3 3 x 3x y
I=    (x  2 y)dzdydx
0 0 0

3 3 x

 (x  2 y)  z 
z 3 x y
= z0 dydx
00

3 3 x

=
00
 (x  2 y)3  x  ydydx
3 3 x

## =  (3x  6 y  x  3xy  2 y )dydx

2 2

00

y3x
3
  y2   y3 
=  3xy  3y  x y  3x    2  
2 2
dx
0     yo
2 3

3
81x 7x3 
=  45  12x 
2
dx
0 
2 6

 81x2 4 x3
= 45x   4x3  7x 
 4 24 x0
297
=
8

## VOLUME AS A TRIPLE INTEGRAL

The volume of a three dimensional region is given by  dxdydz .The order of integration depends on
V

## Required volume = 2(volume of the hemisphere above the XOY plane)

a a2  z 2 
a2  x2  y2
=2    dzdydx
a  a  z 2 2 0

a a2 z 2
=2   a2  x2  y2 dydx
a  a2  z2

a a2  x2
=4   a2  x2  y2 dydx
a 0

a a2  x2
= 4  a2  x2  y2 dydx (since the integrand is even)
a 0 

y a2  x2
a 
 a2 x2
y
a 2
 x2  y


  
= 4 
a  0
2
a2  x2  y2  2 sin1
a 2
 x 2  21 

dx

  y0

(a2  x2 ) 
a

= 4   dx
4
a  
 a
a  2 x3  4
=   (a  x ) dx = 2  (a x  ) =  a3 .
2 2

a  3 0 3
x2 y2 z2 

8. Find the volume of that portion of the ellipsoid   
a 2 b2 1 which lies in the first octant using
c2
triple integration.

x2 y2 x2
In the first octant z varies from 0 to c 1  . y from 0 to b 1 and x from 0 to a.
a2 b2 a2

x2 x2 y2 x2
a 1 c 1  b 1
a a2 a2 b2 a a2 2 2

 1 x  y dydx
Required volume =  
0 0

0
dzdydx = c 
 0 0
a 2 b2

x2

b 1 
2 2
a a
c x
=   b (1 2 )  y2 dydx
2

b0 0
a

x2
b 1
a a2 2
= c  k 2  y2 dydx ( k 2  b2 (1 x2 )
b0 0
a

 ca x2
 b (1
2
= )dx
4b 0 a2
a
 bc 
x3   abc
= x  2  = .
4  3a 0 6

## z varies from 0 to 4 – y. y varies from  4  x to 4  x2 . x varies from -2 to 2.

2

2 4x 2 4 y 2 4x2

## Required area =    dzdydx =   (4  y)dydx

2  4x2 0 2  4x2

2 4 x2 2 4 x2 
=   4dydx    ydydx
2  4x 2 2  4x 2

2 2

##  4  x2 dx + 0 =16 4  x dx =16 . (since y is an odd function)

2
=8
2 0
x y z
10. Find the volume of the tetrahedron bounded by the planes x = 0, y = 0, z = 0 and   1.
a b c
x  x y x
b(1 ) c 1  
 x y 
b(1 )
  a a
a a ab

  

Required volume =   dzdydx = c 1   dydx
0 0 0 0 0  a b 

x
 a
xy y2 yb(1 a )
= c y    dx
a 2b 
0 y0

a
 x bx x b2 x 
= c   b(1 )  (1 )  (1 )2  dx
0 a a a 2b a 

bc a x bc x2 x3
)2 dx . = (x   )0a
=
2 (1a
0
2 a 3a 2

abc
= .
6

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