You are on page 1of 30

Well completion Equipment

Packers
• A Packer is the part of the completion equipment which seals the casing –tubing annulus.

• Packers are usually run for the following reasons:


Provides an effective isolation of the casing tubing annulus from the produced fluid for
safety purposes, thus limiting well control to the tubing at surface.
To isolate the casing from corrosive fluids and/or high pressure.
To stabilize and control flow from pay zones.
In conjunction with an artificial lift system (isolation and control) , in gas lift, Jet Pumps.
To selectively produce multiple zones (isolation)
Selective stimulation becomes feasible.
Wire line and down hole operations become possible.
Hold an annular well killing fluid.
A packer is basically defined by :

• its setting mechanisms


• sealing mechanisms,
• its tubing-to packer connections and
• its retrievability
• The tubing-to-packer connection which can be done in one of three
ways:

the tubing is latched or fixed onto the packer(no movements),


 the tubing is landed allowing a limited movement.,
The Packers can be classified in three categories:

 Mechanical set Packer


 Hydraulic set Packer
 Permanent Packer
MECHANICAL SET PACKER

• Mechanical Packer is a single string retrievable casing packer.


• It sets and retrieves mechanically. It is a basically used as a service
packer in different operations such as
Layer wise testing,
Squeeze cementing,
Stimulation,
To find injectivity,
To find casing leakage.
These MECHANICAL SET PACKER packers are set by compression,
tension or rotating the string:

1. Weight set Mechanical Packer.

2. Tension set mechanical Packer.

Unsetting can be done by usually the reverse of setting procedure.


Tension Set packer
Compression packer
with fluid bypass
HYDRAULIC SET PACKER
Setting Mechanism:
Hydraulic packer is set by pressurizing tubing at required pressure differential at the packer
against a wire line installed blanking plug, standing valve or on expandable seat such as
pump-out-plug located below the hydraulic setting ports of the packer.

RELEASING MECHANISMS FOR HYDRAULIC PACKER:


The packers are unseated by pulling the tubing until tensional strain is sufficient to shear
the pins or rings which are calibrated versus a tension on the tubing that is greater than an
tension that may be reached during production.
Hydraulic-set single-
string packer.
Hydraulic-set dual-string
packer
Wireline re-entry guide
Profile Seating Nipples

1. top no-go
2. bottom no-go and
3. selective types
Sliding Sleeves Door
Side Pocket Mandrel
• A side pocket mandrel along with its through bore, contains an offset pocket
which is ported to the annulus. Various valves can be installed/retrieved
into/from the side pocket by wireline methods to facilitate annulus-to-tubing
communication. Side pocket valves, which provide a seal above and below the
communication ports, include:
• Gas lift valves
• Chemical injection valves
• Circulation valves
• Equalisation valves.
• Differential kill valves Dummy valves
Blast Joints

• The blast joint is used in multiple-zone wells in which the tubing


extends past a producing zone to deter the erosional velocity of the
produced fluids and formation sand from cutting through the tubing
string.
• The blast joint is simply a thick, heavy wall joint of steel pipe;
however, there are also more sophisticated designs that use materials
such as Carbide® for severe service applications.
Flow Couplings

• .They are run above and below any profile seating nipple and sliding
sleeve in which it is anticipated that the turbulence created by the
flow through the nipple restriction can reach erosional velocity and
damage the tubing string.
• The flow coupling does not stop the erosion; however, because of its
thick cross section, it can and will extend the life of the completion
because more material must be lost to erosion before failure occurs
than in the case of the tubing string alone. Flow couplings are
recommended when a flow-control device is to be installed on a
permanent basis
Blanking Plugs

• Blanking plugs may be landed in profile seating nipples or sliding


sleeves to temporarily plug the tubing string, allowing pressure to be
applied to the tubing string to test tubing or set a hydraulic packer, or
to isolate and shut off the flow from the formation.
Bottomhole Choke

• Bottomhole chokes are flow-control devices that are landed in profile


seating nipples. The bottomhole choke restricts flow in the tubing
string and allows control of production from different zones.
Pump-out plug
• Pump-out plugs act as a temporary bridge that
isolates the tubing from the annulus in order to
set a packer. Available in a variety of
configurations, the plug is removed by simply
applying pressure to the tubing.
Subsurface Safety Systems
• If a catastrophic failure of the wellhead should occur, the subsurface
safety valve provides a means to automatically shut off the flow of
the well to avoid disaster.
• There are basically two types of downhole safety valves
1. subsurface-controlled safety valves and
2. surface-controlled subsurface safety valves (SCSSV).
Subsurface-Controlled
Safety Valves
• The subsurface-controlled safety
valves (often called velocity valves
or Storm chokes) are wireline
retrievable and are installed in
standard profile seating nipples in
the tubing string below the
surface tubing hanger
Surface-controlled subsurface safety valves
(SCSSV)
• The SCSSVs are also installed in the tubing string below the
surface tubing hanger; however, they are controlled by hydraulic
pressure through a capillary (control) line that connects to a
surface control panel.
Reservoir isolation valve
• This component, placed towards the foot of the completion string, is
used to provide two way isolation from the formation for completion
operations without the need for kill weight fluids and without running
and retrieving plugs.
• The valve can be closed (usually by mechanical operation) and then
opened by pressure or pressure cycles. These valves can be
positioned in the reservoir completion, below a dedicated packer, or
in the tubing