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üDC 621.833 : 681 : 001.

4 DEUTSCHE NORMEN

Spur Gear Drives for Fine Mechanics


Scope, Definitions, Principal Design Data, Classification

Stirnradgetriebe der Feinwerktechnik;


I DIN
58105
Sheet I

Geltungsbereich, Begriffe, BestimmungsgröBen, Einteilung

Phis Standard is largely based on the gear tooth system standards for mechanical engineering
DIB 3960 etc., except where different provisions are necessary in order to meet the special
requirements of fine mechanics. To facilitate understanding, various parts of DIN 3960 etc. are
repeated here.
Phe references to the other Sheets of this Standard relate to the Nay 1972 issues.

Contents and survey


Sheet 1. Scope, definitions, principal design data, classification
I. Introduction 3.2.1. Addendum modification; addendum
modification factor x
i
1.1. General fundamental terms 3.2.2. Undercut
t
I.2. Symbols and denominations 3.2.3. Avoiding undercut through addendum
e 1.3. Definitions modification
fm 1.3.1. Gear fit 3.2.4. Permissible pairings with undercut
1.3.2. Topped spur gears unmodified gears
1.4. Arrangement of a scheme of gear fits 3.3. Contact ratio E
2. SCODû 3.3.1. Profile contact ratio (duration of
contact) ~p
2.1. Basic rack profile of teeth 3.3.2. Face contact ratio tSp
2.2. Module m 3.3.3. Total contact ratio egee
2.3. A&dendum modification factor x 3.4. Base tangent length W
2.4. Helix angle ßo 3.5. Dual cone width R
2.5. Number of teeth z 3.5.1. Dual cone width of unmodified gears
2.6. Pitch circle diameter do 3.5.2. Dual cone width of V gears
2.7. Face width b 3.6. Torsional backlash Sa
3. Definitions and principal d e s i w data 3.6.1. Using absolute tolerance addition
3.6.2. Using statistical tolerance addition
3.1. 'pip circle, tip circle diameter dk 3.6.3. Conversion of torsional backlash
3.1.1. Tip easing k * m from pm to angular seconds
3.2. Position of basic rack profiles in
--``,``,`,``,``,`````,,,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

relation to pitch circle 4. Classification

Sheet 2. Gear fit selection, tolerances, allowances


1. Gear fit selection 4. Tolerances and allowances on teeth
1.1. Directions for selecting a g e a r fit 4.1. Allowances for base tangent length Aw
1.2. General requirements Sor a gear fit 4.2. Dual cone width allowances 4 q
4.3. Total composite error Fi
2. Tolerances on Rear blank 4.4. Tooth to tooth composite e r r o r fi
4.5. Face alignment e r r o r fp
2.1. Tolerances on diameter of tip circle
(tip cylinder) 5. Tolerances and allowances f o r housing
2.1.1. Gear blanks f o r non-topped spur 5.1. Centre distance allowances A,
gears 5.2. Error in axial parallelism fp
2.1.2. G e a r blanks for topped spur gears
2.2. Permissible radial eccentricity of 6. Tolerances f o r Rear assemblies
tip circle (tip cylinder) 6.1. Tolerances for gear assemblies of
2.3. Peniisaible axial eccentricity of end Grade 5
faces 6.2. Tolerances for gear assemblies of
Grade 6
3. Tolerances on tip circle diameter of 6.3. Tolerances for gear assemblies of
t o p m a spur m a r s Grade 7
3.1. Necessary tolerancing with indirect 6.4. Tolerance8 for gear assemblies of
measurement of base tangent length Grade 8
(tooth thickness measurement) 6.5. Tolerances for g e a r assemblies of
3.2. Tolerances arising with direct meas- Grade 9
urement of base tangent length (tooth 6.6. Tolerances for gear assemblies of
thicbess measurement) Grade I O

Continued on pages 2 to 12

leinverkauf der Normblötter dur& Beuih-Vertrieb GmbH, Berlin 30 und Köln DIB 58405 B1. I engl. Preisgr.
Page 2 DIN 58405 Sheet 1

Sheet 3. Indications in drawings, examples for calculation


I. Indications in the sDur uear drawing 1.2.13. Dual cone width N
1.2.14. Centre distance a" in the dual
1.1. Data for the gear blank flank roll tester with master
1.2. Data for gear-cutting gear
1.2.1. Tool basic rack profile according 1.2.15. Number of mating gear
to DIN 50412
--``,``,`,``,``,`````,,,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.2.16. Centre distance in housing a


1.2.2. Number of teeth z 1.2.17. Base tangent length U
1.2.3. Module m
1.2.4. Pitch circle diameter do 2. Indications in the housinn drawing
1.2.5. Basic rack profile
1.2.6. Addendum modification factor x 2.1. Centre distance a
1.2.7. Helix angle Bo 2.2. Grade and tolerance zone according
1.2.8. Face alignment to DIN 58405 Sheet 2 and centre dis-
1.2.9. Gear fit according to DIN 58405 tance allowance
Sheet 2
- 2.3. Permissible e r r o r in axial parallel-
1.2.10. Permissible total error ism fp
range Fi 3. Indications in the Rear shaft drawinq
1.2.11. Permissible tooth to tooth com-
posite error fi 4. Individual errors
1.2.12. Permissible face alignment
error fß 5. Examples for calculation
Sheet 4. Tables
1. Base tannent lenuths w'
2. Factor for determininß centre distance with addendum modification aDDìied
3 . Radial setting R of tool f o r base tanuent length differences AW between theoret-
ical dimension and actual dimension
Supplementary Sheet I . Calculation proforma
Supplementary Sheet 2. Explanations according to DIN 58405
The Explanations which are in course of preparation contain information
which must be taken into account if the scope indicated in Sheet I,
Section 2 is exceeded.
Details are also given of the boundary conditions which were borne in
mind during the compiling of this Standard. A corresponding note is
included at the appropriate points i n this Standard.
The Explanations are not necessary for the application of this Standard
within its defined scope.

1. Introduction
I:l:-b8oera_i_ounaameoqal_leloos
The fundamental terms specified o r used in DIN 7182 Sheet 1 and Sheet 4 (Preliminary Standard)
are to be applied, as appropriate, to gears; further definitions required are listed below.
The following definitions should be noted in particular:
n o m i n a l d i m e n s i o n
The nominal dimension is the dimension used f o r indicating the magnitude, and it is the dimen-
sion to which the allowances of a measured quantity are related.
M e a n d i m e n s i o n
The mean dimension is the dimension corresponding to the arithmetic mean of the maximum and
m i n i m u m dimension.
A c t u a l d i m e n s i o n
The actual dimension is the dimension found in numerical terms by measurement on the workpiece.
A c t u a l a l l o w a n c e
The actual allowance ie the difference between the actual dimension and the nominal dirnension
of a measured quantity. Actual dimension minus nominal dimension.
U p p e r a l l o w a n c e
The upper allowance is the difference between the permissible maximum dimension and the nomi-
nal dimension of a measured quantity. Maximum dimension minus nominal dimension.
L o w e r a l l o w a n c e
The lower allowance is the difference between the permissible minimum dimension and the nomi-
nal dimension of a measured quantity. Minimum dimension minus nominal dimension.
T o l e r a n c e
The tolerance is the difference between the permiseible maximum aimension and the permissible
minimum dimension of a measured quantity.
R a d i a l e c c e n t r i c i t y
The radial eccentricity is the difference measured, in an agreed plane, between the smallest
and the largest distance on the surface from the axis of rotation when the workpiece is re-
volved about a reference axis. &dial eccentricity includes out-of-roundness.
A x i a l e c c e n t r i c i t y
The axial eccentricity is the difference measured, at an agreed distance from the axis of rota-
tion, between the smallest and the largest distance of the end face from a reference plane at
right angles to the axis of rotation when the workpiece ia revolved about an agreed axis.
N o n - p a r a l l e l i s m
Non-parallelism is the variation from the correct parallel position of two planes o r of two
straight lines relative to one another in a reference plane o r on a reference length.
DIN 58405 Sheet I Page 3

2-Z,Ssmbols-8ooo%oamioa4ioo8
For t h e s a k e of completeness, t h e a v a i l a b l e IS0 symbole according t o Recommendation R 701-1968 a r e l i s t e d
-
below, b u t are n o t used in t h e r e s t of t h e t e x t .

IS0 IS0
iymbol Denomination mbol Denomination
symbol symbol
-
A allowance Sdm mean t o r e i o n a l backlash
'a c e n t r e d i s t a n c e allowance 'dmst mean e t a t i s t i c a i t o r e i o n a l back-
laah
'ao
upper allowance of c e n t r e d i s t a n c
lower allowance of c e n t r e d i s t a n c 'k c c r e s t clearance
ua'
upper allowance of dual f l a n k r o l SL bearing clearance
A.0
t e s t distance t o o t h thicknese a t p i t c h c i r c l e
A;;U lower allowance of dual f l a n k rol tooth thickness a t t i p c i r c l e
test d i s t a n c e sh 'a
upper allowance of t i p c i r c l e T tolerance
Adho
T. t o l e r a n c e on c e n t r e d i s t a n c e
lower allowance of t i p c i r c l e

I
'ùku t o l e anc on c e n t r e d i e t a n c e of
ANO upper allowance of d u a l cone widt TB bearing gores
r a d i a l e c c e n t r i c i t y of t i p c y l l n -
AN,, lower allowance of d u a l cone widt der
tooth thickness allowance "sa a x i a l e c c e n t r i c i t y of end facee
A,
upper allowance of base tangent Tom mean value o f t o o t h t h i c k n e s s t o 1
AWo length erances of two intermating g e a r s
lower allowance of base tangent
AW,, length t o l e r a n c e on d u a l cone width
a a centre distance
TN
TW t o l e r a n c e on base tangent l e n g t h
a" centre distance i n the dual flank
roll t e s t e r 'a axial pitch
10 P pitch at pitch c i r c l e
a design s i z e for c e n t r e d i s t a n c e
'O" normal p i t c h at p i t c h c i r c l e
6 6 f a c e width Pn
width of t r u n c a t i o n of measuring 10. Pt transverse pitch a t pitch c i r c l e
6M cones
W W base tangent l e n g t h
¿u d p i t c h c i r c l e diameter
W base tangent l e n g t h (design e i s e )
¿b d' diameter of working r o l l i n g c i r c l
X X addendum modification f a c t o r
db base c i r c l e diameter
dg addendum modification f a c t o r of
t i p c i r c l e diameter XI *1 gear 1
dk da addendum modification f a c t o r of
Ff' d u a l f l a n k composite e r r o r x2 x2 gear 2
d u a l f l a n k t o o t h t o t o o t h compos- Y Y addendum factor
11' i t e error
yw yo addendum f a c t o r f o r t o o l
e r r o r i n axial p a r a l l e l i e m
fP L z number of t e e t h
f r ~ ~ r a d i a l run-out of o u t e r r i n g s of
b a l l b e a r i n g s of g e a r 1 z1 =I number of t e e t h of g e a r 1
r a d i a l run-out of o u t e r r i n g s of number of t e e t h of gear 2
frL2 b a l l b e a r i n g s of gear 2 "? '2
number of t e e t h between t h e meas-
r a d i a l e c c e n t r i c i t y between bear- u r i n g elements during measurement
frw of base tangent l e n g t h
i n g s e a t i n g diameters and gear
s e a t i n g diameter on s h a f t t h e o r e t i c a l l i m i t i n g number of
zt3 teeth
v a r i a t i o n of t o o t h t h i c k n e s s of t i a g number of t e e t h dependin
f,w z15T olerance
t o o l i n r e l a t i o n t o reference
cylinder ZY =Y
v i r t u a l number of t e e t h (equiva-
l e n t number of t e e t h in t h e norma
fB f a c e alignment e r r o r section)
8 l i n e of a c t i o n a a p r e s s u r e angle
h h t o t a l h e i g h t of t o o t h
"O
a p r e s s u r e angle a t p i t c h c i r c l e
hh addendum p r e s s u r e angle a t p i t c h c i r c l e i n
ha 'on a
. r e l a t i o n t o normal s e c t i o n
'LM addendum of measuring cones
addendum of t o o l 00. 01 p r e s e u r e angle a t p i t c h c i r c l e i n
hkw ha0 r e l a t i o n t o transverse section
i b
ratio
working p r e s e u r e angle
"b
k t i p easing factor
Ob. working p r e s s u r e angle i n r e l a t i o
m rn module t o transverse section
mn "'n normal module ß0 ß h e l i x angle i n r e l a t i o n t o p i t c h
t r a n s v e r s e module circle
mo 'fa I
N dual cone width E contact r a t i o
R r a d i a l s e t t i n g of t o o l %e8 Er t o t a l contact r a t i o
S' cumulative e r r o r i n d u a l f l a n k
measurement €P EL% p r o f i l e contact r a t i o

-
'd it t o r s i o n a l backlash esp I EB face contact r a t i o

--``,``,`,``,``,`````,,,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Page 4 D I B 58405 Sheet 1

ltZt,,-iLoi4iooe
The d e f i n i t i o n s in D I B 3960 should be applied, a s appropriate, t o spur gear drives f o r f i n e
mechanics i n so f a r a s no contrary provisions a r e specified below.
1.3.1. G e a r f i t
A gear f i t (e.g. 7 J/7 dc) r e s u l t s from the mating of two toleranced gears (e.g. 7 dc) a t a
toleranced centre distance (e.g. 7 JI.
1.3.2. T o p p e d s p u r g e a r s
Topped spur gears a r e gears which have had the tooth spaces and the t i p cylinder generated by
the eame t o o l in a single operation. I n t h i s case the t i p cylinder diameter may be used f o r
checking the t o o t h thickness.
Ii4i-b-fan68meo4-oo-a_Bcoeme_of-6ear-O~qe
I n a s i m i l a r manner t o that of other types of f i t (0.6. c y l i n d r i c a l f i t s ) so must f i t s a l s o be
specified for geara when:
a ) s a t i e f a c t o r y running, accuracy of angular transmission and the formation of a s a t i s f a c t o r y
lubricating f i l m a r e required;
b ) transmission components made independently of one another are required t o be assembled
without any corrective operations being needed;
c ) replacement gears need t o be interchange- Centre diotance allowances
able without any corrective operations. \
The gear f i t a according t o t h i s Standard are
b u i l t up on the centre distance b a s i s system,
which i s similar t o the IS0 hole b a s i s system
of c y l i n d r i c a l f i t s . I n a comparison of the
two, the c e n t r e distance corresponds t o the
hole and the tooth thickness, base tangent / I
length or dual cone width t o the shaft.
The gear f i t s a r e clearance f i t s . The tor-
Allowance6 / 17c1
of base tangent
s i o n a l backlash i n gear f i t s corresponds t o l e n g t h or tooth t h i c k n e s s
t h e clearance i n IS0 c y l i n d r i c a l f i t a . Figure I. Position of tolerance zones f o r gear
To allow d i f f e r e n t amounts of t o r s i o n a l back- f i t s of Grede 7
l a s h t o be obtained, tolerance zones a r e pro-
vided f o r the base tangent lengths o r dual
cone widths, t h e i r position being designated
by m a l l l e t t e r s , a s i n the IS0 c y l i n d r i c a l
f i t s (see Figure I and 2).
If used f o r interchangeable assembly, i t i s
possible t h a t zones h and g according t o
D I N 3961 etc. would give r i s e t o a negative
t o r s i o n a l backlash, and hence these gone6 a r e
prohibited f o r gear f i t s according t o t h i s
Standard. Figure 2. Position of tolerance zones f o r gear
See reference according t o Supplementary f i t 7 5/7 f
Sheet 2 on page 2
The s a t i s f a c t o r y running of gears i n a gear drive i s assured not only by obsemance of the
specified allowances on centre dietance, base tangent length aild dual cone width, but a l s o
depends on t h e other errors afSecting the individual determining f a c t o r s of gear elements, and
hence these a r e specified t o s u i t t h e allowances on centre distance, base tangent length and
dual cone width.
I n cases where the t o r s i o n a l backlash may be l a r g e without adversely a f f e c t i n g operation, two
or more tolerance zones may be allowed f o r t h e base tangent length and dual cone width allow-
ances whilet maintaining the grade. In such cases, therefore, w h i l s t the base tangent lengths
of a p a r t i c u l a r gear a r e required t o l i e within a single tolerance zone, t h e zones f o r the
s e r i e s a s a whole a r e allowed t o v a r i a t e within the specified tolerance zones.
To avoid confusion with c y l i n d r i c a l f i t s , t h e f i g u r e signifying the grade is placed i n f r o n t
of the l e t t e r s denoting the tolerance zone (e.g. 7 J; 7 f ; 9 ad).
The rangea and tolerance magnitudes a r e specified i n accordance with the foxmulation r u l e s i n
D I N 3961, except uhere the s p e c i a l requirements of f i n e mechanics have made i t necessary t o
make provisions d i f f e r i n g from those of DIN 3961.
2. &2ODe
This Standard applies t o r o l l i n g contact drives ( r e f e r r e d t o h e r e a f t e r as drives f o r s h o r t )
consisting of s t r a i g h t or h e l i c a l spur gears with or without addendum modification, and sub-
j e c t t o t h e following limitations:
---------------- ---------------
2.1. Basic rack p r o f i l e of t e e t h
up t o module I according t o D I N 5 8 4 0 0
above module I according t o D I N ô67
During the t r a n s i t i o n period and f o r c e r t a i n s p e c i a l cases, D I N 867 with Sk 2 0.2 m may a l s o
be used up t o module 1.

I)This does not include any enlargement or reduction of the t o r s i o n a l backlash due t o c o n c e n t r i c i t y errors
of s h a f t s a n d bearing c l e a r a n c e s . See D I N 58405 Sheet 2, page 2 . Footnote 3.

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D I N 58405 Sheet I Page 5

m -
2:2:-Mo&?le
0.2 t o 3 mm
m

Graduation according t o D I N 780

--------------
Z:Z:,loaeoo~,oioo~y~~~4~~~~~~4~~
x -0.5 to +0.!j2)
x

-
2.4. Helix angig $0
Bo (5O>, I O o , 1 5 O .
(17O), 2
0
'
(Bracketed values t o be avoided where p o s s i b l e )

-..........................=
Z:2:-N!E!ber-oL4ee4h
z
2.6.
12 t o 140
P i t c h c i r c l e diameter do
dos400mm
2,Zt-Pace-wioto b
f o r s t r a i g h t spur gears b 5 I O m
f o r h e l i c a l spur gears b d l 6 m
-
Gears outside t h i s scope should be i n d i v i d u a l l y calculated (see reference t o Supplementarg
Sheet 2 on paga 2).
3. Definitions and p r i n c i p a l d e s i m d a t a
The p r i n c i p a l design d a t a s p e c i f i e d i n D I N 3960 should a l s o be applied, as appropriate, t o spur
gear d r i v e s for f i n e mechanics, except vhere the s p e c i a l requirements of f i n e mechanics make i t
necessary f o r provisions d i f f e r i n g from those of D I N 3960 t o be s p e c i f i e d below.
Zrlr--1P-CirC~81-411e_ci.rcle_olame4eI. dk
The t i p c i r c l e i s t h e imaginary continuous o u t e r (or i n n e r i n t h e case of an i n t e r n a l gear)
boundary l i n e of the t e e t h of a spur gear i n a plane perpendicular t o the axis of t h e gear. Its
diameter, assuming t h e basic rack p r o f i l e according t o D I N 5 W O O and D I N 867 i s
for en e x t e r n a l gear:
+
dk = do 2m, ( x y ) - 2 k * m n +
f o r an i n t e r n a l gear:
dk = d o + 2 m , ( x - y ) 2 k .rnn +
For D I N 58400 y = 1.l.
3.1.1. T i p
f o r D I N 867 Y
e a s i n g k -
m
1 -
To provide a V gear d r i v e composed of non-topped spur gears with the s p e c i f i e d c r e s t c l e a r -
ance Sky t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t i p easing k m i s necessary.
Por 811 e x t e r n a l gear d r i v e the following applies:
k ' r n , = ao +(xi + .r2)mn- a (3)
For an i n t e r n a l gear d r i v e the following a p p l i e s :
k .ntn = a - ao - (x2 - xl)rnn (4)
If the t i p easing c a l c u l a t e d as above i s so m a l l t h a t reduction of the c r e s t clearance i n the

--``,``,`,``,``,`````,,,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
d r i v e by t h e amount k m i s s u f f i c i e n t , then i t w i l l generally n o t be necessary t o reduce the
o r i g i n a l addendum.
The following a p p l i e s ( s e e DIN 3960, Section 3.34)
m,, z1+z2 cosao,
a=-.-.- (5)
cOsP() cosab,
The angle abe i s found from
Z t a n ao,, (xi + x2) + c v a
evabs = O8
z1 +
evabe being determined from a t a b l e of involutes or by t r i a l and e r r o r from equation (7).
e v a b 8 = tariabi, arcab, - (7)
I n t h e case of an i n t e r n a l gear d r i v e
m, z2- z1 cosao,
a=-.-.-
cosBo 2 cosab, (8)

The angle Obs i s found from


2ianaon x2
eva,,, = ( -XI) + evao, (91

For s t r a i g h t spur gears abe - ab and aos - ao


22 - 21

2 , In the case of topped spur gears the negative addendum modification reaulting in practice due t o the
tooth thickness allouaacem is not covered by this Section 2.3.
Page 6 DIN 58405 Sheet 1

It.l:_oos~4ioo_o~-oaB~c_rack_Erooile8-i~_r~~a41oo_4o-E~4ch_cifc~e
3.2.1. A d d e n d u m m o d i f i c a t i o n , a d d e n d u m m o d i f i c a -
t i o n f a c t o r x
The addendum modification of a V gear is the distance f r m the profile datum line of the basic
rack profile to the pitch circle.

outwax& -
In a V lus gear the addendum modification is positive (profile datum line displaced radially
away from the axis of the gear), whilst in a Vminus gear the addendum modification
is negative (profile datum line displaced radially inwards towards the axis of the gear). -
The value of the addendum modification is the product of the addendum modification factor I
and the normal module.
Addendum modification -
x . m n or x . m
Hence, for external and internal teeth:
(10)

x positive when the basic rack profile is displaced away from the axis of the gear,
x negative when the basic rack profile is displaced towards the axis of the gear.
3.2.2. Un d e r cu t
I n the case of unmodified gears, undercutting of the tooth flanks by a rack type cutting tool
(planing cutter, hob, grinding wheel) operating with a rolling or helical motion starte at a
theoretical limiting number of teeth z which, for a transverse pressure angle aos and an
addendum factor yw on the basic rack pkofile of the gear-cutting tool is given by

-
For straight spur gears zg m 1 9 (with yu 1.1) for tooth systems according to DIN 58400,
whilst for tooth systems according to DIN 867 zg = 17 (with yw 1). -
caee of D I B 5û400; yw
tolerance is found as
-
Through the variation of the end oint of the usable flank on the tool (transition from tip
radiusing to flank; see DIN 584125 from the nominal position of this point (yw 1.1 in the
I in the case of DIN 867). the limiting number of teeth depending on
.
I

2 (Yw + /Yiw ) cos P"


L6'1. = siii2a08 (12)

-
For spur gears without addendum modification and with basic rack profile according to
D I N 5W00 (yw 1.1; Ayw 0.1) the following applies
.
I

?,4 cos po
Zß'r = Sill* ao e

DIN 867 (yw I;Ayw 0.1) the follo~ing


applies 00 Oo 150) 100 1 5 O (170) 200
2,2 cos 6,)
Lg, = (13 a ) for t o o t h system 21 21 20 19 19 18
sin' nOe acc. t o D I N 58400
F o r straight and helical spur gears the ZaT
limiting number of teeth depending on toler- for tooth syetem 19 19 18 17 17 16
ance I can be found from Table I o r from acc. t o DIN 867
Figure'T.

For basic rack pro

For baei C

Figure 3.
--``,``,`,``,``,`````,,,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Effect of helix angle ßo of spur


gears with basic rack profile
according to DIN 5 8 4 0 0 and DIN 867
on the limiting number of teeth
depending on tolerance z g ~
3 20 30 40 50'
Helix angle ßo
D U 58405 Gheet I Page 7

Figure 4.
Effect of addendum modification
on t h e l i m i t i n g number of t e e t h
depending on tolerance E T of
s t r a i g h t spur gears with%asic
rack p r o f i l e according t o
D I N 58400

Number of t e e t h E

1
.". -.-
08
2 96
E q4
3
+r
42
O 0
.r(
+I

d -92
Figure 5.
o
--``,``,`,``,``,`````,,,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Effect of addendum modification g -94


11
on the l i m i t i n g number of t e e t h Q '96
depending on tolerance zg'p of e
s t r a i g h t spur gears with basic 2 -48
rack p r o f i l e according t o
D I N 867 -1
Nuaber of t e e t h e

3.2.3. A v o i d i n g u n d e r c u t t h r o u g h a d d e n d u m m o d i f i c a -
t i o n
To ensure t h a t undercutting by a rack type c u t t i n g t o o l i s j u s t avoided for z t e e t h so t h a t the
tooth curve s t a r t s a t the base c i r c l e , the following addendum modification f a c t o r i s necessary
2 T-Z
x=(Yw+AYw) Is
=ST
For s t r a i g h t spur gears with z t e e t h t h e following applies
in the case of t h e basic rack p r o f i l e according t o DIN 58400
21 - 2
x = 1,2 -
21
i n the case of the basic rack p r o f i l e according t o DIN 867
19-2
x = 1,l -
19
The connection between the addendum modification f a c t o r x and t h e undercut l i m i t s i s shown i n
Figure 4 for s t r a i g h t spur gears with basic rack p r o f i l e according t o D I A 5 8 4 0 0 , and s i m i l a r l y
i n Figure 5 for t h e basic rack p r o f i l e according t o D I A 867. x must be p o s i t i v e for E e z T and
may be negative f o r 5 > zgp, i.e. modification values above the sloping l i m i t l i n e s are afveye
permissible.
The t i p l i m i t l i n e gives the permissible addendum modification r e s u l t i n g i n a minimum tooth
thickness a t the t i p c i r c l e of 8k = 0.2 m. The m a l l e s t p r a c t i c a l number o& t e e t h for a
s t r a i t spur gear with basic rack p r o f i l e according t o DIB 5û400, without t i p easing, appears
from i? i g u m 4 as z = 13
whilst t h e m a l l e s t p r a c t i c a l number of t e e t h f o r a s t r a i g h t spur gear with basic rack p r o f i l e
according t o D U 867 i s found from Figure 5 a s
z - IO.
Page 8 D I N 58405 Sheet 1

-
-
ühen c e r t a i n minimum amounts of t i p easing h i n m and given addendum modifications x * m a r e
adopted, t h e b a s i c rack p r o f i l e according t o DIN 58400 r e s u l t s in numbers of t e e t h below
o 13; see DIN 58400.
3.2.4. P e r m i s s i b l e p a i r i n g s w i t h u n d e r c u t u n m o d i -
f i e d g e a r s
Even if the number of t e e t h goes below t h e l i m i t i n g number depending on tolerance 2 T, the
addendum modification with I according t o equation (14) may be disregarded, provides t h a t the
number of t e e t h on the mating gear i s within c e r t a i n limits. Under these condition8 the under-
c u t present on one or both of the unmodified gears does not r e s u l t i n any reduction of the
length of t h e p a t h of contact and t o t h i s extent is not harmful. See reference t o Supplementary
Sheet 2 on page 2.
2.2:,co!?9ac4-ratio E
In t h e transverse s e c t i o n t h e contact r a t i o i a the r a t i o of t h e length of p a t h of contact t o
t h e transverse contact p i t c h , and i n t h e axial s e c t i o n i t i s the r a t i o of the smaller face
width b t o the exial pitch. I n the transverse s e c t i o n i t is r e f e r r e d t o a s the p r o f i l e contact
r a t i o , and i n t h e a x i a l s e c t i o n as t h e face contact r a t i o . With s t r a i g h t spur gears only t h e
p r o f i l e contact r a t i o arises, w h i l s t i n t h e case of h e l i c a l spur gears both the p r o f i l e and the
face contact r a t i o s a r i s e .
3.3.1. P r o f i l e c o n t a c t r a t i o ( d u r a t i o n o f c o n -
t a c t )
For a g e a r d r i v e f e a t u r i n g gears without harmful undercut, t h i s i s given by

For s t r a i g h t spur gears the f a c t o r


t i o n 2.
cosa0
cosab
-
can be found from the Table i n D I N 58405 Sheet 4, Sec-

3.3.2. P a c e c o n t a c t r a t i o ESP

This is given by
--``,``,`,``,``,`````,,,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3.3.3. T o t a l c o n t a c t r a t i o Eges
This i s given by 'gel = E,, + "p (19)
Where Ep should n o t be smaller than 1.1.
See reference t o Supplementary Sheet 2 on page 2.
2,4,_8aae_taoaeo4_~eos~~
w
The base tangent l e n g t h W ( a u x i l i a r y quantity f o r measuring tooth thickness, see D I N 3960 Fig-
u r e 12) is t h e distance between two p a r a l l e l planes, measured over 2 ' t e e t h , which touch a
right-hand and a left-hand f l a n k r e s p e c t i v e l y i n t h e v i c i n i t y of the p i t c h c i r c l e .
Base tangent lengths u' f o r spur gears without addendum modification can be found from the
Tables i n D I N 58405 Sheet 4 Section I as a function of the modules and h e l i x angles quoted i n
Section 2.
The base tangent length W i s t h e r e f o r e
W=w'+AW (20)

For unmodified gears W u'. -


The number of teeth e ' can be found from the Tables i n D I N 50405 Sheet 4 Section 1 t o s u i t the
base tangent lengths.
For the nominal s i z e s of spur gears l y i n g outside the scope of Section 2, t h e base tangent
lengths should be d e t e m i n e d according t o D I N 3960 Section 2.57.
The base tangent l e n g t h i s measured, e.g., e i t h e r d i r e c t l y by means of base tangent length
c a l i p e r s or micrometer or i n d i r e c t l y i n the dual f l a n k r o l l t e s t i n g .
2:2:-&aLcoE?-!!id4h N
In the case of e x t e r n a l t o o t h systems, t h e dual cone width N ( a u x i l i a r y quantity for measuring
tooth thickaeeees, Figure 6 and 7) i s t h e distance between the end f a c e s of two truncated meas-
u r i n g cones (a standard i s in course of preparation) each of which i s i n contact v i t h a r i g h t -
hand and a left-hand f l a n k above the base c i r c l e . To ensure t h a t the contact of t h e two measur-
i t should be outside the pressure angle a O t o 5'. -
ing cone8 with t h e t o o t h flanks d e f i n i t e l y takea place i n the usable region of the tooth f l a n k s ,

With even number of t e e t h t h e measuring cones a r e introduced i n t o d i r e c t l y opposed tooth spaces


and t h e measuring a x i s (common a x i s o f t h e measuring cones) passes through the centre of t h e
gear (Figure 7).
With odd number of t e e t h the neasuring cones a r e introduced i n t o t o o t h spaces a s n e a r l y oppo-
s i t e as possible, but the measuring axis does not pass through t h e centre of the gear (Figure 6).
D1N 58405 Sheet 1 Page 9

E
c':

--``,``,`,``,``,`````,,,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
E
c'

Figure 6. Dual cone width measurement with Figure 7. Dual cone Width measurement with
odd number of t e e t h even number of t e e t h

The nominal dimension N of the d u a l cone width r e l a t e s t o t h e nominal dimension of the tooth
t h i c h e s s 60 i n the case of the s t r a i g h t spur gear, and son i n t h e case of the h e l i c a l spur
gear.
3.5.1. D u a l c o n e w i d t h o f u n m o d i f i e d g e a r s
For a spur gear with values according t o Section 2 and a measuring cone with addendum h m , the
nominal dimension N of the dual cone width i s
-
N = dg 2 h k M (21 1
or, r e f e r r e d t o the width bH of the truncation of t h e measuring cone
ni .n
N = do - (02
- b.) cot mo (22)

3.5.2. D u a l c o n e w i d t h o f V g e a r s
The nominal dimension N of the dual cone width of a spur gear with values according t o Sec-
t i o n 1, a measuring cone w i t h addendum hm and addendum modification i s
N=do + 2 %. m- 2 h L M (23)
or, r e f e r r e d t o the width bn of the truncation of t h e measuring cones

Zt6,-Tors~ooai_oack~ashSd
3.6.1. U s i n g a b s o l u t e t o l e r a n c e a d d i t i o n
The t o r s i o n a l backlash Sa i s that a r c of t h e r o l l i n g c i r c l e about which each of t h e two gears
-
can be r o t a t e d with the mating gear held s t a t i o n a r y -from t h e point where the right-hand
flanks are i n contact t o the point where t h e left-hand flanke a r e in contact.
Disregarding the s t a t i s t i c a l tolerancing, and assuming t h a t t h e allowances f o r base tangent
length and centre distance a r e applied, it c o n s i s t s of the sum of the proportions of the two
allowances.
In the case of unmodified, V unmodified and V gear drives the following apply f o r h e l i c a l spur
gears :

1,064
'd min - ( A W o l + A W ~,,0,2) + Ian ba (26)

For s t r a i g h t spur gears tanab, = tanab and cospe = I .


To detennine the l a r E e s t and smallest t o r s i o n a l backlash with 100 % tolerance addition, it i s
necessary t o take account of bearing clearances and of permissible r a d i a l e c c e n t r i c i t y of the
shafts. Apart from t h e gear, t h e s h a f t a l s o comprises a l l r o t a t i n g p a r t s , e.g. intermediate
bushes, inner r i n g s of b a l l bearings etc. (see D I N 58405 Sheet 2, Footnote 14).

3) A standard dealing with measuring cones is in course of preparation.


Page 1 0 D U 58405 Sheet 1

I n the case of unmodified, V m o d i f i e d and V gear ä r i v e s the following apply for h e l i c a l spur
gears:
1.064
Sdnisx = - ( ' ~ u ì + ' ~ u 2 ) = +(2Aao+1,,1 + f r v 2 + S L 1 + S L 2 ) t P 4 . (27)

For s t r a i g h t Spur gears tanab, I tanab and COS&) = 1.


If the calculation uses t h e base tangent length allowances instead of the dual cone width
allowances, the f a c t o r 1.064 becomes 2.747.
I f the a c t u a l dimension of Sd for a gear f i t is t o be determined, the various allowances i n
the equations should be replaced by t h e actual allowances.
The angle a i s is found from:
CUB
,
al,, = "O COKag,
(29)
a + A,, + -+Y
jrw2
j r r l
,+,+
,*
L
SI.1
L L
SL2
L
"he angle aga is found from:
con a l l , "O cosaol
a + A , , - - - - - f- .r -w- i frw2 S L ~S L ~ (29 a >
2 2 2 2
3.6.2. U s i n g s t a t i s t i c a l t o l e r a n c e a d d i t i o n
The tolerance on mean t o r s i o n a l backlash S t o be expected on s t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , and
v i r t u a l l y never exceeded, is found by a p p l 3 n g s t a t i s t i c a l tolerancing.
(See D I N 7186 in conjunction with the explanations therein).
A simplified method of calculating the mean t o r s i o n a l backlash and its tolerance with ade-
quate accuracy is by determining S h e X and from equation (25) and (26) and s u b s t i t u t i n g

--``,``,`,``,``,`````,,,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
i n the following equation.

SdmS, =
',ma, + Sù min o,6 'd max - 'd min
(29 b)
2 2
If and Shin are determined from equation (27) and (281, equation (29 c ) i s used.

S d n ~ S <=
'dmax + 'dniin * o,45 'd max - 'd min (29 c >
2
2
3.6.3. C o n v e r s i o n o f t o r s i o n a l b a c k l a s h f r o m pm t o
a n g u l a r s e c o n d s

(29 a )

where dg i s the p i t c h c i r c l e diameter of the spur gear subject t o backlash i n a p a i r of i n t e r -


mating gears.
D I N 5 8 4 9 Bheet I Page I 1

4. Classification
The drives mainly used i n fine mechanics can be subdivided according t o the Table below:
Table 2.

I Examples f o r Basic rack


Recommended
gear f i t

I Types of d r i v e Characteristic features


application profile according t o
IN 58405 Sheet I

True-torque transmission
Lou f r i c t i o n a l l o s s e s , C'loch with mechan- profiles
Clockwork ical oscillatory d e r i v e d from
l a r g e c r e s t c l e a r a n c e and c y c l o i d s and
mechanisms system
backlash when l a r g e s t e p - circular arcs
up r a t i o s a r e involved

Mech. d i v i d i n g head 5J/5f


True-angle transmission D i a l gauge
Drives f o r 6J/6f
Minimum backlash without speed drives
mcasurin 7Jpf
p r e j u d i c i n g f r e e and uni- Synchro drives
ur~oses
form running Balance mechaniems (8J/8f)

Basic r a c k pro-
Drives f o r f i l e according
s e t t i n g and Small backlash. Steady Microscope d r i v e , t o D I N 58400 or
adjustment and uniform running fine s e t t i n g controls according t o
purposes D I N 867 ( s e e
S e c t i o n 2)

Backlash no g r e a t e r than E l e c t r i c hand d r i l l ,


6J/6e
necessary f o r low-noise windscreen wiper, 7JPdc
Power d r i v e s 8J/ûàc
running and low rate of sewing machine,
wear variable load drives 9J/9ed

I Instrument
Large backlash and l a r g e
crest c l e a r a n c e t o prevent
Gear t r a i n s f o r
camera shutter,
Preferably
baaic r a c k pro-
f i l e according
t o D I N 58400
9JPed
lOJ/lOe
--``,``,`,``,``,`````,,,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

trains
malfunction due t o d i r t counter, r e c o r d e r s
also special
t o o t h systems

Bracketed gear f i t s are for special caees.


Page 12 DIN 58405 Sheet 1

References to further standards


DIN 620 Sheet I Tolerances of ball and roller bearings; measuring methods
Sheet 2 -; standard tolerance (tolerance class 0)
Sheet 3 -; reetricted tolerancee (tolerance classes 6, 5 and 4 )
Sheet 4 -; radial internal clearance
DIN 3141 (Preliminary Standard) Surface symbols in drawings; assignment of peak-to-valley
height8
DIN 5425 Pits for the mounting of anti-friction bearings; general directions
DIN 7182 Sheet I Tolerancee and fits; terminology of dimensional tolerances
Sheet 4 (Preliminary etandard) -; terminology of variations in geometry and posi-
tion

General tooth system standards


DIN 780 Module aeries for gears
DIN 867 Basic rack profile for spur gears with involute teeth for general engineering
DIN 3960 Specification factors and errore relating to spur gears; basic terms and definitions
(August 1960 issue)
DIN 3961 Tolerances for spur gear tooth systems according to DIN 867; explanations

3
DIN 58400 Basic rack profile for spur gears with involute teeth for fine mechanics
DIN 58405 Sheet 2 Spur gear drives for fine mechanics; gear fit selection, tolerances, allow-
B11CBB
Sheet 3 -; indicatione in drawings, examples for calculation
Sheet 4 -; table8
Supplementary Sheet I -; calculation proforma
D I N 58411 Hobs f o r spur gears for fine mechanice with module 0.1 to 1 mm
DIN 58412 Basic rack profiles for gear-cutting toola for fine mechanics; involute tooth sys-
tems according to DIN 58400 and DIN 867
DIN 58413 Tolerances f o r hobs for fine nechanice

Tooth system etandarde for mechanical enaineering


D I N 3962 Sheet I Tolerances for spur gear tooth systems according to DIN 867; tolerances
f o r individual errors, module up to 0.6
Sheet 2 -; -, module above 0.6 to 1.6
Sheet 3 -; -, module above 1.6 to 4
Sheet 4 -; -, module above 4 to I O
DIN 3964 Gear tooth systems; centre distance allowances
DIN 3967 Tolerances for spur gear tooth systems according to DIN 667; permissible tooth
alignment error, permissible composite error, tooth distance allowances

Poreinn standards
BS 978 : Part I : 1962 Fine Pitch Gears, Involute Spur and Helical Gears
AGHA 236.04 Inspection of Fine Pitch Gears
AGHA 390.01 Manuel f o r Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gears

--``,``,`,``,``,`````,,,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---