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Cast Iron Pipe

- Use in bldgs. Less than 25 stories
- SV type for building installations and XV type for underground.
- Acid Resistant cast iron is made from alloy of cast iron and silicon.
Asbestos Pipe
- made of asbestos fibers and Portland cement
- Twice the thickness on the cast iron.
CHAPTER 4 – Sewage Disposal System
Types of Sewage Disposal System
 Cesspool – made of blocks/stones etc.
 Privy – made of wood
 Septic Tank
 Public Sewer Line
Public Sewer Line
 The combination Public Sewer – conveys both storm water and sanitary wastes
 Sanitary Sewer – sanitary waste only
- Intercepting Sewer made of concrete pipe (0.60m-3m – Dia.)
- Laid underground of 3m.
- Tributary Sewer made of vitrified clay smaller dia. Installed not more than 3m.
 Storm Drain – carries storm water.
- Device of the main and storm sewer having interval distance of (75m-100m) and manhole
diameters of (90cm-120cm).
Identifying the Materials for public sewer line
Distance (between manhole) – 1m = Net Distance
No. of pipes = Net Distance/ Length of each pipe *usual length of concrete pipe is 1m
No of pipes x (3%/4%) = No. of pipe excluding factor
No of Pipes – No. of Pipe excluding factor = Effective number of pipes
Septic Tank
- Receptacle or vault used to collect organic waste discharged from the house sewer.
- During retention period (60%-70%) are being removed through sedimentation forming
semi-liquid substance called sludge.
Digestion- process that scum and sludge are processed by anaerobic bacteria.

Construction of Septic Tank – Most used material is plastered concrete hollow blocks/reinforced concrete,
minimum size of Septic Tank (90cm – 150 cm), liquid depth of 120cm

90cm 120 cm

150 cm
Size of Septic Tank
Quantity of User Capacity of Septic Tank
Family (6persons) 1.3 m3
Family (12persons) 2m3
Residential 0.14-0.17m3/person
Commercial, School and 0.057m3-0.086m3/person
Note: 1.2 m of width/100 persons
Capacity of Septic tank – V = 1.125 + 0.75 Q

V = Liquid volume of tank (gallons)

Q = daily sewage flow in gallons

*Note see Table 4-2 (Quantity of Sewage Flow) Page 95. (Max Fajardo Book)
Residential Commercial
No. of Person Served 1-20 persons 21-100 persons
Width 90-150 130-200
Length 150-300 210-360
Height 150 120-150
Liquid Depth 120 150-200

*Note: 3m assumed width for commerce.

 Can be located 2m from the building outside wall it will serve.
 Can’t be located in doors/windows.
 15m away from any source of water supply.

CHAPTER 5 – The Waste Pipe

Three Major Components of the Drainage System
 Drainage – Drainage Pipe receives and conveys discharges from water closet.
 Waste – Waste pipe receives any discharges from the fixtures except water closet.
 Vent – Vent pipe functions as ventilation/air passage for the drainage pipe and waste pipe.
- Soil Branch – horizontal pipe affixed by the word soil.
- Soil Stack – vertical pipe installation where the soil branches terminate.
*Note: Installation of RIGHT fittings
- Use long sweep fittings on horizontal changes
- For vertical to horizontal use Y and 45 deg. Fittings
- T fittings are used only on vertical runs with lateral branches.

Right Slope/Grade of Waste Pipe

- Standard: 2% slope (2cm/m of length)
- Trap Seal Loss - loss or escape of standing water inside the P-trap
*Note: Depth of the water in the pipe must be 50% of the size diameter of the pipe.

Fixture Fixture Unit

Bathtub 2
Floor Drain 1
Kitchen Sink 2
Residential Sink 1.5
Lavatory/Wash Basin 1
Laundry Tub 2
Shower Bath 2
Slop sink 3
Sink, Hotel/Public 2
Urinal 5
Water Closet 6
The Combination Fixture 3 Fixture
Unit One Bathroom group consisting of
water closet, lavatory, bathtub, and 8
overhead shower/water closet lavatory
and shower compartment
Two types:
For every 15 sq.ft roof drain 1
 Direct Waste – one with terminal directly connected to the plumbing system.
Size of Horizontal Fixture Branch and Stack
Fixtures served by Direct Waste
- Urinals, Bathtub, Lavatories, Sink, Showers, Drinking Fountain, Laundry, Laboratory and
Hospital Fixture
 Indirect Waste – terminal not directly connected to the plumbing system.
- Soda fountain, Bar Waste, Refrigeration, and Drinking Fountain.

Recommended size of Waste Pipe

Fixtures Minimum Size
Sink Waste 38mm (1.5in) /
50mm(2in) – most used
Slop Sink 75mm/100mm – Trap on
50mm – trap on wall
*Note: 50mm usually on
Bathtub 38mm-50mm
Lavatories 50mm
Shower Bath 50mm
Urinal 50mm
Laundry tub 38mm-50mm
Drinking Fountain 32mm
Lavatory Waste 50mm
Hospital Fixtures 50mm

CHAPTER 6 – The Soil Pipe

Soil Stack/Stack Vent – installed vertically (30cm long, 75mm (3in) Dia.) or 2m above the roof (when
roof is used other than protection)
Soil Branch – installed horizontally
*Note: TABLE 5.2 Size of Horizontal Fixture Branch and Stack (Max Fajardo Page. 108 Ch. 5)

Waste Pipe and Other Fixtures

- Vertical to horizontal direction shall be done: ¼ bend, long sweep ¼ bend, two 1/8 bend
and combination of Y and 1/8 bend

Note: Practice problems in Max Fajardo book Pg. 121

Diameter of Pipe Max. number of F.U

mm/inch One Horizontal Not Over 3 STACK (3 or more branch interval)
Branch Branches
One branch Total in Stack
32/1.25 1 2 1 2
38/1.5 3 4 2 8
50/2 6 10 6 24
63/2.5 12 20 9 42
75/3 20 30 20 60
100/4 160 240 90 500
125/5 360 540 200 1100
150/6 620 960 350 1900
200/8 1400 2200 600 3600
250/10 2500 3800 1000 5600
300/12 3800 6000 1500 8400
*No water closet shall discharge into a drain less than 75mm/3in dia. Pipe*

The Soil Branch

- Cleanout should be the same diameter as the soil branch.
- Cleanout should be installed whenever changes in directions are made
- Cleanout should be located at the farthest end of any vertical soil pipe

*Not more than two water closets shall discharge into any 75mm diameter horizontal soil branch, house
sewer or drain*

Note: Practice problems in Max Fajardo book Pg. 128

CHAPTER 7 – The House Drain

House Drain (Collection line of a Plumbing System) – portion of the plumbing system that receives
discharges from all soil and waste stacks within the building.

Classify into four types

 Combined Drain – old school type of drain (already phase out).
 Sanitary Drain – discharge of sanitary and domestic waste only (Storm water is not allowed)
 Storm Drain – discharges all storm water except sanitary waste.
 Industrial Drain – discharge industrial waste that has acid substance.

Diameter of Max. no of
Pipe Fixture Unit
mm/in 2% slope
2/1.25 1
38/1.5 2
50/2 5
63/2.5 12
75/3 18
100/4 84
125/5 162
150/6 300
200/8 990
250/10 1800
300/12 3089

Grade or Slope of the House Drain

- Could be estimated by dividing the total pitch in cm (distance between the house sewer and
the elevation of the basement)/ length of longest branch in meter.
Changes of House Drain Directions
- Change directions should be used is long radius fittings.
- Soil branch should be run Right angle to Main.
- Fixture Connection must run right angle to branch.
- Any branch of house drain shall be provided 100mm diameter pipe, extend 2 inch. Above
floor inserted in 45 deg. Y branch.
- Trap of a floor drain shall be placed not more than 50cm be low finished floor.
- Cleanout shall be installed 20m interval distance.
House Drain Appliances
 House Trap – device installed in the house drain immediately inside the foundation wall of the
 Area Drain – Minimum size pipe (10mm/4in)
 Floor Drain – receptacle used to receive water to be drained from the floor.
*Plumbing Code for Floor Drains
 2 FD (NPC) / 3FD (RNPC) average residence
 75mm diameter pipe in every FD.
 P-trap should be installed not more than 20cm/30cm below the floor line.
 Yard Catch Basin – a receptacle used to catch surface water drained from cemented courts.
Driveways and yards.
 Garage Catch Basin – device designed to convey waste from garage, wash racks, g
 rease pits and repair floors.
 GREASE BASIN – Dimension: Width: 60cm, Length: 3-4 times width and Depth: 120cm
and 4-5 gallons of liquid capacity.

CHAPTER 8 – The House Sewer

House Sewer/Building Sewer – portion of the horizontal drainage system, which start from the outer
space to the main sewer or septic tank.

 House sewer size – 150mm/6 inch diameter cement, if plastic pipe – 100mm diameter
are considered.

CHAPTER 9 – The Storm Drain

 Storm drain is not permitted to discharge into a septic tank/main sewer line.
 Splash Pan – collector of water coming down to downspout.
Classification of Storm Drain
 Inside Storm Drain – is sometimes located under the basement floor or within the wall of
the bldg.
 Outside Storm Drain – installed outside foundation wall of the building.
 Overhead Storm Drain – is adopted when the street drainage is higher in elevation than
the basement floor.

Size of Storm Drain

Diameter of Pipe Max Drain roof
(mm/in) area
75/3 114
100/4 242
125/5 438
150/6 700
200/8 1,463
250/10 2.563
300/12 4,100
350/14 5,576
*Note: Max. rainfall in the PH. 20mm in 5 mins. Interval
Grade and Change of Direction

A combination of Y and 1/8 bend or long radius fitting is appropriate in any changes.

- Roof Leader – water conductor/downspout that connects the roof terminal to the
storm drain.


Area of Roof Gutter Top Roof Leader

(sq.m) Dimension (mm) Diameter (mm)
1-10 75 38
11-25 100 50
26-75 100 75
76-165 125 90
166-335 150 100
336-510 200 125
511-900 250 150

CHAPTER 10 – The Storm Drain

Traps for Plumbing Fixtures

Trap – a device use in plumbing system to prevent backflow of gases coming out on the septic tank or
sewer line passing outlet of the fixtures.


Classification of Water seal P-trap

- Common Seal P-trap - has 5 cm deep water seal between the overflow and the

- Deep Seal P-trap – has 7.5-10 cm column of liquid content.

*Note: P-trap sizes – 32mm to 50 mm dia. that are suspended on walls or on pedestal type.
Trap Installation
- P-Trap should be installed 60cm of the fixture it serves.
- Each fixtures shall have its own trap except: 2 laundry tray and a kitchen sinks, Not more than
laundry trays, three lavatories can connect on 1 trap.

Drum Trap
- Drum trap is intended for fixtures that are set on the floor like bathtub, foot and sitz bath and
similar fixtures.
Two types
 100mmx125mm
 100mmx200mm


Fixtures Trap and Branches Size

Bath tub 38/1.5
Bath Shower Stall 50/2
Bath Sitz 38/1.5
Bath Foot 38/1.5
Bidets 38/1.5

Combination Fixture 38/1.5

Drinking Fountain 32/1.25
Fountain Cupsidor 32/1.25
Floor drains 2
Laudry Trays 38/1.5
Sinks (kitchen, residence) 38/1.5
Sinks (hotel, public) 2
Sinks, (Large hotel/Public) 2
Sinks, (Small/Pantry) 32/1.25
Sinks, (dishwasher) 32/1.25
Sinks, (slop, with combined 3
Sinks, (Slop, ordinary) 2

Urinals Lip 38/1.5

Urinals, through 2
Urinals, pedestal 3
Urinals, stalls 2
Wash Basin 32/1.25
Water Closet 3

CHAPTER 11 – Plumbing Ventilation

*Ventilation in a plumbing system is the portion of the drainage to maintain the balance in atmospheric
pressure. To prevent

- Trap seal loss, retardation of flow and deterioration of materials.

Ventilating the Drainage System

Types of Ventilation in the Plumbing System
1. Main soil and Waste vent
- Ventilate the soil and waste pipes
2. Main Vent
3. Relief Vent
4. Yoke Vent
- Only serve the fixture trap indirectly
5. Unit Vent
6. Individual Vent
7. Circuit/Loop Vent
8. Wet Vent
9. Looped Vent
10. Local Vent
11. Utility Vent
- The main purpose is to protect the trap seal against back pressure and siphoning

Main Soil and Waste Vent

- It is the upper portion of the soil stack above the highest installed fixture branch extending
through roof. (terminal for the main vent and other vent)

*All roof extension shall extend at least 30cm above the roof and when the roof are used for other
purposes than weather protection such extension will be 200cm above the roof. If 3 m from door at
least 100cm extension.


Fixtures Minimum Size Unit Value

Lavatory 32 1
Drinking 32 0.5
Sink 38 2
Shower 50 2
Bathtub 38 2
Laundry Tub 38 2
Slop Sink 50 3
Water Closet 75 6


Size of Pipe Number of Fixtures
Units Allowed
32 1
38 8
50 18
63 36
75 72
100 384

The Main Vent


- Eliminating an objectionable odors

1. Waste branches which are circuit vented, shall be provided by main vent.
2. Relief vent may be installed at interval on the soil pipe having changes in directions.
3. On long vertical soil pipe, relief vent is installed 3-5 floor intervals. In this installation the relief vent
is sometimes called Yoke/By-pass Ventilation.
4. Relief Vent should have ½ dia. of soil pipe or be less than 38mm diameter.
5. A relief vent used on a change direction, and at the base of the soil pipe, shall have a diameter
equal to the main vent, and in no case, the relief vent be less than 50mm diameter.
6. Yoke Vent between the main vent and the soil pipe at 5 floor intervals must have equal pipe
diameter as the main vent.

Circuit or Loop Vent

- Circuit or Loop Vent is employed two or more fixture traps are installed on a horizontal soil or
waste branch.

The Looped Vent

- A kind of ventilation system used on fixtures in a room away from partitions such as parlor, barber
shop, dental clinic etc.

Wet Ventilation
- Is defined where the waste of the piping system regularly flows.

CHAPTER 13 – Cold Water Supply in Building

Water – combination of hydrogen and oxygen (H2O), in liquid form 839 times heavier than air, but in ts
gaseous state 133 times. (1kg=1Liter)

Common Impurities in Water

 Entrained gas – are CO2, H2S, CH4, O2, Nitrogenous and Organic Compounds.
 Dissolved Materials – calcium, magnesium sodium, iron and manganese and other
carbonates and silicates.
 Suspended and colloidal materials – bacteria etc.
 Radioactive Materials

*minerals present through artificial means is Lead.

Public Water Supply

- Wells should be 100m radius from residential areas.
- No concrete-sanitary sewers exist within the radius.
- No outdoor privy, cesspool, septic tank from a 45m radius from the well.

Spring Water
- Spring water should be protected from Surface/runoff water, dust, Insect, wildlife and stock

Water Distribution in Building

- Must provide adequate water pressure to supply the extremities of the system.
- No unprotected open reservoir or cross connections.
- Water system should be tight in leakage.
- System should be guarded with contamination.
- When new mains are installed or old ones are repaired, they should be filled with strong chlorine
solution 40-60mg/liter at least 24hrs.
- Water main should be laid above any sanitary sewer and at least 3 meters horizontally.

Water Distribution in Building

Classified into:

 Direct Pressure Distribution – supply of water through large intake pipe. Water is drawn from a
lake to a receiving well through gravity.
 Indirect Pressure Distribution – a turbine pump is employed on top of the standpipe extended
down the well below the water table.

Household Water Supply

- House Service – refers to the connection from the public water main or any source of water
supply to the building served.
- Riser – refers to the vertical supply pipe which extend to floor to floor.
- Branches – horizontal pipes that serve the faucets and fixtures.
- Water Main – public water connection which are laid underground along the streets.

Cold Water Distribution

Overhead Feed System – supply water to fixtures by means of gravity. The water is pump to the
reservoir/tank above or roof-deck of the bldg. by means of a pump.

Air Pressured Water Distribution – compressed air is used as the delivery agent and can serve up to
10 storey heights or more.

- When the air is supplied into the system the pressure will increase up to 15lbs/ sq.inch and can
elevate up to 10.5m. ( Ideal pressure range is 20-40 psi)

Direct Up-feed Pumping System (Triplex Pump) – the principle of this system is one pump is larger
than the other one. When the water demand is small the small pump called Jockey will operate, and
when the demand become larger the larger pump will take in-charge and when the demand will come to
peak the largest pump who will take operation.

Friction in Water Supply and Distribution System

Friction – refers to the resistance of the molecules of water.

Pressure – refers to the force required to move the water into the pipe.

- Static Pressure – refers to the pressure of water at rest

- Normal Pressure – refers to the pressure range measure over the 24hr period. (Residential
Houses – 30 to 40 psi) water pressure greater than 50 psi may cause water hammering.
- *to reduce the water pressure installed Pressure reducing valve and water vibration can be
check by installing an air chamber pipe at the back of the faucet.
- Critical Pressure – max and min pressure of the system.
- Head loss by Friction/ Friction Head loss – loss in rate of flow, due to friction between water
and pipe.

Maximum and Probable Demand

- Maximum Demand refers to the maximum discharge of the fixtures.

Note: * The maximum demand of water is equal to the Total fixture unit in the Plumbing System, where
one unit is equal to 8 gallons of water per minute interval.
Probable Demand/ Peak load – one factor to be considered in determining the size of the water service

Probable Demand = Max Demand – 25% (Max Demand)

*On water service pipes for large building, the minimum size of the water service pipes from the curb to
the bldgs. Shall be 38mm (1.5inch) diameter” for the ffg. fixtures Sill cock, Hot water boiler, Laundry
tray, Sink, Lavatories, Bathtub and water closets.

Demand Weight of Fixtures in Fixture Units

Fixture Occupancy Type of Supply Weight in Fixture

Control Units
WC Public Flush Valve 10
WC Public Flush tank 5
Pedestal UR Public Flush Valve 10
Stall or Wall UR Public Flush Valve 5
Stall or Wall UR Public Flush tank 3
Lav Public Faucet 2
Bathtub Public Faucet 4
Shower Head Public Mixing Valve 4
Service Sink Office etc. Faucet 3
Kitchen Sink Hotel or Restaurant Faucet 4
WC Private Flush Valve 6
WC Private Flush tank 3
Lav Private Faucet 1
Bathtub Private Faucet 2
Shower head Private Mixing Valve 2
Bathroom group Private Flush Valve 8
Bathroom group Private Flush Tank 6
Separate shower Private Mixing Valve 2
Kitchen Sink Private Faucet 2
Laundry tray 1-3 Private Faucet 3
Combination Fixture Private Faucet 3
*The size of the service pipe is based on the max and min probable water demand, but in no case it be
less than 20mm dia.

*A 20 mm dia. pipe can supply 2 branches of 12mm dia. and can deliver up to 10 gpm, sufficient to serve
10 fixtures.

*25mm dia. can serve 2 branches of 25mm dia. and can deliver up to 18 gallons and can serve up to 20

Water Pumps and Lifts

Types of Pump

- Piston Pump – usually used in small water distribution system

- Centrifugal Pump – associated with tall building

Water Service Fittings and Device

Types of Devices
- Gate Valves – is used to completely closed and open the water system, connected in the main
supply and pump line wherein operation in infrequent.
1. Wedge Shape
2. Double Disc Valve
- Globe Valves – suited that calls for throttling.
1. Plug type Disc Valve
2. Conventional Disc Valve
3. Composition Disc Valve
- Angle Valves – function the same manner as globe valve. It is used to make a 90 deg. Turn in a
line to lessen the number of joints.
- Foot Valves/Retention Valves – located at the lower of the pump that preventing the backflow of
the water from the sump.
- Check Valve – Back flow prevention valve
- Safety Valve – used in the system used in experiencing excessive pressure.
Corporation Stop – inserted in to the water main to control the water service and also serves as a shut
Curb Stop – installed between the curb and the sidewalk
Meter Stop – controlling stop of the entire water supply

CHAPTER 14 – Hot Water Supply in Building

Domestic Hot Water Supply

Two types of Hot Water Distribution

Up-Feed and Gravity Return System – commonly used in small residential houses and other industrial
installation. The larger pipe is installed at the bottom of the riser

Overhead Feed and Gravity Return System – efficient type of hot water system that usually uses in a
building with extreme heights. The larger pipe installed at the bottom of the riser

Pump Circuit System

Pump Circuit – a mechanical device used to circulate hot water to the plumbing fixtures. Recommended
in high buildings, centrifugal pumps are commonly used.
Hot Water Tank – serve the domestic hot water system.
Range Boiler – small hot water tank, generally made of copper or stainless steel sheet and varies in size
form 30-60 cm dia. and length not more than 180cm long.
Storage Tank Boiler – large hot water tank made of heavy duty stainless steel sheet of diameter varying
60-130 cm and not more than 5m long. (85 psi)
Size of Hot Water Tank
*Note. Hot water consumption per person ranges from 2-10 gallons/hr.


Kind of Building Gallons/Person/hour

Office Building 4-5
School Building 2-3
Apartment Building 8
Hotels 8-10
Factories 4-8
Residential 10
Working Load of Hot Water System
- Schools, offices or industrial type building *25%
- Apartments and residences * 35%
- Hotels * 50%

*Table 14-3: Range Boiler Size and Capacity in Gallon

*Table 14-4: Hot Water Storage Tank Capacity
*Table 14-5: Size of Hot Water Storage Tank Tapping

Water and Energy Waste in Hot Water Line

*Find the monthly volume of water and energy (in kilowatt hour) wasted for a hot water installation serving
fixtures with the ffg. data:

Fixtures Min. number of used Size of Pipe Distance from the

storage tank
Kitchen Sink 3 12mm 3m
Shower Bath 2 12mm 7.5m
1. Solve for the monthly consumption in liters.
2. Solve for the energy wasted using the table. (times the energy in Kwh wasted with the minimum
number of usage)
3. Multiply the rate per Kwhr to get the amount of money wasted.

Suggestions how to minimize Hot water and Energy Waste

- 10mm (3/8in) copper tube is the most economical size to serve for sinks, lavatories, shower bath,
and other similar fixtures.
- 12mm(1.5in) thick fiberglass was proven efficient
- Hot and cold water line parallel to each other must be 1.5cm minimum distance to prevent heat

Protection of the Hot Water Tank

Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve – protects the hot water supply system.
Steam relief Valve – protects hot water space heating system.
hot water space heating system- where water is confined within a system at low temperature
hot water supply system – closed system which operate on higher temperature.

CHAPTER 15 - Plumbing Fixtures

Water Closet – used to convey organic body waste to the plumbing system.
1. The Pail Flush type – cheapest and smallest and simplest form of water closet without water tank.
(Lip height – 295mm)
2. The Squat Type – simple type of water closet without water tank installed flat on the floor. (Lip height
– 264)
3. Wash Down type – Noisiest of all types. (Lip height – 372)
4. Reverse type – more expensive than wash down type, but less noisy. (Lip height = 362)
5. Siphon Jet – very sanitary and easier to clean. (Lip height – 372)
6. Siphon Vortex – its flushing action of the siphon vortex water closet is through whirlpool motion of
7. Direct Flush Valve type – DFV water closet eliminates the use of water tank, preferred in hospitals
and other commercial bldg.
Lavatories – is a bowl or basin used for washing face and hands
Bidet – is used to clean the most delicate part of the female’s body and can be serve as a foot bath.
Kitchen Sink
CHAPTER 16 – Fire Protection in a Building
*March – fire prevention month

National Fire Protection Association – maintained a comprehensive set of standard rules of planning to
minimize fire hazards.

Standpipe and Hose

Standpipe – pipe installed in a building not part of the water supply but primarily used for conveyance of
water in case of fire.
Fire Hose – is always located near the stair.
Automatic Sprinkler System
Spacing of the sprinkler heads
20 sq.m Light hazard
10 sq.m Extra hazard
*Nozzles are set about 2.4-3.6m apart on the supply pipes and space 3-4m apart at right angle