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TEACHERS’ AWARENESS AND UTILIZATION OF MARUNGKO APPROACH IN TEACHING


BEGINNING READING AND PUPILS’ LEARNING GAINS
IN MTB-MLE IN THE CITY SCHOOLS
DIVISION OF TACURONG

A BERF ACTION RESEARCH PAPER

MARY ANN C. UMADHAY, EPS-I


City Schools Division of Tacurong
City of Tacurong

JANUARY 2017
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ABSTRACT

The study revolved mainly on assessing teachers’ awareness and utilization of

Marungko Approach in teaching beginning reading and pupils’ learning achievements in

MTB-MLE in the City Schools Division of Tacurong

Based on the findings of the study, teachers’ level of awareness of Marungko

Approach falls under Novice, meaning many of them just know a little about the approach.

Meanwhile, the level of utilization of Marungko Approach reveals that teachers only

use the method “sometimes” in teaching beginning reading signifying a need to strengthen

the application of such.

Further, since Marungko is one of the most promising approaches in teaching

beginning reading using Filipino and Mother tongue, K to 3 teachers are suggested to

upgrade their knowledge in applying this approach. Paired with thoroughly understanding

the method, utilization is also recommended be improved.


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work would not have been possible without the financial support of the Basic

Education Research Fund ( BERF) . I am especially indebted to our Schools Division

Superintendent Leonardo M. Balala for allowing me to conduct my research study. My

greatest gratitude also to the school heads who were actively participated in administering

the questionnaires to our respondents. To our Assistant Schools Division Superintendent,

Levi B. Butihen who have been supportive of my research goals and who worked actively

to provide me with the protected academic time to pursue those goals. I am grateful to all

of those with whom I have had the pleasure to work during this and other related projects.

Nobody has been more important to me in the pursuit of this project than the

members of my family. I wish to thank my loving and supportive husband, Smoke, and my

two wonderful children, Mocca and Andy Glenn, who provide unending inspiration.
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I. CONTEXT AND RATIONALE

Reading is a unique, cognitive human skill crucial to life in modern societies, but, for

about 10% of the children, learning to read is extremely difficult (Franceschini, Gori,

Ruffino, Pedrolli and Facoetti, 2012). Reading readiness of pupils is a must in assessing

their capability to explore the world of education and to fill their empty minds by gaining

new information through the lessons taught in class, (Slavin, 1999). When pupils are able

to read and comprehend, there is no limit for their acquisition of knowledge and learning

will be fun and interesting for them.

Reading comprehension, on the other hand, is a significant skill that furthers the

development of learners’ various academic tasks. It helps them decoding a text, analyzing,

explaining, and expressing their own ideas about written materials. Learners should

develop a strong ability to understand written materials to struggle with the academic tasks

that their teachers deal with them. A primary objective of reading comprehension is to aid

learners improve skills and comprehension of texts if they want to be skilled readers

(Gilakjani & Sabouri, 2016).

Hoff (2013) reported that on average, children from low socioeconomic status (SES)

homes and children from families in which a language other than English is spoken have

language development trajectories that are different from those of children from middle-

class, monolingual English-speaking backgrounds. Children from low-SES and language

minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower

levels of English language skill than do middle-class, monolingual children. Because early

differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement,

low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in
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the United States. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not

change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement

and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies

aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success

need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children's other language skills.

In the Philippines, Sanchez (2013) mentioned that the use of mother tongue provides

children with an equitable opportunity to access and facilitate learning. Studies assert that

the use of a child’s home language is one of the most important factors in helping children

learn to read and write and in learning academic content and other languages. Defined as

one’s first language, home language, and heritage language (Malone, 2004), mother

tongue is considered as a language one knows best apt for use in beginning education.

Claiming that children develop new knowledge and skills based on what they already know

from their community and culture (Dekker, 2003), primary education programs that begin

in children’s mother tongue are believed to help students gain early reading skills more

quickly, as well as transfer key skills to a second or a third language. In the study of Krashen

(2001), he provides that what the theory implies is that first or second language acquisition

occurs when comprehension of real messages occurs. Language acquisition does not

require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules and does not require tedious skills.

Thus, there is emphasis on meaning and communication (focusing on whole texts) and on

accuracy and correctness (focusing on parts of the language) (Malone, 2004). In assessing

learning, studies of Cummins (2000) and Thomas and Collier (1997) claim that the level of

development of children's mother tongue is a strong predictor of their second language

development. Cummins (2000) found that children with a solid foundation in their mother
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tongue develop stronger literacy abilities in the school language which enable them to go

from the known to the unknown using what they have learned about reading and writing in

the first language and their knowledge of oral second language to bridge into reading and

writing the second language.

These observations prompted the researcher to conduct a study to determine the

teachers’ level of awareness and utilization of Marungco approach in teaching beginning

reading in schools, the pupils’ learning gains in MTB-MLE and their relationships.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Teaching Beginning Reading

Reading is a unique, cognitive human skill crucial to life in modern societies, but, for

about 10% of the children, learning to read is extremely difficult. They are affected by a

neuro-developmental disorder called dyslexia. Although impaired auditory and speech

sound processing is widely assumed to characterize dyslexic individuals, emerging

evidence suggests that dyslexia could arise from a more basic cross-modal letter-to-speech

sound integration deficit. Letters have to be precisely selected from irrelevant and cluttering

letters by rapid orienting of visual attention before the correct letter-to-speech sound

integration applies. Franceschini, et al., (2012) examined whether pre-reading visual

parietal-attention functioning may explain future reading emergence and development.

Their study shows that pre-reading attentional orienting—assessed by serial search

performance and spatial cueing facilitation—captures future reading acquisition skills in

grades 1 and 2 after controlling for age, nonverbal IQ, speech-sound processing, and non-
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alphabetic cross-modal mapping. Further, the findings provide the first evidence that visual

spatial attention in preschoolers specifically predicts future reading acquisition, suggesting

new approaches for early identification and efficient prevention of dyslexia.

Fuchs & Vaughn (2012) also attempted to describe the current research base and

identify research needs related to response to intervention (RTI) frameworks in primary-

grade reading. It is reviewed on early reading instruction and intervention, the

implementation of multitiered reading interventions, and the determination of intervention

responsiveness. Areas identified as in need of research include (a) the conditions under

which early reading interventions are most effective in RTI contexts, (b) multitiered

interventions for students with limited English proficiency, (c) reading instruction for

students who make limited progress in Tier 3 intensive interventions, (d) criteria for

determining intervention responsiveness, and (e) the effects of fully implemented RTI

frameworks.

English appears to be the least consistent alphabetic orthography phonologically,

and, consequently, children learn to read more slowly in English than in languages with

more consistent orthographies. Caravolas, Lervåg, Defior, Seidlová Málková & Hulme

(2013) stated that all alphabetic orthographies use letters in printed words to represent the

phonemes in spoken words, but they differ in the consistency of the relationship between

letters and phonemes. They reported the first longitudinal evidence that the growth of

reading skills is slower and follows a different trajectory in English than in two much more

consistent orthographies (Spanish and Czech). Nevertheless, they admitted that phoneme

awareness, letter-sound knowledge, and rapid automatized naming measured at the onset

of literacy instruction did not differ in importance as predictors of variations in reading


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development among the three languages. Finally, these findings suggested that although

children may learn to read more rapidly in more consistent than in less consistent

orthographies, there may nevertheless be universal cognitive prerequisites for learning to

read in all alphabetic orthographies.

On the other hand, economic status of schoolchildren was also an interesting aspect

of study relative to teaching beginning reading. Hoff (2013) mentioned that children from

low socioeconomic status (SES) homes and children from homes in which a language other

than English is spoken have language development trajectories that are different from those

of children from middle-class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Moreover, children

from low-SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many

reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than do middle-class,

monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have

consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a

deficit for children about to enter school in the United States. Further, declaring all

developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between

English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with

poor English skills to be successful in school. Finally, remedies aimed at supporting the

development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not

entail devaluing or diminishing children's other language skills.

Similarly, Suggate, Schaughency & Reese (2013) investigated two studies from

English-speaking samples and traced the methodologically difficult question of whether the

later reading achievement of children learning to read earlier or later differs. Children from

predominantly state-funded schools were selected and they differed in whether the reading
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instruction age (RIA) was either five or seven years. Study 1 covered the first six years of

school following three cohorts across a two-year design. Analyses accounted for receptive

vocabulary, reported parental income and education, school-community affluence,

classroom instruction, home literacy environment, reading self-concept, and age. The

earlier RIA group had initially superior letter naming, non-word, word, and passage reading

but this difference in reading skill disappeared by age 11.

However, in Study 2, the decoding, fluency, and reading comprehension

performance of additional middle school-age children was compared. The two groups

exhibited similar reading fluency, but the later RIA had generally greater reading

comprehension.

Meanwhile, Norton & Wolf (2012) argued that fluent reading depends on a complex

set of cognitive processes that must work together in perfect concert. Rapid automatized

naming (RAN) tasks provided insight into this system, acting as a microcosm of the

processes involved in reading. Thus, they examined both RAN and reading fluency and

how each has shaped understanding of reading disabilities. Also, they explored how the

automaticity that supports RAN affects reading across development, reading abilities, and

languages, and the biological bases of these processes. Finally, they brought these

converging areas of knowledge together by examining what the collective studies of RAN

and reading fluency contribute to the goals of creating optimal assessments and

interventions that help every child become a fluent, comprehending reader.

Melby-Lervåg, Lyster & Hulme (2012) reported a systematic meta-analytic review of

the relationships among three of the most widely studied measures of children's

phonological skills (phonemic awareness, rime awareness, and verbal short-term memory)
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and children's word reading skills. It included both extreme group studies and correlational

studies with unselected samples. Results from extreme group comparisons indicated that

children with dyslexia show a large deficit on phonemic awareness in relation to typically

developing children of the same age and children matched on reading level. Also, there

were significantly smaller group deficits on both rime awareness and verbal short-term

memory. Analyses of studies of unselected samples showed that phonemic awareness was

the strongest correlate of individual differences in word reading ability and that this effect

remained reliable after controlling for variations in both verbal short-term memory and rime

awareness. These findings supported the pivotal role of phonemic awareness as a predictor

of individual differences in reading development.

This is substantiated by Franceschini, et al., (2012) who claimed that letter naming

is a crucial index of letter-to-speech sound integration that has been found to be impaired

in both adults and children with dyslexia. Although letter naming is considered to be one of

the most important predictors of subsequent reading acquisition, it should be noted that it

is strongly influenced by numerous and partially uncontrolled general factors, such as

verbal abilities, teaching methods, and parental input. Letter naming is also closely

correlated to phonological awareness.

On the contrary, Allington (2013) argued that though there were evidence-based

documents that say we could teach every child by the end of first grade, however, most

schools have almost none of the key aspects of instruction that have been available in the

research to ensure achievement of this goal. Further, it is argued that this failure is not the

result of inadequate funding but rather primarily results from an aged system of beliefs

about the inevitability that some students will always fail to learn to read. That belief system
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along with a lack of familiarity with what researchers have demonstrated in the past decade

perpetuate schooling where far too many children fail to thrive as readers. In the end, the

research concluded that it is up to the teachers, the adults in the school system, to alter

efforts such that every child becomes a reader.

Relatively, McAlenney & Coyne (2015) examined a solution to high false positive

reading risk classification rates in early kindergarten by investigating a method of identifying

students with possible false positive risk classifications and returning them to general

classroom instruction. Researchers assessed kindergarten students identified as at risk

who were participating in a full-year Tier 2 reading intervention program. Students with very

strong initial curriculum mastery were identified as having possible false positive risk

classifications and returned to general classroom Tier 1 instruction. Very strong responders

who were exited from intervention scored above the risk range across multiple reading

measures at the end of the year and performed similarly to a historical comparison cohort

who remained in intervention services for the entire year. Results suggested that

kindergarten students with false positive risk classifications can be identified after a period

of intervention services and successfully returned to general classroom instruction.

Teachers’ Role in Building Reading Skills

Teachers play an integral part in developing reading competencies of pupils. How

they teach beginning reading greatly influences the future reading abilities of their pupils.

Teachers need to be better prepared more than ever before to help children learn to read

for several reasons. First, classrooms are increasingly diverse, particularly in urban areas.

Although some progress has been made in closing the fairly persistent achievement gap in
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literacy between children from high and low socioeconomic groups and between White,

African-American, and Hispanic ethnic groups, alarmingly, fewer than 50% of children in

urban high-needs schools read proficiently; furthermore, 67% of students with disabilities

read below a basic level (http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/). Second, legislation such

as the Individuals with Disabilities Act (2004) allows states to use Response to Intervention

(RTI) or Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS); in these models, expert beginning

reading teachers are the first line of prevention for reading problems across all 50 states

(Zirkel & Thomas, 2010). In these models, students who do not show adequate reading

growth to classroom instruction are provided additional intervention, which increases in

intensity. The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA; PL 115-95; 2015) continues to

emphasize MTSS and early literacy instruction. However, research has not yet evaluated

the impact of core reading instructional programs on student learning (Kretlow & Helf,

2013). Third, students with the most significant needs, those receiving special education

services, are more likely to be included most of the day in their general education

classrooms as inclusion policies become more prevalent (USDOE, NCES, 2015). However,

general education teachers may not have opportunities to develop the teaching

competencies they need to use with students in special education in the area of literacy

(Grossman & McDonald, 2008; Leko et al., 2015). Fourth, the bar for reading and writing is

higher than ever before. With a majority of states using the Common Core State Standards

(2010), teachers need to support all children in achieving more rigorous reading standards

and in reading much higher level text.

Comings (2015) proposed a model for design of early-grade reading programs that

is based on research and the implementation of research findings. The model has three
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components: (1) schools should provide instruction in a language their students speak and

understand; (2) teachers should employ instruction that is consistent with the current

evidence-based theory of how children acquire and improve reading skills; and (3) students

should spend sufficient time on task in direct instruction and reading practice to make

meaningful progress.

Recent research has found that very few teachers are aware of specific evidence-

based practices and may not understand assessments well enough to guide their

instruction or to develop and evaluate intensive interventions for students who inadequately

respond to evidence-based practices (e.g., Leko, Brownell, Sindelar, & Kiely, 2015; Spear-

Swerling & Cheesman, 2012).

Al Otaiba, Lake, Scarborough, Allor & Carreker (2016) admitted that teachers,

researchers, and parents recognize that children’s reading development is influenced by

their teacher’s effectiveness. However, historically, the lack of effective teacher preparation

has been one of the most persistent problems that teachers face, as noted by members of

the Reading Hall of Fame (Bauman, Ro, Duffy-Hester, & Hoffman, 2000). Researchers

interested in teachers’ knowledge about teaching reading have documented many

teachers’ lack of preparedness to implement evidence-based beginning reading

instructional practices (e.g., Bos, Mather, Dickson, Podhajski & Chard, 2001; Mather, Bos

& Babur, 2001; Moats, 1994, 2009; SpearSwerling, 2009). In particular, these studies have

convergent findings that many teachers, even those with experience and credentials, have

limited knowledge about phonemic awareness and phonics and their importance for

students at risk for reading problems. In addition to the lack of knowledge to teach these
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code-focused skills, other researchers also reported limited knowledge of strategies to

teach vocabulary and comprehension (Brady et al., 2009; Carlisle, Cortina, & Katz, 2011).

In Pennsylvania, Ankrum, Genest & Belcastro (2014) reported a single case study

design employed to describe the nature of one teacher’s verbal scaffolding used during

differentiated reading instruction in a kindergarten classroom. The teacher participant was

selected from a group of exemplary teachers nominated from two school districts. Multiple

sources of data, including transcripts of video-taped small group literacy lessons, were

analyzed to glean insight regarding the nature of verbal scaffolding in classroom

instruction. Transcripts were coded to identify salient patterns and themes related to

lesson differentiation. The following categories were used to define the different types of

talk used by the teacher to promote the independent use of strategies in reading: direct

explanation, explicit modeling, invitations to participate, clarification, verification, and

telling. Excerpts from transcripts are provided to illustrate examples of the different verbal

scaffolds observed during the study. The teacher participant in this case study provided

one example of how intentional verbal scaffolding can be used in early literacy instruction.

Findings suggested this may have positive implications for student literacy growth.

Furthermore, this study offered rich descriptions of verbal scaffolding and quality

examples of differentiated instruction that can support pre-service teachers and in-service

teachers as they plan for effective literacy instruction

Although there is a substantial body of research on the relationship between teacher

knowledge, practice, and student outcomes in reading on which to build reform in teacher

training and mentoring, more thought should be given to how prospective teachers are

taught. First, the disciplinary knowledge base required teaching students with reading and
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related difficulties must be unambiguously explained in the standards by which teachers

are educated and evaluated, and then programs must be set up to build teachers' insight

as well as their knowledge of basic reading psychology, language structure, and pedagogy.

Those who teach teachers in university settings or who provide professional development

must be included in a supportive educational process, as wars of ideology are having only

limited positive effects.

Moats (2014) also studied about the lingering problem of poor and inappropriate

preparation of professional teachers of reading and learning disabilities – why it exists and

what can be done about it. Because most students classified as having learning disabilities

experience primary difficulties with language-based learning, teachers must know how to

teach the forms and processes of language on which literacy depends, but most teacher

preparation programs fail to teach this content at a level that supports teachers'

implementation of effective instruction. The evidence suggested that teachers may cling to

unproductive philosophies of teaching not only because science-based instruction is

neglected in many teacher training programs, but also because the requisite insights are

elusive and the content is difficult for many to grasp, even with some exposure. While

ideologies can be blamed for much resistance to explicit, systematic methodologies,

teachers must ask why they develop in the first place.

Coyne, Little, Rawlinson, Simmons, Kwok, Kim & Civetelli (2013) evaluated the

effects of a supplemental reading intervention on the beginning reading performance of

kindergarten students in a different geographical location and in a different instructional

context from the initial randomized trial. They also investigated whether students who

received the intervention across both the initial and replication studies demonstrated similar
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learning outcomes. Kindergarten students (n = 162) identified as at risk of reading difficulty

from 48 classrooms were assigned randomly at the classroom level either to a commercial

program (i.e., Early Reading Intervention; Pearson/Scott Foresman, 2004) that included

explicit/systematic instruction (experimental group) or school-designed typical practice

intervention (comparison group). Both interventions were taught by classroom teachers for

30 min per day in small groups for approximately 100 sessions. Multilevel hierarchical linear

analyses revealed no statistically significant differences between conditions on any

measure. Combined analyses that included students from both the initial and replication

studies suggested that differences in the impact of the intervention across studies were

largely explained by mean differences in the comparison group students’ response to

school-designed intervention.

In America, Jackson (2016) stated that the growing population of English language

learners (ELLs) in an urban school district in the southwest has maintained low

achievement scores in the K-5 grades. Students who do not attain reading proficiency at

least by the end of 3rd grade are at risk of continued academic failure through high school.

Research showed that teachers' knowledge and preparedness to teach reading has an

influence on student performance. The participants' responses helped design a

professional development initiative to address the need for more training specific for

reading teachers of ELLs. Implications for positive social change included providing more

training in reading instruction for teachers of ELLs that can result in increased ELL student

reading achievement and greater academic success through high school.

Abeberese, Kumler & Linden (2014) mentioned about how a short-term (31-day)

reading program in the Philippines, designed to provide age-appropriate reading material,


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to train teachers in their use, and to support teachers’ initial efforts for about a month,

improved students’ reading skills by 0.13 standard deviations. Interestingly, the effect was

still present three months after the program but diminished to 0.06 standard deviations,

probably due to a reduced emphasis on reading after the program. Researchers found that

the program also encouraged students to read more on their own at home. However, they

found no evidence that improved reading ability improved the students test scores on other

subjects.

Davis, Datulayta, Dacalos, Cordova, Clerigo, Canoy & Inocian (2016) further

determined the effective teaching practices in handling nonreaders. Their study described

the adjustments, effective strategies, and scaffolds utilized by teachers in handling

nonreaders; differentiated the teachers’ reading adjustments, strategies and scaffolds in

teaching nonreaders; analyzed the teaching reading efficiency of nonreaders using

effective teaching reading strategies; and established significant correlation of nonreaders’

grades and reading teachers’ reading adjustments, strategies and scaffolds. Results

revealed that handling nonreaders in order to read and understand better in the lesson is

an arduous act, yet; once done with effectiveness and passion, it yielded a great amount

of learning success. Also, effective teaching practices in handling nonreaders comprised

the use of teachers’ adjustments, strategies, and scaffolds to establish reading mastery,

exposing them to letter sounds, short stories, and the use of follow-up. Further, WH

questions enhanced their reading performance significantly. Finally, variations of reading

teachers’ nature as an enabler, a facilitator, a humanist, a behaviorist, and an expert were

noted.
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Teaching Strategies and Learning Gains

Teachers are acknowledged to be important socializing agents, affecting young

people`s experiences with reading materials and strategies, but it is still unclear how the

mediation practices of teachers are related to such intrinsic factors as teachers` beliefs

about the nature of learning, nature of technology, self-efficacy beliefs, and subject cultures.

In Kuwait, students were challenged with learning English, but also seem to take

a greater amount of time to understand the use of reading in their lives and learning.

Fenimore (2015) expressed that home reading practices can impact what teachers

assume to be the optimum practice in preparing students for school may not be

supported by the local culture. There were teachers heard repeatedly c omplain that

students do not read at home or seem to value reading. Kuwaiti adults related that they

rarely engage in reading for pleasure. These factors led researchers to consider that

what teachers assume to be the optimum practice in preparing students for school may

not be supported by the local culture. Results revealed that the nannies perceived the

purpose of reading to be for education only, storytelling is used for different purposes

in different cultures, print material were rarely found in the homes of the nannies due

to lack of economic means, and the fathers of most of the nannies were critical in their

reading development.

Also, Tabbada-Rungduin, Abulon, Fetalvero & Suatengco (2014) stressed that

parental involvement has been seen as an integral component in a child’s success and the

way teachers design their lessons integrate the essentials of literacy. These researchers

explored activities parents undertake to teach their children how to read and the activities

teachers design to promote literacy. The activities were correlated with the students’
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performance in letter-recognition tasks. Results revealed that parents are aware of their

roles in literacy development and are implementing activities at home that would enhance

their children’s interests in reading. Likewise, teachers provided a myriad of activities that

cater to the students’ reading needs. There were relationships between the reading

materials found at home and the reading ability of the day care students.

Similarly, Chan & Sylva (2015) argued that while there have been reviews over the

past decade of studies examining second-language (L2) acquisition and also emergent

literacy development, these related bodies of knowledge have not generally been

considered together in relation to the education of very young English-language learners.

In Zimbabwe, for instance, Havuluma (2015) focused on the perceptions of teachers

and parents on the shift from English Language to local language as medium of instruction

in selected lower primary schools in Kafue District, Zambia. The study was prompted by

the 2013 New Language Policy in education in Zambia which is premised on the philosophy

that children learn better in their local language and instructing them in L1 enhances literacy

skills. The results of the analysis showed that both teachers and parents agreed that

instruction in local language was effective. The analysis however pointed out that both

teachers and parents observed that there were no enough local language materials and

trained local language teachers. On the overall, the study showed that there was no

significant difference in their perception.

However, Ibrahim (2016) noted that majority of teachers depend upon books as their

primary resource for preparing teaching materials. They also prefer to make use of

resources from internet and shared with students electronically. Further, an extensive

awareness is required among teachers about the ethical and usage policies of resources
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taken from the internet. The study concluded that the dependency on internet for resources

will improve the effectiveness of the teaching process.

In the Philippines, due to the institutionalization of the mother tongue-based

multilingual education (MTB-MLE) in the country, several trainings were conducted

introducing its unique features such as the use of the two-track method in teaching reading

based on the frequency of the sounds of the first language (L1). Sanchez (2013) attempted

to find out how the accuracy track method worked with Waray pupils using mixed

vocabularies. This is a part of a developmental study that aimed to improve Waray reading

instruction in basic education. The results showed a big gap in the performance of pupils

classified as readers and beginning readers. Several issues and challenges met were also

identified. These imply that the method is less facilitative for effective teaching and learning

in Waray of speakers using mixed vocabularies. This study recommended to modify the

method or to develop an appropriate method for literacy instruction of speakers without a

strong linguistic foundation in their mother tongue.

Moreover, Reyes & Pado (2013) substantiated these findings by studying the

development of composing skills in Filipino among second graders through Directed

Reading Lessons (DRLs) in the Philippines. The guiding questions were: (1) Do the

Directed Reading Lessons (DRLs) improve the composing skills in Filipino among Grade 2

children? (2) In what ways did the children’s composing skills improve? Ten children were

conveniently selected and given twelve DRLs with three prior scaffold lessons. Writing

samples were collected and analyzed. The study revealed that DRLs can have a positive

effect on children’s composing skills. Good writing is the result of explicit, structured

teaching of craft and convention, implicitly learned book language, and writing style as
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children write in response to stories they read or listen to in the context of repeated

opportunities for practice.

Furthermore, Martin (2014) pointed out that research in world Englishes (WE) and

English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) have long been promoting what Pakir describes as

‘common working axioms’ (2009: 228) which uphold the pluricentricity of English: the

existence of varieties, the acceptance of language change and adaptation, and the

highlighting of discourse strategies. These principles have had profound effects on

Filipino’s understanding of the English language and, consequently, on the teaching of the

language. The researcher argued that, for all the benefits offered by varieties of English, it

might not be appropriate to teach varieties explicitly as a model to non-native learners of

the language. This argument was made with the Philippine education context in mind, and

proposed a framework for Philippine ELT that recognizes both the identity and

communication functions of the language.

As teachers face challenges in the classroom teaching-learning processes brought

about by the challenges of teaching beginning reading, they have to be academically

competent to be able to cope with the pressing concerns relative to Marungko Approach

integration in schools. The literatures clearly show the relationship between teachers’

approaches in teaching beginning reading and pupils’ learning gains in classroom activities.

As agents of constructive change in the society, teachers should keep abreast with the

recent innovations to competently transfer knowledge, skills and capabilities to their

learners most specifically in teaching beginning reading competencies. Their teaching

competences should be evaluated so that they could receive ample amount of support from
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school heads and expert peers to be able to function effectively and efficiently in the schools

thereby contributing to life-long learning of pupils.

III. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This study aims to determine the teachers’ level of utilization of Marungko Approach

in teaching beginning reading in schools, their pupils’ level of learning gains and the

relationship between the variables in the Central Schools of the City Schools Division of

Tacurong for the School Year 2016 – 2017.

Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:

1. What is the teachers’ level of awareness of the Marungko Approach in teaching

beginning reading?

2. What is the teachers’ level of utilization of Marungko Approach in teaching beginning

reading in schools?

3. What is the level of learning gains of primary pupils in MTB-MLE?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the level of utilization of Marungko

Approach in teaching beginning reading and the level of learning gains of pupils in

MTB-MLE?

III. INNOVATION, INTERVENTION AND STRATEGY

This research basically focused on assessing teachers’ awareness on the utilization

of Marungko Approach in teaching beginning reading and pupils’ learning gains in MTB-

MLE in the City Schools Division of Tacurong on the initial stage evaluates teachers’

knowledge on the use of the new approach in parallel with the regularity of utilizing it. This
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is further targeted to upgrade teacher’s competence in using the method, with a central

reason to elevate pupils learning gains in reading which is basically the foundation of

learning.

IV. ACTION RESEARCH METHODS

This chapter presents the research methodology of the study. It covers the

research design, locale of the study, respondents, research instruments, data gathering

procedure and the statistical treatment of the data.

Research Design

The study utilized the descriptive-evaluative research designs to determine the level

of awareness and utilization of teachers in using Marungko Approach in teaching beginning

readers and pupils’ learning gains. These revealed the teachers’ level of awareness as

Novice and the approach utilization’s frequency as Sometimes, which signifies the need of

upgrading teachers’ skills in using Marungko Approach. Further this design also reveals

the significant relationship of the two aforementioned variables.

Locale of the Study


24

The study was conducted in Tacurong City Division, among sixty (60) elementary

teachers teaching in Grades I – Grade III classes who are officially employed in the five (5)

public central elementary schools in the City Schools Division of Tacurong, Tacurong City,

Sultan Kudarat for this School Year 2016 – 2017. These are the following: Dr. Manuel J.

Grino Memorial Central School, Amado Fernandez Sr. Central School, New Isabela Central

School, Josue Alcasid Central School, and New Isablea Central Elementary School.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study involve all sixty (60) elementary teachers teaching in

Grades I – Grade III classes who are officially employed in the five (5) public central

elementary schools in the City Schools Division of Tacurong, Tacurong City, Sultan Kudarat

for this School Year 2016 – 2017 and one hundred fifty students (150) pupils in the primary

grade from the five central division elementary schools. Schools included are: Dr. Manuel

J. Grino Memorial Central School, Amado Fernandez Sr. Central School, New Isabela

Central School, Josue Alcasid Central School, and New Isablea Central Elementary

School.

Research Instrument
25

The research instruments used in the study are a validated survey questionnaire

and Phil Iri Reading Test. Time duration to determine the level of awareness and utilization

level of teachers of Marungko Approach in teaching beginning readers and pupils’ learning

gains took one hundred twenty (120) hours or 4 months.

The judgment and analysis of the data were done by the 5 Master Teachers of the

Division serving in the five (5) elementary component schools composing the respondents.

Evaluation and validation of instrument were as well done by these master teachers.

For the evaluation of the panel of experts, the Likert- five (5) scale below was used

with corresponding interpretation.

Senior High School Implementation Level

Verbal
Scale Range Interpretation
Description

Meets 81% and Above


5 4.2 – 5.0 Excellent
Expectations

4 3.4 – 4.19 Good Meets 61 – 80%of Expectations

3 2.6 – 3.39 Fair Meets 41 – 60 % Expectations

2 1.8 – 2.59 Poor Meets only


21 –40% of Expectations

Meets Only 21% Below


1 1.0 – 1.79 Very Poor
Expectations
26

After evaluation, the panel of experts had given another page for their comments

and suggestions for the improvement the study.

Validation Procedure

The prepared evaluation and validation instrument for the study was given to panel

of five (5) evaluators who analyzed, evaluated and validated the research instrument for

the purpose of getting their assessment, comments, suggestions or other course of action

to ascertain the results content validity.

They were all school administrators and master teachers of the school.

Data Gathering Procedure

The study was conducted on August 1, 2017 until November 31, 2017 at five

(5) central elementary schools of Tacurong City Division namely, Dr. Manuel J. Grino

Memorial Central School, Amado Fernandez Sr. Central School, New Isabela Central

School, Josue Alcasid Central School, and New Isablea Central Elementary School.

To get the desired data from the subjects, a letter was sent to the division’s

superintendent then to the school principals of elementary schools to conduct the study

among sixty (60) elementary teachers teaching in Grades I – Grade III classes.

The study was confined in determining the level of awareness and utilization of

Marungko Approach, pupils learning gains using MTB-MLE, as well as the relationship

which exist in between the two aforementioned levels.


27

. The results were then tabulated and analyzed to determine the levels of awareness

and utilization of the approach. The data were presented in tabular presentations.

Finally, end of the study revealed the levels of awareness and utilization of

the Marungko Approach and the relationship of these variables.

TEACHERS’ AWARENESS AND UTILIZATION OF MARUNGKO APPROACH


IN TEACHING BEGINNING READING AND PUPILS’ LEARNING GAINS
IN MTB-MLE IN THE CITY SCHOOLS
DIVISION OF TACURONG

APPROVAL OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL


SEEK APPROVAL FROM THE AUTHOURITIES

DEVELOPING A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

QUALITY EVALUATION BY MASTER TEACHERS


28

REVISING AND EDITING

DETERMINING THE MARUNGKO APPROACH AWARENESS AND UTILIZATION LEVEL


,PUPILS’ LEARNING GAINS USING MTB-MLE AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE TWO
LEVELS

EVALUATION AND TABULATION OF RESULTS

Figure 3. Data Gathering Procedure .CSDT.2017

Statistical Analysis

The following statistical tools were used to answer the statement of the problems in

this study.

The researcher had made use of the simple mean in the evaluation and validation

of the research survey questionnaire and in determining the levels of awareness and

utilization of the Marungko Approach and pupils learning gains using MTB-MLE and

Pearson Moment Correlation to correlate the level of awareness mentioned.

In the tabulation and calculation of the data, the use of Microsoft Excel was

maximized. On the other hand, in the statistical tests, the level of significance was set at 

= .05.
29

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the results, analysis and interpretation of data gathered as a

result of the study.

Table 1 presents the teachers level of awareness on Marungko Approach in teaching

beginning reading

Level of Awareness of Teachers on Marungko Approach

Table 1. Teachers Level of Awareness On Marungko Approach

Table 1. Teachers Level of Awareness On Marungko Approach


Pedagogical Areas Means of Awareness Level Interpretation
Pedagogical Knowledge 2.89 Novice
Actual Teaching Performance 2.86 Novice
Pedagogical Advantage 2.9 Novice
Overall Rating 2.88 Novice

Table 1 exposes that based on the survey on the teachers’ awareness on the use of

Marungko Approach in Teaching Beginning Readers, they are still Novice as

revealed by the means of 2.89 , 2.86 and 2.9 in Pedagogical Knowledge , Actual

Teaching Performance and Pedagogical Advantage respectively and of the overall

mean of 2.88 .

Table 2 shows the level of utilization of Marungko Approach in teaching beginning


reading in schools
30

Level of Utilization of Marungko Approach in Teaching Beginning Reading

Means of Utilization
Areas Level Interpretation
Utilization in Teaching Reading Lessons 2.75 Sometimes
Utilization in Reading Drills 2.76 Sometimes
Utilization in Reading Remediation 2.7 Sometimes
Overall Rating 2.75 Sometimes

Table 2 discloses that based on the survey, teachers use Marungko Approach

Sometimes as shown by the means of 2.75, 2.76 and 2.7 in Utilization in Teaching Reading

Lessons, Reading Drills and in Reading Remediation respectively and is further

strengthened by the overall mean of 2.75.

Level of Learning Gains of Primary Pupils in MTB-MLE

Table 3 presents the level of learning gains of primary pupils in MTB-MLE

Table 3. Level of Learning Gains of Primary Pupils in MTB-MLE


Learning Level No. of Pupils
Frustration 50
Instructional 40
Independent 20
Non-Reader 40

The table presents that based on the administered Phil Iri Reading Test after a

quarter of using MTB-MLE out of one hundred fifty (150) respondents sixty (60) pupils still

falls under Non-Reader Level, fifty (50) are still in Frustration Level, forty (40) are in the

instructional level and only twenty (20) are in the Independent Level and forty (40) are in

the Non-Reader level.


31

Correlation Between the Level of Utilization of Marungko Approach in teaching

Beginning Reading and the Level of Learning Gains of Pupils in MTB-MLE

Table 4 shows the correlation between the level of utilization of Marungko Approach

in teaching beginning reading and the level of learning gains of pupils in MTB-MLE

Table 4 . Correlation Between the Level of Utilization of Marungko Approach in

Teaching Beginning Reading and Level of Learning Gains of Pupils in MTB-MLE

SY 2016-2017
Levels r Description tr Interpretation
Correlation
Utilization of Marungko 0.39 Low Positive 4.50 Significant
Approach to Pupils’ Correlation
Learning Gains
At .05 Level of Significance, Significant at Critical Value of t = 1.980

The table of correlation pictures out that the low level of utilization of Marungko

Approach to Beginning Readers is significantly correlated with the poor performances of

pupils in the primary grade as revealed by the tr value of 4.50.

VI. REFLECTION , CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter presents the reflection, conclusions, and recommendations of the study
“TEACHERS’ AWARENESS AND UTILIZATION OF MARUNGKO APPROACH IN TEACHING
BEGINNING READING AND PUPILS’ LEARNING GAINS
IN MTB-MLE IN THE CITY SCHOOLS
DIVISION OF TACURONG”.
32

Summary

The study aimed to determine teachers’ awareness and utilization levels on

Marungko Approach in Teaching Beginning Reading and Pupils Learning Gains in MTB-

MLE.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the teachers’

level of awareness of the Marungko Approach in teaching beginning reading? 2. What is

the teachers’ level of utilization of Marungko Approach in teaching beginning reading in

schools? 3. What is the level of learning gains of primary pupils in MTB-MLE? and 4. Is

there a significant relationship between the level of utilization of Marungko Approach in

teaching beginning reading and the level of learning gains of pupils in MTB-MLE?

It utilized the descriptive-evaluative design.

The descriptive evaluative design was used to determine awareness and utilization

levels of the teacher respondents on Marungko Approach in Teaching Beginning Reading.

The study was conducted at Tacurong City Division, Tacurong City. Target

population of this study were sixty (60) elementary teachers and one hundred fifty (150)

primary grade pupils for the Academic Year 2016-2017. The questionnaire used in the

conduct of the study was validated and evaluated before its administration to the

respondents. Moreover, the Phil Iri a standardized reading test was used to determine the

level of learning gains of the pupil respondents after a quarter of using MTB-MLE to further

reveal the relationship which exists in between the level of Marungko Approach utilization

and the pupils learning gains.

Findings
33

The following are the noticeable findings of the study:

Teachers’ level of awareness of Marungko Approach has the numerical rating of 2.88

which means many of them know a little about the approach.

Teacher’s level of utilization of Marungko Approach falls under the rating of 2.75, which

means they just “sometimes” use the approach in teaching beginning reading.

Pupils Learning Gain Levels in Reading after a quarter of using MTB-MLE mostly falls

under Non-Reader and Frustration Levels.

The Utilization Level of the Marungko Approach which falls under Sometimes is

significantly correlated with the Pupils’ Learning Gains using MTB-MLE as shown by the 4. 5

correlation value.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn:

Since Marungko is one of the most promising approaches in teaching beginning reading in

Filipino and Mother tongue K to 3 teachers should elevate their knowledge in using this approach.

Through improving their knowledge of this approach, the level of utilization will also be upgraded.

Recommendations

In the light of the findings and conclusion of the research study, the following are

hereby recommended:

1. Intensified teachers’ training will be conducted to increase teachers’ awareness on

using Marungko Approach in teaching Beginning Reading


34

2. .Teachers in the primary grade will be trained and supervised in utilizing the

Marungko Approach in teaching beginning reading.

3. Pupils in the primary grades who will be taught reading using Marungko

Approach will be religiously monitored as to their reading development.

4. The study will impel other researchers to conduct thorough and more elicit study

regarding teaching Marungko approach to beginning readers.

VII. Action Plan

The researcher would like to continue the study in the utilization of the

Marungko Approach in learning process.

VIII. References

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Reading Teachers for K-3: Teacher Preparation in Higher Education. Perspectives on
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Allington, R. L. (2013). What really matters when working with struggling readers. The Reading
Teacher, 66(7), 520-530.

Ankrum, J. W., Genest, M. T., & Belcastro, E. G. (2014). The power of verbal scaffolding:“Showing”
beginning readers how to use reading strategies. Early Childhood Education Journal, 42(1),
39-47.

Chan, L. L., & Sylva, K. (2015). Exploring emergent literacy development in a second language: A
selective literature review and conceptual framework for research. Journal of Early
Childhood Literacy, 15(1), 3-36.

Caravolas, M., Lervåg, A., Defior, S., Seidlová Málková, G., & Hulme, C. (2013). Different patterns,
but equivalent predictors, of growth in reading in consistent and inconsistent
orthographies. Psychological Science, 24(8), 1398-1407.

Comings, J. P. (2015). An evidence-based model for early-grade reading


programs. Prospects, 45(2), 167-180.

Coyne, M. D., Little, M., Rawlinson, D. A., Simmons, D., Kwok, O. M., Kim, M., & Civetelli, C. (2013).
Replicating the impact of a supplemental beginning reading intervention: The role of
instructional context. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 6(1), 1-23.
35

Fenimore, L. (2015). Exploring family reading practices in non-Kuwaiti nannies. Journal for
Multicultural Education, 9(1), 28-41.

Franceschini, S., Gori, S., Ruffino, M., Pedrolli, K., & Facoetti, A. (2012). A causal link between
visual spatial attention and reading acquisition. Current Biology, 22(9), 814-819.

Gilakjani, A. P., & Sabouri, N. B. (2016). A Study of Factors Affecting EFL Learners’ Reading
Comprehension Skill and the Strategies for Improvement. International Journal of English
Linguistics, 6(5), 180.

Havuluma, C. (2015). Perception of teachers and parents on the shift from English language to
local language as medium of instruction in lower primary schools in Kafue District,
Zambia (Doctoral Dissertation, Solusi University Bulawayo, Zimbabwe).

Jackson, P. P. (2016). Teachers' Perceptions of English Language Learners and Reading


Instruction.

Martin, I. P. (2014). English language teaching in the Philippines. World Englishes, 33(4), 472-485.

McAlenney, A. L., & Coyne, M. D. (2015). Addressing false positives in early reading assessment
using intervention response data. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(1), 53-65.

Melby-Lervåg, M., Lyster, S. A. H., & Hulme, C. (2012). Phonological skills and their role in learning
to read: a meta-analytic review.

Moats, L. (2014). What teachers don't know and why they aren't learning it: addressing the need
for content and pedagogy in teacher education.Australian Journal of Learning
Difficulties, 19(2), 75-91.

Norton, E. S., & Wolf, M. (2012). Rapid automatized naming (RAN) and reading fluency:
Implications for understanding and treatment of reading disabilities. Annual review of
psychology, 63, 427-452.

Reyes, J. A. S., & Pado, F. E. (2013). Development of Composing Skills in Filipino Among Second
Graders Through Directed Reading Lessons. Education Quarterly, 71(2).

Sanchez, A. S. Q. (2013). Literacy Instruction In The Mother Tongue: The Case Of Pupils Using
Mixed Vocabularies. Journal of International Education Research, 9(3), 235.

Tabbada-Rungduin, T., Abulon, E. L. R., Fetalvero, L. R., & Suatengco, R. T. (2014). Exploring
parental involvement and teachers’ activities in early literacy development. International
Journal of Research Studies in Education, 3(3).

Prepared by:

MARY ANN C. UMADHAY, EPS 1


36

Researcher

Republic of the Philippines


Department of Education
Region XII
City Schools Division of Tacurong
City of Tacurong
FINANCIAL REPORT
Sheet No.: ____1__
Report No.: ________
OR/RER/D
IV
Date Payee Nature of Payment/ Particulars Amount
PAYROLL
No.
3/03/2017 King Laurence Resto & 4,000.00
Catering Services Snacks (planning)

4/03/2017 Viche General School Supplies ( A4 Bookpaper,3 sets 11,500.00


Merchandise and Ink CMYK, Manila Paper, Pentel Pen,
Services Ballpen, Pencil)
04/29/2017 Viche General 3,500.00
Merchandise & Services Photocopy/Reproduction of Survey
Materials

7/12/2017 1,500.00
Fuel/Gasoline
(Conduct of Research Study)

9/17/2017 King Laurence Resto & 4,000.00


Catering Services
Meals and Snacks(Orientation))

9/18/2017 King Laurence Resto & 4,500.00


Catering Services Meals and Snacks(Conduct of Actual
Research Study)

12/28/2017 Viche General 1,000.00


Merchandise & Services
Book binding

TOTAL 30,000.00

MARY ANN C. UMADHAY, EPS 1


Researcher