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0 views19 pagesThis presentation describes how to design a furling system for a small wind turbine. It reviews three different approaches to furling system design from literature and then presents the design approach that was used for designing the furling system of the HOLI 300 small wind turbine.

Jun 10, 2019

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This presentation describes how to design a furling system for a small wind turbine. It reviews three different approaches to furling system design from literature and then presents the design approach that was used for designing the furling system of the HOLI 300 small wind turbine.

© All Rights Reserved

0 views

This presentation describes how to design a furling system for a small wind turbine. It reviews three different approaches to furling system design from literature and then presents the design approach that was used for designing the furling system of the HOLI 300 small wind turbine.

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 19

Dimensioning of a Cheap, Reliable and Multipurpose Solution

Florian Roscheck

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Agenda

1 Introduction

What is Furling?

Horizontal Furling

Mission Statement

Balancing Many Design Parameters

Monterrey Parameter Study

NREL Model

Do-it-yourself Dimensioning

Requirements and Refined Mission Statement

Dimensioning Process

Getting the furl-in wind speed from NREL Equations

5 Conclusion

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

1 Introduction

What is Furling?

Horizontal Furling

5 Conclusion

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

What is Furling?

Purpose of furling:

Overspeed protection

Adjust rotor to wind direction via yaw system

Rotor Speed in 1/min

120 Turning rotor out of the wind at

high wind speeds

60 Decreasing rotor speed

0 Decreasing generated power

0 10 20 30 40

Wind Speed in m/s

Wood, David: Small Wind Turbines. London : Springer, 2011. – ISBN 9781849961745

Muljadi, J. ; Forsyth, T. ; Butterfield, C.P.: Soft-Stall Control versus Furling Control for Small

Wind Turbine Power Regulation (Windpower ’98). Bakersfield : NREL, 1998.

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Horizontal Furling

Figure: Vertical axis wind turbine with horizontal furling system in furled state

accessed Dec 11, 2013

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

1 Introduction

Mission Statement

Balancing Many Design Parameters

5 Conclusion

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Mission Statement

which fulfills certain requirements

by predicting

static and dynamic furling behavior.

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Input: Ten design parameters

One weight

Two angles

Seven lengths

Output: Furling Behavior

Furl-In Speed

Furl-Out Speed

Time to Furl

System Oscillation

Challenge:

Balancing design parameters to

get required furling behavior

Audierene, Etienne ; Elizondo, Jorge ; Bergami, Leonardo ; Ibarra, Humberto ; Probst, Oliver:

Analysis of the furling behavior of small wind turbines.

In: Applied Energy 87 (2010), p. 2278–2292

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

1 Introduction

Monterrey Parameter Study

NREL Model

Do-it-yourself Dimensioning

5 Conclusion

C Bfirst-order

B w_Introduction w2system with C

C an inhomogeneity given both

The by the aero-

B 1C B The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Bð12ÞC ¼ B B dynamic moments

0 _ _ 0 _2C

C

Q and Q andð21Þ

the non-linear kinetic energy

@ h2 A @ Q h $ J 1 w2 h2 $ J 3 w2 Ah

_ /

Monterrey Parameter

terms. For1 0a_ 2

more Study

@V realistic description additional terms accounting

w_2

he in- Q w þ J h

2 1 2

$

for the friction of the bearings of both yawing and furling axes have

@w

Characteristics:

tion the system can be viewed as a locally linear

with an inhomogeneity

0 given

10 _both 0

1 by the aero- Mainly 1 0 1

1 0 0 0 h1 h2 steady windf1 conditions

s Qh and QB / and the non-linear

C B kinetic

C B energy C B C

ð13Þ B 0 1 0additional

realistic description 0 CB w_terms

1C B w2

Simple rotor C B f2 model

thrust C

B CB C ¼ accounting

B

B 0 _ _ 0 _2

C

C ¼B C

he bearings@of0 both

0 yawing

J 1 J 3 Aand

@ h_ 2furling

A @ Qh $

axes J 1 w2 h2 $ J 3 w2 $ b1 h2 A @ f3 A

have

partial Wake model

e equation of 0motion

0 J 3then

J 2 reads:

w_ 2 Q w þ 12 J 01 h_ 22 $ @V

@w

$ b2 w2 f4

0_ 1 0 1 0 Results:

1 Yaw and furl angle ð22Þ

over time

h1 h2 f1

Bð14Þ C BUsing the Gauss–Seidel C B C Problems:

w2 method we can explicitly state the solution

B w_ 1 C B C ¼ B f2 C

C B

B C¼B ofQthe system for a given time step C Difficult to debug

_ _ _ f3 t:A

2

@ h_ 2 A B C

0 0

@ h $ J 1 w 2 h 2 $ J w

3 2 $ b 1 h 2 A @

nd the 0 1

w_ 2 0Q 1þ 1 J h_ 2 $ @V $ fb1 2 w2

0

f4 Needs damping correction

h_ 1w 2 1B2 @w C

B w_ C B f

B 1C Bf ! "!2 "C ð22Þ

C Useful:

Figure:

ð15Þ BPart Cof¼equation

B 3 $ J3 system J1 f4 $J 3 f3 C ð23Þ

eidel method @ h_we 2 can@

A B explicitly

J1 J1 state J 1 J 2 $Jthe

2 solution Geometry recommendations

C

3 A

used time

a given in Monterrey

step

w_ 2 t: Study J1 f4 $J 3 f3

J 1 J 2 $J 23 Dynamic behaviour information

refer-

f1

1

pass- The

C four angular variables appearing on the left-hand side of Eq.

f C can now be calculated in an iterative manner.

"!2Audierene,

vector "(23)

C

Etienne ; Elizondo, Jorge ; Bergami, Leonardo ð23Þ ; Ibarra, Humberto ; Probst, Oliver:

J f $J f C

awing

3

1

1 4 3 3

J 1 J 2 $J 23 of C

Analysis the furling behavior of small wind turbines.

In: Applied A Energy 87 (2010), p. 2278–2292

1 f4 $J 3 f3

2.3.2. Calculation of the aerodynamic moments

J 1 J 2 $J 23 2.3.2.1. Yaw moments. First theRoscheck

Florian torque created

Furling forby the

Small rotor

Wind thrust

Turbines 10/19

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

NREL Model

Wind Energy Program Wind Energy Program

Characteristics:

General Wind Turbine Model

Complex rotor aerodynamics

Wind Speed V Relative wind

direction −θ w Generator and controller model

Aerodynamics

∆θ

(YawDyn ⇒ Fuzzy) Results:

Mechanical rpm Yaw and furl angle over time

Torque

Steady-state equilibrium

Thrusts

Load solutions

Controller Problems:

Yaw/Furling Dynamics

θ High calculation time

4-15 M. Bikdash 23 Wake not considered

Figure: NREL Model Flowchart Useful: Ready-to-use steady-state

equilibrium formulas

http://wind.nrel.gov/furling/bikdash.pdf, accessed May 5, 2009

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Do-it-yourself Dimensioning

Characteristics:

Five static equlibrium equations

Non-scientific

Results: Furling Tail Geometry

Problems:

Assumes CP of 0.5

Figure: Logo from Back Shed

Project Website

Very limited configuration

possibilities

Wake, controller etc. neglected

Useful: Estimate if on right track

http://www.thebackshed.com/Windmill/Docs/Furling.asp, accessed Dec 13, 2013

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

1 Introduction

Requirements and Refined Mission Statement

Dimensioning Process

Getting the furl-in wind speed from NREL Equations

5 Conclusion

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Original mission statement:

“We want to find a furling system geometry which fulfills certain

requirements by predicting static and dynamic furling behavior.“

Requirements:

Well-defined furl-in wind speed vin

Low hysteresis ∆v = vin − vout

Adjustable vin in a given range ∆vin with adding weight ∆m to tail

“We want to find a furling system geometry for a given vin with a low ∆v,

which is adjustable in the range ∆vin by adding ∆m to the tail

using a fast, manual iterative process.“

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 14/19

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Dimensioning Process

1 Estimate thrust

2 Estimate nacelle and rotor inertias,

choose L2 , L1 := 0

3 Choose β, γ, L4 acc. to Monterrey

Study

4 Choose airfoil geometry acc. to

Wood

5 Choose iteration initial values acc.

to Monterrey, DIY

6 Iterate over NREL equations

changing L3 , L5 , m to acquire

requested vin

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

∆θ: Yaw error resulting from thrust force on rotor and tail fin

vwind : Wind speed, vin : Furl-in wind speed

1 Solve yaw equilibrium condition for ∆θ, 0 < vwind < 1.5 · vcutout :

0 = Fthrust (vwind , ∆θ)L5 + Mtail (vwind , ∆θ)

Result: Curve f (vwind ) = ∆θ

r

mgL3 sin γ cos γ

vin (∆θ) = 1 c·s

ρ 2 (L3 + 23 c) cos β(CL cos ∆θ+CD sin ∆θ)

2

4 Determine intersection point, read furl-in wind speed vin

Bikdash, Marwan: Modeling and Control of a Bergey-Type furling Wind Turbine,

http://wind.nrel.gov/furling/bikdash.pdf, accessed May 5, 2009

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

10

vin = 11.1 m/s

8

∆θ in deg

4 m+

m + ∆m

m 0.5∆m

2

f (vwind ) = ∆θ

f (∆θ) = vin

0

0 5 10 15 20 25

vwind , vin in m/s

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 17/19

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

1 Introduction

5 Conclusion

Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

In case somebody ever asks you about furling for small wind turbines. . .

Many influence parameters

Limited literature around

You need to test your system!

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