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# Retaining Wall with Counterfort Check of Stability & Calculation of Internal forces

## And design sections According ACI 318-08 Rev1.0

General Input :
Height of Wingwall = 5.722 m (Height of Stem + Thickness of Base)
Width of Wingwall = 3.600 m
Angle of Surcharge = 23.14 degree

## Height of Surcharge= 1.539 m

fc'=35 N/mm2 fy=420 N/mm2
tw= 0.40 m LL=27.7 KN/m2 𝐿𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 5.722 m
ɣC=24 KN/m3
µ= 0.60
qall=143 KN/m2 Active Soil
Cover=75 mm ɣs=18KN/m3
Ignore Passive Soil NO Ka= 0.478
Ignore Soil wet W 5 NO
𝑊5 𝑊4 H=5.722m
𝐿𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 0.00 m co
Passive Soil
Hp=1.25m Kp= 3

## tb= 0.75 m 𝐿𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 0.00 m

1.40m 3.10m

longitudinal direction
b= 4.90 m tc= 0.40 m
d=0.67m
Lc= 2.60 m

tc= 0.40 m

Transverse direction
1-Check Stability of Wall: Elevation Plan
a- Check of Retaining Wall Overturning:
Calculation of ∑W & Stability Moment ∑M
C𝒂𝒍𝒄𝒖𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝒐𝒇 𝑬𝒂𝒓𝒕𝒉 𝑷𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒆𝒔 𝑷𝑳, 𝑷𝒉𝒂 , 𝑷𝒉𝒑
Dist. From load Moments M @
to point O (m) O KN.m/m'

Weight of stem
47.73 1.600 76.37 = 75.77 𝐾𝑁⁄𝑚′
W1 𝑃 = 𝐿𝐿𝐾 𝐻

## Weight of base slab W2 88.20 2.450 216.09 ɣ𝐾 𝐻 = 140.85 𝐾𝑁⁄𝑚′

𝑃 =
2
Weight of earth over Heel 𝑯-𝒕𝒃 ɣ 𝐾 𝐻
277.44 3.350 929.42 𝑃 = = 42.19 𝐾𝑁⁄𝑚′
slab W3 2

Weight of Counterfort W4 𝑴𝒐 = 𝑃 ∗𝐻 +𝑃 * 𝐻 - 𝑃 *𝐻
17.78 2.833 50.39 = 467.85 𝐾𝑁. 𝑚⁄𝑚
using(ɣc-ɣs)

## Weight of earth over Toe

12.60 0.700 8.82
slab W5
∑W=443.75 ∑M=1281.09

## b- Check of Retaining Wall Sliding:

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐻𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑠 𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑙𝑖𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙 ∑ 𝑃 = 𝑃 + 𝑃 - 𝑃 = 174.43 𝐾𝑁⁄𝑚
𝑆𝑙𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 µ∑𝑊 = 266.25 𝐾𝑁⁄𝑚
𝑆𝑙𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 = µ∑𝑀 /∑𝑃 = 1.53 > 1.5, OK SAFE

## c- Check of Retaining Wall bearing Capacity:

finding eccentricity e, take moments @ point O
M@o= 0 = −∑𝑊 ∗ x + ∑𝑀 − 𝑀 ,∴ 𝑥 = 1.83 m , 𝑒 = 0.62 m , 𝑏/6 = 0.817 m e 𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑏𝑒 ≤ 𝑏/6 to ignore tension stress
∑ ∗∑ ∑ ∗∑ ∑
𝑺𝒕𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒔 𝒇 = ± 𝑦= ± ∗
= ± = (1 ± )

𝒇𝒂 =

(1 + )= 159.02 KN/m2 ,𝒇𝒄 108.73 KN/m2 ,𝒇𝒆 138.48 KN/m2
𝒇𝒅 =

(1 − )= 22.10 KN/m2 ,𝒇𝒃 119.90 KN/m2
Not Ok qact > qall

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Retaining Wall with Counterfort Check of Stability & Calculation of Internal forces
And design sections According ACI 318-08 Rev1.0
General Input :
Height of Wingwall = 5.722 m (Height of Stem + Thickness of Base)
Width of Wingwall = 3.600 m
Angle of Surcharge = 23.14 degree
2-Internal Forces of Retaining Wall:
a- Toe Slab Moment and Shear:
finding net stress on Toe Slab
𝒇𝒏𝒂 = 132.0 KN/m2 Upward , 𝒇𝒏𝒆 = 111.5 KN/m2 Upward
𝒇𝒏𝒃 = 92.9 KN/m2 Upward
MToe Transverse max Ult. @b = 174.9KN.m/m BOT. RFT. Use 3 T 25 /m' Tension RFT.
QToe max Ult. @d dis. From b = 134 KN/m < ΦVc = 502 KN/m Where
OK SAFE ACI318-08 , Eq 11-3
b- Heel Slab Moment and Shear:
heel Slab behaves as:
1- a cantilever from point c to x with length Lc/2, supported by stem.
2- a continuous beam from point x to d in longitudinal direction of Retaining wall
supported by counterforts
finding net stress on Heel Slab
𝒇𝒏𝒄 = -13.7 KN/m2 Downward
𝒇𝒏𝒅 = -100.3 KN/m2 Downward
𝒇𝒏𝒙 = -50.0 KN/m2 Downward
M heel Transverse Ult. @c -ve = -48.0KN.m/m TOP RFT. Use 3 T 25 /m' Tension RFT.
M heel longitudinal Ult. @d -Ve = -101.7KN.m/m TOP RFT. Use 3 T 25 /m' Tension RFT.
M heel longitudinal Ult. @d +Ve = 84.8KN.m/m BOT. RFT. Use 3 T 25 /m' Tension RFT.
QHeel max Transverse Ult. @d = 98 KN/m < ΦVc = 502 KN/m
QHeel max longitudinal Ult. @d = 196 KN/m < ΦVc = 502 KN/m
0.400 m

1.400 m 3.100 m

## 600 mm Dia Pile

0.525 m 0.525 m
3.850 m
C. g of Load = 1.833 m
C. g of Pile from edge = 2.450 m
Ecentricity = 0.617 m
Moment = 274 KN-m
2
Sum of the square of the distance of Pile row from C.g of Pile = 7.411 m
Pile reaction R1 = 293 kN
R2 = 222 kN
R3 = 151 kN
c-Design of Pile Cap
Design of Heel
Max. Reaction of Pile = 293 kN
Total depth of cap = 0.750 m
Eff. depth of cap = 0.588 m
Perimeter = 4477 mm
For punching req. depth = 138 mm > d OK
Moment at c = 182 KN-m
Section Modulus, Zb = 0.09 m3 = 195 KN/m
Cracking Moment, Mcr = 346 KN-m
Minimum Flexural Strength = 415 KN-m c
Design Moment, Md = 415 KN-m
Depth required = 109 mm 2.575 m 0.525 m
Depth provided = 0.588 m > d, OK R = 293 kN
Area of Steel = 4811 mm2 ; use T 25 102 mm C/C

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Retaining Wall with Counterfort Check of Stability & Calculation of Internal forces
And design sections According ACI 318-08 Rev1.0
General Input :
Height of Wingwall = 5.722 m (Height of Stem + Thickness of Base)
Width of Wingwall = 3.600 m
Angle of Surcharge = 23.14 degree
Design of Toe
Moment at b = 230 KN-m
Section Modulus, Zb = 0.09 m3 = 27 KN/m
Cracking Moment, Mcr = 346 KN-m
Minimum Flexural Strength = 415 KN-m b
Design Moment, Md = 415 KN-m
Depth required = 109 mm 0.875 m 0.525 m
Depth provided = 0.588 m > d, OK R = 293 kN
Area of Steel = 4811 mm2 ; use T 25 102 mm C/C

## Temperature reinforcement = 1875 mm2 ; use T 16 107 mm C/C

d- Stem Slab Moment and Shear:
Stem Slab behaves as:
1- a cantilever from point c at heel top to point z with length Lc/2, supported by heel Slab.
2- a continuous beam above point z in longitudinal direction of Retaining wall supported by
counterforts slab.
𝒇𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒎 @𝒄 = 56.02 , 𝒇𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒎 @𝒛 44.84 , 𝒇𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒎 @𝒛𝟎 = 13.24 KN/m2
M stem vertical Ult. @c cant -ve = -61.6KN.m/mon active side Use 4 T 16 /m' Tension RFT.
M stem longitudinal Ult. @z -Ve = -45.5KN.m/mon active side Use 4 T 16 /m' Tension RFT.
M stem longitudinal Ult. @z +Ve = 37.9KN.m/m on passive side Use 4 T 16 /m' Tension RFT.
M stem longitudinal Ult. @z0 -Ve = -13.4KN.m/m on active side Use 4 T 16 /m' Tension RFT.
M stem longitudinal Ult. @z0 +Ve = 11.2KN.m/m on passive side Use 4 T 16 /m' Tension RFT.
QStem max Cantilever Ult. @c = 109 KN/m < ΦVc = 238 KN/m
QStem max longitudinal Ult. @z = 87 KN/m < ΦVc
Temperature Reinf. = 1000 mm2 ; use T 16 201 mm C/C
e- Counterfort Moment and Shear:
Counterfort Slab behaves as:
a Tee Beam its flange (is heel & stem slabs) with effective depth dctf , subjected to
1- max. moment MCfort@c at c point produced from horizontal earth pressure
2- max horizontal shear VHal Cfort@c at c point produced from horizontal earth
pressure
stress 𝒇𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒎 @𝒄 on stem slab multiplied by counterfort spacing.
3- max Vertical shear VVal Cfort@d at d point produced from Vertical net stress 𝒇𝒏𝒅
dctf = 2.63 m hz1 = 3.31 m hz2 = 1.66 m
dctf@z1 = 1.75 m dctf@z2 = 0.88 m
MCfort@z2 28.0KN.m/m Use 3 T 25 Tension RFT.
MCfort@z1 151.1KN.m/m Use 5 T 25 Tension RFT.
MCfort@c = 509.9KN.m/m Use 8 T 25 Tension RFT.
VHal Cfort@c = 168 KN/m < ΦVc = 768 KN/m
VVal Cfort@d = 301 KN/m < ΦVc

## Design of Horizontal Ties

At any depth below the top, force causing
Ka x γsat x h x L
sepration
= 111 KN/m
Ast required = 667 mm2
Using 2 legged ties of dia T 16
= 402 mm2
Spacing required = 603 mm ; Provided spacing of reinf. = 200 mm

## Design of Vertical Reinf.

The downward force at d = 261 kN/m
The downward force at c = 36 kN/m
Ast required at d = 1565 mm2
Using vertical reinf. of dia T 16
= 201 mm2
Spacing required = 129 mm ; Provided spacing of reinf. = 125 mm
Ast required at c = 213 mm2
Using vertical reinf. of dia T 16
= 201 mm2
Spacing required = 942 mm ; Provided spacing of reinf. = 125 mm

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