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You are on page 1of 41

Flow Components

Lecture 5

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Nozzles and Diffusers

sectional area in which the velocity of a gas

or liquid increases in the direction of flow.

►Diffuser: a flow passage of varying cross-

sectional area in which the velocity of a gas

or liquid decreases in the direction of flow.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Nozzles and Diffusers

Nozzles and Diffusers

Nozzles and Diffusers

N&D Modeling

(V 2

V 2

e )

Eq.

0 Qcv Wcv m (hi he ) i

g ( zi z e )

2 4.20a

► Wcv 0.

►If the change in potential energy from inlet to exit is

negligible, g(zi – ze) drops out.

►If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible,

Q cv drops out.

Vi2 Ve2

0 (hi he ) (Eq. 4.21)

2

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

N&D Modeling

Example:

A diffuser receives 0.1 kg/s steam at 500 kPa,

350˚C. The exit is at 1 Mpa, 400˚C with

negligible kinetic energy and the flow is

adiabatic. Find the diffuser inlet velocity and the

inlet area.

Answers:

438.07 m/s and 0.00013 m² or 1.3 cm²

N&D Modeling

Example:

A nozzle receives an ideal gas flow with a

velocity of 25 m/s, and the exit is at 100 kPa,

300 K with a velocity of 250 m/s. Determine the

inlet temperature if the gas is Argon, Helium, or

Nitrogen.

Answers:

Ar: 359.5 K, He: 306K, N2: 330 K

Throttling Devices

a significant reduction in pressure by

introducing a restriction into a line through

which a gas or liquid flows. Means to

introduce the restriction include a partially

opened valve or a porous plug.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Throttling Devices

Throttling Devices

Throttling Devices

Throttling Device Modelling

(V 2

V 2

e )

Eq.

0 Qcv Wcv m (hi he ) i

g ( zi z e )

2 4.20a

► Wcv 0.

►If the change in kinetic energy of flowing matter

upstream and downstream of the restriction is

negligible, ½(V12 – V22) drops out.

►If the change in potential energy of flowing matter is

negligible, g(z1 – z2) drops out.

►If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible,

Q cv drops out.

h he i (Eq. 4.22)

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Throttling Device Modeling

Example:

Saturated liquid R-134a at 25˚C is throttled to

300 kPa in a refrigerator. What is the exit

temperature? Find the percent increase in the

volume flow rate.

Answers:

0.56˚C; 1532%

Turbines

developed as a result of a gas or liquid

passing through a set of blades attached to

a shaft free to rotate.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Turbines

Turbines

Turbines

Turbine Modelling

(V 2

V 2

e )

Eq.

0 Qcv Wcv m (hi he ) i

g ( zi z e )

2 4.20a

►If the change in kinetic energy of flowing matter is

negligible, ½(Vi2 – Ve2) drops out.

►If the change in potential energy of flowing matter is

negligible, g(zi – ze) drops out.

►If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible,

Q cv drops out.

Wcv m

(hi he )

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Turbine Modelling

Example:

An adiabatic steam turbine in a power plant

receives 5 kg/s steam at 3000 kPa, 500˚C.

Twenty percent of the flow is extracted at 1000

kPa, 350˚C to a feedwater heater, and the

remainder flows out at 200 kPa, 200˚C. Find

the turbine power output.

Answer:

2643 kW

Compressors and Pumps

devices in which work is

done on the substance

flowing through them to

change the state of the

substance, typically to

increase the pressure

and/or elevation.

►Compressor : substance is

gas

►Pump: substance is liquid

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Compressors and Pumps

Compressors and Pumps

Compressors and Pumps

C&P Modeling

(V 2

V 2

e )

Eq.

0 Qcv Wcv m (hi he ) i

g ( zi z e )

2 4.20a

►If the change in kinetic energy of flowing matter is

negligible, ½(Vi2 – Ve2) drops out.

►If the change in potential energy of flowing matter is

negligible, g(zi – ze) drops out.

►If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible,

Q cv drops out.

Wcv m

(hi he )

Compressor Modelling

Example:

A compressor receives 0.1 kg/s R-134a at 150

kPa, -10˚C and delivers it at 1000 kPa, 40˚C.

The power input is measured to be 3 kW. The

compressor has heat transfer to air at 100 kPa

coming in at 20˚C and leaving at 30˚C. How

much is the mass flow rate of air?

Answer:

0.0359 kg/s

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Heat Exchangers

cold streams are mixed directly.

►Tube-within-a-tube counterflow: A gas or liquid

stream is separated from another gas or liquid by a

wall through which energy is conducted. Heat

transfer occurs from the hot stream to the cold

stream as the streams flow in opposite directions.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Heat Exchangers

Heat Exchangers

Heat Exchangers

Heat Exchangers

Heat Exchanger Modeling

2 2

V V

0 Q cv Wcv m i (hi i gzi ) m e (he e gze )

i 2 e 2

► Wcv 0. (Eq. 4.18)

►If the kinetic energies of the flowing streams are

negligible, m i (Vi2/2) and m e (Ve2/2) drop out.

►If the potential energies of the flowing streams are

negligible, m i gzi and m e gze drop out.

►If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible,

Q cv drops out.

0 m i hi m ehe

i e

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Heat Exchanger Modeling

Example:

An automotive radiator has

glycerine at 95˚C enter and return

at 55˚C as shown in the figure

below. Air flows in at 20˚C and

leaves at 25˚C. If the radiator

should transfer 25 kW in the form of

heat, what is the mass flow rate of

the glycerine and what is the

volume flow rate of air in at 100

kPa.

Answer:

0.258 kg/s, 4.19 cu. m/s

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Mixing Process Modeling

Example:

An open feedwater heater in a powerplant

heats 4 kg/s water at 45˚C, 100 kPa by mixing

it with steam from the turbine at 100 kPa,

250˚C. Assume the exit flow is saturated liquid

at the given pressure and find the mass flow

rate from the turbine.

Answer:

0.358 kg/s

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Cycles

Example:

The data below is for the simple power plant shown in

the figure in the left. State 6 has a quality of 0.92 and

velocity of 200 m/s. The rate of steam flow is 25 kg/s,

with 300 kW power input to the pump. Piping

diameters are 200 mm from steam generator to the

turbine and 75 mm from the condenser to the steam

generator. Determine the velocity at state 5 and the

power output of the turbine

Cycles

Example:

For the same power plant in the left, assume the

cooling water comes from a lake at 15˚C and is

returned at 25˚C. Determine the rate of heat transfer

in the condenser and the mass flow rate of cooling

water from the lake.

Cycles

Example:

For the same power plant in the left, determine the

rate of heat transfer in the economizer, which is a low

temperature heat exchanger. Find also the rate of

heat transfer needed in the steam generator.

Learning Outcomes

►Describe key concepts better; those that

are related to control volume analysis,

including distinguishing between steady-

state and transient analysis, distinguishing

between mass flow rate and volumetric

flow rate, and explaining the meanings of

one-dimensional flow and flow work.

►Apply mass and energy balances to

control volumes better.

►Obtain and apply appropriate property

data for control volume analyses better.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

Learning Outcomes

►Develop appropriate engineering models

for control volumes, with particular

attention to analyzing components

commonly encountered in engineering

practice such as nozzles, diffusers,

turbines, compressors, heat exchangers,

throttling devices, and integrated systems

that incorporate two or more components.

ME 63: Engineering Thermodynamics

Flow Components

Lecture 5

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7

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