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ME 63: Engineering Thermodynamics

Flow Components

Lecture 5
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Nozzles and Diffusers

►Nozzle: a flow passage of varying cross-


sectional area in which the velocity of a gas
or liquid increases in the direction of flow.
►Diffuser: a flow passage of varying cross-
sectional area in which the velocity of a gas
or liquid decreases in the direction of flow.
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Nozzles and Diffusers

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Nozzles and Diffusers

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Nozzles and Diffusers

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


N&D Modeling

   (V 2
 V 2
e )
 Eq.
0  Qcv  Wcv  m (hi  he )  i
 g ( zi  z e ) 
 2  4.20a

► Wcv  0.
►If the change in potential energy from inlet to exit is
negligible, g(zi – ze) drops out.
►If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible,
Q cv drops out.

 Vi2  Ve2 
0  (hi  he )    (Eq. 4.21)
 2 
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
N&D Modeling
Example:
A diffuser receives 0.1 kg/s steam at 500 kPa,
350˚C. The exit is at 1 Mpa, 400˚C with
negligible kinetic energy and the flow is
adiabatic. Find the diffuser inlet velocity and the
inlet area.
Answers:
438.07 m/s and 0.00013 m² or 1.3 cm²

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


N&D Modeling
Example:
A nozzle receives an ideal gas flow with a
velocity of 25 m/s, and the exit is at 100 kPa,
300 K with a velocity of 250 m/s. Determine the
inlet temperature if the gas is Argon, Helium, or
Nitrogen.
Answers:
Ar: 359.5 K, He: 306K, N2: 330 K

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Throttling Devices

►Throttling Device: a device that achieves


a significant reduction in pressure by
introducing a restriction into a line through
which a gas or liquid flows. Means to
introduce the restriction include a partially
opened valve or a porous plug.
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Throttling Devices

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Throttling Devices

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Throttling Devices

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Throttling Device Modelling

   (V 2
 V 2
e )
 Eq.
0  Qcv  Wcv  m (hi  he )  i
 g ( zi  z e ) 
 2  4.20a
► Wcv  0.
►If the change in kinetic energy of flowing matter
upstream and downstream of the restriction is
negligible, ½(V12 – V22) drops out.
►If the change in potential energy of flowing matter is
negligible, g(z1 – z2) drops out.
►If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible,
Q cv drops out.
h he i (Eq. 4.22)
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Throttling Device Modeling
Example:
Saturated liquid R-134a at 25˚C is throttled to
300 kPa in a refrigerator. What is the exit
temperature? Find the percent increase in the
volume flow rate.

Answers:
0.56˚C; 1532%

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Turbines

►Turbine: a device in which power is


developed as a result of a gas or liquid
passing through a set of blades attached to
a shaft free to rotate.
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Turbines

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Turbines

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Turbines

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Turbine Modelling

   (V 2
 V 2
e )
 Eq.
0  Qcv  Wcv  m (hi  he )  i
 g ( zi  z e ) 
 2  4.20a
►If the change in kinetic energy of flowing matter is
negligible, ½(Vi2 – Ve2) drops out.
►If the change in potential energy of flowing matter is
negligible, g(zi – ze) drops out.
►If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible,
Q cv drops out.
Wcv  m
 (hi  he )
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Turbine Modelling
Example:
An adiabatic steam turbine in a power plant
receives 5 kg/s steam at 3000 kPa, 500˚C.
Twenty percent of the flow is extracted at 1000
kPa, 350˚C to a feedwater heater, and the
remainder flows out at 200 kPa, 200˚C. Find
the turbine power output.
Answer:
2643 kW

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Compressors and Pumps

►Compressors and Pumps:


devices in which work is
done on the substance
flowing through them to
change the state of the
substance, typically to
increase the pressure
and/or elevation.
►Compressor : substance is
gas
►Pump: substance is liquid
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Compressors and Pumps

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Compressors and Pumps

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Compressors and Pumps

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


C&P Modeling

   (V 2
 V 2
e )
 Eq.
0  Qcv  Wcv  m (hi  he )  i
 g ( zi  z e ) 
 2  4.20a
►If the change in kinetic energy of flowing matter is
negligible, ½(Vi2 – Ve2) drops out.
►If the change in potential energy of flowing matter is
negligible, g(zi – ze) drops out.
►If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible,
Q cv drops out.
Wcv  m
 (hi  he )

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Compressor Modelling
Example:
A compressor receives 0.1 kg/s R-134a at 150
kPa, -10˚C and delivers it at 1000 kPa, 40˚C.
The power input is measured to be 3 kW. The
compressor has heat transfer to air at 100 kPa
coming in at 20˚C and leaving at 30˚C. How
much is the mass flow rate of air?

Answer:
0.0359 kg/s
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Heat Exchangers

►Direct contact: A mixing chamber in which hot and


cold streams are mixed directly.
►Tube-within-a-tube counterflow: A gas or liquid
stream is separated from another gas or liquid by a
wall through which energy is conducted. Heat
transfer occurs from the hot stream to the cold
stream as the streams flow in opposite directions.
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Heat Exchangers

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Heat Exchangers

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Heat Exchangers

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Heat Exchangers

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Heat Exchanger Modeling
2 2
V V
0  Q cv  Wcv   m i (hi  i  gzi )   m e (he  e  gze )
i 2 e 2
► Wcv  0. (Eq. 4.18)
►If the kinetic energies of the flowing streams are
negligible, m i (Vi2/2) and m e (Ve2/2) drop out.
►If the potential energies of the flowing streams are
negligible, m i gzi and m e gze drop out.
►If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible,
Q cv drops out.
0   m i hi   m ehe
i e
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Heat Exchanger Modeling
Example:
An automotive radiator has
glycerine at 95˚C enter and return
at 55˚C as shown in the figure
below. Air flows in at 20˚C and
leaves at 25˚C. If the radiator
should transfer 25 kW in the form of
heat, what is the mass flow rate of
the glycerine and what is the
volume flow rate of air in at 100
kPa.
Answer:
0.258 kg/s, 4.19 cu. m/s
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Mixing Process Modeling
Example:
An open feedwater heater in a powerplant
heats 4 kg/s water at 45˚C, 100 kPa by mixing
it with steam from the turbine at 100 kPa,
250˚C. Assume the exit flow is saturated liquid
at the given pressure and find the mass flow
rate from the turbine.

Answer:
0.358 kg/s
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Cycles
Example:
The data below is for the simple power plant shown in
the figure in the left. State 6 has a quality of 0.92 and
velocity of 200 m/s. The rate of steam flow is 25 kg/s,
with 300 kW power input to the pump. Piping
diameters are 200 mm from steam generator to the
turbine and 75 mm from the condenser to the steam
generator. Determine the velocity at state 5 and the
power output of the turbine

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Cycles
Example:
For the same power plant in the left, assume the
cooling water comes from a lake at 15˚C and is
returned at 25˚C. Determine the rate of heat transfer
in the condenser and the mass flow rate of cooling
water from the lake.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Cycles
Example:
For the same power plant in the left, determine the
rate of heat transfer in the economizer, which is a low
temperature heat exchanger. Find also the rate of
heat transfer needed in the steam generator.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


Learning Outcomes
►Describe key concepts better; those that
are related to control volume analysis,
including distinguishing between steady-
state and transient analysis, distinguishing
between mass flow rate and volumetric
flow rate, and explaining the meanings of
one-dimensional flow and flow work.
►Apply mass and energy balances to
control volumes better.
►Obtain and apply appropriate property
data for control volume analyses better.
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7
Learning Outcomes
►Develop appropriate engineering models
for control volumes, with particular
attention to analyzing components
commonly encountered in engineering
practice such as nozzles, diffusers,
turbines, compressors, heat exchangers,
throttling devices, and integrated systems
that incorporate two or more components.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7


ME 63: Engineering Thermodynamics

Flow Components

Lecture 5
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 7