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and the Clausius Inequality

Lecture 8 part 1

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10

An Power Cycle Example First

A system undergoes a power cycle

Hot Reservoir

while receiving 1000 kJ by heat transfer TH = 500 K

Cycle

transfer to a thermal reservoir at (a) 200

QC = 600 kJ

K, (b) 300 K, (c) 400 K. For each case,

determine whether the cycle operates TC = (a) 200 K,

irreversibly, operates reversibly, or is (b) 300 K,

(c) 400 K

impossible. Cold Reservoir

actual cycle performance (h) to maximum theoretical cycle

performance (hmax) calculated from Eq. 5.9

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10

An Power Cycle Example First

Actual Performance: Calculate h using the heat

transfers: Q 600 kJ

h 1 C

1 0.4

QH 1000 kJ

Maximum Theoretical Performance: Calculate

hmax from Eq. 5.9 and compare to h:

h hmax

TC 200 K

(a) h max 1 1 0.6 0.4 < 0.6 Irreversibly

TH 500 K

TC 300 K

(b) h max 1 1 0.4 0.4 = 0.4 Reversibly

TH 500 K

TC 400 K

(c) h max 1 1 0.2 0.4 > 0.2 Impossible

TH 500 K

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10

Carnot Cycles

►The Carnot cycle provides a specific example of

a reversible cycle that operates between two

thermal reservoirs. Other examples are provided

in Chapter 9: the Ericsson and Stirling cycles.

undergoes a series of four internally reversible

processes: two adiabatic processes alternated

with two isothermal processes.

Carnot Cycles

The p-v diagram and schematic of a gas in a piston-cylinder

assembly executing a Carnot cycle are shown below:

Carnot Cycles

The p-v diagram and schematic of water executing a Carnot

cycle through four interconnected components are shown

below:

TC

h max 1 (Eq. 5.9)

TH

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10

Carnot Cycles

► If a Carnot power cycle is operated in the opposite direction,

the magnitudes of all energy transfers remain the same

but the energy transfers are oppositely directed.

► Such a cycle may be regarded as a Carnot refrigeration or

heat pump cycle for which the coefficient of performance is

given, respectively, by

TC

Carnot Refrigeration Cycle: max (Eq. 5.10)

TH TC

TH

Carnot Heat Pump Cycle: max (Eq. 5.11)

TH TC

ME 63: Engineering Thermodynamics

and the Clausius Inequality

Lecture 8 part 2

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10

The Clausius Inequality

►The Clausius inequality considered next provides

the basis for developing the entropy concept.

without regard for the body, or bodies, from which

the system undergoing a cycle receives energy

by heat transfer or to which the system rejects

energy by heat transfer. Such bodies need not

be thermal reservoirs.

The Clausius Inequality

►The Clausius inequality is developed from the

Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law and can

be expressed as:

Q

cy cle (Eq. 5.13)

T b

where

boundary and over the entire cycle.

subscript indicates integrand is evaluated at the boundary

b of the system executing the cycle.

The Clausius Inequality

►The Clausius inequality is developed from the

Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law and can

be expressed as:

Q

cy cle (Eq. 5.13)

T b

of cycle:

cycle = 0 no irreversibilities present within the system Eq.

cycle > 0 irreversibilities present within the system 5.14

cycle < 0 impossible

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10

Clausius Inequality Example

A system undergoes a cycle while receiving

1000 kJ by heat transfer at a temperature of 500 K

and discharging 600 kJ by heat transfer at (a) 200

K, (b) 300 K, (c) 400 K. Using Eqs. 5.13 and 5.14,

what is the nature of the cycle in each of these

cases?

Solution: To determine the nature of the cycle,

perform the cyclic integral of Eq. 5.13 to each case

and apply Eq. 5.14 to draw a conclusion about the

nature of each cycle.

Clausius Inequality Example

Q Qin Qout

Applying Eq. 5.13 to each cycle: cy cle

T b TH TC

1000 kJ 600 kJ

(a) cy cle 1 kJ/K cycle = +1 kJ/K > 0

500 K 200 K

1000 kJ 600 kJ

(b) cy cle 0 kJ/K cycle = 0 kJ/K = 0

500 K 300 K

(c) cy cle 0.5 kJ/K

500 K 400 K

Impossible

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10

Learning Outcomes

►Explain key concepts better related to the

second law of thermodynamics, including

alternative statements of the second law, the

internally reversible process, and the Kelvin

temperature scale.

►Evaluate the performance of power cycles and

refrigeration and heat pump cycles better using,

as appropriate, the corollaries of Secs. 5.6.2 and

5.7.2, together with Eqs. 5.9-5.11.

►Describe the Carnot cycle.

►Apply the Clausius inequality as expressed by

Eq. 5.13.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10

ME 63: Engineering Thermodynamics

and the Clausius Inequality

Lecture 8

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10

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