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ME 63: Engineering Thermodynamics

The Second Law: Carnot Cycles


and the Clausius Inequality

Lecture 8 part 1
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10
An Power Cycle Example First
A system undergoes a power cycle
Hot Reservoir
while receiving 1000 kJ by heat transfer TH = 500 K

from a thermal reservoir at a temperature QH = 1000 kJ

of 500 K and discharging 600 kJ by heat Power Wcycle


Cycle
transfer to a thermal reservoir at (a) 200
QC = 600 kJ
K, (b) 300 K, (c) 400 K. For each case,
determine whether the cycle operates TC = (a) 200 K,
irreversibly, operates reversibly, or is (b) 300 K,
(c) 400 K
impossible. Cold Reservoir

Solution: To determine the nature of the cycle, compare


actual cycle performance (h) to maximum theoretical cycle
performance (hmax) calculated from Eq. 5.9
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10
An Power Cycle Example First
Actual Performance: Calculate h using the heat
transfers: Q 600 kJ
h  1 C
 1  0.4
QH 1000 kJ
Maximum Theoretical Performance: Calculate
hmax from Eq. 5.9 and compare to h:
h hmax
TC 200 K
(a) h max  1   1  0.6 0.4 < 0.6 Irreversibly
TH 500 K
TC 300 K
(b) h max  1   1  0.4 0.4 = 0.4 Reversibly
TH 500 K
TC 400 K
(c) h max  1   1  0.2 0.4 > 0.2 Impossible
TH 500 K
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10
Carnot Cycles
►The Carnot cycle provides a specific example of
a reversible cycle that operates between two
thermal reservoirs. Other examples are provided
in Chapter 9: the Ericsson and Stirling cycles.

►In a Carnot cycle, the system executing the cycle


undergoes a series of four internally reversible
processes: two adiabatic processes alternated
with two isothermal processes.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10


Carnot Cycles
The p-v diagram and schematic of a gas in a piston-cylinder
assembly executing a Carnot cycle are shown below:

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10


Carnot Cycles
The p-v diagram and schematic of water executing a Carnot
cycle through four interconnected components are shown
below:

In each of these cases the thermal efficiency is given by


TC
h max  1  (Eq. 5.9)
TH
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10
Carnot Cycles
► If a Carnot power cycle is operated in the opposite direction,
the magnitudes of all energy transfers remain the same
but the energy transfers are oppositely directed.
► Such a cycle may be regarded as a Carnot refrigeration or
heat pump cycle for which the coefficient of performance is
given, respectively, by

TC
Carnot Refrigeration Cycle:  max  (Eq. 5.10)
TH  TC

TH
Carnot Heat Pump Cycle:  max  (Eq. 5.11)
TH  TC

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10


ME 63: Engineering Thermodynamics

The Second Law: Carnot Cycles


and the Clausius Inequality

Lecture 8 part 2
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10
The Clausius Inequality
►The Clausius inequality considered next provides
the basis for developing the entropy concept.

►The Clausius inequality is applicable to any cycle


without regard for the body, or bodies, from which
the system undergoing a cycle receives energy
by heat transfer or to which the system rejects
energy by heat transfer. Such bodies need not
be thermal reservoirs.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10


The Clausius Inequality
►The Clausius inequality is developed from the
Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law and can
be expressed as:
 Q 
    cy cle (Eq. 5.13)
 T b
where

indicates integral is to be performed over all parts of the


boundary and over the entire cycle.
subscript indicates integrand is evaluated at the boundary
b of the system executing the cycle.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10


The Clausius Inequality
►The Clausius inequality is developed from the
Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law and can
be expressed as:
 Q 
    cy cle (Eq. 5.13)
 T b

The nature of the cycle executed is indicated by the value


of cycle:
cycle = 0 no irreversibilities present within the system Eq.
cycle > 0 irreversibilities present within the system 5.14
cycle < 0 impossible
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10
Clausius Inequality Example
A system undergoes a cycle while receiving
1000 kJ by heat transfer at a temperature of 500 K
and discharging 600 kJ by heat transfer at (a) 200
K, (b) 300 K, (c) 400 K. Using Eqs. 5.13 and 5.14,
what is the nature of the cycle in each of these
cases?
Solution: To determine the nature of the cycle,
perform the cyclic integral of Eq. 5.13 to each case
and apply Eq. 5.14 to draw a conclusion about the
nature of each cycle.

ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10


Clausius Inequality Example
 Q  Qin Qout
Applying Eq. 5.13 to each cycle:       cy cle
 T  b TH TC
1000 kJ 600 kJ
(a)   cy cle    1 kJ/K cycle = +1 kJ/K > 0
500 K 200 K

Irreversibilities present within system

1000 kJ 600 kJ
(b)   cy cle    0 kJ/K cycle = 0 kJ/K = 0
500 K 300 K

No irreversibilities present within system

1000 kJ 600 kJ cycle = –0.5 kJ/K < 0


(c)   cy cle    0.5 kJ/K
500 K 400 K
Impossible
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10
Learning Outcomes
►Explain key concepts better related to the
second law of thermodynamics, including
alternative statements of the second law, the
internally reversible process, and the Kelvin
temperature scale.
►Evaluate the performance of power cycles and
refrigeration and heat pump cycles better using,
as appropriate, the corollaries of Secs. 5.6.2 and
5.7.2, together with Eqs. 5.9-5.11.
►Describe the Carnot cycle.
►Apply the Clausius inequality as expressed by
Eq. 5.13.
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10
ME 63: Engineering Thermodynamics

The Second Law: Carnot Cycles


and the Clausius Inequality

Lecture 8
ME 63 • Engineering Thermodynamics • Week 10