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Lesson 1: Biological and Cultural

Evolution:
From Australopithecus to
Homo Sapiens
Biological Evolution
• It refers to the changes,
modifications, and
variations in the genetics
and inherited traits of
biological populations
from one generation to
another.
• Scientists study the
changes in the physical
body of humans, the
changes in the shape
and size of their bones.
Cultural Evolution
• It refers to the changes
or development in
cultures from a simple
form to a more complex
form of human culture.
• Scientist study the
cultural evolution of
humans by analyzing
the changes in the
latter’s way of life.
• The evolution of species happens through
the process of natural selection.

• The reason for occurrence of evolution.


• The outcome processes that affect the
frequencies of traits in a particular
environment. Traits that enhance survival
and reproductive success increase in
frequency over time.
Variations
• Every species is made up of a variety
of individuals wherein some are
adopted to their environments
compared to others
Heritability
• Organisms produce progeny with
different sets of traits that can inherited

Differential reproductive success


• Organisms that have traits most
suitable to their environment will
survive and transfer these variations to
their offspring in subsequent
generations
HOMINIDS
• The general term used to categorize the
group of early humans and other
humanlike creatures that can walk
erect during the prehistoric period.
Four Categories of Hominids
1. Sahelanthropus 3. Australopithecus

2. Ardipithecus

4. HOMO
1. Sahelanthropus tchadensis
6-7 million years ago
• It had both apelike and
humanlike characteristics:
1. A skull similar to
Australopithecus and modern
human.
2. Height almost similar with the
chimpanzee
3. Brain size: 320-380 cc
4. Small teeth
5. Had the ability to walk upright
Orrorin
Ardipithecus
tugenensis
5.7 million years ago 5.6 million years ago
Ardipithecus “ape on the ground”

Ardipithecus Ardipithecus
Kadabba Ramidus
• 1. height about 4 feet
• 2. weight about 120 pounds
• 3. skull size similar to an ape
• 4. Small brain
• 5. Biped
• 6. lived in jungles and forests like chimpanzees
3.Australopithecus
(5 million- 1million
years ago)

“the Southern Ape”


Characteristics
1. Brain size: 500 cc or almost 1/3 size of the
modern human brain
2. Upright
3. Biped
4. Tool users not tool makers
5. Food scavengers
• There are 6 species of the Australopithecus
and they are divided into two major
categories:
Gracile Australophitecus
-Australophitecus afarensis
Australophitecus anamensis
-Australophitecus africanus
Australopithecus
Afarensis

Considered as one of modern human’s earliest ancestors and


remains as the most famous hominid fossil discovered
Robust Australophitecus
Australophitecus aethiopicus
Australophitecus robustus
Australophitecus boisei
HOMO
• They are classified as humans and not
humanlike creatures because they had bigger
brains and were bipedal
HOMO HABILIS
• 3-4 FEET
• Brain size: 700 cc
HOMO ERECTUS
• Large Brain size:
1,000cc
• Lived in shelters
• Food gatherers
• Crafted materials
Peking Man
HOMO SAPIENS
• .Homo sapiens • Cro - Magnon
Neanderthalensis