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INDIAN SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

YEAR 2020
llEGUlATIONS
&
SYUABUSBS

( All Rights Reserved)


December 2017
____________________________________________________________________________________________

© Copyright, Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations


All rights reserved. The copyright to this publication and any part thereof solely vests in the Council for the Indian
School Certificate Examinations. This publication and no part thereof may be reproduced, transmitted, distributed or
stored in any manner whatsoever, without the prior written approval of the Council for the Indian School Certificate
Examinations.
This booklet contains:
Page

I REGULATIONS 1

II SYLLABUSES 12

III LIST OF PRESCRIBED TEXTS 327

i
NOTE

Kindly note that:

1. To enhance educational transactions, this syllabus has an optional recommendation


to include ‘Contemporary Studies’ as a component of Socially Useful Productive
Work (SUPW).

2. For ease of understanding, wherever required, the scope of syllabuses, indicating


the extent and depth of coverage have been defined. The Syllabuses have been
presented in regular font and the scope of syllabuses in italics.

ii
CONTENTS
PAGE
THE COUNCIL 1
INDIAN SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
CHAPTER I
A. Introduction 1
B. Academic Year 1
C. Conditions of Eligibility for Admission to Class XI 1
D. Last date for Regularising Admission to Class XI of ISC 2
E. Conditions of Entry 2
F. Minimum Attendance Requirement 2
G. Withdrawal of Candidates 3
H. Syllabuses 3
I. Scope of selected Syllabuses 3
J. Disqualification 3
CHAPTER II
A. Subjects of Examination 4
B. Scheme of Examination 4
C. Choice of Subjects 5
D. Awards and Conditions for Awards 5
E. Issue of Results 5
F. Certificates 5
G. Ownership of Answer Scripts and other materials 6
H. Evaluation of Answer Scripts 6
I. Enquiries concerning Examination Results 6
J. Re-examination 7
K. Last Date for retaining Answer Scripts 7
CHAPTER III
A. Awarding Committee 7
B. Use of Unfair Means 7
C. Power to alter or cancel results, certificates, etc 9

iii
CHAPTER IV

A. General Arrangements: 9
(1) Date of Examination 9
(2) Centres of Examination 9
(3) Registration of Candidates 9
(4) Correction of Entries 9
(5) Confirmation of Entries 9
(6) Transfer of Examination Centre 10
(7) Particulars of Candidates 10
(8) Entries for a Supplementary Pass Certificate 10
(9) Examination Charges 10
(10) Refunds 10
(11) Infectious Diseases 10
(12) Time Allowance for Question Papers 10
(13) Materials to be provided for by candidates 10
(14) Special Consideration 10
(15) Textbooks 11
(16) Standards in Subjects 11
(17) Clarity and Neatness 11
B. Equivalence and Recognition 11
C. Dispute Resolution - Jurisdiction 11

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SYLLABUSES

S.NO. SUBJECT PAGE NO.

Compulsory Subject
1. English (801) 12
Elective Subjects
2. Indian Languages 15
3. Modern Foreign Languages 16
Chinese (826), French (828), German (829), Tibetan (835), Spanish (836)
4. Classical Languages 17
Arabic (837), Sanskrit (838), Persian (839)
5. Elective English (850) 18
6. History (851) 20
7. Political Science (852) 33
8. Geography (853) 42
9. Sociology (854) 58
10. Psychology (855) 71
11. Economics (856) 79
12. Commerce (857) 87
13. Accounts (858) 96
14. Business Studies (859) 116
15. Mathematics (860) 124
16. Physics (861) 140
17. Chemistry (862) 167
18. Biology (863) 193
19. Home Science (864) 215
20. Fashion Designing (865) 222
21. Electricity and Electronics (866) 230
22. Engineering Science (867) 234
23. Computer Science (868) 236

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S.NO. SUBJECT PAGE NO.

24. Geometrical and Mechanical Drawing (869) 247


25. Geometrical and Building Drawing (870) 248
26. Art (871) 249
27. Music
(a) Indian Music – Hindustani (872) 253
(b) Indian Music – Carnatic (873) 259
(c) Western Music (874) 261
28. Physical Education (875) 263
39. Environmental Science (877) 287
30. Biotechnology (878) 300
31. Mass Media & Communication (879) 312
Socially Useful and Productive Work 318
Appendix – I - List of Prescribed Text Books 327

vi
REGULATIONS
INDIAN SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
THE COUNCIL Examinations
Origin 6. The Council conducts the Indian Certificate of
Secondary Education, the Indian School
1. The Council for the Indian School Certificate
Examinations was established in 1958 by the Certificate and the Certificate of Vocational
University of Cambridge Local Examinations Education, Examinations.
Syndicate with the assistance of the Inter-State 7. There is a Committee on Examinations and
Board for Anglo-Indian Education. It is registered Subject Committees for receiving suggestions,
under the Societies Registration Act No. XXI of drawing up and revising syllabuses. The Council
1860. has its own teams of trained examiners, specialists
Recognition and competent advisers.
2. The Delhi Education Act, 1973, passed by
Parliament, in Chapter I under Definitions Section INDIAN SCHOOL CERTIFICATE
2 (s), recognises the Council as a body conducting EXAMINATION
public examinations. CHAPTER 1
Constituents A. Introduction
3. The Council has been so constituted as to secure 1. The Indian School Certificate Examination
suitable representation of: Government of India, has been designed as an examination, through
Governments responsible for affiliated schools in the medium of English, in accordance with
their State/Territories, the Inter-State Board for the recommendations of the New Education
Anglo-Indian Education, the Association of Indian Policy 1986, after a two-year course of studies
Universities, the Association of Heads of beyond the Indian Certificate of Secondary
Anglo-Indian Schools, the Indian Public Schools’ Education (Year-10) Examination or its
Conference, the Association of Schools for the equivalent.
Indian School Certificate (ASISC) Examination 2. Private candidates are not permitted to appear
and members co-opted by the Executive for the examination.
Committee of the Council.
B. Academic Year
Administration
The beginning of the academic year in Schools
4. The Council is administered by an Executive affiliated to the Council shall be from the middle
Committee consisting of the Chairman and four of March and the first week of June each year.
members. The Chief Executive and Secretary of However, the Hill schools may begin the
the Council is the ex-officio Secretary of the academic year from February each year.
Committee.
C. Conditions of eligibility for admission to
5. The Chief Executive and Secretary acts as Class XI
Secretary to the Council under the authority of the
Chairman. Subject to the overall control of the 1. Candidates who have been awarded Pass
Council and the Executive Committee, the Chief Certificates in the Indian Certificate of
Executive and Secretary exercises all powers of Secondary Education Examination with
the Council related to the administration of the passes in five subjects including English are
examinations in accordance with the provisions of eligible to be admitted for preparation in
the Regulations and other rules and procedures courses of study leading to the Indian School
approved by the Council from time to time and for Certificate Examination.
the time being in force.
1
2. (a) The eligibility of candidates who have Candidates may be entered only by the school
been awarded Pass Certificates in an they are attending and in this respect, the
equivalent examination conducted by decision of the Head of the School is final.
another Examining Board will be decided 2. Candidates who are entered as school
by the Chief Executive and Secretary of candidates in accordance with (1) above, and
the Council. The conditions of eligibility who were not awarded Pass Certificates may
are as follows: be admitted to Class XII by 31st August, under
(i) The candidate must have been intimation to the Council, at an affiliated and
awarded a Pass Certificate in registered school, prior to the year of the
accordance with the requirements of examination, provided such a candidate fulfils
the Board at an equivalent all other conditions as per the Regulations.
examination taken at one and the 3. Candidates entered as school candidates in
same sitting. accordance with 1 or 2 above and who are not
(ii) The candidate must have obtained awarded Pass Certificates will be permitted to
pass marks in accordance with the re-appear for the examination without further
Regulations of the Board in English attendance at an affiliated and registered
and four other written subjects. school only once in the year following their
failure but not thereafter.
(b) Heads of Schools may ADMIT
PROVISIONALLY in Class XI, a Such candidates can be entered online for the
candidate who has been thus awarded a examination by the Heads of those Schools
Pass Certificate by another Examining from where these candidates had appeared for
Board. On granting provisional the examination in the previous year and were
admission, they must submit online to the not awarded a Pass Certificate.
Council immediately, certified true copies 4. Candidates who have been awarded Pass
of the Statement of Marks issued to the Certificates will be permitted to enter for a
candidate by the Examining Board. Supplementary Pass Certificate in any/all of
the subjects offered for the ISC examinations
The Council will inform the school about
earlier by the candidates (provided that the
the eligibility status of the candidate
subjects under consideration are still being
online.
offered for the examination in the year in
D. Last date for regularising admission to which the candidates wish to enter), without
Class XI of ISC further attendance at an affiliated and
registered school OR after studying an
The last date for regularising admission to
additional subject(s) for two years. Such
Class XI of ISC is August 31, each year.
candidates can be entered for the examination
online through the Heads of Schools from
E. Conditions of Entry which the candidates appeared originally for
1. Entry to the Indian School Certificate the ISC examination.
Examination in the case of eligible candidates 5. There is no age limit for candidates taking the
who are being entered for the first time is examination.
restricted to candidates with a minimum of
F. Minimum Attendance Requirement
75% attendance of the working days during
each year of the two-year course at school(s) Candidates whose attendance is below 75% of the
affiliated to the Council and registered for the working days are ordinarily not eligible to sit for
Indian School Certificate Examination. The the examination. However, the Chief Executive
last date of computing attendance at schools is and Secretary has the authority to condone the
January 31, of each of the two-year course. shortage of attendance in the case of candidates

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whose minimum attendance is not less than 60% H. Syllabuses
of the working days in each year of the two-year
The Regulations and Syllabuses of the Indian
course. This is inclusive of absence due to illness
School Certificate Examination are included in
and other special circumstances. Heads of Schools
may represent, to the Chief Executive and this booklet, copies of which are obtainable from
Secretary, cases of candidates who deserve special M/s. Evergreen Publications, 4738/23 Ansari
consideration for condonation of shortage of Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi – 110002.
attendance in Class XI and / or XII, provided that Telephone: 011-23264528 & 23270431.
the attendance of such candidates is not less than NOTE: It is mandatory for the Heads of
60% of the working days, during each year of the
Schools to ensure that all students registered
two-year course.
for the examination are provided with a copy
Further, the Chief Executive and Secretary may of the Regulations and Syllabuses for the year
condone the shortage of attendance in the case of
of the examination in which the candidate is
candidates whose minimum attendance is below
60% in exceptional cases i.e.: appearing.

(i) on Psychological / Medical Grounds such as I. Scope of Selected Syllabuses


serious illnesses requiring long period of The scope of selected syllabuses of the Indian
treatment / hospitalization. School Certificate Examination is included in this
(ii) authorized participation in sports at State or booklet “Regulations and Syllabuses”.
National level organized by recognized Sports
Authorities. J. Disqualification
If any of the Regulations made herein and for the
(iii) other unforeseen and special circumstances.
conduct of the examination is not adhered to, the
The Chief Executive and Secretary would candidate or candidates concerned may be
subsequently report the matter to the Executive disqualified.
Committee of the Council.
(i) In no case, the Heads of affiliated schools
The last date for computing attendance at school shall detain eligible candidates who meet the
is January 31st, of each of the two years. pass criteria and have the required attendance
G. Withdrawal of Candidates from appearing at the ISC Examination.
Candidates may be withdrawn at any time prior to (ii) No affiliated school shall endeavour to
the commencement of the examination, provided present candidates who are not on its roll
that, once the entries have been acknowledged as nor will it present candidates of its
accepted by the Council's office, Heads of unaffiliated branch/school to any of the
Schools may only withdraw candidates:
Council’s examinations.
(a) on account of illness of the candidates, duly
If the Council has reasons to believe that an
certified by a registered medical practitioner;
affiliated school is not following the Regulations
OR mentioned above, the Council shall take necessary
(b) at the express written request of the action against it as per the Rules & Regulations.
parents/legal guardians of the candidates.

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CHAPTER II Note: The following subject combinations are not
IMPORTANT NOTE: The responsibility for the permitted for the ISC Examination:
correct selection of subjects by candidates to meet (i) Physics with Engineering Science.
the university or professional requirements will be (ii) Geometrical & Mechanical Drawing with
that of the Head of the School. Geometrical & Building Drawing
A. Subjects of Examination Part II - Internal Examination
Part I - External Examination (i) It will be the responsibility of the Head of the
Compulsory Subject School to ensure that promotion from Class XI to
1. English Class XII is done on the basis of cumulative
achievement level of the student throughout the
Elective Subjects year, in the subjects he/she has been registered
2. An Indian Language for. For promotions, a candidate is required to
3. A Modern Foreign Language have obtained at least 35% marks in four subjects
(severally) including English on the cumulative
4. A Classical Language
average and a minimum attendance of 75% of the
5. Elective English working days in Class XI.
6. History (ii) Socially Useful Productive Work and Community
7. Political Science Service (Compulsory).
8. Geography The assessment in “Socially Useful Productive
9. Sociology Work and Community Service” will be made by
the school and the result will count towards the
10. Psychology award of the Certificate. The school will be
11. Economics required to follow the instructions sent by the
12. Commerce Council in the matter of keeping records of the
13. Accounts work and the assessment of each candidate in
“Socially Useful Productive Work and
14. Business Studies Community Service”.
15. Mathematics B. Scheme of Examination
16. Physics 1. (a) The syllabuses in English (Compulsory) and
17. Chemistry in Indian/Foreign/Classical Languages
18. Biology (Elective) have not been bifurcated.
Questions will be set from the entire
19. Home Science
syllabus for the year-XII examination.
20. Fashion Designing
(b) The syllabuses in Elective subjects (except
21. Electricity & Electronics Indian/Foreign/Classical Languages) are
22. Engineering Science prescribed separately for Class XI and Class
23. Computer Science XII. The syllabus prescribed for Class XI
will be examined internally by the school
24. Geometrical & Mechanical Drawing and the syllabus for Class XII will be
25. Geometrical & Building Drawing examined externally by the Council.
26. Art 2. It will be the responsibility of the Head of the
27. Music (Indian or Western) school to ensure promotion from Class XI to
Class XII will be done on the basis of the
28. Physical Education cumulative achievement level of the student
29. Environmental Science throughout the academic year in the subjects
30. Biotechnology he/she has been registered for. For
promotions, a candidate is required to have
31. Mass Media & Communication obtained at least 35% marks in a minimum of
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four subjects which must include English, on subject in question will be considered
the cumulative average and a minimum incomplete.
attendance of 75% of the working days. No D. Awards and Conditions for Awards
other criteria will be used for promotion from
Class XI to Class XII. 1. PASS CERTIFICATES will be awarded to
candidates who at one and the same
Promotions from Class XI to XII on trial
examination attain the pass standard in four or
basis, re-examination or awarding of grace
more subjects which must include the subject
marks is not permissible and will not be
accepted by the Council. Transfer English and have attained a pass grade in
Certificate should not be issued with SUPW and Community Service as
‘Promoted to Class XII’ if the candidate examined/assessed internally by the School.
has not met the required promotion 2. SUPPLEMENTARY PASS CERTIFICATES
criteria. will be awarded to candidates who have
3. The prescribed syllabus for Class XII will be obtained PASS CERTIFICATES and who
examined externally by the Council on the appear in a subsequent examination and attain
subject matter of the syllabus for each subject. the pass standard in one or more subjects.
4. The result of the Indian School Certificate 3. STATEMENT OF MARKS will be issued to
(Year- XII) Examination will be based on the all candidates who appeared for the
external examination at the end of Class XII examination.
and on Socially Useful Productive Work and
Community Service, evaluated internally by The pass mark for each subject is 35%.
the School. E. Issue of Results
C. Choice of Subjects Schools/Individuals can view and print the result
All candidates for the Pass Certificate must enter online. In addition, the Statement of Marks and
and sit for English (compulsory), with three, four Pass Certificates (if applicable) will be sent to
or five elective subjects and must have been Heads of schools as soon as possible after the
evaluated internally by the School and secured a declaration of results. The result sheets show the
pass grade in Socially Useful Productive Work result in the examination as a whole and also
and Community Service (compulsory). indicate the standard reached in each subject
Note: taken, except Socially Useful Productive Work
and Community Service, by grades ranging from
1. A candidate may not enter for more than six 1 to 9, 1 being the highest and 9 the lowest. Grade
subjects including the compulsory subject 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 indicates a pass with credit, 7 or 8
English. indicates a pass and 9 a failure. Very good is
2. A School may not enter candidates for indicated by 1 or 2.
subjects for the teaching of which no The standard reached in Socially Useful
provision is made by the School.
Productive Work and Community Service
3. No candidate shall be permitted to change (internally assessed) will be shown on the result
his/her subjects(s) after 31st October of that sheets by grades A, B, C, D or E: A being the
year in which the candidate has registered in highest, and E the lowest. A, B, C or D indicate a
Class XI.
pass and E a failure.
4. No candidate shall offer a subject in Class XII
which he/she has not studied in Class XI. F. Certificates
5. The responsibility for the correct selection 1. Statement of Marks /Pass Certificates/
of subjects to meet university or Supplementary Pass Certificates will be
professional requirements of a candidate or issued through the Heads of Schools as soon
candidates will be that of the Head of the as possible after the issue of results.
School. 2. Duplicates of Pass Certificates/
6. Certain subjects have practical papers. Supplementary Pass Certificates are not
Candidates offering such subjects must also issued, instead a Certifying Statement of
take the practical examination; otherwise the Examination Result may be requested for
5
online by the Head of the School/ Candidate The Council does not undertake to re-evaluate
with supporting documents and on payment of answer scripts after the issue of results.
prescribed charges. I. Enquiries concerning examination results
3. Duplicates of Statements of Marks may be 1. Enquiries concerning examination results on
requested for online by the Head of the behalf of the school candidates must be made
School/ Candidate with supporting documents to the Chief Executive and Secretary of the
and on payment of prescribed charges. Council by the Head of the School concerned
4. Migration Certificates will be issued on only and must reach the Council’s office, not
request by Heads of Schools concerned to later than the specified date. Schools are
candidates who have been awarded Pass asked to bear in mind that a large number of
Certificates. answer scripts are re-marked before the
5. Duplicate Migration Certificates may be awards.
requested online by the Head of School / Enquiries should be restricted only to results
Candidate with supporting documents and on which are significantly below the standard
payment of prescribed charges. suggested by the candidate’s school work in
the subject.
G. Ownership of answer scripts and other
materials 2. Recheck: The accuracy of a subject grade
awarded will be checked on request, in one or
All (answer scripts), question papers and any
more subjects, provided that the Head of the
other work done by candidates during the
School/ Candidate submits the application
examination and the copyright therein are the
online. Applications for recheck must be
property of the Council and will not be returned
submitted online, in the proforma provided by
and every application to enter for the examination
the Council and must be received at the
(whether through a school or by an individual
Council’s office not later than seven days
candidate) will be deemed to constitute an
from the day of the declaration of results. For
agreement by each candidate entered for the
each recheck, schools/Candidates will be
examination with the Council to assign such
required to pay the charges (as prescribed by
copyright to the Council.
the Council from time to time), which shall be
H. Evaluation of Answer Scripts made online.
1. The evaluation of answer scripts and of other The recheck will be restricted only to check
work done by candidates during the whether:
examination is within the domestic − all the answers have been marked;
jurisdiction of the Council and, therefore, no
− there has been a mistake in the totalling
candidate, outside person or authority has
of marks for each question in the
jurisdiction to check/scrutinise the answer
subject and transferring the marks
scripts or other work done by any candidate. correctly onto the first cover page of
2. The marking of answer scripts and of other the answer script;
work done by candidates during the − the continuation sheets attached to the
examination conducted by the Council or its answer script, as mentioned by the
examiners and the results of such marking candidate, are intact.
shall be final and legally binding on all
candidates. The Chief Executive and No other re-evaluation of the answer script
Secretary of the Council will not, except in or other work done by the candidate as
his absolute discretion, enter into part of the examination will be carried out
correspondence about results with candidates under any circumstances whatsoever.
or their parents or guardians or other persons (i) No candidate, person or organisation shall
claiming to act in loco parentis. be entitled to claim re-evaluation or
disclosure or inspection of the answer
scripts or copies of it and other documents
6
as these are treated as most confidential is satisfied that such a re-examination or additional
by the Council. examination is necessary.
(ii) The recheck will be carried out by a K. Last date for retaining answer scripts:
competent person appointed by the Chief
The Council will not retain answer scripts of
Executive and Secretary of the Council.
candidates later than 60 days from the day of
(iii) On rechecking the scripts, if it is found declaration of results. The same shall be destroyed
that there is an error, the marks will be thereafter.
revised accordingly.
For enquiries concerning examination results
(iv) The communication regarding the attention is invited to paragraph I above.
revision of marks, if any, shall be sent
online to the Head of the School CHAPTER III
Candidate.
A. Awarding Committee
(v) The Council will not be responsible for
any loss or damage or any inconvenience There will be an Awarding Committee consisting
caused to the candidate, consequent to the of five members of which the Chief Executive and
revision of marks and no claims in this Secretary of the Council will act as Convener. The
regard shall be entertained. functions and powers of the Awarding Committee
(vi) The Council shall revise the Statement of will be:
Marks and Pass Certificate in respect of
such candidates whose results have (i) to consider all cases of unfair means reported
changed and after the previous Statement to the Chief Executive and Secretary of the
of Marks and Pass Certificates have been Council by the supervising examiners of the
returned by the Head of the school. examination centres or by examiners during
the marking of scripts or by any other source
The decision of the Chief Executive and
Secretary of the Council on the result of the and;
scrutiny and recheck shall be final. (ii) to take decisions on such cases in accordance
3. Main Weakness Report: If the Head of a with the provisions of the Regulations of the
School considers that the results in any one examination and following the procedures
subject are significantly below reasonable approved by the Council.
expectation, he/she may request the Chief
Executive and Secretary of the Council for B. Use of unfair means
special notes on the main weaknesses shown 1. If the Awarding Committee is satisfied that a
by the work of a few selected candidates from candidate has made arrangements to obtain
the school. It is necessary to limit such notes unfair help in connection with the question
to only one subject per school on any one papers from any person connected with the
occasion of examination and to restrict the examination centre or any agency within or
enquiry to the work of not more than six outside the examination centre, the candidate
candidates whose work is significantly below is liable to have his/her results in the
the standard as suggested by the candidates’
examination as a whole cancelled.
school work in the subject. Applications for
special notes must be sent online to the 2. (i) Candidates who are detected in giving or
Council's office not later than seven days obtaining, or attempting to give or obtain,
from the day of the declaration of results. unfair assistance, or who are otherwise
Charges commensurate with the work detected in any dishonesty whatsoever,
involved will have to be paid online to the relating to the examination, will be
Council by the school.
reported to the Chief Executive and
J. Re-examination: Secretary of the Council and may be
The Chief Executive and Secretary of the expelled from the examination room
Council shall have the power to hold a forthwith and refused admission to
re-examination or an additional examination, if he subsequent examination papers.
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(ii) The Supervising Examiner or any 5. A candidate detected in approaching directly
member of the supervisory staff shall or indirectly an examiner or any member of
seize the answer scripts in which the use the staff of the Council with the object of
of unfair assistance is detected/suspected. influencing him/her regarding any candidate's
examination result shall have his/her result in
(iii) The Supervising Examiner shall send the
the examination as a whole cancelled.
seized answer scripts with a report giving
the details of the evidence and the 6. Candidates found guilty of disorderly conduct
explanation of the candidates concerned or causing disturbance in or near the
to the Chief Executive and Secretary of examination hall/room are liable to be
the Council without delay and, if expelled from the examination hall/room
possible, on the day of the occurrence. forthwith and will be refused admission for
subsequent examination papers.
(iv) In case the candidates concerned refuse to
give explanatory statements they should 7. (i) Candidates are not permitted to have in
not be forced to do so, only the fact of their possession, while in the examination
refusal shall be recorded by the room, any book, memorandum or pocket
Supervising Examiner and attested by two book, notes, paper, mobile phones or
members of the supervisory staff on duty wireless devices, except the correct
at the time of the occurrence. question paper. They must also return any
(v) The Supervising Examiner has the incorrect question paper to the
discretion to permit such candidates to Supervising Examiner immediately.
answer the remaining part of the question (ii) Candidates are not permitted to have in
paper but on answer sheets that are their possession any weapon, object or
separate from those in which the use of instrument which may be used as a
unfair means was detected/suspected. weapon during the course of the
3. Candidates found guilty of: examination.
(i) bringing in answer sheets; or (iii) Candidates disregarding the above
(ii) taking out or attempting to take out cautions are liable to have their results in
answer sheets; or the examination as a whole cancelled.
(iii) substituting answer scripts or getting 8. (i) Persons obtaining admission to the
answer scripts replaced during or after the examination on false representation shall
examination with or without the help of be expelled from the examination hall
any person connected with the forthwith and will be reported to the
examination centre, or any agency within Police.
or outside the examination centre, shall be (ii) Candidates who are impersonated shall be
reported to the Chief Executive and reported to the Chief Executive and
Secretary of the Council and their results Secretary of the Council and their results
in the examination as a whole will be in the examination as a whole will be
cancelled. cancelled.
4. If it is subsequently discovered and the 9. (i) The decision in respect of the results of
Awarding Committee is satisfied that candidates who are detected/suspected of
candidate/s has/have either copied from other using unfair means may be delayed
candidate/s or given opportunity to other considerably and their results will not be
candidate/s to copy from them or issued with the results of other candidates.
communicated dishonestly with other
candidate/s, their results in the paper or (ii) Candidates whose results in the
subject or subjects in question or their results examination as a whole have been
in the examination as a whole will be cancelled may be debarred from entry to
cancelled. any subsequent examination.
8
10. A person who commits an offence under these (ii) a mistake is found in his/her result;
Regulations but is not a candidate, shall be or
dealt with as under: (iii) it is observed that an attempt has been
(i) The Chief Executive and Secretary of made to unfairly alter the marks of a
the Council may, if he so decides, hand candidate by either tampering with the
over the case to the Police. script or any other means.
2. The Chief Executive and Secretary of the
(ii) In the case of a teacher or a person
Council shall have the power to cancel a Pass
connected with an institution, his/her
Certificate/Supplementary Pass Certificate
misconduct shall be reported to the
which has been defaced or altered in any
Governing (or Managing) Body of the detail or manner which has been obtained by
institution for necessary action. impersonation or by or misrepresentation of
11. Entries for subsequent examinations may not facts or by fraudulent or dishonest means of
be accepted from a school where any member any kind.
of the staff has at any time committed any CHAPTER IV
offence under these Regulations.
A. General Arrangements
12. If the Awarding Committee is satisfied that
the use of dishonest means in a paper or 1. Date of examination: The printed timetable
papers has been widespread at a centre, the will be made available to all schools well
Awarding Committee reserves the right to before the examination.
cancel the results of all candidates of that 2. Centres of examination: Centres for each
centre in the paper or papers concerned, or of region will be arranged by the Convener/s
the entire examination as a whole at the centre elected/nominated for the examination year in
if several papers are involved. consultation with the office of the Council.
The minimum number of candidates for a
13. For cases of use of unfair means not covered School to have an independent examination
by these Regulations, the Awarding centre is normally fifteen.
Committee may enforce penalties according
to the nature of the offence. 3. Registration of Candidates: Candidates must
be registered online in Class XI, for the
14. Provided that no penalty under these ISC Examination. Registrations received after
Regulations shall be imposed except after – the due date will not be accepted.
(i) giving the candidate an opportunity of
making such representation in writing 4. Correction of Entries: Schools will be able
as he/she may wish to make in that to view online, the entries of candidates
regard; and registered from their school in Class XI.
Requests for corrections, if required, can be
(ii) taking the representation, if any, submitted online, along with supporting
submitted by the candidate within the documents, which will need to be uploaded
period allowed to him/her, into and submitted to the Council by 31st August
consideration. of the following year without correction
charges. Thereafter, all corrections would be
C. Power to alter, cancel results, certificates, etc. chargeable per candidate.
1. The Chief Executive and Secretary of the
5. Confirmation of Entries: Schools, after
Council shall have the power to alter or
viewing the entries of candidates (who will be
cancel the results of a candidate after it has
taking the Class XII Examination) of their
been declared, if
school, are required to confirm online that the
(i) the candidate is found guilty of having entries are correct. Entries are to be confirmed
used unfair means; online from 1st June to 31st August online.
or
9
6. Transfer of Examination Centre: the examination he/she may be permitted to
The transfer of a candidate from a centre in appear for the examination after proper
one town to a centre in another town will be arrangements are made for his/her isolation
allowed only within the same examination and separate supervision. The scripts of these
and for reasons accepted as adequate and on candidates should be put into a separate
payment of a special charge. An additional envelope and then into the main Answer
charge may be made if it is necessary to send Script envelope. The school should seek the
copies of question papers by air to the centre advice of a registered medical practitioner
of transfer. Applications, naming the town to with regard to the fumigation of the scripts
which a transfer is desired, should reach the before their despatch to the Council’s office.
Council's office at least two months before 12. Time allowance for Question Papers: Any
the commencement of the examination but not time specially allocated for reading through
later than 15th December. question papers will be stated on the question
7. Particulars of Candidates: Particulars of papers.
each candidate will be carried forward in 13. Materials to be provided for by candidates:
exactly the same way as they were entered for Candidates must provide themselves with
the ICSE or equivalent Certificate. No pencils, erasers, mathematical and dissecting
subsequent changes in the particulars of the instruments and art materials, etc. They are
candidate will be permitted. required to write their answers with blue/
8. Entries for a Supplementary Pass black ink pens. Fountain pens and ballpoint
Certificate: Candidates who have obtained pens may be used, but pencils may be used
Pass Certificates of the Indian School only for diagrams. The use of slide rules is
Certificate may subsequently enter for one or permitted in science subjects, but candidates
more subjects. A candidate who attains the using them should state this on their answer
pass standard in one or more of the subjects scripts and should be warned of the possible
offered will receive a Supplementary Pass loss of accuracy involved. Information such
Certificate. as formulae or other data, which appears, on
slide rules must be securely covered before
9. Examination Charges: * The rate of charges they are taken into the examination room.
will be notified separately. Examination Mathematical tables will be provided;
charges are to be paid online by schools. candidates are not allowed to take
Payment should be sent at the time of mathematical tables into the examination
submitting the Confirmation of Entries. room. Candidates are permitted to use
Arrangements for practical examinations are Casio fx - 82 MS (Scientific Calculator) or
made by the local conveners, with the calculators of other makes with similar
approval of the Council. No charges are functions (use of any calculator with features
payable to the Council for these, but there for retrieval of information during
may be a special local fee to cover the cost. examination is not permitted). Use of
10. Refunds: Examination charges are not electronic device/s except the calculator
refundable. mentioned above, during the examination, is
prohibited.
11. Infectious diseases: Candidates who have
been exposed to any infectious disease cannot 14. Special Consideration:
be examined at a centre unless they are out of (i) Heads of Schools may submit requests on
quarantine. a special form available from the
If a candidate is suffering from an infectious Council's office for any candidate for
disease and is declared medically fit to sit for whom special consideration is asked
because of illness or other difficulty
*
experienced during the course of the
The Council reserves the right to increase the charges, should
this prove necessary.
examination.

10
(ii) Candidates suffering from Specific unforeseen circumstance which may
Learning Disabilities: adversely affect his or her performance in
In cases of candidates suffering from the examination, the Special Difficulty
Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dyscalculia, Procedure is used.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder A form is forwarded to the Council by the
(ADHD) and other learning disabilities, Head of the candidate’s school and the
certain concessions/support are candidate’s examination answer script is
admissible, depending on the nature and then given special consideration by a
Committee, before the issue of the results.
degree of the disability and on a
The Council’s Committee does not give a
case-to-case basis. Requests for such ‘blanket’ concession but treats every case
concessions may be forwarded to the on its merit, for experience has shown
Council online along with supporting that candidates working under similar
documents from a qualified RCI unusual stress are affected in widely
(Rehabilitation Council of India) different ways. For this reason, the
registered counsellor. The Special Difficulty Form provides for the
concessions/support available are: performance of the affected candidate to
be compared with that of his/her other
• Allowance of additional time; classmates.
• Use of a Reader / Reader-cum-Writer 15. Textbooks: No books are prescribed except
(Amanuensis)/ Writer: those that are mentioned specifically; the
(a) The Question Paper may be read Council does not undertake to recommend
out, but not explained in any way textbooks.
to the candidate(s). 16. Standards in Subjects: In every subject,
unless otherwise stated, standards will be
(b) Arrangements must be made by assessed on the performance in the different
the Head of the School concerned papers of the subjects.
in consultation with the Convener
17. Clarity and neatness: Attention is called to
and the Supervising Examiner for the fact that the ability of candidates to
the candidate(s) who has/have express themselves clearly and to present their
been permitted the use of a/ answers neatly and accurately is taken into
Reader/Reader-cum-Writer, by account in assessing their work in all subjects.
the Council, to write the
examination in a separate room B. Equivalence and Recognition:
adjacent to the main examination Schools are notified.
hall under the supervision of a
C. Dispute Resolution – Jurisdiction:
Special Invigilator.
(c) The writer should be a fellow The Courts at New Delhi have the exclusive
pupil of Class XI from the same jurisdiction to entertain and adjudicate upon any
school. dispute(s) arising in connection with or under
these Examination Regulations or any other matter
• Use of a computer as a typewriter whatsoever incidental thereto and/or any matter
only. whatsoever arising in respect of anything
(iii) Special Difficulty Procedure pertaining to the same. Further, it is clarified for
Disability, illness or other extra-ordinary the avoidance of doubt that no other Court in India
circumstance: When a candidate suffers shall have the jurisdiction to entertain and
some injury or bereavement or dire adjudicate upon any such dispute.

11
COMPULSORY SUBJECT
ENGLISH (801)

Aims (English Language) • use the English language for the purpose of study
and social and cultural interaction.
To develop the ability to:
• speak and write clearly and to the purpose, using
• derive, infer and critically assess information appropriate grammar, vocabulary and idiom.
through listening.
Aims (Prescribed Texts)
• express oneself by speaking individually, or in a
• To enjoy and appreciate literature through a
discussion.
critical study of selected literary works.
• read with comprehension drawing information
• Through the study of literature:
directly or by inference from the text, through an
understanding of grammar and structure, − approach an understanding of humanity.
vocabulary and idiom. − develop an interest in the thought and culture
• employ a variety of skills in writing: within a of the peoples of the world.
framework, using argument or imagination or − develop the power of expression and a sense
summarizing. of aesthetic values.

CLASSES XI & XII

There will be two papers as follows: It is recommended that in Paper 1, about 45 minutes
should be spent on Question one, 55 minutes on
Paper 1: English Language (3 hours) – 100 marks
Question two, 30 minutes on Question three and
Paper 2: Literature in English (3 hours) – 100 marks 50 minutes on Question four.

Paper 1: English Language (3 hours) Question One


Candidates will be required to select one composition
Question One: A composition on one of a number of topic from a choice of six. The choice will normally
subjects. … 25 Marks include narrative, descriptive, reflective,
Question Two: argumentative, discussion topics and short story.

(a) Directed writing (article writing, book review, The required length of the composition is 400 – 450
film review, review of cultural programme, words.
speech writing, report writing, personal profile, The main criteria by which the compositions will be
and statement of purpose) based on suggested marked are as follows:
points. …20 Marks
(a) The quality of the language employed, the range
(b) Proposal Writing based on a given situation. The and appropriateness of vocabulary and sentence
proposal should include (i) The Heading structure, syntax, the correctness of grammatical
(ii) Statement of Objective (iii) List of measures. constructions, punctuation and spelling.
…10 Marks
(b) The degree to which candidates have been
Question Three: Short-answer questions to test successful in organising the content of the
grammar, structure and usage. ...20 Marks composition as a whole and in individual
Question Four: Comprehension. …25 Marks paragraphs.

12
Question Two to summarise clearly in complete sentences.
There are two parts in this question and it is Marks will be deducted for linguistic errors.
emphasized both parts are compulsory. It is recommended that this part be done in the
(a) The piece of directed writing will be based on the grid form.
information and ideas provided. The required Use of abbreviations will not be accepted.
length will be about 300 words. The range of
subjects may include article writing, book review, All questions are compulsory.
film review, review of cultural programme.
Paper 2: Literature in English (Prescribed Texts)
speech writing, report writing, personal profile,
(3 hours)
and statement of purpose.
Candidates will be required to answer five questions
Skills such as selecting, amplifying, describing,
as follows:
presenting reasoned arguments, re-arranging and
re-stating may be involved. The candidates’ One textual question (compulsory) on the
ability in the above skills, including format will be Shakespeare play/alternative prescribed play together
taken into account as well as their ability to with four other questions on any three texts, which
handle language appropriately in the context of may include the Shakespeare play/alternative play.
the given situation. Question 1 compulsory.... 20 Marks, four other
(b) Candidates will be required to write a proposal questions, each carrying 20 Marks
based on a given situation. The candidate’s ability (Note: Candidates are reminded that infringement of
to decide on the set of measures to be taken in a the rubric will certainly invite penalty during the
given situation will be taken into account. A marking of answer scripts.)
heading and an objective must be stated. The textual question, which will be set on the
Shakespeare play/alternative play, will contain three
Question Three short passages and candidates will be required to
All the items in this question are compulsory, and answer questions set on two of the passages. These
their number and type / pattern may vary from year to Questions may require candidates to explain words
year. They will consist of short-answer, open and phrases, to rewrite passages in modern English, or
completion items or any other type, which will test the to relate an extract to the work as a whole.
candidates’ knowledge of the essentials of functional The rest of the questions on the Shakespeare
English grammar and structure. Only two or three play/alternative play and on the other prescribed texts
types will be included in any one examination. will be set on the episodes, the plot or plots, themes or
ideas, characters, relationship and other prominent
Question Four literary qualities of the texts prescribed.
A passage of about 500 words will be provided.
Questions based on the passage will be as follows: Note: While attempting questions on the Play,
• Questions that test the candidates’ knowledge of candidates will be required to select one play only,
vocabulary and ability to understand the content either the Shakespeare play or the Alternative
of and infer information and meanings from the prescribed play.
text.
NOTE: The Class XII - ISC examination paper will be
• A question that elicits the main ideas of all or part set on the entire syllabus prescribed for the subject.
of the passage. The Class XI examination is to be conducted on the
In this part of the question, the candidate will be portion of this syllabus that is covered during the
required to frame a summary (keeping to a word academic year.
limit), in a coherent manner. Marks will be The Council has not prescribed bifurcation of the
awarded for expression and the candidate’s ability syllabus prescribed for this subject.
For list of Prescribed Textbooks, see Appendix I.

113
NOTE:

In addition to the syllabus prescribed above for Classes XI & XII, candidates at Class XI ONLY are also
required to be internally assessed in listening and speaking skills as given below:

Listening and Speaking skills are to be assessed Some of the themes to be addressed in the assessment
internally, by the School, during English course work are - narrating an experience, giving directions or
in Class XI and shown in the students’ report and instructions on how to make or operate something,
school record. providing a description, giving a report, expressing an
opinion or a theme based conversation.
Types of Assessment
Candidates are to be graded as follows, jointly for
a) Listening Skills Listening and Speaking Skills:
A passage of about 350 words is read aloud, Grade Remark
twice, the first time at normal reading speed
A Very Good
(about 110 words a minute) and the next time at a
slower speed. Students may make brief notes B Good
during the readings. They then answer objective
C Satisfactory
type questions based on the passage on the paper
provided. D Needs Improvement
b) Speaking Skills E Poor
Students are to be assessed through an individual
presentation of about three minutes followed by a
discussion with the subject teacher, for another
two or three minutes.

114
ELECTIVE ENGLISH (850)
Aims:
1. To provide candidates with a wider course in 2. To expose candidates to a deeper knowledge and
Elective English than offered in the compulsory appreciation of literary works in English.
English paper.
(viii) Stylistic and narrative devices.
CLASS XI
(ix) Students’ personal response to and
There will be one paper of three hours duration of assessment of the novel/play.
100 marks with questions set from the prescribed (x) Humour, pathos, tragedy, sarcasm and
textbooks. Candidates will be required to answer so on in the texts.
five questions on any three of the prescribed (xi) The novel/play in the context of
textbooks. contemporary society.
CLASS XII (b) Poetry
There will be one paper of three hours duration of (i) Different types of poems with their
100 marks with questions set from the prescribed characteristics and features:
textbooks. Candidates will be required to answer  lyric
five questions on any three of the prescribed  sonnet – both Petrarchan (Italian)
textbooks. and Shakespearean
1. The questions in the paper will be broadly based  ballad
on the following categories:  elegy
(i) Prose  blank verse
(ii) Drama  free verse
 narrative poetry
(iii) Poetry
 pastoral poetry
The question may be character-based, incident
based, general broad based, theme based or  dramatic monologue
require critical evaluation.  romantic poetry
(ii) All literary devices in detail and how to
2. Students will need to study and have a
recognize them:
knowledge of the following:
 simile
(a) Prose and Drama
 metaphor
(i) Life of the playwright and novelist and
important events therein.  personification
(ii) Evaluation of characters and the roles  apostrophe
played by them in the text.  alliteration
(iii) Description of each incident in the play  assonance
or novel and its significance.
 repetition
(iv) Important themes and motifs of the text.
(v) Relationships between characters and  irony
incidents.  imagery
(vi) Patterns and nuances of the text.  enjambment
(vii) Fantasy and the supernatural.  pun
18
 contrast  Type of poem
 climax and anti-climax  Setting
 onomatopoeia  Theme
 hyperbole  Mood and atmosphere
 oxymoron  Different levels of meaning in the
 litotes poem, if any

 symbolism  Rhyme scheme and its significance


 Symbolism
(iii) A thorough knowledge of the poets’
lives and styles of writing.  Imagery
(iv) Important themes of the poems.  Literary devices
(v) Patterns and nuances of the poems.  The student’s own personal
response to the poem.
(vi) Fantasy and the supernatural if present
in any poem. Note: Credit is given for textual detail and for the
(vii) Symbolism and Imagery. candidate’s own response.
(viii) How to write a proper Critical Candidates are advised to exercise their options
Evaluation / Appreciation, which must with great care, keeping in view their knowledge and
contain the following components: understanding of the question(s) chosen. Candidates
are also expected to be precise and to avoid
 Life of the poet and how it has unnecessary details.
impacted his/her style of writing
 Autobiographical element in the For list of prescribed Textbooks, see Appendix I.
poem

19
MATHEMATICS (860)

Aims:

1. To enable candidates to acquire knowledge and to develop an understanding of the terms, concepts,
symbols, definitions, principles, processes and formulae of Mathematics at the Senior Secondary stage.

2. To develop the ability to apply the knowledge and understanding of Mathematics to unfamiliar situations or
to new problems.

3. To develop an interest in Mathematics.

4. To enhance ability of analytical and rational thinking in young minds.

5. To develop skills of -

(a) Computation.

(b) Logical thinking.

(c) Handling abstractions.

(d) Generalizing patterns.


(e) Solving problems using multiple methods.

(f) Reading tables, charts, graphs, etc.

6. To develop an appreciation of the role of Mathematics in day-to-day life.


7. To develop a scientific attitude through the study of Mathematics.

A knowledge of Arithmetic, Basic Algebra (Formulae, Factorization etc.), Basic Trigonometry and Pure
Geometry is assumed.

As regards to the standard of algebraic manipulation, students should be taught:

(i) To check every step before proceeding to the next particularly where minus signs are involved.

(ii) To attack simplification piecemeal rather than en block.

(iii) To observe and act on any special features of algebraic form that may be obviously present.

124
CLASS XI

The syllabus is divided into three sections A, B and C.

Section A is compulsory for all candidates. Candidates will have a choice of attempting questions from
EITHER Section B OR Section C.

There will be one paper of three hours duration of 100 marks.

Section A (80 Marks): Candidates will be required to attempt all questions. Internal choice will be provided in
three questions of four marks each and two questions of six marks each.

Section B/ Section C (20 Marks): Candidates will be required to attempt all questions EITHER from Section B
or Section C. Internal choice will be provided in two questions of four marks each.

S.No. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE


SECTION A: 80 Marks
1. Sets and Functions 22 Marks
2. Algebra 34 Marks
3. Coordinate Geometry 8 Marks
4. Calculus 8 Marks
5. Statistics & Probability 8 Marks
SECTION B: 20 marks
6. Conic Section 12 Marks
7. Introduction to Three Dimensional Geometry 4 Marks
8. Mathematical Reasoning 4 Marks
OR
SECTION C: 20 Marks
9. Statistics 6 Marks
10. Correlation Analysis 6 Marks
11. Index Numbers & Moving Averages 8 Marks
TOTAL 100 Marks

125
SECTION A - Domain and range of a function.
1. Sets and Functions - Sketches of graphs of exponential
function, logarithmic function,
(i) Sets modulus function, step function and
Sets and their representations. Empty set. rational function.
Finite and Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets. (iii) Trigonometry
Subsets of a set of real numbers especially Positive and negative angles. Measuring
intervals (with notations). Power set. angles in radians and in degrees and
Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and
conversion from one measure to another.
Intersection of sets. Practical problems on
Definition of trigonometric functions with
union and intersection of two and three sets.
the help of unit circle. Truth of the
Difference of sets. Complement of a set.
identity sin2x+cos2x=1, for all x. Signs of
Properties of Complement of Sets.
trigonometric functions. Domain and range
(ii) Relations & Functions of trignometric functions and their graphs.
Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Expressing sin (x±y) and cos (x±y) in terms
Number of elements in the cartesian product of sinx, siny, cosx & cosy and their simple
of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the applications. Deducing the identities like the
set of reals with itself (upto R x R x R). following:
Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams,
domain, co-domain and range of a relation. tan x ± tan y
tan (x ± y) = ,
Function as a special type of relation. 1  tan x tan y
Function as a type of mapping, types of
cot x cot y  1
functions (one to one, many to one, onto, cot(x ± y)=
into) domain, co-domain and range of a coty ± cotx
function. Real valued functions, domain and 1 1
sin α ± sin β =2sin ( α ± β )cos ( α  β )
range of these functions, constant, identity, 2 2
polynomial, rational, modulus, signum, 1 1
exponential, logarithmic and greatest integer cos α + cos β = 2 cos ( α + β ) cos (α - β )
functions, with their graphs. Sum, difference, 2 2
product and quotient of functions. 1 1
cos α - cos β = - 2sin ( α + β ) sin (α - β )
• Sets: Self-explanatory. 2 2
Identities related to sin 2x, cos2x, tan 2x,
• Basic concepts of Relations and sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of
Functions
trigonometric equations of the type
- Ordered pairs, sets of ordered pairs. siny = sina, cosy = cosa and tany = tana.
- Cartesian Product (Cross) of two Properties of triangles (proof and simple
sets, cardinal number of a cross applications of sine rule cosine rule and area
product.
of triangle).
Relations as:
• Angles and Arc lengths
- an association between two sets.
- Angles: Convention of sign of angles.
- a subset of a Cross Product.
- Domain, Range and Co-domain of a - Magnitude of an angle: Measures of
Relation. Angles; Circular measure.
- Functions: - The relation S = rθ where θ is in
- As special relations, concept of radians. Relation between radians
writing “y is a function of x” as y = and degree.
f(x).
- Definition of trigonometric functions
- Introduction of Types: one to one, with the help of unit circle.
many to one, into, onto.
126
- Truth of the identity sin2x+cos2x=1 - Linear equations of the form acosθ +
NOTE: Questions on the area of a sector bsinθ = c, where c ≤ a2 + b2
of a circle are required to be covered.
and a, b ≠ 0
• Trigonometric Functions
- Properties of Δ
- Relationship between trigonometric
a b c
functions. Sine formula: = = ;
sin A sin B sin C
- Proving simple identities.
Cosine formula:
- Signs of trigonometric functions.
b2 + c2 − a 2
- Domain and range of the cos A = , etc
2bc
trigonometric functions.
1
- Trigonometric functions of all Area of triangle: ∆ = bc sin A, etc
angles. 2
- Periods of trigonometric functions. Simple applications of the above.
- Graphs of simple trigonometric
2. Algebra
functions (only
sketches). (i) Principle of Mathematical Induction
NOTE: Graphs of sin x, cos x, tan x, sec x, Process of the proof by induction,
cosec x and cot x are to be included. motivating the application of the method
by looking at natural numbers as the least
• Compound and multiple angles
inductive subset of real numbers. The
- Addition and subtraction formula: principle of mathematical induction and
sin(A ± B); cos(A ± B); tan(A ± B); simple applications.
tan(A + B + C) etc., Double angle,
Using induction to prove various
triple angle, half angle and one
summations, divisibility and inequalities of
third angle formula as special cases.
algebraic expressions only.
- Sum and differences as products
(ii) Complex Numbers
sinC + sinD =
C+D C−D Introduction of complex numbers and their
2sin   cos   , etc. representation, Algebraic properties of
 2   2  complex numbers. Argand plane and polar
- Product to sum or difference i.e. representation of complex numbers. Square
2sinAcosB = sin(A + B) + sin(A – B) root of a complex number. Cube root of unity.
etc. - Conjugate, modulus and argument of
Trigonometric Equations complex numbers and their properties.
- Solution of trigonometric equations
- Sum, difference, product and quotient of
(General solution and solution in the two complex numbers additive and
specified range). multiplicative inverse of a complex
- Equations expressible in terms of number.
sinθ =0 etc.
- Locus questions on complex numbers.
- Equations expressible in terms i.e.
sinθ = sin α etc. - Triangle inequality.
- Equations expressible multiple and - Square root of a complex number.
sub- multiple angles i.e. sin2θ = - Cube roots of unity and their properties.
sin2 α etc.

127
(iii) Quadratic Equations • Inequalities
Statement of Fundamental Theorem of - Linear Inequalities
Algebra, solution of quadratic equations
Algebraic solutions of linear
(with real coefficients).
inequalities in one variable and their
• Use of the formula: representation on the number line.
Graphical representation of linear
− b ± b 2 − 4ac inequalities in two variables.
x=
2a Graphical method of finding a
solution of system of linear
In solving quadratic equations. inequalities in two variables.
• Equations reducible to quadratic form. Self-explanatory.
• Nature of roots - Quadratic Inequalities
− Product and sum of roots. Using method of intervals for solving
problems of the type:
− Roots are rational, irrational, equal,
reciprocal, one square of the other. x2 + x − 6 ≥ 0
− Complex roots. + - +
− Framing quadratic equations with -3 2
given roots.
A perfect square e.g. x 2 − 6 x + 9 ≥ 0 .
NOTE: Questions on equations having
common roots are to be covered. - Inequalities involving rational
expression of type
• Quadratic Functions.
f ( x)
Givenα, β as roots then find the equation ≤ a . etc. to be covered.
g ( x)
whose roots are of the form α 3 , β 3 , etc.
(iv) Permutations and Combinations
Real roots
Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial
Case I: a > 0 Complex roots n. (n!) Permutations and combinations,
Equal roots derivation of formulae for n Pr and n Cr and
their connections, simple application.
Case II: a < 0 Real roots
Complex roots, • Factorial notation n! , n! =n (n-1)!
Equal roots
• Fundamental principle of counting.
Where ‘a’ is the coefficient of x2 in the
equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. • Permutations
n
Understanding the fact that a quadratic - Pr .
expression (when plotted on a graph) is a - Restricted permutation.
parabola. - Certain things always occur
• Sign of quadratic together.
- Certain things never occur.
Sign when the roots are real and when
they are complex. - Formation of numbers with digits.
- Word building - repeated letters - No
letters repeated.
- Permutation of alike things.
- Permutation of Repeated things.
128
- Circular permutation – clockwise • Geometric Progression (G.P.)
counterclockwise – Distinguishable / a (r n − 1)
not distinguishable. - Tn = arn-1, Sn = ,
r −1
• Combinations a
n n n n n =S∞ ; r <1 Geometric
- C r , C n =1, C 0 = 1, C r = C n–r , 1− r
n
C x = nC y , then x + y = n or x = y,
n+1
C r = nC r-1 + nC r . Mean, b = ac
- Inserting two or more Geometric
- When all things are different.
Means between any two numbers.
- When all things are not different. - Three terms are in G.P. ar, a, ar-1
- Mixed problems on permutation and - Four terms are in GP ar3, ar, ar-1,
combinations. ar-3
(v) Binomial Theorem • Arithmetico Geometric Series
Identifying series as A.G.P. (when we
History, statement and proof of the binomial substitute d = 0 in the series, we get a
theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal's G.P. and when we substitute r =1 the
triangle, General and middle term in binomial A.P).
expansion, simple applications.
• Special sums ∑ n, ∑ n 2 , ∑ n 3
• Significance of Pascal’s triangle.
Using these summations to sum up other
• Binomial theorem (proof using induction) for related expression.
positive integral powers,
3. Coordinate Geometry
i.e. (x + y )n = n
C0 x n + nC1 x n -1 y + ...... + nCn y n .
(i) Straight Lines
Questions based on the above.
Brief recall of two dimensional geometry from
(vi) Sequence and Series earlier classes. Shifting of origin. Slope of a line
Sequence and Series. Arithmetic Progression and angle between two lines. Various forms of
(A. P.). Arithmetic Mean (A.M.) Geometric equations of a line: parallel to axis, point-
slope form, slope- intercept form, two-point
Progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum
form, intercept form and normal form. General
of first n terms of a G.P., infinite G.P. and its equation of a line. Equation of family of lines
sum, geometric mean (G.M.), relation between passing through the point of intersection of two
A.M. and G.M. Formulae for the following lines. Distance of a point from a line.
special sums ∑ n, ∑ n 2 , ∑ n 3 .
• Basic concepts of Points and their
• Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) coordinates.

- T n = a + (n - 1)d • The straight line


n - Slope or gradient of a line.
- Sn = {2a + (n − 1)d }
2 - Angle between two lines.
- Arithmetic mean: 2b = a + c - Condition of perpendicularity and
parallelism.
- Inserting two or more arithmetic means
- Various forms of equation of lines.
between any two numbers.
- Slope intercept form.
- Three terms in A.P. : a - d, a, a + d - Two-point slope form.
- Four terms in A.P.: a - 3d, a - d, a + d, - Intercept form.
a + 3d - Perpendicular /normal form.
- General equation of a line.
129
- Distance of a point from a line. - Limits involving exponential and
- Distance between parallel lines. logarithmic functions.
- Equation of lines bisecting the angle NOTE: Indeterminate forms are to be
between two lines. introduced while calculating limits.
- Equation of family of lines • Differentiation
- Definition of a locus. - Meaning and geometrical
- Equation of a locus. interpretation of derivative.
(ii) Circles - Derivatives of simple algebraic and
• Equations of a circle in: trigonometric functions and their
- Standard form. formulae.
- Diameter form. - Differentiation using first principles.
- General form. - Derivatives of sum/difference.
- Parametric form. - Derivatives of product of functions.
• Given the equation of a circle, to find the Derivatives of quotients of functions.
centre and the radius.
• Finding the equation of a circle. 5. Statistics and Probability
- Given three non collinear points. (i) Statistics
- Given other sufficient data for Measures of dispersion: range, mean
example centre is (h, k) and it lies on deviation, variance and standard deviation of
a line and two points on the circle ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of
are given, etc. frequency distributions with equal means but
• Tangents: different variances.
- Condition for tangency • Mean deviation about mean and median.
- Equation of a tangent to a circle • Standard deviation - by direct method,
short cut method and step deviation
4. Calculus method.
NOTE: Mean, Median and Mode of grouped
(i) Limits and Derivatives
and ungrouped data are required to be
Derivative introduced as rate of change both covered.
as that of distance function and
(ii) Probability
geometrically.
Random experiments; outcomes, sample
Intuitive idea of limit. Limits of polynomials
spaces (set representation). Events;
and rational functions trigonometric,
occurrence of events, 'not', 'and' and 'or'
exponential and logarithmic functions.
events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive
Definition of derivative relate it to scope of
events, Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability,
tangent of the curve, Derivative of sum,
connections with other theories studied in
difference, product and quotient of functions.
earlier classes. Probability of an event,
Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric
probability of 'not', 'and' and 'or' events.
functions.
• Limits • Random experiments and their outcomes.
- Notion and meaning of limits. • Events: sure events, impossible events,
mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.
- Fundamental theorems on limits
(statement only). - Definition of probability of an event
- Laws of probability addition
- Limits of algebraic and
theorem.
trigonometric functions.
130
SECTION B (iii) Hyperbola
6. Conic Section x2 y2
- − = 1 , e > 1, b2 = a 2 ( e 2 − 1)
Sections of a cone, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a a 2 b2
point, a straight line and a pair of intersecting ( x − α)2 ( y − β) 2
lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. - − =1
a2 b2
Standard equations and simple properties of
parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. - Cases when coefficient y2 is negative and
coefficient of x2 is negative.
• Conics as a section of a cone. - Rough sketch of the above.
- Definition of Foci, Directrix, Latus - Focal property i.e. SP - S’P = 2a.
Rectum. - Transverse and Conjugate axes; Latus
rectum; coordinates of vertices, foci and
- PS = ePL where P is a point on the
centre; and equations of the directrices
conics, S is the focus, PL is the and the axes.
perpendicular distance of the point from
• General second degree equation
the directrix.
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0
(i) Parabola
- Case 1: pair of straight line if
e =1, y2 = ±4ax, x2 = 4ay, y2 = -4ax, abc+2fgh-af2-bg2-ch2=0,
x2 = -4ay, (y -β)2 =± 4a (x - α), - Case 2: abc+2fgh-af2-bg2-ch2≠0,
then represents a parabola if h2 = ab,
(x - α)2 = ± 4a (y - β). ellipse if h2 < ab, and hyperbola if h2
- Rough sketch of the above. > ab.
- The latus rectum; quadrants they lie in; • Condition that y = mx + c is a tangent to
coordinates of focus and vertex; and the conics, general equation of
equations of directrix and the axis. tangents, point of contact and locus
problems.
- Finding equation of Parabola when Foci
and directrix are given, etc.
7. Introduction to three-dimensional Geometry
- Application questions based on the
above. Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three
dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance
(ii) Ellipse between two points and section formula.
x2 y2 - As an extension of 2-D
- 2
+ 2 = 1 , e <1, b 2 = a 2 (1 − e 2 ) - Distance formula.
a b
- Section and midpoint form
( x − α)2 ( y − β) 2
- + =
1
a2 b2 8. Mathematical Reasoning
- Cases when a > b and a < b. Mathematically acceptable statements.
- Rough sketch of the above. Connecting words/ phrases - consolidating the
- Major axis, minor axis; latus rectum; understanding of "if and only if (necessary and
coordinates of vertices, focus and centre; sufficient) condition", "implies", "and/or",
and equations of directrices and the "implied by", "and", "or", "there exists" and
axes. their use through variety of examples related to
- Finding equation of ellipse when focus the Mathematics and real life. Validating the
and directrix are given. statements involving the connecting words,
- Simple and direct questions based on the Difference between contradiction, converse and
above. contrapositive.
- Focal property i.e. SP + SP′ = 2a. Self-explanatory.
131
SECTION C 1
9. Statistics
∑ uv - ( ∑ u )( ∑ v )
r= N
• Combined mean and standard deviation. 2 1 2 1
∑ u − (∑ u) ∑ v − (∑ v)
2 2
• The Median, Quartiles, Deciles, Percentiles N N
and Mode of grouped and ungrouped data.
• Rank correlation by Spearman’s (Correction
included).
10. Correlation Analysis
• Definition and meaning of covariance.
11. Index Numbers and Moving Averages
• Coefficient of Correlation by Karl Pearson.
(i) Index Numbers
If x - x, y - y are small non - fractional
- Price index or price relative.
numbers, we use
- Simple aggregate method.
∑ ( x - x )( y - y ) - Weighted aggregate method.
r=
∑ (x - x ) ∑(y - y)
2 2
- Simple average of price relatives.
- Weighted average of price relatives
(cost of living index, consumer price
If x and y are small numbers, we use index).
1 (ii) Moving Averages
∑ xy − ∑ x ∑ y
r= N - Meaning and purpose of the moving
averages.
∑ x − (∑ x ) ∑ y − (∑ y )
2 1 2 2 1 2
N N - Calculation of moving averages with the
given periodicity and plotting them on a
Otherwise, we use assumed means graph.
A and B, where u = x-A, v = y-B - If the period is even, then the centered
moving average is to be found out and
plotted.

132
CLASS XII

The syllabus is divided into three sections A, B and C.

Section A is compulsory for all candidates. Candidates will have a choice of attempting questions from
EITHER Section B OR Section C.

There will be one paper of three hours duration of 100 marks.

Section A (80 Marks): Candidates will be required to attempt all questions. Internal choice will be provided in
three questions of four marks each and two questions of six marks each.

Section B/ Section C (20 Marks): Candidates will be required to attempt all questions EITHER from Section B
OR Section C. Internal choice will be provided in two questions of four marks each.

S.No. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE

SECTION A: 80 MARKS

1. Relations and Functions 12 Marks

2. Algebra 14 Marks

3. Calculus 40 Marks

4. Probability 14 Marks

SECTION B: 20 MARKS
5. Vectors 6 Marks

6. Three - Dimensional Geometry 8/10 Marks

7. Applications of Integrals 6/4 Marks

OR
SECTION C: 20 MARKS
8. Application of Calculus 8 Marks

9. Linear Regression 6 Marks

10. Linear Programming 6 Marks

TOTAL 100 Marks

133
( x 1− y ± y 1− x )
SECTION A
sin-1 x ± =
sin-1 y sin -1 2 2
1. Relations and Functions
cos y cos ( xy  1 − y 1 − x )
(i) Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric,
transitive and equivalence relations. One to
cos x ± =
-1 -1 -1 2 2

one and onto functions, composite functions, x+ y


inverse of a function. Binary operations. similarly tan-1 x +=
tan-1 y tan-1 , xy < 1
1 − xy
• Relations as:
x− y
=
tan -1
x − tan-1 y tan-1 , xy > −1
- Relation on a set A 1 + xy
- Identity relation, empty relation, - Formulae for 2sin-1x, 2cos-1x, 2tan-1x,
universal relation. 3tan-1x etc. and application of these
- Types of Relations: reflexive, formulae.
symmetric, transitive and 2. Algebra
equivalence relation.
Matrices and Determinants
• Binary Operation: all axioms and (i) Matrices
properties
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of
• Functions: matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose
- As special relations, concept of of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric
writing “y is a function of x” as y = matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition
f(x). and multiplication and multiplication with a
scalar. Simple properties of addition,
- Types: one to one, many to one, into, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non-
onto. commutativity of multiplication of matrices
- Real Valued function. and existence of non-zero matrices whose
product is the zero matrix (restrict to square
- Domain and range of a function.
matrices of order upto 3). Concept of
- Conditions of invertibility. elementary row and column operations.
- Composite functions and invertible Invertible matrices and proof of the
functions (algebraic functions only). uniqueness of inverse, if it exists (here all
matrices will have real entries).
(ii) Inverse Trigonometric Functions (ii) Determinants
Definition, domain, range, principal value Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3
branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric matrices), properties of determinants,
functions. Elementary properties of inverse minors, co-factors and applications of
trigonometric functions. determinants in finding the area of a
- Principal values. triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square
- sin-1x, cos-1x, tan-1x etc. and their graphs. matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and
x number of solutions of system of linear
- sin-1x = cos −1 1 − x 2 = tan −1 . equations by examples, solving system of
1 − x2 linear equations in two or three variables
1 π (having unique solution) using inverse of a
- sin-1x= cosec −1 ; sin-1x+cos-1x= and
x 2 matrix.
similar relations for cot-1x, tan-1x, etc.

134
- Types of matrices (m × n; m, n ≤ 3), 3. Calculus
order; Identity matrix, Diagonal matrix. (i) Continuity, Differentiability and
- Symmetric, Skew symmetric. Differentiation. Continuity and
- Operation – addition, subtraction, differentiability, derivative of composite
multiplication of a matrix with scalar, functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse
multiplication of two matrices trigonometric functions, derivative of
(the compatibility). implicit functions. Concept of exponential
1 1  and logarithmic functions.
1 2 
E.g. 0 2  = AB( say ) but BA is Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential
 2 2 functions. Logarithmic differentiation,
1 1 
derivative of functions expressed in
not possible. parametric forms. Second order derivatives.
- Singular and non-singular matrices. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value
- Existence of two non-zero matrices Theorems (without proof) and their
whose product is a zero matrix. geometric interpretation.
AdjA
- Inverse (2×2, 3×3) A −1 = • Continuity
A
- Continuity of a function at a point
• Martin’s Rule (i.e. using matrices) x = a.
- Continuity of a function in an
a1x + b1y + c1z = d1
interval.
a2x + b2y + c2z = d2 - Algebra of continues function.
a3x + b3y + c3z = d3 - Removable discontinuity.

 a 1 b 1 c1   d1   x • Differentiation
A = a 2 b2 c 2  B = d 2  X =  y 
    - Concept of continuity and
differentiability of x , [x], etc.
a 3 b3 c3   d 3   z  - Derivatives of trigonometric
functions.
AX = B ⇒ X = A −1 B - Derivatives of exponential functions.
Problems based on above. - Derivatives of logarithmic functions.
NOTE 1: The conditions for consistency of - Derivatives of inverse trigonometric
equations in two and three variables, using functions - differentiation by means
matrices, are to be covered. of substitution.
NOTE 2: Inverse of a matrix by elementary - Derivatives of implicit functions and
operations to be covered. chain rule.
• Determinants - e for composite functions.
- Order. - Derivatives of Parametric functions.
- Minors. - Differentiation of a function with
respect to another function e.g.
- Cofactors.
differentiation of sinx3 with respect
- Expansion.
to x3.
- Applications of determinants in finding - Logarithmic Differentiation -

the area of triangle and collinearity. xx
Finding dy/dx when y = x .
- Properties of determinants. Problems - Successive differentiation up to 2nd
based on properties of determinants.
order.
NOTE 1: Derivatives of composite functions
using chain rule.
135
NOTE 2: Derivatives of determinants to be covered. (iii) Integrals
• L' Hospital's theorem. Integration as inverse process of
differentiation. Integration of a variety of
0 ∞
- form, form, 0 0 form, ∞ ∞ form functions by substitution, by partial fractions
0 ∞ and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals
etc. of the following types and problems based
on them.
• Rolle's Mean Value Theorem - its
geometrical interpretation. Definite integrals as a limit of a sum,
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
• Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem - its (without proof). Basic properties of
geometrical interpretation definite integrals and evaluation of definite
(ii) Applications of Derivatives integrals.
Applications of derivatives: rate of change • Indefinite integral
of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, - Integration as the inverse of
tangents and normals, use of derivatives in differentiation.
approximation, maxima and minima (first
- Anti-derivatives of polynomials and
derivative test motivated geometrically and functions (ax +b)n , sinx, cosx, sec2x,
second derivative test given as a provable cosec2x etc .
tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic
- Integrals of the type sin2x, sin3x,
principles and understanding of the subject as
sin4x, cos2x, cos3x, cos4x.
well as real-life situations).
- Integration of 1/x, ex.
• Equation of Tangent and Normal
- Integration by substitution.
• Approximation.
- Integrals of the type f ' (x)[f (x)]n,
• Rate measure. f ′( x)
.
• Increasing and decreasing functions. f ( x)

• Maxima and minima. - Integration of tanx, cotx, secx,


cosecx.
- Stationary/turning points.
- Integration by parts.
- Absolute maxima/minima
- Integration using partial fractions.
- local maxima/minima f ( x)
Expressions of the form when
- First derivatives test and second g ( x)
derivatives test degree of f(x) < degree of g(x)
- Point of inflexion. x+2 A B
E.g. = +
( x − 3)( x + 1) x − 3 x + 1
- Application problems based on
maxima and minima.
x+2 A B C
= + +
( x − 2)( x − 1) 2
x − 1 ( x − 1) 2
x−2

x +1 Ax + B C
= 2 +
( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 x − 1
2

136
When degree of f (x) ≥ degree of g(x), b c b

e.g. ∫ f ( x)dx = ∫ f ( x)dx + ∫ f ( x)dx


x +1 2
 3x + 1  a a c
= 1−  2  where a < c < b
x + 3x + 2
2
 x + 3x + 2  b b

• Integrals of the type: ∫ f ( x)dx = ∫ f (a + b − x)dx


a a
dx dx px + q px + q
∫ ,∫ ,∫ 2 dx, ∫ dx a a
x2 ± a2 x 2 ± a 2 ax + bx + c ax 2 + bx + c ∫ f (=
x)dx ∫ f (a − x)dx

∫ ∫
0 0
and a 2 ± x 2 dx, x 2 − a 2 dx,
 a
2a 2 ∫ f ( x)dx, if f (2a − x) = f ( x)
∫ f ( x)dx =  0
∫ ∫
ax 2 + bx + c dx, ( px + q ) ax 2 + bx + c dx,
0  0,
 f (2a − x) =− f ( x)
integrations reducible to the above
forms.  a

2 f ( x)dx,if f is an even function
a

dx
∫ a cos x + b sin x , ∫−a
f ( x)dx =  0

 0,if f is an odd function
dx dx dx
∫ a + b cos x , ∫ a + b sin x ∫ a cos x + b sin x + c , (iv) Differential Equations
Definition, order and degree, general and
(a cos x + b sin x)dx ,
∫ c cos x + d sin x
particular solutions of a differential
equation. Formation of differential equation
dx
∫ a cos 2
x + b sin 2 x + c
whose general solution is given. Solution
of differential equations by method of
separation of variables solutions of
1 ± x2
∫ 1 + x 4 dx , homogeneous differential equations of first
order and first degree. Solutions of linear
dx dy
∫ 1 + x 4 , ∫ tan xdx, ∫ cot xdx etc. differential equation of the type:
dx
+py= q,
where p and q are functions of x or
• Definite Integral dx
- Definite integral as a limit of the constants. + px = q, where p and q are
dy
sum.
functions of y or constants.
- Fundamental theorem of calculus
(without proof) - Differential equations, order and degree.
- Properties of definite integrals. - Formation of differential equation by
eliminating arbitrary constant(s).
- Problems based on the following
properties of definite integrals are to - Solution of differential equations.
be covered. - Variable separable.
b b - Homogeneous equations.
∫ f ( x)dx = ∫ f (t )dt dy
- Linear form + Py = Q where P and Q
a a are functionsdx of x only. Similarly for
b a dx/dy.
∫ f ( x)dx = − ∫ f ( x)dx - Solve problems of application on growth
a b and decay.
- Solve problems on velocity, acceleration,
distance and time.

137
- Solve population based problems on - Components of a vector.
application of differential equations. - Vectors in two and three dimensions.
- Solve problems of application on - iˆ, ˆj , kˆ as unit vectors along the x, y and
coordinate geometry. the z axes; expressing a vector in terms of the
NOTE 1: Equations reducible to variable unit vectors.
separable type are included. - Operations: Sum and Difference of vectors;
scalar multiplication of a vector.
NOTE 2: The second order differential
equations are excluded. - Section formula.
- Triangle inequalities.
4. Probability - Scalar (dot) product of vectors and its
Conditional probability, multiplication theorem geometrical significance.
on probability, independent events, total - Cross product - its properties - area of a
probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable triangle, area of parallelogram, collinear
and its probability distribution, mean and vectors.
variance of random variable. Repeated - Scalar triple product - volume of a
independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial parallelepiped, co-planarity.
distribution.
- Independent and dependent events NOTE: Proofs of geometrical theorems by
conditional events.
using Vector algebra are excluded.
- Laws of Probability, addition theorem,
multiplication theorem, conditional 6. Three - dimensional Geometry
probability. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line
- Theorem of Total Probability. joining two points. Cartesian equation and vector
- Baye’s theorem. equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines,
shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian
- Theoretical probability distribution, and vector equation of a plane. Angle between
probability distribution function; mean and (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a
variance of random variable, Repeated plane. Distance of a point from a plane.
independent (Bernoulli trials), binomial
distribution – its mean and variance. - Equation of x-axis, y-axis, z axis and lines
parallel to them.
SECTION B - Equation of xy - plane, yz – plane,
5. Vectors zx – plane.
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction - Direction cosines, direction ratios.
of a vector. Direction cosines and direction
- Angle between two lines in terms of direction
ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit,
cosines /direction ratios.
zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position
vector of a point, negative of a vector, - Condition for lines to be perpendicular/
components of a vector, addition of vectors, parallel.
multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position
vector of a point dividing a line segment in a • Lines
given ratio. Definition, Geometrical - Cartesian and vector equations of a line
Interpretation, properties and application of through one and two points.
scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) - Coplanar and skew lines.
product of vectors, scalar triple product of
vectors. - Conditions for intersection of two lines.
- As directed line segments. - Distance of a point from a line.
- Magnitude and direction of a vector. - Shortest distance between two lines.
- Types: equal vectors, unit vectors, zero NOTE: Symmetric and non-symmetric forms of
vector. lines are required to be covered.
- Position vector.
138
• Planes NOTE: Application involving differentiation,
- Cartesian and vector equation of a integration, increasing and decreasing
plane. function and maxima and minima to be
- Direction ratios of the normal to the covered.
plane.
- One point form. 9. Linear Regression
- Normal form. - Lines of regression of x on y and y on x.
- Intercept form. - Scatter diagrams
- Distance of a point from a plane. - The method of least squares.
- Intersection of the line and plane. - Lines of best fit.
- Angle between two planes, a line and a - Regression coefficient of x on y and y on x.
plane. - b xy × b yx = r 2 , 0 ≤ b xy × b yx ≤ 1
- Equation of a plane through the - Identification of regression equations
intersection of two planes i.e. - Angle between regression line and properties
P 1 + kP 2 = 0. of regression lines.
7. Application of Integrals - Estimation of the value of one variable using
the value of other variable from appropriate
Application in finding the area bounded b y line of regression.
simple curves and coordinate axes. Area Self-explanatory
enclosed between two curves.
- Application of definite integrals - area 10. Linear Programming
bounded by curves, lines and coordinate axes Introduction, related terminology such as
is required to be covered. constraints, objective function, optimization,
- Simple curves: lines, circles/ parabolas/ different types of linear programming (L.P.)
ellipses, polynomial functions, modulus problems, mathematical formulation of L.P.
function, trigonometric function, exponential problems, graphical method of solution for
problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible
functions, logarithmic functions
regions(bounded and unbounded), feasible and
infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions
SECTION C (up to three non-trivial constraints).
8. Application of Calculus
Introduction, definition of related terminology
Application of Calculus in Commerce and such as constraints, objective function,
Economics in the following: optimization, advantages of linear programming;
- Cost function, limitations of linear programming; application
- average cost, areas of linear programming; different types of
- marginal cost and its interpretation linear programming (L.P.) problems,
- demand function, mathematical formulation of L.P problems,
graphical method of solution for problems in two
- revenue function,
variables, feasible and infeasible regions,
- marginal revenue function and its feasible and infeasible solutions, optimum
interpretation, feasible solution.
- Profit function and breakeven point.
- Rough sketching of the following curves:
AR, MR, R, C, AC, MC and their
mathematical interpretation using the
concept of maxima & minima and
increasing- decreasing functions.
Self-explanatory

139
PHYSICS (861)
Aims:
1. To enable candidates to acquire knowledge and to develop an understanding of the terms, facts,
concepts, definitions, and fundamental laws, principles and processes in the field of physics.
2. To develop the ability to apply the knowledge and understanding of physics to unfamiliar situations.
3. To develop a scientific attitude through the study of physical sciences.
4. To develop skills in -
(a) the practical aspects of handling apparatus, recording observations and
(b) Drawing diagrams, graphs, etc.
5. To develop an appreciation of the contribution of physics towards scientific and technological
developments and towards human happiness.
6. To develop an interest in the world of physical sciences.

CLASS XI
There will be two papers in the subject.
Paper II: Practical - 3 hours ... 15 marks
Paper I: Theory - 3 hours ... 70 marks
Project Work … 10 marks
Practical File … 5 marks
PAPER I- THEORY: 70 Marks
There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal
choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three
questions of 5 marks each.
S. NO. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE
1. Physical World and Measurement
2. Kinematics 23 Marks
3. Laws of Motion
4. Work, Energy and Power 17 Marks
5. Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
6. Gravitation
7. Properties of Bulk Matter 20 Marks
8. Heat and Thermodynamics
9. Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases
10. Oscillations and Waves 10 Marks
TOTAL 70 Marks

140
PAPER I -THEORY – 70 MARKS
Note: (i) Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. and symbols (strictly as per rule);
Units are to be used while teaching and learning, subunits and multiple units using
as well as for answering questions. prefixes for powers of 10 (from atto for
10-18 to tera for 1012); other common
(ii) All physical quantities to be defined as and
units such as fermi, angstrom (now
when they are introduced along with their units and
outdated), light year, astronomical unit
dimensions.
and parsec. A new unit of mass used in
(iii) Numerical problems are included from all atomic physics is unified atomic mass
topics except where they are specifically excluded unit with symbol u (not amu); rules for
or where only qualitative treatment is required. writing the names of units and their
symbols in SI (upper case/lower case.)
1. Physical World and Measurement Derived units (with correct symbols);
(i) Physical World: special names wherever applicable;
expression in terms of base units (e.g.:
Scope of Physics and its application in N= kg m/s2).
everyday life. Nature of physical laws.
(b) Accuracy of measurement, errors in
Physics and its branches (only basic measurement: precision of measuring
knowledge required); fundamental laws instruments, instrumental errors,
and fundamental forces in nature systematic errors, random errors and
(gravitational force, electro-magnetic gross errors. Least count of an
force, strong and weak nuclear forces; instrument and its implication on
unification of forces). Application of errors in measurements; absolute
Physics in technology and society (major error, relative error and percentage
scientists, their discoveries, inventions and error; combination of errors in (a) sum
laws/principles to be discussed briefly). and difference, (b) product and
(ii) Units and Measurements quotient and (c) power of a measured
quantity.
Measurement: need for measurement;
units of measurement; systems of units: (c) Significant figures; their significance;
fundamental and derived units in SI; rules for counting the number of
measurement of length, mass and time; significant figures; rules for (a)
accuracy and precision of measuring addition and subtraction, (b)
instruments; errors in measurement; multiplication/ division; ‘rounding off’
significant figures. the uncertain digits; order of
magnitude as statement of magnitudes
Dimensional formulae of physical in powers of 10; examples from
quantities and constants, dimensional magnitudes of common physical
analysis and its applications. quantities - size, mass, time, etc.
(a) Importance of measurement in
(d) Dimensions of physical quantities;
scientific studies; physics is a science
dimensional formula; express
of measurement. Unit as a reference
derived units in terms of base units
standard of measurement; essential
(N = kg.m s-2); use symbol […] for
properties. Systems of units; CGS,
dimensions of or base unit of; e.g.:
FPS, MKS, MKSA, and SI; the seven
dimensional formula of force in terms of
base units of SI selected by the General
fundamental quantities written as
Conference of Weights and Measures
[F] = [MLT–2].Principle of
in 1971 and their definitions, list of
homogeneity of dimensions.
fundamental, supplementary and
Expressions in terms of SI base units
derived physical quantities; their units
and dimensional formula may be
141
obtained for all physical quantities as (ii) Motion in a Plane
and when new physical quantities are Scalar and Vector quantities with
introduced. examples. Position and displacement
(e) Use of dimensional analysis to (i) vectors, general vectors and their
check the dimensional correctness of a notations; equality of vectors, addition
formula/ equation; (ii) to obtain the and subtraction of vectors, relative
dimensional formula of any derived velocity, Unit vector; resolution of a
physical quantity including constants; vector in a plane, rectangular
(iii) to convert units from one system to components, Scalar and Vector product of
another; limitations of dimensional two vectors. Projectile motion and
analysis. uniform circular motion.

2. Kinematics (a) General Vectors and notation, position


and displacement vector. Vectors
(i) Motion in a Straight Line explained using displacement as a
Frame of references, Motion in a straight prototype - along a straight line (one
line (one dimension): Position-time graph, dimensional), on a plane surface
speed and velocity. (two dimensional) and in an open
space not confined to a line or a plane
Elementary concepts of differentiation and
(three dimensional); symbol and
integration for describing motion, uniform
representation; a scalar quantity, its
and non- uniform motion, average speed,
representation and unit, equality of
velocity, average velocity, instantaneous
vectors. Unit vectors denoted
velocity and uniformly accelerated motion,
velocity - time and position - time graphs. by î , ĵ , k̂ orthogonal unit vectors
Relations for uniformly accelerated motion along x, y and z axes respectively.
(graphical treatment). Examples of one dimensional vector

Frame of reference, concept of point mass, V 1 =a î or b ĵ or c k̂ where a, b, c are
rest and motion; distance and 
scalar quantities or numbers; V 2 =
displacement, speed and velocity, average
speed and average velocity, uniform a î + b ĵ is a two dimensional or

velocity, instantaneous speed and planar vector, V 3 = a î + b ĵ + c k̂ is
instantaneous velocity, acceleration,
a three dimensional or space vector.
instantaneous acceleration, s-t, v-t and a-t
Concept of null vector and co-planar
graphs for uniform acceleration and
vectors.
conclusions drawn from these graphs;
kinematic equations of motion for objects (b) Addition: use displacement as an
in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion example; obtain triangle law of
derived using graphical, calculus or addition; graphical and analytical
analytical method, motion of an object treatment; Discuss commutative and
under gravity, (one dimensional motion). associative properties of vector
addition (Proof not required).
Differentiation as rate of change; examples
Parallelogram Law; sum and
from physics – speed, acceleration, velocity
difference; derive expressions for
gradient, etc. Formulae for differentiation
magnitude and direction from
of simple functions: xn, sinx, cosx, ex and ln
parallelogram law; special cases;
x. Simple ideas about integration – mainly.
subtraction as special case of
∫ xn.dx. Both definite and indefinite addition with direction reversed; use of
integrals to be mentioned (elementary Triangle Law for subtraction also; if
calculus not to be evaluated).      
a +b =c ;c - a= b ; In a
parallelogram, if one diagonal is the
142
sum, the other diagonal is the Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Friction:
difference; addition and subtraction Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction,
with vectors expressed in terms of unit rolling friction, lubrication.
vectors î , ĵ , k̂ ; multiplication of a Dynamics of uniform circular motion:
vector by a real number. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion
(vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on a
(c) Use triangle law of addition to
banked road).
express a vector in terms of its
   (a) Newton's first law: Statement and
components. If a + b = c is an
   explanation; concept of inertia, mass,
addition fact, c = a + b is a
  force; law of inertia; mathematically, if
resolution; a and b are components of ∑F=0, a=0.
 
c . Rectangular components, relation    dp
between components, resultant and Newton's second law: p =m v ; F α ;
dt
angle between them. Dot (or scalar) 
   dp
product of vectors a . b =abcosθ; F =k . Define unit of force so that
  dt
example W = F . S = FS Cosθ . Special  dp
case of θ = 0o, 90 o and 1800. Vector k=1; F= ; a vector equation. For
  dt
(or cross) product a × b = [absinθ] n̂ ;
   classical physics with v not large and mass

example: torque τ = r × F ; Special 
m remaining constant, obtain F =m a .
cases using unit vectors iˆ , ĵ , k̂ for For v→ c, m is not constant. Then
   
a . b and a x b . m = mo Note that F= ma is the
1 - v2 c2
(d) Concept of relative velocity, start from
simple examples on relative velocity of special case for classical mechanics. It is a
 
one dimensional motion and then two vector equation. a || F . Also, this can be
dimensional motion; consider resolved into three scalar equations
displacement first; relative F x =ma x etc. Application to numerical
displacement (use Triangle Law or problems; introduce tension force, normal
parallelogram Law). reaction force. If a = 0 (body in
(e) Various terms related to projectile equilibrium), F= 0. Statement, derivation
motion; obtain equations of trajectory, and explanation of principle of
time of flight, maximum height, conservation of linear momentum. Impulse
horizontal range, instantaneous of a force: F∆t =∆p.
velocity, [projectile motion on an Newton's third law. Obtain it using Law of
inclined plane not included]. Examples Conservation of linear momentum. Proof of
of projectile motion. Newton’s second law as real law.
(f) Examples of uniform circular motion: Systematic solution of problems in
details to be covered in unit 3 (d). mechanics; isolate a part of a system,
identify all forces acting on it; draw a free
3. Laws of Motion body diagram representing the part as a
General concept of force, inertia, Newton's point and representing all forces by line
segments, solve for resultant force which is
first law of motion; momentum and 
Newton's second law of motion; impulse; equal to m a . Simple problems on
Newton's third law of motion. “Connected bodies” (not involving two
pulleys).
Law of conservation of linear momentum and
its applications. (b) Force diagrams; resultant or net force
from Triangle law of Forces,

143
     
parallelogram law or resolution of forces.
  W=∫dw= ∫ F . dS , for F ║ dS F . dS =FdS
Apply net force ∑ F = m a . Again for
therefore, W=∫FdS is the area under the F-
equilibrium a=0 and ∑F=0. Conditions of S graph or if F can be expressed in terms of
equilibrium of a rigid body under three
S, ∫FdS can be evaluated. Example, work
coplanar forces. Discuss ladder problem.
done in stretching a
∫ ∫
(c) Friction; classical view and modern view
=
spring W = Fdx =
kxdx 1 2
kx . This
of friction, static friction a self-adjusting 2
force; limiting value; kinetic friction or is also the potential energy stored in the
sliding friction; rolling friction, examples. stretched spring U=½ kx2 .
Laws of friction: Two laws of static Kinetic energy and its expression,
friction; (similar) two laws of kinetic Work-Energy theorem E=W. Law of
friction; coefficient of friction µ s = Conservation of Energy; oscillating spring.
f s (max)/N and µ k = f k /N; U+K = E = K max = U max (for U = 0 and K
graphs. Friction as a non-conservative = 0 respectively); graph different forms of
force; motion under friction, net force in energy and their transformations. E = mc2

Newton’s 2nd law is calculated including f k . (no derivation). Power P=W/t; P = F .v .
Motion along a rough inclined plane – both
up and down. Pulling and pushing of a (ii) Collision in one dimension; derivation of
roller. Angle of friction and angle of velocity equation for general case of m 1 ≠
repose. Lubrication, use of bearings, m 2 and u 1 ≠ u 2 =0; Special cases for
streamlining, etc. m 1 =m 2 =m; m 1 >>m 2 or m 1 <<m 2 . Oblique
collisions i.e. collision in two dimensions.
(d) Angular displacement (θ), angular velocity
(ω), angular acceleration (α) and their 5. Motion of System of Particles and Rigid
relations. Concept of centripetal Body
acceleration; obtain an expression for this

acceleration using∆ v . Magnitude and Idea of centre of mass: centre of mass of a two-

direction of a same as that of ∆v ; particle system, momentum conservation and
Centripetal acceleration; the cause of this centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a
acceleration is a force - also called rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod.
centripetal force; the name only indicates Moment of a force, torque, angular
its direction, it is not a new type of force, momentum, laws of conservation of angular
motion in a vertical circle; banking of road momentum and its applications.
and railway track (conical pendulum is
excluded). Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body
rotation and equations of rotational motion,
4. Work, Power and Energy comparative study of linear and rotational
motions.
Work done by a constant force and a
variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy Moment of inertia, radius of gyration,
theorem, power. moments of inertia for simple geometrical
objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel
Potential energy, potential energy of a spring, and perpendicular axes theorems and their
conservative forces: conservation of applications.
mechanical energy (kinetic and potential
energies); Conservative and non-conservative (i) Definition of centre of mass (cm), centre of
forces. Concept of collision: elastic and mass (cm) for a two particle system
inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. m 1 x 1 +m 2 x 2 =Mx cm ; differentiating, get the
  equation for v cm and a cm ; general equation
(i) Work done W= F . S =FScosθ. If F is
  for N particles- many particles system;
variable dW= F . dS and [need not go into more details];centre of
144
gravity, principle of moment, discuss (ii) Relation between g and G. Derive the
ladder problem, concept of a rigid body; expression for variation of g above and
kinetic energy of a rigid body rotating below the surface of the earth; graph;
about a fixed axis in terms of that of the mention variation of g with latitude and
particles of the body; hence, define moment rotation, (without derivation).
of inertia and radius of gyration; physical
(iii) Gravitational field, intensity of
significance of moment of inertia; unit and
gravitational field and potential at a point
dimension; depends on mass and axis of
rotation; it is rotational inertia; equations in earth’s gravitational field. V p = W αp /m.
of rotational motions. Applications: only Derive expression (by integration) for
expression for the moment of inertia, I the gravitational potential difference
(about the symmetry axis) of: (i) a ring; (ii) ∆V = V B -V A = G.M(1/r A -1/r B ); here
a solid and a hollow cylinder, (iii) a thin V p = V(r) = -GM/r; negative sign for
rod (iv) a solid and a hollow sphere, (v) attractive force field; define gravitational
a disc - only formulae (no derivations potential energy of a mass m in the earth's
required). field; expression for gravitational potential
energy U(r) = W αp = m.V(r) = -G M
(a) Statements of the parallel and m/r; show that ∆U = mgh, for h << R.
perpendicular axes theorems with Relation between intensity and acceleration
illustrations [derivation not required]. due to gravity.
Simple examples with change of axis.
  (iv) Derive expression for the escape velocity
(b) Definition of torque (vector); τ = r x of earth using energy consideration; v e
  
F r depends on mass of the earth; for moon v e
 and angular momentum L = x is less as mass of moon is less;
p for a particle (no derivations);
  consequence - no atmosphere on the moon.
differentiate to obtain d L /dt= τ ;
similar to Newton’s second law of (v) Satellites (both natural (moon) and
motion (linear);hence τ =I α and artificial) in uniform circular motion
L = Iω; (only scalar equation); Law around the earth; Derive the expression for
of conservation of angular orbital velocity and time period; note the
momentum; simple applications. centripetal acceleration is caused (or
Comparison of linear and rotational centripetal force is provided) by the force
motions. of gravity exerted by the earth on the
satellite; the acceleration of the satellite is
6. Gravitation the acceleration due to gravity
Kepler's laws of planetary motion, universal [g’= g(R/R+h)2; F’ G = mg’].
law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity Weightlessness; geostationary satellites;
(g) and its variation with altitude, latitude and conditions for satellite to be geostationary;
depth. parking orbit, calculation of its radius and
height; basic concept of polar satellites and
Gravitational potential and gravitational their uses.
potential energy, escape velocity, orbital
velocity of a satellite, Geo-stationary (vi) Kepler's laws of planetary motion: explain
satellites. the three laws using diagrams. Proof of
third law (for circular orbits only).
(i) Newton's law of universal gravitation;
Statement; unit and dimensional formula of 7. Properties of Bulk Matter
universal gravitational constant, G (i) Mechanical Properties of Solids: Elastic
[Cavendish experiment not required]; behaviour of solids, Stress-strain
gravitational acceleration on surface of the relationship, Hooke's law, Young's
earth (g), weight of a body W= mg from modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of
F=ma. rigidity, Poisson's ratio; elastic energy.
145
Elasticity in solids, Hooke’s law, Flow of fluids (liquids and gases),
Young modulus and its determination, laminar flow, internal friction between
bulk modulus and shear modulus of layers of fluid, between fluid and the
rigidity, work done in stretching a wire solid with which the fluid is in relative
and strain energy, Poisson’s ratio. motion; examples; viscous drag is a
force of friction; mobile and viscous
(ii) Mechanical Properties of Fluids
liquids.
Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's
Velocity gradient dv/dx (space rate
law and its applications (hydraulic lift
of change of velocity); viscous drag
and hydraulic brakes), effect of gravity on
F = ηA dv/dx; coefficient of viscosity
fluid pressure.
η = F/A (dv/dx) depends on the nature
Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, of the liquid and its temperature; units:
streamline and turbulent flow, critical Ns/m2 and dyn.s/cm2= poise.1
velocity, Bernoulli's theorem and its poise=0.1 Ns/m2.
applications.
(e) Stoke's law, motion of a sphere falling
Surface energy and surface tension, angle through a fluid, hollow rigid sphere
of contact, excess of pressure across a rising to the surface of a liquid,
curved surface, application of surface parachute, obtain the expression of
tension ideas to drops, bubbles and terminal velocity; forces acting;
capillary rise. viscous drag, a force proportional to
velocity; Stoke’s law; ν-t graph.
(a) Pressure in a fluid, Pascal’s Law and
its applications, buoyancy (Archimedes (f) Surface tension (molecular theory),
Principle). drops and bubbles, angle of contact,
work done in stretching a surface and
(b) General characteristics of fluid flow;
surface energy, capillary rise,
equation of continuity v 1 a 1 = v 2 a 2 ;
measurement of surface tension by
conditions; applications like use of
capillary (uniform bore) rise method.
nozzle at the end of a hose; Bernoulli’s
Excess pressure across a curved
principle (theorem); assumptions -
surface, application of surface tension
incompressible liquid, streamline
for drops and bubbles.
(steady) flow, non-viscous and
irrotational liquid - ideal liquid;
8. Heat and Thermodynamics
derivation of equation; applications of
Bernoulli’s theorem atomizer, dynamic (i) Thermal Properties of Matter: Heat,
uplift, Venturimeter, Magnus effect etc. temperature, thermal expansion; thermal
expansion of solids, liquids and gases,
(c) Streamline and turbulent flow -
anomalous expansion of water; specific
examples; streamlines do not intersect
heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state,
(like electric and magnetic lines of
specific latent heat capacity.
force); tubes of flow; number of
streamlines per unit area α velocity of Heat transfer-conduction, convection and
flow (from equation of continuity v 1 a 1 radiation, thermal conductivity, qualitative
= v 2 a 2 ); critical velocity; Reynold's ideas of Blackbody radiation, Wein's
number (significance only) Poiseuille’s displacement Law, Stefan's law, and
formula with numericals. Greenhouse effect.
(d) Viscous drag; Newton's formula for (a) Temperature and Heat, measurement
viscosity, co-efficient of viscosity and of temperature (scales and inter
its units. conversion). Ideal gas equation and
absolute temperature, thermal
expansion in solids, liquids and gases.
146
Specific heat capacity, calorimetry, (a) Thermal equilibrium and zeroth law of
change of state, latent heat capacity, thermodynamics: Self explanatory
steady state and temperature gradient.
(b) First law of thermodynamics.
Thermal conductivity; co-efficient of
thermal conductivity, Use of good and Concept of heat (Q) as the energy that
poor conductors, Searle’s experiment, is transferred (due to temperature
(Lee’s Disc method is not required). difference only) and not stored; the
Convection with examples. energy that is stored in a body or
system as potential and kinetic energy
(b) Black body is now called ideal or
is called internal energy (U). Internal
cavity radiator and black body
energy is a state property (only
radiation is cavity radiation; Stefan’s
elementary ideas) whereas, heat is not;
law is now known as Stefan Boltzmann
first law is a statement of conservation
law as Boltzmann derived it
of energy, when, in general, heat (Q) is
theoretically. There is multiplicity of
transferred to a body (system), internal
technical terms related to thermal
energy (U) of the system changes and
radiation - radiant intensity I (T) for
some work W is done by the system;
total radiant power (energy
then Q=∆U+W; also W=∫pdV for
radiated/second) per unit area of the
working substance - an ideal gas;
surface, in W/m2, I (T) =σ T4;
explain the meaning of symbols (with
dimension and SI unit of σ. For examples) and sign convention
practical radiators I =∈. σ T4 carefully (as used in physics: Q>0
where ∈ (dimension less) is called when added to a system, ∆U>0 when U
emissivity of the surface material; increases or temperature rises, and
∈=1 for ideal radiators. The Spectral W>0 when work is done by the system).
α
radiancy R(λ). I (T)= ∫ R (λ) dλ. Special cases for Q=0 (adiabatic),
0
∆U=0 (isothermal) and W=0
Graph of R(λ) vs λ for different (isochoric).
temperatures. Area under the graph is (c) Isothermal and adiabatic changes in a
I (T). The λ corresponding to perfect gas described in terms of PV
maximum value of R is called λ max ; graphs; PV = constant (Isothermal)
decreases with increase in and PVγ = constant (adiabatic); joule
temperature. and calorie relation (derivation of
Wien’s displacement law; Stefan’s law PVγ = constant not required).
and Newton’s law of cooling. Note that 1 cal = 4⋅186 J exactly and J
[Deductions from Stefan’s law not (so-called mechanical equivalent of
necessary]. Greenhouse effect – self- heat) should not be used in equations.
explanatory. In equations, it is understood that each
(ii) Thermodynamics term as well as the LHS and RHS are
in the same units; it could be all joules
Thermal equilibrium and definition of
or all calories.
temperature (zeroth law of
thermodynamics), heat, work and internal (d) Derive an expression for work done in
energy. First law of thermodynamics, isothermal and adiabatic processes;
isothermal and adiabatic processes. principal and molar heat capacities;
C p and C v ; relation between C p and
Second law of thermodynamics: reversible
C v (C p - C v = R). Work done as area
and irreversible processes, Heat engine and
bounded by PV graph.
refrigerator.

147
(e) Second law of thermodynamics, (b) From kinetic theory for an
Carnot's cycle. Some practical ideal gas (obeying all the assumptions
applications. especially no intermolecular attraction
and negligibly small size of molecules,
Only one statement each in terms of
Kelvin’s impossible steam engine and we get p = (1/3)ρ c 2 or pV =
Clausius’ impossible refrigerator. (1/3)M c 2 . (No further, as temperature
Brief explanation of the law. Reversible is not a concept of kinetic theory).
and irreversible processes, Heat From experimentally obtained gas
engine; Carnot’s cycle - describe laws, we have the ideal gas equation
realisation from source and sink of (obeyed by some gases at low pressure
infinite thermal capacity, thermal and high temperature) pV = RT for one
insulation, etc. Explain using pV graph mole. Combining these two results
(isothermal process and adiabatic (assuming they can be combined),
process) expression and numericals
(without derivation) for efficiency η=1- RT=(1/3)M c 2 =(2/3).½M c 2 =(2/3)K;
T 2 /T 1 ., Refrigerator and heat pumps. Hence, kinetic energy of 1 mole of an
ideal gas K=(3/2)RT. Average K for 1
9. Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic molecule = K/N = (3/2) RT/N = (3/2)
Theory of Gases kT where k is Boltzmann’s constant.
So, temperature T can be interpreted as
(i) Kinetic Theory: Equation of state of a a measure of the average kinetic
perfect gas, work done in compressing a energy of the molecules of a gas.
gas. Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions,
concept of pressure. Kinetic interpretation (c) Degrees of freedom and calculation of
of temperature; rms speed of gas specific heat capacities for all types of
molecules; degrees of freedom, law of gases. Concept of the law of
equi-partition of energy (statement only) equipartition of energy (derivation not
and application to specific heat capacities required). Concept of mean free path
of gases; concept of mean free path, and Avogadro’s number N A .
Avogadro's number.
10. Oscillations and Waves
(a) Kinetic Theory of gases; derive p=1/3
(i) Oscillations: Periodic motion, time period,
ρ c2 from the assumptions and frequency, displacement as a function of
applying Newton’s laws of motion. The time, periodic functions. Simple harmonic
average thermal velocity (rms value) motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase;
c rms =√3p/ρ; calculations for air, oscillations of a spring, restoring force and
hydrogen and their comparison with force constant; energy in S.H.M., Kinetic
common speeds. Effect of temperature and potential energies; simple pendulum
and pressure on rms speed of gas and derivation of expression for its time
molecules. period.
[Note that pV=nRT the ideal gas Free, forced and damped oscillations
equation cannot be derived from (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
kinetic theory of ideal gas. Hence,
neither can other gas laws; pV=nRT is (a) Simple harmonic motion. Periodic
an experimental result. Comparing motion, time period T and frequency f,
f=1/T; uniform circular motion and its
this with p = ⅓ ρ c 2 , from kinetic projection on a diameter defines SHM;
theory of gases, a kinetic interpretation displacement, amplitude, phase and
of temperature can be obtained as epoch, velocity, acceleration, time
explained in the next subunit]. period; characteristics of SHM;
Relation between linear simple
148
harmonic motion and uniform circular (a) Transverse and longitudinal waves;
motion. Differential equation of SHM, characteristics of a harmonic wave;
d2y/dt2+ω2y=0 from the nature of force graphical representation of a harmonic
acting F=-k y; solution y=A sin wave. Distinction between transverse
(ωt+φ 0 ) where ω2 = k/m; and longitudinal waves; examples;
obtain expressions for velocity, displacement, amplitude, time period,
acceleration, time period T and frequency, wavelength, derive v=fλ;
frequency f. Graphical representation graph of displacement with
of displacement, velocity and time/position, label time
acceleration. Examples, simple period/wavelength and amplitude,
pendulum, a mass m attached to a equation of a progressive harmonic
spring of spring constant k. Derivation (sinusoidal) wave, y = A sin (kx±ωt)
of time period of simple harmonic where k is a propagation factor and
motion of a simple pendulum, mass on equivalent equations.
a spring (horizontal and vertical
oscillations) Kinetic and potential (b) Production and propagation of sound
energy at a point in simple harmonic as a wave motion; mechanical wave
motion. Total energy E = U+K requires a medium; general formula
(potential +kinetic) is conserved. Draw for speed of sound (no derivation).
graphs of U, K and E Verses y. Newton’s formula for speed of sound in
air; experimental value; Laplace’s
(b) Free, forced and damped oscillations correction; variation of speed v with
(qualitative treatment only).
changes in pressure, density, humidity
Resonance. Examples of damped
and temperature. Speed of sound in
oscillations (all oscillations are
liquids and solids - brief introduction
damped); graph of amplitude vs time
only. Concept of supersonic and
for undamped and damped
oscillations; damping force in addition ultrasonic waves.
to restoring force (-ky); forced (c) Principle of superposition of waves;
oscillations, examples; action of an interference (simple ideas only);
external periodic force, in addition to dependence of combined wave form, on
restoring force. Time period is the relative phase of the interfering
changed to that of the external applied waves; qualitative only - illustrate with
force, amplitude (A) varies with wave representations. Beats
frequency (f) of the applied force and it (qualitative explanation only); number
is maximum when the frequency of the of beats produced per second =
external applied force is equal to the difference in the frequencies of the
natural frequency of the vibrating interfering waves. Standing waves or
body. This is resonance; maximum stationary waves; formation by two
energy transfer from one body to the identical progressive waves travelling
other; bell graph of amplitude vs in opposite directions (e.g.,: along a
frequency of the applied force. string, in an air column - incident and
Examples from mechanics, electricity
reflected waves); obtain
and electronics (radio).
y= y 1 +y 2 = [2 y m sin (kx)] cos (ωt)
(ii) Waves: Wave motion, Transverse and
using equations of the travelling
longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion,
waves; variation of the amplitude A=2
displacement relation for a progressive
wave, principle of superposition of waves, y m sin (kx) with location (x) of the
reflection of waves, standing waves in particle; nodes and antinodes;
strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode compare standing waves with
and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect. progressive waves.

149
(d) Laws of vibrations of a stretched 4. Equilibrium of three concurrent coplanar
string. Obtain equation for forces. To verify the parallelogram law of
fundamental frequency f 0 =(½l) T/m ; forces and to determine weight of a body.
sonometer. 5. (i) Inclined plane: To find the downward force
(e) Modes of vibration of strings and air acting along the inclined plane on a roller
columns (closed and open pipes); due to gravitational pull of earth and to
standing waves with nodes and study its relationship with angle of
antinodes; also in resonance with the inclination by plotting graph between force
periodic force exerted usually by a and sin θ.
tuning fork; sketches of various modes (ii) Friction: To find the force of limiting
of vibration; obtain expressions for friction for a wooden block placed on
fundamental frequency and various horizontal surface and to study its
harmonics and overtones; mutual relationship with normal reaction. To
relations. determine the coefficient of friction.
(f) Doppler effect for sound; obtain general 6. To find the acceleration due to gravity by
expression for apparent frequency when measuring the variation in time period (T) with
both the source and listener are moving, effective length (L) of a simple pendulum; plot
 v ± vL  graphs of T νs √L and T2 νs L. Determine
given as f L = f r   which can be
 v ± vr 
effective length of the seconds pendulum from
T2 νs L graph.
reduced to any one of the four special
cases, by using proper sign. 7. To find the force constant of a spring and to
study variation in time period of oscillation
PAPER II with mass m of a body suspended by the
PRACTICAL WORK- 15 Marks spring. To find acceleration due to gravity by
plotting a graph of T against √m.
Given below is a list of required experiments.
Teachers may add to this list, keeping in mind 8. Boyle's Law: To study the variation in volume
the general pattern of questions asked in the with pressure for a sample of air at constant
annual examinations. temperature by plotting graphs between p and
1 and between p and V.
V
In each experiment, students are expected to record
their observations in a tabular form with units at the 9. Cooling curve: To study the fall in temperature
column head. Students should plot an appropriate of a body (like hot water or liquid in
graph, work out the necessary calculations and calorimeter) with time. Find the slope of the
arrive at the result. curve at four different temperatures of the hot
body and hence, deduce Newton's law of
Students are required to have completed all cooling.
experiments from the given list (excluding
demonstration experiments): 10. To study the variation in frequency of air
column with length using resonance column
1. To measure the diameter of a spherical body apparatus or a long cylindrical vessel and a set
using Vernier calipers. Calculate its volume of tuning forks. Hence, determine velocity of
with appropriate significant figures. Also sound in air at room temperature.
measure its volume using a graduated cylinder
and compare the two. 11. To determine frequency of a tuning fork using
a sonometer.
2. Find the diameter of a wire using a micrometer
screw gauge and determine percentage error in 12. To determine specific heat capacity of a solid
cross sectional area. using a calorimeter.
3. Determine radius of curvature of a spherical
surface like watch glass by a spherometer.
150
Demonstration Experiments (The following Suggested Evaluation criteria:
experiments are to be demonstrated by the
teacher):  Title and Abstract (summary)
1. Searle's method to determine Young modulus  Introduction / purpose
of elasticity.
 Contents/Presentation
2. Capillary rise method to determine surface
tension of water.  Analysis/ material aid (graph, data, structure,
3. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of a pie charts, histograms, diagrams, etc.)
given viscous liquid by terminal velocity  Originality of work
method.
 Conclusion/comments
PROJECT WORK AND PRACTICAL FILE –
15 Marks Practical File – 5 Marks
Project Work – 10 Marks Teachers are required to assess students on the
All candidates will be required to do one project basis of the Physics practical file maintained by
involving some Physics related topic/s, under the them during the academic year.
guidance and regular supervision of the Physics
teacher. Candidates are to prepare a technical
report formally written including an abstract, some NOTE: For guidelines regarding Project Work,
theoretical discussion, experimental setup, please refer to Class XII.
observations with tables of data collected, analysis
and discussion of results, deductions, conclusion,
etc. (after the draft has been approved by the
teacher). The report should be kept simple, but
neat and elegant. No extra credit shall be given for
type-written material/decorative cover, etc.
Teachers may assign or students may choose any
one project of their choice.

151
CLASS XII

There will be two papers in the subject.


Paper II: Practical - 3 hours ... 15 marks
Paper I: Theory - 3 hours ... 70 marks
Project Work ... 10 marks
Practical File ... 5 marks

PAPER I- THEORY: 70 Marks


There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal
choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three
questions of 5 marks each.

S. NO. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE

1. Electrostatics 14 Marks

2. Current Electricity

3. Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 16 Marks

4. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

5. Electromagnetic Waves

6. Optics 18 Marks

7. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 12 Marks

8. Atoms and Nuclei

9. Electronic Devices 8 Marks

10. Communication Systems 2 Marks

TOTAL 70 Marks

152
  
PAPER I -THEORY- 70 Marks E = F / qo (q0 is a test charge); E for
Note: (i) Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. a group of charges (superposition
Units are to be used while teaching and learning, principle); a point charge q in an
as well as for answering questions.  field E experiences an electric
electric
force FE = qE . Intensity due to a
(ii) All physical quantities to be defined as and
when they are introduced along with their units and continuous distribution of charge i.e.
dimensions. linear, surface and volume.
(iii) Numerical problems are included from all (c) Electric lines of force: A convenient
topics except where they are specifically excluded way to visualize the electric field;
or where only qualitative treatment is required. properties of lines of force; examples
of the lines of force due to (i) an
1. Electrostatics isolated point charge (+ve and - ve);
(i) Electric Charges and Fields (ii) dipole, (iii) two similar charges at
Electric charges; conservation and a small distance;(iv) uniform field
quantisation of charge, Coulomb's law; between two oppositely charged
superposition principle and continuous parallel plates.
charge distribution. (d) Electric dipole and dipole moment;
Electric field, electric field due to a point derivation of the E at a point, (1) on
charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, the axis (end on position) (2) on the
electric field due to a dipole, torque on a perpendicular bisector (equatorial i.e.
dipole in uniform electric field. broad side on position) of a dipole,
Electric flux, Gauss’s theorem in also for r>> 2l (short dipole); dipole in
Electrostatics and its applications to find a uniform electric field; net force zero,
field due to infinitely long straight wire, torque on an electric dipole:
 
uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and τ= p × E and its derivation.
uniformly charged thin spherical shell.
(a) Coulomb's law, S.I. unit of
(e) Gauss’ theorem: the flux of a vector  
field;
 Q=vA for velocity vector v A,
charge; permittivity of free space
A is area vector. Similarly, for electric
 
and of dielectric medium.
Frictional electricity, electric charges   flux φE = EA for E A
field E , electric
and φE= E ⋅ A for uniform E . For 
(two types); repulsion and
non-uniform field φE = ∫dφ =∫ E.dA .
attraction; simple atomic structure -
Special cases for θ = 00, 900 and 1800.
electrons and ions; conductors
Gauss’ theorem,
  statement: φE =q/∈0
q
∫
and insulators; quantization and
or φE = E ⋅ dA = where φE is for
conservation of electric charge; ∈0
Coulomb's law in vector form; a closed surface; q is the net charge
(position coordinates r1, r2 not enclosed, ∈o is the permittivity of free
necessary). Comparison with Newton’s space. Essential properties of a
law of gravitation; Gaussian surface.

 
Superposition   principle Applications: Obtain expression for E
( =
F 1 )
F 12 + F 13 + F 14 + ⋅⋅⋅ . due to 1. an infinite line of charge, 2. a
uniformly charged infinite plane thin
(b) Concept of electric field and its sheet, 3. a thin hollow spherical shell
intensity; examples of different fields; (inside, on the surface and outside).
gravitational, electric and magnetic; Graphical variation of E vs r for a thin
Electric field due to a point charge spherical shell.
153
(ii) Electrostatic Potential, Potential Energy (b) Capacitance of a conductor C = Q/V;
and Capacitance obtain the capacitance of a parallel-
Electric potential, potential difference, plate capacitor (C = ∈0A/d) and
electric potential due to a point charge, a equivalent capacitance for capacitors in
dipole and system of charges; series and parallel combinations. Obtain
equipotential surfaces, electrical potential an expression for energy stored (U =
energy of a system of two point charges 1 2 1 1 Q2
CV = QV = ) and energy
and of electric dipole in an electrostatic 2 2 2 C
field. density.
Conductors and insulators, free charges (c) Dielectric constant K = C'/C; this is also
and bound charges inside a conductor. called relative permittivity K = ∈r =
Dielectrics and electric polarisation, ∈/∈o; elementary ideas of polarization of
capacitors and capacitance, combination matter in a uniform electric field
of capacitors in series and in parallel. qualitative discussion; induced surface
Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor, charges weaken the original field; results
energy stored in a capacitor. 
in reduction in E and hence, in pd, (V);
(a) Concept of potential, potential for charge remaining the same Q = CV
difference and potential energy. = C' V' = K. CV'; V' = V/K;
Equipotential surface and its
and E ′ = E ; if the Capacitor is kept
properties. Obtain an expression for K
electric potential at a point due to a connected with the source of emf, V is
point charge; graphical variation of E kept constant V = Q/C = Q'/C' ; Q'=C'V
and V vs r, VP=W/q0; hence VA -VB = = K. CV= K. Q
WBA/ q0 (taking q0 from B to A) = increases; For a parallel plate capacitor
(q/4πε0)(1/rA - 1/rB); derive this with a dielectric in between,
equation; also VA = q/4πε0 .1/rA ; for C' = KC = K.∈o . A/d = ∈r .∈o .A/d.
q>0, VA>0 and for q<0, VA < 0. For a ∈0 A
collection of charges V = algebraic Then C ′ = ; for a capacitor
d 
sum of the potentials due to each  ∈ 
 r 
charge; potential due to a dipole on its
partially filled dielectric, capacitance,
axial line and equatorial line; also at
any point for r>>2l (short dipole). C' =∈oA/(d-t + t/∈r).
Potential energy of a point charge (q)
 2. Current Electricity
in an electric field E , placed at a point
P where potential is V, is given by U Mechanism of flow of current in conductors.
=qV and ∆U =q (VA-VB) . The Mobility, drift velocity and its relation with
electrostatic potential energy of a electric current; Ohm's law and its proof,
system of two charges = work done resistance and resistivity and their relation to
W21=W12 in assembling the system; U12 drift velocity of electrons; V-I characteristics
or U21 = (1/4πε0 ) q1q2/r12. For a (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and
system of 3 charges U123 = U12 + U13 + power, electrical resistivity and
q1 q 2 q1 q3 q 2 q3 conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code
1
U23 = ( + ). + for carbon resistors; series and parallel
4πε 0 r12 r13 r23 combinations of resistors; temperature
For a dipole in a uniform electric field, dependence of resistance and resistivity.
derive an expression of the electric
  Internal resistance of a cell, potential
potential energy UE = - p . E , special difference and emf of a cell, combination of
cases for φ =00, 900 and 1800. cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws
and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge,
154
metre bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its parallel and mixed grouping. Parallel
applications to measure potential difference, combination of two cells of unequal emf.
to compare emf of two cells; to measure Series combination of n cells of unequal
internal resistance of a cell. emf.
(a) Free electron theory of conduction; (d) Statement and explanation of Kirchhoff's
acceleration of free electrons, relaxation laws with simple examples. The first is a
time τ ; electric current I = Q/t; concept of conservation law for charge and the 2nd is
drift velocity and electron mobility. Ohm's law of conservation of energy. Note change
law, current density J = I/A; experimental in potential across a resistor ∆V=IR<0
verification, graphs and slope, ohmic when we go ‘down’ with the current
and non-ohmic conductors; obtain the (compare with flow of water down a river),
relation I=vdenA. Derive σ = ne2τ/m and and ∆V=IR>0 if we go up against the
ρ = m/ne2 τ ; effect of temperature on current across the resistor. When we go
resistivity and resistance of conductors through a cell, the -ve terminal is at a
and semiconductors and graphs. lower level and the +ve terminal at a
Resistance R= V/I; resistivity ρ, given by R higher level, so going from -ve to +ve
= ρ.l/A; conductivity and conductance; through the cell, we are going up and
  ∆V=+ε and going from +ve to -ve terminal
Ohm’s law as J = σ E ; colour coding of
through the cell, we are going down, so ∆V
resistance.
= -ε. Application to simple circuits.
(b) Electrical energy consumed in time Wheatstone bridge; right in the beginning
t is E=Pt= VIt; using Ohm’s law take Ig=0 as we consider a balanced
E= V ( R ) t = I Rt. Potential difference
2
2 bridge, derivation of R1/R2 = R3/R4
[Kirchhoff’s law not necessary]. Metre
V = P/ I; P = V I; Electric power consumed bridge is a modified form of Wheatstone
P = VI = V2 /R = I2 R; commercial units; bridge, its use to measure unknown
electricity consumption and billing. resistance. Here R3 = l1ρ and R4=l2ρ;
Derivation of equivalent resistance for R3/R4=l1/l2. Principle of Potentiometer: fall
combination of resistors in series and in potential ∆V α ∆l; auxiliary emf ε1 is
parallel; special case of n identical balanced against the fall in potential V1
resistors; Rs = nR and Rp = R/n. across length l1. ε1 = V1 =Kl1 ; ε1/ε2 = l1/l2;
Calculation of equivalent resistance of potentiometer as a voltmeter. Potential
mixed grouping of resistors (circuits). gradient and sensitivity of potentiometer.
(c) The source of energy of a seat of emf (such Use of potentiometer: to compare emfs of
as a cell) may be electrical, mechanical, two cells, to determine internal resistance
thermal or radiant energy. The emf of a of a cell.
source is defined as the work done per unit
charge to force them to go to the higher 3. Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
point of potential (from -ve terminal to +ve (i) Moving charges and magnetism
terminal inside the cell) so, ε = dW /dq; but
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's
dq = Idt; dW = εdq = εIdt . Equating total
experiment. Biot - Savart law and its
work done to the work done across the
application. Ampere's Circuital law and its
external resistor R plus the work done
applications to infinitely long straight wire,
across the internal resistance r; εIdt=I2R dt straight and toroidal solenoids (only
+ I2rdt; ε =I (R + r); I=ε/( R + r ); also qualitative treatment). Force on a moving
IR +Ir = ε or V=ε- Ir where Ir is called the charge in uniform magnetic and electric
back emf as it acts against the emf ε; V is fields, cyclotron. Force on a current-
the terminal pd. Derivation of formulae for carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic
combination for identical cells in series, field, force between two parallel
155
current-carrying conductors-definition of Lorentz force, Simple ideas about
ampere, torque experienced by a current principle, working, and limitations of a
loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil cyclotron.
galvanometer - its sensitivity. Conversion
(c) Derive the expression for torque on a
of galvanometer into an ammeter and a
current carrying loop placed in a
voltmeter.     
uniform B , using F = I l × B and τ =
(ii) Magnetism and Matter:   
r × F ; τ = NIAB sin φ for N turns τ
A current loop as a magnetic dipole, its  
= m × B , where the dipole moment
magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole  
moment of a revolving electron, magnetic m = NI A , unit: A.m2. A current
field intensity due to a magnetic dipole carrying loop is a magnetic dipole;
(bar magnet) on the axial line and
 
directions of current and B and m
equatorial line, torque on a magnetic dipole using right hand rule only; no other
(bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; rule necessary. Mention orbital
bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic moment of an electron in
magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field Bohr model of H atom. Concept of
and magnetic elements. radial magnetic field. Moving coil
Diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and galvanometer; construction, principle,
ferromagnetic substances, with examples. working, theory I= k φ , current and
Electromagnets and factors affecting their
strengths, permanent magnets. voltage sensitivity. Shunt. Conversion
of galvanometer into ammeter and
(a) Only historical introduction through voltmeter of given range.
Oersted’s experiment. [Ampere’s
swimming rule not included]. Biot- (d) Magnetic field represented by the
symbol B is now defined by the
Savart law and its vector form;   

application; derive the expression for B equation F = qo ( v × B ) ; B is not to be
(i) at the centre of a circular loop defined in terms of force acting on a
carrying current; (ii) at any point on unit pole, etc.; note the distinction of
its axis. Current carrying loop as a   
magnetic dipole. Ampere’s Circuital B from E is that B forms closed
loops as there are no magnetic
law: statement and brief explanation.
 
Apply it to obtain B near a long wire monopoles, whereas E lines start from
carrying current and for a solenoid +ve charge and end on -ve charge.
(straight as well as torroidal). Only Magnetic field lines due to a magnetic
 dipole (bar magnet). Magnetic field in
formula of B due to a finitely long end-on and broadside-on positions (No
conductor.  
derivations). Magnetic flux φ = B . A =
(b) Force on a moving charged particle in  
   BA for B uniform and B A ; i.e.
magnetic field = ( )
FB q v × B ; special
area held perpendicular to For φ =
cases, modify this equation substituting  
 BA( B A ), B=φ/A is the flux density
dl / dt for v and I for q/dt to yield F =
  [SI unit of flux is weber (Wb)]; but note
I dl × B for the force acting on a that this is not correct as a defining
current carrying conductor placed in a 
equation as B is vector and φ and φ/A
magnetic field. Derive the expression are scalars, unit of B is tesla (T) equal
for force between two long and parallel 
to 10-4 gauss. For non-uniform B field,
wires carrying current, hence, define  
ampere (the base SI unit of current) φ = ∫dφ=∫ B . dA . Earth's magnetic

and hence, coulomb; from Q = It. field B E is uniform over a limited area
156
like that of a lab; the component of this selection of magnetic material for
field in the horizontal direction BH is temporary and permanent magnets and
the one effectively acting on a magnet core of the transformer on the basis of
suspended or pivoted horizontally. retentivity and coercive force (B-H
Elements of earth’s magnetic field, i.e. loop and its significance, retentivity
BH, δ and θ - their definitions and and coercive force not to be evaluated).
relations.
4. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating
(e) Properties of diamagnetic, Currents
paramagnetic and ferromagnetic
substances; their susceptibility and (i) Electromagnetic Induction
relative permeability. Faraday's laws, induced emf and current;
It is better to explain the main Lenz's Law, eddy currents. Self-induction
distinction, the cause of magnetization and mutual induction. Transformer.
(M) is due to magnetic dipole moment (ii) Alternating Current
(m) of atoms, ions or molecules being 0 Peak value, mean value and RMS value of
for dia, >0 but very small for para and alternating current/voltage; their relation
> 0 and large for ferromagnetic in sinusoidal case; reactance
materials; few examples; placed in and impedance; LC oscillations

external B , very small (induced) (qualitative treatment only), LCR series
magnetization in a direction opposite circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits,
 wattless current. AC generator.
to B in dia, small magnetization
 (a) Electromagnetic induction, Magnetic
parallel to B for para, and large
 flux, change in flux, rate of change of
magnetization parallel to B for flux and induced emf; Faraday’s laws.
ferromagnetic materials; this leads to
 Lenz's law, conservation of energy;
lines of B becoming less dense, more motional emf ε = Blv, and power P =
dense and much more dense in dia, (Blv)2/R; eddy currents (qualitative);
para and ferro, respectively; hence, a
weak repulsion for dia, weak attraction (b) Self-Induction, coefficient of self-
inductance, φ = LI and L = ε
for para and strong attraction for ferro
dI dt ;
magnetic material. Also, a small bar
suspended in the horizontal plane henry = volt. Second/ampere,
 expression for coefficient of self-
becomes perpendicular to the B field
 inductance of a solenoid
for dia and parallel to B for para and µ0 N 2 A
ferro. Defining equation H = (B/µ0)-M; =L = µ0 n 2 A × l .
the magnetic properties, susceptibility l
χm = (M/H) < 0 for dia (as M is Mutual induction and mutual
opposite H) and >0 for para, both very inductance (M), flux linked φ2 = MI1;
small, but very large for ferro; hence dφ2 dI
relative permeability µr =(1+ χm) < 1 induced emf ε2 = =M 1 .
dt dt
for dia, > 1 for para and >>1 (very
Definition of M as
large) for ferro; further, χm∝1/T
(Curie’s law) for para, independent of ε2 or M = φ 2
M = . SI unit
temperature (T) for dia and depends dI 1 I1
on T in a complicated manner for dt
ferro; on heating ferro becomes para henry. Expression for coefficient of
at Curie temperature. Electromagnet: mutual inductance of two coaxial
its definition, properties and factors solenoids.
affecting the strength of electromagnet;
157
µ0 N1 N 2 A Z2 = R2+(XL-Xc) 2
and
=M = µ0 n1 N 2 A Induced tanφ = (VL m -VCm)/VRm = (XL-Xc)/R
l
emf opposes changes, back emf is set giving I = I m sin (wt-φ) where I m
up, eddy currents. =Vm/Z etc. Special cases for RL and
Transformer (ideal coupling): RC circuits. [May use Kirchoff’s law
principle, working and uses; step up and obtain the differential equation]
and step down; efficiency and Graph of Z vs f and I vs f.
applications including transmission of (f) Power P associated with LCR circuit =
power, energy losses and their 1
/2VoIo cosφ =VrmsIrms cosφ = Irms2 R;
minimisation. power absorbed and power dissipated;
(c) Sinusoidal variation of V and I with electrical resonance; bandwidth of
time, for the output from an signals and Q factor (no derivation);
ac generator; time period, frequency oscillations in an LC circuit (ω0 =
and phase changes; obtain mean 1/ LC ). Average power consumed
values of current and voltage, obtain
averaged over a full cycle P=
relation between RMS value of V and I
(1/2) VoIo cosφ, Power factor
with peak values in sinusoidal cases
only. cosφ = R/Z. Special case for pure R, L
and C; choke coil (analytical only), XL
(d) Variation of voltage and current in a.c. controls current but cosφ = 0, hence
circuits consisting of only a resistor, P =0, wattless current; LC circuit; at
only an inductor and only a capacitor resonance with XL=Xc , Z=Zmin= R,
(phasor representation), phase lag and power delivered to circuit by the
phase lead. May apply Kirchhoff’s law source is maximum, resonant frequency
and obtain simple differential equation
1
(SHM type), V = Vo sin ωt, solution I = f0 = .
I0 sin ωt, I0sin (ωt + π/2) and I0 sin (ωt 2π LC
- π/2) for pure R, C and L circuits (g) Simple a.c. generators: Principle,
respectively. Draw phase (or phasor) description, theory, working and use.
diagrams showing voltage and current Variation in current and voltage with
and phase lag or lead, also showing time for a.c. and d.c. Basic differences
resistance R, inductive reactance XL; between a.c. and d.c.
(XL=ωL) and capacitive reactance XC,
(XC = 1/ωC). Graph of XL and XC vs f. 5. Electromagnetic Waves
(e) The LCR series circuit: Use phasor Basic idea of displacement current.
diagram method to obtain expression Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics,
for I and V, the pd across R, L and C; their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
and the net phase lag/lead; use the Complete electromagnetic spectrum starting
results of 4(e), V lags I by π/2 in a from radio waves to gamma rays: elementary
capacitor, V leads I by π/2 in an facts of electromagnetic waves and their uses.
inductor, V and I are in phase in a Concept of displacement current, qualitative
resistor, I is the same in all three; descriptions only of electromagnetic spectrum;
hence draw phase diagram, combine common features of all regions of em 
VL and Vc (in opposite phase; spectrum includingtransverse nature ( E and B
phasors add like vectors) perpendicular to c ); special features of the
to give V=VR+VL+VC (phasor addition) common classification (gamma rays, X rays,
and the max. values are related by UV rays, visible light, IR, microwaves, radio
V2m=V2Rm+(VLm-VCm)2 when VL>VC and TV waves) in their production (source),
Substituting pd=current x detection and other properties; uses;
resistance or reactance, we get approximate range of λ or f or at least proper
order of increasing f or λ.
158
6. Optics (d) Refraction at a single spherical
surface; detailed discussion of one case
(i) Ray Optics and Optical Instruments only - convex towards rarer medium,
Ray Optics: Reflection of light by for spherical surface and real image.
spherical mirrors, mirror formula, Derive the relation between n1, n2, u, v
refraction of light at plane surfaces, total and R. Refraction through thin lenses:
internal reflection and its applications, derive lens maker's formula and lens
optical fibres, refraction at spherical formula; derivation of combined focal
surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens length of two thin lenses in contact.
maker's formula, magnification, power Combination of lenses and mirrors
of a lens, combination of thin lenses in (silvering of lens excluded) and
contact, combination of a lens and a magnification for lens, derivation for
mirror, refraction and dispersion of light biconvex lens only; extend the results
through a prism. Scattering of light. to biconcave lens, plano convex lens
and lens immersed in a liquid; power
Optical instruments: Microscopes and
of a lens P=1/f with SI unit dioptre.
astronomical telescopes (reflecting and
For lenses in contact 1/F= 1/f1+1/f2
refracting) and their magnifying powers
and P=P1+P2. Lens formula, formation
and their resolving powers.
of image with combination of thin
(a) Reflection of light by spherical mirrors. lenses and mirrors.
Mirror formula: its derivation; R=2f
[Any one sign convention may be used
for spherical mirrors. Magnification.
in solving numericals].
(b) Refraction of light at a plane interface,
(e) Ray diagram and derivation of
Snell's law; total internal reflection
magnifying power of a simple
and critical angle; total reflecting
microscope with image at D (least
prisms and optical fibers. Total
distance of distinct vision) and infinity;
reflecting prisms: application to
Ray diagram and derivation of
triangular prisms with angle of the
magnifying power of a compound
prism 300, 450, 600 and 900
microscope with image at D. Only
respectively; ray diagrams for
expression for magnifying power of
Refraction through a combination of
compound microscope for final image
media, 1 n2 × 2 n3 × 3 n1 = 1 , real depth at infinity.
and apparent depth. Simple
Ray diagrams of refracting telescope
applications.
with image at infinity as well as at D;
(c) Refraction through a prism, minimum simple explanation; derivation of
deviation and derivation of magnifying power; Ray diagram of
relation between n, A and δmin. Include reflecting telescope with image at
explanation of i-δ graph, i1 = i2 = i infinity. Advantages, disadvantages
(say) for δm; from symmetry r1 = r2; and uses. Resolving power of
refracted ray inside the prism is compound microscope and telescope.
parallel to the base of the equilateral (ii) Wave Optics
prism. Thin prism. Dispersion; Angular
dispersion; dispersive power, rainbow Wave front and Huygen's principle. Proof
- ray diagram (no derivation). Simple of laws of reflection and refraction
explanation. Rayleigh’s theory of using Huygen's principle. Interference,
scattering of light: blue colour of sky Young's double slit experiment and
and reddish appearance of the sun at expression for fringe width(β), coherent
sunrise and sunset clouds appear
sources and sustained interference of light,
white.
Fraunhofer diffraction due to a single slit,
159
width of central maximum; polarisation, of an electromagnetic wave as
transmission of energy by periodic
plane polarised light, Brewster's law, uses  
of plane polarised light and Polaroids. changes in E and B along the path;
 
transverse nature as E and B are
(a) Huygen’s principle: wavefronts - 
different types/shapes of wavefronts; perpendicular to c . These three
proof of laws of reflection and vectors form a right handed system, so
refraction using Huygen’s theory.   
that E x B is along c , they are
[Refraction through a prism and lens mutually perpendicular to each other.
on the basis of Huygen’s theory not  
required]. For ordinary light, E and B are in all
directions in a plane perpendicular to
(b) Interference of light, interference of 
the c vector - unpolarised waves. If
monochromatic light by double slit.  
Phase of wave motion; superposition of E and (hence B also) isconfined to a
identical waves at a point, path single plane only (⊥ c , we have
difference and phase difference; linearly polarized light. The plane
coherent and incoherent sources;   
containing E (or B ) and c remains
interference: constructive and
fixed. Hence, a linearly polarised light
destructive, conditions for sustained
is also called plane polarised
interference of light waves
light.
[mathematical deduction of  Plane of polarisation
interference from the equations of two (contains E and c ); polarisation by
progressive waves with a phase reflection; Brewster’s law: tan ip=n;
difference is not required]. Young's refracted ray is perpendicular to
double slit experiment: set up, reflected ray for i= ip; ip+rp = 90° ;
diagram, geometrical deduction of path polaroids; use in the production and
difference ∆x = dsinθ, between waves detection/analysis of polarised light,
from the two slits; using ∆x=nλ for other uses. Law of Malus.
bright fringe and ∆x= (n+½)λ for dark
fringe and sin θ = tan θ =yn /D as y 7. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
and θ are small, obtain yn=(D/d)nλ Wave particle duality; photoelectric effect,
and fringe width β=(D/d)λ. Graph of Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's
distribution of intensity with angular photoelectric equation - particle nature of
distance. light. Matter waves - wave nature of particles,
de-Broglie relation; conclusion from
(c) Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction
Davisson-Germer experiment. X-rays.
(elementary explanation only).
Diffraction at a single slit: (a) Photo electric effect, quantization of
experimental setup, diagram, radiation; Einstein's equation
diffraction pattern, obtain expression Emax = hυ - W0; threshold frequency; work
for position of minima, a sinθn= nλ, function; experimental facts of Hertz and
where n = 1,2,3… and conditions for Lenard and their conclusions; Einstein
secondary maxima, asinθn =(n+½)λ.; used Planck’s ideas and extended it to
distribution of intensity with angular apply for radiation (light); photoelectric
distance; angular width of central effect can be explained only assuming
bright fringe. quantum (particle) nature of
radiation. Determination of Planck’s
(d) Polarisation of light, plane polarised constant (from the graph of stopping
electromagnetic wave (elementary idea potential Vs versus frequency f of the
only), methods of polarisation of light. incident light). Momentum of photon
Brewster's law; polaroids. Description
p=E/c=hν/c=h/λ.
160
(b) De Broglie hypothesis, phenomenon of including atomic number Z, Neutron
electron diffraction (qualitative only). number N and mass number A. A brief
Wave nature of radiation is exhibited in account of historical background leading
interference, diffraction and polarisation; to Bohr’s theory of hydrogen spectrum;
particle nature is exhibited in photoelectric formulae for wavelength in Lyman, Balmer,
effect. Dual nature of matter: particle Paschen, Brackett and Pfund series.
nature common in that it possesses Rydberg constant. Bohr’s model of H
momentum p and kinetic energy KE. The atom, postulates (Z=1); expressions for
wave nature of matter was orbital velocity, kinetic energy, potential
proposed by Louis de Broglie, energy, radius of orbit and total energy of
λ=h/p= h/mv. Davisson and Germer electron. Energy level diagram, calculation
experiment; qualitative description of the of ∆E, frequency and wavelength of
experiment and conclusion. different lines of emission spectra;
agreement with experimentally observed
(c) A simple modern X-ray tube (Coolidge
tube) – main parts: hot cathode, heavy values. [Use nm and not Å for unit ofλ].
element anode (target) kept cool, all (ii) Nuclei
enclosed in a vacuum tube; elementary Composition and size of nucleus,
theory of X-ray production; effect of Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma
increasing filament current- temperature particles/rays and their properties;
increases rate of emission of electrons radioactive decay law. Mass-energy
(from the cathode), rate of production of X relation, mass defect; binding energy
rays and hence, intensity of X rays per nucleon and its variation with mass
increases (not its frequency); increase in number; Nuclear reactions, nuclear fission
anode potential increases energy of each and nuclear fusion.
electron, each X-ray photon and hence, X-
(a) Atomic masses and nuclear density;
ray frequency (E=hν); maximum frequency
Isotopes, Isobars and Isotones –
hνmax =eV; continuous spectrum of X rays definitions with examples of each.
has minimum wavelength λmin= Unified atomic mass unit, symbol u,
c/νmax=hc/eV. Moseley’s law. 1u=1/12 of the mass of 12C atom =
Characteristic and continuous X rays, their 1.66x10-27kg). Composition of nucleus;
origin.(This topic is not to be evaluated) mass defect and binding energy, BE=
(∆m) c2. Graph of BE/nucleon versus
8. Atoms and Nuclei mass number A, special features - less
(i) Atoms BE/nucleon for light as well as heavy
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; elements. Middle order more stable
Rutherford's atomic model; Bohr’s atomic [see fission and fusion] Einstein’s
model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. equation E=mc2. Calculations related
to this equation; mass defect/binding
Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom
energy, mutual annihilation and pair
(mathematical theory of scattering
production as examples.
excluded), based on Geiger - Marsden
experiment on α-scattering; (b) Radioactivity: discovery; spontaneous
nuclear radius r in terms of closest disintegration of an atomic nucleus
approach of α particle to the nucleus, with the emission of α or β particles
obtained by equating ∆K=½ mv2 of the α and γ radiation, unaffected by
particle to the change in electrostatic physical and chemical changes.
potential energy ∆U of the system Radioactive decay law; derivation of
N = Noe-λt; half-life
[ U = 2e × Ze r0∼10-15m = 1 fermi; atomic
period T; graph
4πε 0 r0 of N versus t, with T marked on
structure; only general qualitative ideas, the X axis. Relation between
161
half-life (T) and disintegration (ii) Semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in
constant ( λ); mean life ( τ) and its forward and reverse bias, diode as a
relation with λ. Value of T of some rectifier; Special types of junction diodes:
common radioactive elements. LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener
Examples of a few nuclear reactions
diode and its characteristics, zener diode as
with conservation of mass number and
a voltage regulator.
charge, concept of a neutrino.
Changes taking place within the (iii) Junction transistor, npn and pnp transistor,
nucleus included. [Mathematical transistor action, characteristics of a
theory of α and β decay not included]. transistor and transistor as an amplifier
(common emitter configuration).
(c) Nuclear Energy
(iv) Elementary idea of analogue and digital
Theoretical (qualitative) prediction of
exothermic (with release of energy) signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT,
nuclear reaction, in fusing together two NAND and NOR). Combination of gates.
light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus (a) Energy bands in solids; energy band
and in splitting heavy nucleus to form
diagrams for distinction between
middle order (lower mass number)
conductors, insulators and semi-
nuclei, is evident from the shape of BE
per nucleon versus mass number conductors - intrinsic and extrinsic;
graph. Also calculate the electrons and holes in semiconductors.
disintegration energy Q for a heavy Elementary ideas about electrical
nucleus (A=240) with BE/A ∼ 7.6 MeV conduction in metals [crystal structure
per nucleon split into two equal halves not included]. Energy levels (as for
with A=120 each and BE/A ∼ 8.5 hydrogen atom), 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, etc. of
MeV/nucleon; Q ∼ 200 MeV. Nuclear an isolated atom such as that of
fission: Any one equation of fission copper; these split, eventually forming
reaction. Chain reaction- controlled ‘bands’ of energy levels, as we
and uncontrolled; nuclear reactor and consider solid copper made up of a
nuclear bomb. Main parts of a nuclear large number of isolated atoms,
reactor including their functions - fuel brought together to form a lattice;
elements, moderator, control rods, definition of energy bands - groups of
coolant, casing; criticality; utilization closely spaced energy levels separated
of energy output - all qualitative only. by band gaps called forbidden bands.
Fusion, simple example of 4 1H→4He An idealized representation of the
and its nuclear reaction equation; energy bands for a conductor,
requires very high temperature ∼ 106 insulator and semiconductor;
degrees; difficult to achieve; hydrogen characteristics, differences; distinction
bomb; thermonuclear energy between conductors, insulators and
production in the sun and stars.
semiconductors on the basis of energy
[Details of chain reaction not
bands, with examples; qualitative
required].
discussion only; energy gaps (eV) in
9. Electronic Devices typical substances (carbon, Ge, Si);
(i) Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, some electrical properties of
Devices and Simple Circuits. Energy bands semiconductors. Majority and minority
in conductors, semiconductors and charge carriers - electrons and holes;
insulators (qualitative ideas only). Intrinsic intrinsic and extrinsic, doping, p-type,
and extrinsic semiconductors. n-type; donor and acceptor impurities.

162
(b) Junction diode and its symbol; 10. Communication Systems
depletion region and potential barrier;
forward and reverse biasing, V-I Elements of a communication system (block
characteristics and numericals; half diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech,
wave and a full wave rectifier. Simple TV and digital data); bandwidth of
circuit diagrams and graphs, function transmission medium. Modes of propagation
of each component in the electric of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere
circuits, qualitative only. [Bridge th ro u g h sky and space waves, satellite
rectifier of 4 diodes not included]; communication. Modulation, types
elementary ideas on solar cell, (frequency and amplitude), n eed for
photodiode and light emitting diode modulation and demodulation, advantages of
(LED) as semi conducting diodes. frequency modulation over amplitude
Importance of LED’s as they save modulation. Elementary ideas about internet,
energy without causing atmospheric
mobile network and global positioning system
pollution and global warming. Zener
(GPS).
diode, V-I characteristics, circuit
diagram and working of zener diode as Self-explanatory- qualitative only.
a voltage regulator.
(c) Junction transistor; simple qualitative
PAPER II
description of construction - emitter,
base and collector; npn and pnp type; PRACTICAL WORK- 15 Marks
symbols showing direction of current in The experiments for laboratory work and practical
emitter-base region (one arrow only)- examinations are mostly from two groups:
base is narrow; current gains in a (i) experiments based on ray optics and
transistor, relation between α, β and (ii) experiments based on current electricity.
numericals related to current gain,
voltage gain, power gain and The main skill required in group (i) is to remove
transconductance; common emitter parallax between a needle and the real image of
configuration only, characteristics; IB another needle.
vs VBE and IC vs VCE with circuit In group (ii), understanding circuit diagram and
diagram and numericals; common making connections strictly following the given
emitter transistor amplifier - circuit diagram is very important. Polarity of cells and
diagram; qualitative explanation meters, their range, zero error, least count, etc.
including amplification, wave form should be taken care of.
and phase reversal.
A graph is a convenient and effective way of
(d) Elementary idea of discreet and representing results of measurement. It is an
integrated circuits, analogue and important part of the experiment.
digital signals. Logic gates as given; There will be one graph in the Practical question
symbols, input and output, Boolean paper.
equations (Y=A+B etc.), truth table,
qualitative explanation. NOT, OR, Candidates are advised to read the question paper
AND, NOR, NAND. Combination of carefully and do the work according to the
gates [Realization of gates not instructions given in the question paper. Generally
included]. Advantages of Integrated they are not expected to write the procedure of the
Circuits. experiment, formulae, precautions, or draw the
figures, circuit diagrams, etc.

163
Observations should be recorded in a tabular form. Deductions
Record of observations (i) The slope ‘S’ of the best fit line must be found
taking two distant points (using more than
• All observations recorded should be consistent
50% of the line drawn), which are not the
with the least count of the instrument used (e.g.
y − y1 ∆y
focal length of the lens is 10.0 cm or 15.1cm plotted points, using S = 2 = .
but 10 cm is a wrong record.) x2 − x1 ∆x
• All observations should be recorded with Slope S must be calculated upto proper decimal
correct units. place or significant figures as specified in the
question paper.
Graph work
(ii) All calculations should be rounded off upto
Students should learn to draw graphs correctly proper decimal place or significant figures, as
noting all important steps such as: specified in the question papers.
(i) Title
NOTE:
(ii) Selection of origin (should be marked by two
coordinates, example 0,0 or 5,0, or 0,10 or 30,5; Short answer type questions may be set from each
Kink is not accepted). experiment to test understanding of theory and
logic of steps involved.
(i) The axes should be labelled according to the
question Given below is a list of required experiments.
Teachers may add to this list, keeping in mind
(ii) Uniform and convenient scale should be taken the general pattern of questions asked in the
and the units given along each axis (one small annual examinations.
division = 0.33, 0.67, 0.66, etc. should not to
be taken) Students are required to have completed all
experiments from the given list (excluding
(iii) Maximum area of graph paper (at least 60% demonstration experiments):
of the graph paper along both the axes)
should be used. 1. To find focal length of a convex lens by using
u-v method (no parallax method)
(iv) Points should be plotted with great care,
marking the points plotted with (should be a Using a convex lens, optical bench/metre scales
circle with a dot)  or ⊗ . A blob ( ) is a and two pins, obtain the positions of the images
for various positions of the object; f<u<2f,
misplot.
u~2f, and u>2f.
(v) The best fit straight line should be drawn. The
Draw the following set of graphs using data
best fit line does not necessarily have to pass
from the experiments -
through all the plotted points and the origin.
While drawing the best fit line, all (i) ν against u. It will be a curve.
experimental points must be kept on the
 v
line or symmetrically placed on the left and (ii) Magnification  m =  against ν which is
right side of the line. The line should be  u
continuous, thin, uniform and extended a straight line and to find focal length by
beyond the extreme plots. intercept.
(vi) The intercepts must be read carefully. (iii) y = (100/v) against x = (100/u) which is a
Y intercept i.e. y0 is that value of y when x = straight line and find f by intercepts.
0. Similarly, X intercept i.e. x0 is that value of
2. To find f of a convex lens by displacement
x when y=0. When x0 and y0 are to be read,
method.
origin should be at (0, 0).

164
3. To determine the focal length of a given Demonstration Experiments (The following
convex lens with the help of an auxiliary experiments are to be demonstrated by the
convex lens. teacher):
4. To determine the focal length of a concave 1. To convert a given galvanometer into (a) an
lens, using an auxiliary convex lens, not in ammeter of range, say 2A and (b) a voltmeter
contact and plotting appropriate graph. of range 4V.
5. To determine focal length of concave mirror by 2. To study I-V characteristics of a semi-
using two pins (by u-v method). conductor diode in forward and reverse bias.
6. To determine the refractive index of a liquid by 3. To study characteristics of a Zener diode and to
using a convex lens and a plane mirror. determine its reverse breakdown voltage.
7. To determine the focal length of a convex 4. To study the characteristics of pnp/npn
mirror using convex lens. transistor in common emitter configuration.
8. Using a metre bridge, determine the resistance 5. To determine refractive index of a glass slab
of about 100 cm of (constantan) wire. Measure using a traveling microscope.
its length and radius and hence, calculate the
6. To observe polarization of light using two
specific resistance of the material.
polaroids
9. Verify Ohm’s law for the given unknown
7. Identification of diode, LED, transistor, IC,
resistance (a 60 cm constantan wire), plotting a
resistor, capacitor from mixed collection of
graph of potential difference versus current.
such items.
Also calculate the resistance per cm of the wire
from the slope of the graph and the length of 8. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of
the wire. transistor, (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp
type transistors, (iii) see the unidirectional flow
10. To compare emfs of two cells using a
of current in case of diode and an LED,
potentiometer.
(iv) check whether a given electronic
11. To determine the internal resistance of a cell by component (e.g. diode, transistors, IC) is in
a potentiometer. working order.
12. From a potentiometer set up, measure the fall in 9. Charging and discharging of a capacitor.
potential (i.e. pd) for increasing lengths of a
constantan wire, through which a steady current PROJECT WORK AND PRACTICAL FILE –
is flowing; plot a graph of pd (V) versus length 15 marks
(l). Calculate the potential gradient of the wire
and specific resistance of its material. Q (i) Project Work – 10 marks
Why is the current kept constant in this The Project work is to be assessed by a Visiting
experiment? Q (ii) How can you increase the Examiner appointed locally and approved by the
sensitivity of the potentiometer? Q (iii) How Council.
can you use the above results and measure the
emf of a cell? All candidates will be required to do one project
involving some physics related topic/s under the
13. To verify the laws of combination of guidance and regular supervision of the Physics
resistances (series and parallel) using metre teacher.
bridge.

165
Candidates should undertake any one of the Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Model Based
following types of projects: Projects:
• Theoretical project  Title of the Project
• Working Model  Model construction
• Investigatory project (by performing an  Concise Project report
experiment under supervision of a teacher)
The Project report should be approximately 5-10
Candidates are to prepare a technical report pages
formally written including title, abstract, some
theoretical discussion, experimental setup,
observations with tables of data collected, Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Investigative
graph/chart (if any), analysis and discussion of Projects:
results, deductions, conclusion, etc. The teacher
 Title of the Project
should approve the draft, before it is finalised. The
report should be kept simple, but neat and elegant.  Theory/principle involved
No extra credit shall be given for typewritten
 Experimental setup
material/decorative cover, etc. Teachers may assign
or students may choose any one project of their  Observations calculations/deduction and graph
choice. work

Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Theory Based  Result/ Conclusions


Projects: The Project report should be of approximately
 Title of the Project 5-10 pages

 Introduction
Practical File – 5 marks
 Contents
The Visiting Examiner is required to assess the
 Analysis/ material aid (graph, data, structure, candidates on the basis of the Physics practical file
pie charts, histograms, diagrams, etc.) maintained by them during the academic year.
 Originality of work (the work should be the
candidates’ original work,)
 Conclusion/comments
The Project report should be of approximately
15-20 pages.

166
CHEMISTRY (862)
Aims:
1. To foster acquisition of knowledge and understanding of terms, concepts, facts, processes, techniques and
principles relating to the subject of Chemistry.
2. To develop the ability to apply the knowledge of contents and principles of Chemistry in new or unfamiliar
situations.
3. To develop skills in proper handling of apparatus and chemicals.
4. To develop an ability to appreciate achievements in the field of Chemistry and its role in nature and society.
5. To develop an interest in activities involving usage of the knowledge of Chemistry.
6. To develop a scientific attitude through the study of Physical Sciences.
7. To acquaint students with the emerging frontiers and interdisciplinary aspects of the subject.
8. To develop skills relevant to the discipline.
9. To apprise students with interface of Chemistry with other disciplines of Science, such as, Physics, Biology,
Geology, Engineering, etc.

CLASS XI
There will be two papers in the subject.
Paper I: Theory- 3 hours ... 70 marks Paper II: Practical - 3 hours ... 15 marks
Project Work … 10 marks
Practical File … 5 marks
PAPER 1- THEORY: 70 Marks
There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal
choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three
questions of 5 marks each.
S.No. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE
1. Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
2. Structure of Atom
3. Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties Physical Chemistry
4. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 32 Marks
5. States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
6. Chemical Thermodynamics
7. Equilibrium
8. Redox Reactions
9. Hydrogen Inorganic Chemistry
10. s -Block Elements 15 Marks
11. Some p -Block Elements
12. Organic Chemistry: Some basic Principles and Techniques
13. Hydrocarbons Organic Chemistry
14. Environmental Chemistry 23 Marks

TOTAL 70 Marks

167
PAPER I –THEORY – 70 Marks Equivalent weight expressing the combining
capacity of the elements with the standard
1. Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry elements such as H, Cl, O, Ag, etc.
General introduction: Importance and scope of Variable equivalent weight. Gram equivalent
chemistry. weights, relationship between gram
equivalent weight, gram molecular mass and
Study of matter. Understanding laws of valency.
chemical combination. Dalton's atomic theory:
concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Determination of equivalent weight of acids,
alkalis, salts, oxidising and reducing agents.
Isotopic (atomic) and molecular masses, mole (experimental details not required).
concept and molar mass, percentage Terms used in volumetric calculations such
composition, empirical and molecular as percentage (w/w and w/v), normality,
formula. Stoichiometry and calculations based molarity, molality, mole fraction, etc. should
on chemical reactions. be discussed. Students are required to know
(i) Precision and accuracy: the formulae and normality and molarity
Quantities and their measurements in equations.
Chemistry, significant figures, SI units. Simple calculations on the above topics.
(ii) Dimensional analysis:
(vii)Chemical reactions – stoichiometric
Conversion of units, numericals and
applications of units. calculations based on mass-mass,
mass-volume, volume-volume relationships
(iii) The concept of atoms having fixed properties
in explaining the laws of chemical and limiting reagent.
combination.
Study about atoms. Dalton’s atomic theory: 2. Structure of Atom
Main postulates of the theory; its limitations. Discovery of fundamental particles electron,
Laws of chemical combinations: proton and neutron), atomic number, isotopes
 Law of conservation of mass. and isobars. Thomson's model and its
 Law of definite proportions. limitations. Rutherford's experimental model
 Law of multiple proportions. and its limitations. Dual nature of matter and
 Law of reciprocal proportions. light. Bohr's atomic model and its limitations
 Gay Lussac’s law of gaseous volumes. (de Broglie's equation, Heisenberg’s uncertainty
Statement, explanation and simple problems principle), concept of shells, subshells, orbitals.
based on these laws. Quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d
(iv) Atomic (isotopic masses) and molecular mass. orbitals. Rules for filling electrons in orbitals -
Relative molecular mass and mole: aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle
The atomic mass unit is one of the and Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity.
experimentally determined unit. It is equal to
Electronic configuration of atoms, stability of
1/12 of the mass of the carbon 12 isotope.
half- filled and completely filled orbitals.
Numerical problems based on mole concept,
(i) Subatomic particles (electrons, protons and
Avogadro’s number and gram molecular
neutrons) their charges and masses: Concept
volume.
of indivisibility of atom as proposed by
(v) Empirical and molecular formula: Dalton does not exist. The atom consists of
Numericals based on the above. subatomic fundamental particles. Production
(vi)Chemical equivalents, volumetric calculations of cathode rays and their properties.
in terms of normality. C = 12.00 should be Production of anode rays and their
taken as a standard for expressing atomic properties.
masses.
Chadwick’s experiment for the discovery of
neutron and properties of neutron.
168
(ii) Rutherford’s nuclear model based on the 3. Classification of Elements and Periodicity in
scattering experiment: Rutherford’s Properties
scattering experiment. Discovery of nucleus.
Significance of classification; study of
Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom. Defects
of Rutherford’s model. Electromagnetic wave Mendeleev’s periodic law and its limitations;
theory and its limitations (Black body Modern Periodic Law and the present form of
radiation and photoelectric effect) periodic table leading to periodic trends in
Planck’s quantum theory. properties of elements - atomic radii, ionic radii,
Numericals based on the above. valency, ionisation enthalpy, electron gain
(iii) Types of spectra: emission and absorption enthalpy, electronegativity. Nomenclature of
spectra. Band and line spectra to be elements with atomic number greater than 100.
discussed. (i) Modern Periodic Law
(iv) Bohr’s atomic model.
Postulates of Bohr’s theory – based on Mendeleev’s periodic law, defects in the
Planck’s quantum theory. Mendeleev’s periodic table. Advantages and
Merits of Bohr’s atomic model and disadvantages. Modern periodic law (atomic
explanation of hydrogen spectra. number taken as the basis of classification of
Calculations based on Rydberg’s formula. the elements).
Numericals on Bohr’s atomic radii, velocity (ii) Long form of Periodic Table.
and energy of orbits (derivation not
required). General characteristics of groups and
Defects in Bohr’s Model. periods. Division of periodic table as s, p, d
(v) Quantum mechanical model of an atom - a and f blocks. IUPAC nomenclature for
simple mathematical treatment. Quantum elements with Z> 100.
numbers; shape, size and orientation of s, p (iii)Periodic trends in properties of elements.
and d orbitals only (no derivation). aufbau
Atomic radius, ionic radius, ionisation
principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle,
enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy,
Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity.
electronegativity, metallic and non-metallic
Electronic configuration of elements in terms characteristics.
of s, p, d, f subshells.
• de Broglie’s equation. Numericals. • Periodic properties such as valence
• Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. electrons, atomic and ionic radii and their
Numericals. variation in groups and periods.
• Schrodinger Wave Equation – physical • The idea of ionisation enthalpy, electron
significance of Ψ and |Ψ| 2. gain enthalpy and electronegativity must
• Quantum numbers – types of quantum be given and their variation in groups and
numbers, shape, size and orientation of periods may be discussed.
the s, p and d subshells. Information
obtained in terms of distance of electron • The factors (atomic number, screening
from the nucleus, node, nodal planes and effect and shielding effect, the number of
radial probability curve, energy of electrons in the outermost orbit) which
electron, number of electrons present in affect these periodic properties and their
an orbit and an orbital. variation in groups and periods.
• aufbau principle, (n+l) rule. (iv) Periodic trends in chemical properties –
• Pauli’s exclusion principle. periodicity of valence or oxidation states.
• Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity. Anomalous properties of second period
• Electronic configuration of elements and elements.
ions in terms of s, p, d, f subshells and
Diagonal relationship; acidic and basic nature
stability of half-filled and completely of oxides.
filled orbitals.
169
NOTE: Recommendations of the latest IUPAC (iii) Covalent Bond – Bond parameters, Lewis
for numbering of groups to be followed. structure, polar character of covalent bond,
Numbering 1 – 18 replacing old notation of shapes.
I – VIII. Details given at the end of the Sigma and pi bonds e.g. formation of
syllabus. ammonia, nitrogen, ethene, ethyne, and
carbon dioxide.
4. Chemical Bonding and Molecular structure Definition of covalent bond, conditions for
Valence electrons, ionic bond character, covalent formation of covalent bonds, types of covalent
bond of ionic bond, covalent bond, bond bonds, i.e single, double and triple bonds.
Sigma and pi bonds: H 2 , O 2 , N 2 .
parameters, lewis structure, polar character of
Classification of covalent bonds based on
covalent bond, VSEPR theory, geometry of
electronegativity of atoms - polar and non-
covalent m o l e c u l e s , valence bond theory, polar covalent bond, dipole moment.
concept of hybridisation involving s, p and d Formation of CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, ethane, ethene,
orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules. ethyne and CO 2 , etc. and their electron dot
Coordinate bond. Molecular orbital theory of structure or Lewis structure.
homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative Characteristics of covalent compounds.
idea only). Resonance and hydrogen bond. Comparison in electrovalency and covalency.
Reason for variable covalency e.g.
(i) Kossel-Lewis approach to chemical bonding.
Octet rule, its application to electrovalent and Phosphorus 3 & 5 and sulphur 2, 4, 6 &
covalent bonds. chlorine 1, 3, 5 and 7.
Formal charge of ions.
(ii) Electrovalent or ionic bond: Lewis structures (iv) Deviation from octet rule and Fajan’s rules.
of NaCl, Li 2 O, MgO, CaO, MgF 2, and Na 2 S. Definition of octet rule.
Definition of ionic bond. Failure of octet rule, due to either incomplete
The conditions necessary for the formation of octet or exceeding of octet with suitable
ionic bonds such as: examples.
- low ionisation enthalpy of metals. Fajan’s rules: statements, conditions for
electrovalency and covalency. Polar and non
- high electron gain enthalpy of non- polar bonds should be correlated with
metals.
Fajan’s rules.
- high lattice energy. (v) Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
- electronegativity difference between the (VSEPR) Theory; Hybridisation and shapes
reacting atoms. of molecules: hybridisation involving s, p and
All these points must be discussed in detail. d orbitals only.
Concept of electron-pair repulsion and
The formation of cations and anions of
elements and their positions in the periodic shapes of molecules using suitable examples.
table. Hybridisation and molecular shapes –
definition, hybridisation of orbitals involving
Variable electrovalency; reasons for variable s, p and d orbitals (using suitable examples).
electrovalency i.e, due to inert electron pair (vi) Molecular orbital theory: Qualitative
effect and unstable core, by using suitable treatment of homonuclear diatomic
examples. molecules of first two periods (hydrogen to
Calculation of lattice enthalpy (Born-Haber neon), Energy level diagrams, bonding and
cycle). antibonding molecular orbitals, bond order,
Characteristics of electrovalent bond. paramagnetism of O 2 molecule. Relative
stabilities of O 2 , O 2 -, O 2 2 - , O 2 + and N 2 ,
N 2 +, N 2 -, N 2 2-.

170
(vii) Co-ordinate or dative covalent bond, e.g. (iii) Dalton’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion.
formation of oxy-acids of chlorine: Dalton’s law of partial pressures and it’s
Co-ordinate or dative covalent bonding: application.
definition, formation of chlorous acid,
chloric acid, perchloric acid, ammonium ion, Graham’s Law of diffusion and its
hydronium ion, nitric acid, ozone. application.
(viii) Resonance in simple inorganic molecules: Numerical problems based on the above.
Resonance in simple inorganic molecules like
(iv) Ideal gas equation and application of this
ozone, carbon dioxide, carbonate ion and
equation.
nitrate ion.
Ideal gas equation PV = nRT; its application
(ix)Hydrogen bonding: the examples of
in calculation of relative molecular mass and
hydrogen fluoride, water (ice), alcohol, etc.
in the calculation of the value of R.
may be considered.
(v) Kinetic Theory of gases.
H-bonding – definition, types, condition for
Characteristics of gases, comparison between
hydrogen bond formation, examples of
solid, liquid and gas. Properties of gases
inter-molecular hydrogen bonding in detail
on the basis of kinetic theory of gases.
taking hydrogen fluoride, water and ice and
ethanol into account. Intramolecular Postulates of kinetic theory must be
hydrogen bonding. discussed to explain gas laws. Concept of
average, root mean square and most
5. States of Matter: Gases and Liquids probable velocities (numericals not
required). Non ideal behaviour of gases i.e.
States of matter and their characteristic deviation from ideal gas equation may be
properties to establish the concept of the discussed at low and at high temperature and
molecule. Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's pressure.
law, Avogadro's law, Avogadro’s number, ideal van der Waals’ equation (P + a/V2) (V-b)
behaviour of gases and derivation of ideal gas = RT for one mole of a gas. (numericals not
equation. Kinetic Theory of gases, kinetic energy required). The pressure correction and
and molecular speeds (elementary idea). volume correction may be explained.
Deviation from ideal behaviour, van der Waal’s significance and units of ‘a’ and ‘b’ (van der
equation, liquefaction of gases, critical Waals’ constant). Liquefaction of gases,
critical temperature.
temperature. Liquid state - vapour pressure,
viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea (vi) Liquid State - vapour pressure, viscosity and
only, no mathematical derivations). surface tension.
(i) Intermolecular interactions (van der Waals Qualitative idea only, no mathematical
forces), types of van der Waals forces, derivations
melting and boiling points.
6. Chemical Thermodynamics
(ii) The Gas Laws.
(i) Introduction, concepts, types of system,
Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, Absolute surroundings, extensive, intensive properties
temperature, pressure temperature law, and state functions.
Avogadro’s law and Avogadro’s constant. Types of system – ideal system, real system,
Relationship between the mole and isolated system, closed system, open system.
Avogadro’s number. Meaning of surroundings.
Simple numerical problems based on the Properties of the system: macroscopic,
above laws. intensive and extensive properties.
State of the system.

171
Main processes the system undergoes: Heat of reaction: Heat of formation –
reversible, irreversible, adiabatic, standard heat of formation, Heat of solution,
isothermal, isobaric, isochoric, cyclic. Heat of dilution, Heat of neutralization, Heat
Meaning of thermodynamic equilibrium. of combustion.
Meaning of thermodynamic process. Constancy in the heat of neutralisation:
(ii) First Law of Thermodynamics and its Experimental verification in case of strong
significance, work, heat, internal energy, acids and strong bases. Reason for that
enthalpy (∆U or ∆E and ∆H), heat capacity observation – ionic neutralisation and the
and specific heat. Hess's law of constant heat heat evolved.
summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, Definition of Calorific value of a fuel.
combustion, formation, atomisation,
sublimation, phase transition, ionisation, Statement of Hess’ Law and its application.
solution and dilution. Problems based on Hess’ Law.
Meaning of: internal energy of the system, (iii) Second Law of Thermodynamics and its
work done by the system, by the surroundings significance, spontaneity of a chemical
at constant temperature, heat absorbed by change; Entropy, Free Energy. Inadequacy of
the system and by the surroundings at First Law and need for Second Law; Ideas
constant temperature. about reversible (recapitulation), spontaneous
and non-spontaneous processes
The sign convention for change in internal
energy, heat given out or gained, work done Meaning of entropy – derived from Second
Law – statement of Second Law in terms of
by the system or by the surroundings. entropy; Physical significance of entropy;
State function and path function - meaning
State function and not path function. Entropy
with examples. Internal energy change, work change of the universe, reversible isothermal
done and heat absorbed in a cyclic process. process and irreversible process.
Internal energy change in an isolated system Meaning of thermal death, Gibb’s free
and in a non-isolated system. Total internal energy of the system and Helmholtz free
energy change of a system and surroundings. energy. Relationship between Gibb’s free
Mathematical statement of the first law. energy and Helmholtz’s free energy.
Significance of first law of thermodynamics. Relationship between change in Gibb’s free
Need for enthalpy – constant pressure or energy and equilibrium constant of a
chemical reaction. Defining the criteria for
open vessel processes. Enthalpy - a
spontaneity of a chemical change in terms of
thermodynamic property, state function. Gibb’s free energy.
Mathematical form of enthalpy. Note: Numericals based on the First Law,
Heat - the energy in transit. Conditions for Second Law of Thermodynamics and Hess’
the transfer of heat. Limitations in conversion Law.
of heat into work. Condition at which heat (iv) Third Law of Thermodynamics – statement
transfer ceases, unit of heat.
only.
Meaning of work, capacity to do work,types
Self-explanatory.
of work. Mathematical form of reversible
work and irreversible work. Difference 7. Equilibrium
between the reversible and irreversible work
(i) Chemical Equilibrium.
done – graphically.
Introduction of physical and chemical
Relationship between C v and internal energy equilibrium and its characteristics
change. Relationship between C p and C v . Dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of
Definitions of the following: mass action, equilibrium constant and
factors affecting equilibrium. Le Chatelier's
principle and its applications.
172
Irreversible and reversible reactions. dissociation constant. Problems based on the
Physical equilibrium: solid-liquid, liquid- Ostwald’s dilution law.
vapour, solid-vapour; Characteristics of Arrhenius, Brönsted-Lowry and Lewis
Physical equilibrium. concept of acids and bases, multistage
Chemical equilibrium: Characteristics of ionisation of acids and bases with examples.
chemical equilibrium; dynamic nature. Law Ionic product of water – definition, pH,
of mass action; Equilibrium constant in pOH, pK w of solutions.
terms of concentration K c. Gaseous pH indicators and their choice in titrimetry.
reactions; Equilibrium constant in terms of Numericals on the above concepts.
partial pressures K p . Relationship between
Common ion effect – definition, examples
Kp and Kc (derivation required);
(acetic acid and sodium acetate; ammonium
Characteristics of equilibrium constant;
hydroxide and ammonium chloride),
Units for equilibrium constant; Simple
applications in salt analysis.
calculations of equilibrium constant and
Salt hydrolysis – salts of strong acids and
concentration.
weak bases, weak acids and strong bases,
The following examples should be considered
weak acids and weak bases and the pH
to show maximum yield of products:
formula of the solutions of these salts in
- Synthesis of ammonia by Haber’s water with suitable examples.
process.
Buffer solutions: definition, examples,
- The dissociation of dinitrogen tetra action; its interpretations based on Le
oxide. Chatelier’s principle. Henderson equation.
- Hydrolysis of simple esters. Solubility product: definition and application
- The contact process for the manufacture in qualitative salt analysis (Group II, III and
of sulphuric acid. IV cations).
Le Chatelier’s Principle. Statement and Numericals on pH, buffer solutions, solubility
explanation. and solubility product.
Factors affecting chemical and physical
equilibria should be discussed in the light of 8. Redox Reactions
Le Chatelier’s principle. Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox
- Change of concentration. reactions, oxidation number, change in oxidation
- Change of temperature. number, balancing redox reactions (in terms of
loss and gain of electrons). Applications of
- Change of pressure.
redox in various types of chemical reactions.
- Effect of catalyst.
− Concept of oxidation and reduction in terms
- Addition of inert gas.
of oxygen, hydrogen, electrons.
(ii) Ionic equilibrium
− Redox reactions – examples.
Introduction, electrolyte (strong and weak),
− Oxidation number: rules for calculation,
non-electrolyte, ionisation, degree of
simple calculations of oxidation state in
ionisation of p o ly b asi c ac id s, acid
molecules and ions like K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , S 2 O32 − ,
strength, concept of pH, pH indicators,
etc.
buffer solution, common ion effect (with
illustrative examples). Henderson equation, − Oxidation and reduction in terms of change
hydrolysis of salts, solubility and solubility in oxidation number.
product. − Balancing of redox reactions in acidic and
basic medium by oxidation number and ion-
Ostwald’s dilution law and its derivation.
electron method.
Strength of acids and bases based on their

173
9. Hydrogen • Sodium carbonate – principal and equation
Hydrogen and its compounds: hydrides, water, of Solvay’s process. Uses.
heavy water, hydrogen peroxide. • Sodium bicarbonate - preparation from
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, sodium carbonate. Uses.
occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and • Sodium thiosulphate - preparation from
uses of hydrogen, hydrides (ionic covalent and sodium sulphite and its reaction with
interstitial); hydrogen as a fuel. iodine, dilute acids and silver nitrate. Uses.
Physical and chemical properties of water, soft Group 2:
and hard water, and removal of hardness of • Magnesium chloride hexahydrate -
water, heavy water. preparation from magnesium oxide. Effect
Hydrogen peroxide: of heat. Uses
• Calcium oxide - preparation from
Preparation from peroxide, structure, oxidising
properties: reaction with KI, PbS, acidified limestone; reaction with water, carbon
FeSO 4 ; reducing properties – reaction with dioxide and silica. Uses.
acidified KMnO 4 and chlorine. Calculation of • Calcium hydroxide – preparation from
strength of hydrogen peroxide. calcium oxide and uses.
• Calcium carbonate – preparation from
10. s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth calcium hydroxide and uses.
Metals) • Plaster of Paris - preparation from
(i) Group 1 and 2 elements gypsum. Uses.
General characterises of Group 1 and 2 should • Manufacture of cement. Uses.
include the following:
Occurrence; physical state; electronic 11. Some p -Block Elements
configuration; atomic and ionic (i) Group 13 Elements
radii; common oxidation state; General introduction, electronic
electropositive /electronegative character; configuration, occurrence, variation of
ionisation enthalpy; reducing/oxidising nature; properties, oxidation states, trends in
distinctive behaviour of first member of each chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of
group (namely Lithium, Beryllium); nature of first element of the group, Boron - physical
oxides, hydroxides, hydrides, carbonates, and chemical properties.
nitrates; chlorides, sulphates. (ii) Preparation and properties of some important
(ii) Preparation and properties of some important compounds, borax, boric acid, boron
compounds. hydrides, aluminium: Reactions with acids
Sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, Sodium and alkalies. Lewis acid character of boron
carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium halides; amphoteric nature of aluminium,
thiosulphate; biological importance of sodium alums.
and potassium. Borax- reaction with water and action of heat
Magnesium chloride hexahydrate, calcium on hydrated compound (preparation not
oxide, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, required).
plaster of paris and cement. Industrial uses of Borax Bead Test.
the above, biological importance of Diborane - Preparation properties, structure
magnesium and calcium. and uses.
Group 1: Boric acid – preparation and action of heat.
• Sodium chloride - uses. Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies.
• Sodium hydroxide - only the principle of Alums – preparation and uses.
preparation by Castner-Kellner cell. Uses.
174
(iii) Group 14 Elements Vital force theory, reason for separate study
General characteristics, electronic of organic chemistry and its importance,
characteristics of carbon atoms (tetra
configuration, occurrence, variation of
valency), Reasons for large number of
properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical organic compounds: catenation, isomerism
reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first and multiple bonding, etc.
elements. (ii) Classification of organic compounds:
Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms. Structure (definition and examples): open chain, closed
of diamond graphite and fullerene; stability of chain, homocyclic, hetrocyclic, aromatic,
+2 oxidation state down the group in terms of alicyclic compounds, homologous series and
inert pair effect. its characteristics, functional groups.
(iv) Some important compounds; oxides of carbon
(iii) IUPAC rules for naming organic
and silicon, silicon carbide, silicon tetra
compounds. Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic
chloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites.
compounds.
Preparation and properties of: (iv) Definition and classification of isomerism:
Carbon monoxide - preparation from Structural isomerism: definition,
incomplete combustion of carbon. Hazards of classification, examples.
CO. Reducing nature of CO. Chain isomerism, Positional isomerism,
Carbon dioxide - preparation from limestone Functional isomerism, Metamerism,
and carbon, limewater test. Uses. Tautomerism - examples for each of the
Silicon dioxide - structure, comparison with above.
carbon dioxide. Uses. Stereoisomerism: definition and
Silicon carbide - preparation from silica. Uses. classification, examples.
Geometrical isomerism: Definition.
Silicon tetra chloride - preparation from
silicon and uses. Conditions for compounds to exhibit
geometrical isomerism; types and examples,
Silicones - general method of preparation. cis and trans, syn and anti. Examples.
Uses. Optical isomerism: Definition, Nicol prism,
Silicates – structure and uses. plane polarised light. polarimeter. Method of
measuring angle of rotation. Specific
Zeolites – formula and use.
rotation. Conditions for optical activity. d, l
12. Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles form; External compensation, Internal
and Techniques compensation, racemic mixture & meso form.
General introduction, classification and IUPAC Examples – lactic acid and tartaric acid.
nomenclature of organic compounds and (v) Analysis of organic compounds:
isomerism. Detection of elements (qualitative analysis)
Methods of purification, qualitative and such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen,
quantitative analysis. Electron displacement in a halogens and sulphur should be considered
covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric by using Lassaigne’s test and reactions
effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. involved in it.
Homolytic and heterolytic b o n d fission of a (vi) Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen,
covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, halogens, sulphur and phosphorous:
carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, Estimation of carbon and hydrogen –
types of organic reactions. Leibig’s method.
(i) Introduction to organic chemistry: Estimation of nitrogen - Kjeldahl’s method.

175
Estimation of halogens sulphur and carboxylic acid). Cyclisation, aromatisation,
phosphorous - Carius method. Numericals isomerisation and pyrolysis.
included. Experimental details required. Uses of alkanes.
(vii) Types of chemical reactions and their
(ii)Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of
mechanisms.
double bond (ethene), isomerism; methods
Substitution, addition, elimination reactions:
of preparation; physical properties,
definition and examples.
chemical properties; addition of hydrogen,
Homolytic and heterolytic fission – definition
halogen, water, hydrogen halides
and examples. Free radicals, carbocation,
(Markownikoff's addition and peroxide
carbanion (their reactivities and stabilities).
effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of
Electrophiles and nucleophiles – definition
electrophilic addition.
and examples (including neutral
electrophiles and nucleophiles). General methods of preparation –
Inductive, electromeric, mesomeric effect and dehydration of alcohols,
hyperconjugation – definition, examples. dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides (from
(viii) Free radicals and polar mechanisms vicinal dihalides), Kolbe’s electrolytic
In terms of fission of the bonds and formation method and from alkynes.
of the new bonds including S N 1, S N 2, E 1 and Physical Properties: State, freezing point,
E 2 mechanisms. Explain with relevant melting point, boiling point, dipole moment,
examples and conditions. density.
Chemical properties - addition reactions
13. Hydrocarbons (hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides,
Classification of Hydrocarbons sulphuric acid, water).
Markownikoff’s rule and anti-
I. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Markownikoff’s rule with mechanism and
(i) Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, examples.
conformation (methane and ethane), Oxidation: complete combustion, hot and
physical properties, chemical properties cold alkaline KMnO 4 (Baeyer’s reagent),
including free radical mechanism of ozonolysis.
halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Polymerisation.
Occurrence, conformation (Sawhorse and Saytzeff’s rule and its application.
Newman projections of ethane). Uses of alkenes.
General methods of preparation: from (iii) Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of
sodium salts of carboxylic acids triple bond (ethyne), methods of preparation;
(decarboxylation and Kolbe’s electrolytic physical properties, chemical properties:
method); from alcohols and alkyl halides acidic character of alkynes, addition reactions
(Wurtz reaction, Coreyhouse Synthesis). - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and
From aldehydes and Grignard’s Reagent. water.
Physical and chemical properties of alkanes. General methods of preparations of alkynes.
Physical properties: state, freezing point, Manufacture of ethyne by calcium carbide
melting point, boiling point, density. and from natural gas. Dehydrohalogenation
and Kolbe’s electrolytic method.
Chemical properties: combustibility, reaction
with chlorine (free radical mechanism), Physical properties of alkynes: State of
reaction with oxygen in presence of catalyst existence, freezing point, melting point,
(formation of alcohol, aldehyde, and boiling point, density.

176
Chemical properties of alkynes – addition 14. Environmental Chemistry
reactions (hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen Types of environmental pollution (air, water and
halides and water), acidic nature of alkynes, soil pollution); various types of pollutants: smog,
formation of acetylides. acid rain; effects of depletion of ozone layer,
Oxidation: complete combustion, hot and greenhouse effect and global warming. Pollution
cold alkaline KMnO 4 (Baeyer’s reagent), due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an
ozonolysis. alternative tool for reducing pollution; strategies
Polymerisation. for control of environmental pollution.
Uses of alkynes. Gaseous pollutants: oxides of nitrogen, carbon,
sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful
Distinguishing test between Alkane, Alkene
effects and prevention; Greenhouse effect and
and Alkyne.
global warming; acid rain;
II. Aromatic Hydrocarbons Particulate pollutants: smoke, dust, smog, fumes,
Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, mist; their sources, harmful effects and
benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical prevention.
properties: mechanism of electrophilic Water pollutants: pathogens, organic waste,
substitution. Nitration, sulphonation, chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and
halogenation, Friedel Crafts alkylation and prevention.
acylation, directive influence of functional Soil Pollutants: pesticides, herbicides.
group in monosubstituted benzene. Green chemistry as an alternative
Carcinogenicity and toxicity. tool for reducing pollution.
Structure: Resonance structures (Kekule’s)
of benzene. PAPER II
Benzene: Preparation from sodium benzoate PRACTICAL WORK- 15 Marks
and from phenol. Candidates are required to complete the following
Physical properties: State of existence, experiments:
freezing point, melting point, boiling point, 1. Basic laboratory techniques:
density. − Cutting a glass tube.
Chemical properties: − Bending a glass tube.
- Electrophilic substitution reactions with − Drawing out a glass jet.
mechanism (halogenation, nitration,
sulphonation).
− Boring a cork.
2. Titration: acid-base titration involving molarity.
- Alkylation, acetylation – Friedel Crafts
reaction. Titrations involving:
- Directive influence (o-, p-, and m-) of • Sodium carbonate solution/ dil H 2 SO 4 or dil.
substituents in electrophilic and HCl using methyl orange indicator.
nucleophilic substitutions (with • NaOH or KOH solution/ dil H 2 SO 4 or dil.
mechanism). HCl using methyl orange indicator.
- Oxidation: catalytic oxidation, reaction • Calculations involving molarity,
with ozone. concentration in grams L-1/ number of ions,
- Addition reactions with hydrogen, water of crystallisation and percentage
chlorine, bromine. purity.
- Pyrolysis (formation of bi-phenyl).
NOTE: Calculation of molarity must be upto 4
Carcinogenicity and toxicity of benzene may be decimal places at least, in order to avoid error.
discussed.
Uses.

177
OBSERVATION TABLE NOTE:
S. No. (A) (B) (B – A) • For wet test of anions, sodium carbonate
Initial Final burette Difference extract must be used (except for carbonate).
burette reading (ml) • Chromyl chloride test not to be performed.
reading (ml)
(Insoluble salts, such as lead sulphate, barium
(ml)
sulphate, calcium sulphate, strontium sulphate
1 should not be given).
2
3 4. Preparation of inorganic compounds.
• Concordant reading is to be used for titre (a) Preparation of potash alum/Mohr’s salt.
value. Concordant reading is two consecutive (b) Preparation of crystalline FeSO 4 /CuSO 4 .
values which are exactly the same. Average
will not be accepted as titre value. 5. Paper Chromatography.
• The table is to be completed in ink only. Preparation of chromatogram, separation of
Pencil is not to be used. pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers/ink
• Overwriting will not be accepted in the mixtures; determination of R f value.
tabular column.
Observations: PROJECT WORK AND PRACTICAL FILE -
• Pipette size (should be same for all the 15 Marks
candidates at the centre):
Project Work – 10 Marks
• Titre value (concordant).
The candidate is to creatively execute one
3. Qualitative analysis: identification of single salt
project/assignment on a selected topic of Chemistry.
containing one anion and one cation:
Teachers may assign or students may choose any one
Anions: CO 3 2-, NO 2 -, S2-, SO 3 2-, SO 4 2-, NO 3 -,
CH 3 COO-, Cl-, Br-, I-, C 2 O 4 2-, PO 4 3-. project of their choice. (Refer to the suggested topics
Cations: NH 4 +, Pb2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Mn2+ at the end of Class XII syllabus).
Ni2+, Co2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+, Mg2+. Suggested Evaluation criteria for Project Work:
Anions: Dilute acid group – CO 3 2-, NO 2 -, S2-,  Introduction / purpose
SO 3 2-
 Contents
Concentrated Acid Group – NO 3 -, Cl-, Br-, I-,
CH 3 COO-.  Analysis/ material aid (graph, data, structure, pie
Special Group - SO 4 2-, PO 4 3-, C 2 O 4 2-. charts, histograms, diagrams, etc)
Cations: Group Zero: NH 4 +  Presentation
Group I: Pb2+  Bibliography
Group II : Cu2+, Pb2+
Practical File – 5 Marks
Group III: Al3+, Fe3+
Teachers are required to assess students on the basis
Group IV: Zn2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Co2+
of the Chemistry Practical file maintained by them
Group V: Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+
during the academic year.
Group VI: Mg2+

178
CLASS XII
There will be two papers in the subject.
Paper I: Theory - 3 hours ... 70 marks Paper II: Practical: 3 hours ... 15 marks
Project Work … 10 marks
Practical File … 5 marks

PAPER I (THEORY) - 70 Marks


There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal
choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three
questions of 5 marks each.

S.No. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE

1. Solid State
2. Solutions
Physical Chemistry
3. Electrochemistry
25 Marks
4. Chemical Kinetics
5. Surface Chemistry
6. General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

7. p -Block Elements
Inorganic Chemistry
8. d -and f -Block Elements
20 Marks
9. Coordination Compounds
10. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
11. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
12. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Organic Chemistry
13. Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen 25 Marks
14. Biomolecules
15. Polymers
16. Chemistry in Everyday Life
TOTAL 70 Marks

179
PAPER I –THEORY – 70 Marks solutes, abnormal molecular mass association and
dissociation, van't Hoff factor.
1. Solid State
Normality, molality, molarity, mole fraction,
Solids: their classification based on different
ppm, as measures of concentration. Definition of
binding forces such as: ionic, covalent
the above with examples. Simple problems based
molecular; amorphous and crystalline solids
on the above.
(difference), metals. Type of unit cell in two
dimensional and three dimensional lattices, (i) Solubility of gases in liquids – Henry’s Law,
number of atoms per unit cell (all types). simple numericals based on the above.
Calculation of density of unit cell, packing in
(ii) Raoult’s Law for volatile solutes and non-
solids, packing efficiency, voids, point defects,
volatile solutes, ideal solution, non-ideal
electrical and magnetic properties.
solution. Azeotropic mixtures – definition,
Band theory of metals. Conductors, types, graphical representation, fractional
semiconductors (n and p type) and insulators. distillation with examples.
(i) Crystalline and amorphous solids. (iii) Colligative properties – definition and
examples, and its use in determination of
(ii) Definition of crystal lattice, unit cell; types of
molecular mass.
unit cell (scc, fcc, bcc); calculation of the
number of atoms per unit cell; relationship (a) Relative lowering of vapour pressure:
between radius, edge length and nearest Definition and mathematical expression
neighbour distance. Calculation of density of of Raoult’s Law. Determination of
unit cell, formula of the compound – relative molecular mass by measurement
numericals based on it; packing in 3 – D, of lowering of vapour pressure.
packing fraction in scc, fcc, bcc with (b) Depression in freezing point: molal
derivation; voids – types, location, formation depression constant (cryoscopic
(derivation of radius of voids). constant) – definition and mathematical
(iii) Characteristics of crystalline solids; ionic expression (derivation included).
(NaCl), metallic (Cu), atomic (diamond and (c) Elevation in boiling point method: molal
graphite). elevation constant (ebullioscopic
constant) definition and mathematical
(iv) Point defects: Stoichiometric, non-
expression (derivation included).
stoichiometric and impurity defects
(F- centres). (d) Osmotic pressure: definition and
explanation. Natural and chemical
(v) Electrical properties: Conductors,
semipermeable membranes, reverse
semiconductors (n & p types) and insulators
osmosis, isotonic, hypotonic and
(Band Theory), piezoelectricity and
hypertonic solutions. Comparison
pyroelectricity.
between diffusion and osmosis.
(vi) Magnetic properties: diamagnetic, Application of osmotic pressure in the
paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic determination of relative molecular
and antiferromagnetic. mass.
2. Solutions van’t Hoff- Boyle’s Law, van’t Hoff –
Study of concentration of solutions of solids in Charles’ Law, van’t Hoff - Avogadro’s
liquids, liquid in liquid, solubility of gases in law.
liquids, solid solutions, Colligative properties - (e) Abnormal molecular mass: Dissociation
Raoult's law of relative lowering and Association with suitable examples
of vapour pressure (1st & 2nd), elevation of
boiling point, depression of freezing (f) van’t Hoff factor for the electrolytes
point, osmotic pressure. Use of colligative which dissociate and the molecules
properties in determining molecular masses of which associate in solution.
Modification of the formula of colligative
180
properties based on van’t Hoff factor. (v) Nernst equation and correlation with the free
Simple problems. Calculation of degree energy of the reaction with suitable
of dissociation and association. examples.
Experimental details not required. Prediction of spontaneity of a reaction based
Numerical problems based on all the above on the cell emf.
methods. Experimental details not required. Numericals on standard electrode potential
of half-cells, cell emf, relationship between
3. Electrochemistry free energy and equilibrium constant,
Electrolytic and electrochemical cells. Redox standard electrode potential and free energy.
reactions in electrochemical cells. (vi) Comparison of metallic conductance and
Electromotive Force (emf) of a cell, standard electrolytic conductance. Relationship
electrode potential, Nernst equation and its between conductance and resistance. Specific
resistance and specific conductance.
application to chemical cells. Relation between
Cell constant: Calculation of cell constant.
Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell.
Meaning of equivalent conductance.
Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific, Meaning of molar conductance. General
equivalent and molar conductivity, variations of relationship between specific conductance,
conductivity with concentration, graphs; molar conductance and equivalent
Kohlrausch's Law of electrolysis and Faraday’s conductance (units and graphs).
Laws of electrolysis. Dry cell and lead Units, numericals.
accumulator, fuel cells, corrosion. Molar conductance of a weak electrolyte at a
given concentration and at infinite dilution.
(i) Electrochemical cells: introduction, redox Kohlrausch’s Law – definition, applications
reactions (principle of oxidation and and numericals.
reduction in a cell). (vii) Faraday’s laws of Electrolysis.
(ii) Galvanic cells - introduction; Faraday’s First Law of electrolysis.
representation, principle – oxidation Statement, mathematical form. Simple
reduction. Mechanism of production of problems.
electric current in a galvanic cell. Faraday’s Second Law of electrolysis:
(iii) Measurement of potential. Single electrode Statement, mathematical form. Simple
potentials. problems.
Standard hydrogen electrode (Eo) - Relation between Faraday, Avogadro’s
definition, preparation, application and number and charge on an electron. F = N A e
limitations. should be given (no details of Millikan’s
Standard electrode potential - Measurement experiment are required).
of standard electrode potential of Zn ++ / Zn, (viii) Batteries: Primary and Secondary Cells:
Cu ++ / Cu, half cell (using standard Leclanche cell, mercury cell, Lead storage
hydrogen electrode). battery and fuel cell – structure, reactions
Cell notation – representation. and uses.
Factors affecting electrode potential with (ix) Corrosion: Concept, mechanism of
explanation - main emphasis on the electrochemical reaction, factors affecting it
temperature, concentration and nature of the and its prevention.
electrode.
(iv) Electrochemical series. Its explanation on 4. Chemical Kinetics
the basis of standard reduction potential. Meaning of Chemical Kinetics – slow and fast
Prediction of the feasibility of a reaction. reactions. Rate of a reaction - average and
instantaneous rate (graphical representation).
Factors affecting rate of reaction: surface area,
181
nature of reactants, concentration, temperature, (vii) The concept of energy: Exothermic and
catalyst and radiation. Order and molecularity endothermic reactions, concept of energy
barrier, threshold and activation energy,
of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant.
formation of activated complex, effect of
Integrated rate equations and half-life (only for catalyst on activation energy and reaction
zero and first order reactions), concept of rate.
collision theory (elementary idea, no (viii)Collision Theory: Condition for a chemical
mathematical treatment). Concept of threshold change – close contact, particles should
and activation energy, Arrhenious equation. collide. Collisions to be effective – optimum
energy and proper orientation during
(i) Meaning of chemical kinetics, Scope and collision. Energy barrier built-up when the
importance of Kinetics of the reaction, slow collision is about to take place, Activated
and fast reactions – explanation in terms of complex formation, difference in energy of
bonds. the reactant and the product – exothermic
(ii) Rate of Reaction: definition, representation and endothermic reactions with proper
of rate of reaction in terms of reactants and graphs and labelling.
products, determination of rate of reactions (ix) Mechanism of the reaction: meaning of
graphically, instantaneous and average rate elementary reaction, meaning of complex
of reaction. Factors affecting rate of and overall reaction, explanation of the
reaction. mechanism of the reaction, slowest step of
(iii) Law of mass Action: statement and meaning the reaction. Relationship between the rate
of active mass. Explanation with an example expression, order of reactants and products
– general reactions. at the rate-determining step, units of rate
constant – explanation with suitable
(iv) Effect of concentration of reactants on the examples.
rate of a reaction: Qualitative treatment,
based on the law of mass Action, statement of (x) Effect of temperature on the rate constant of
rate law, General rate equation – a reaction: Arrhenius equation – K=Ae-Ea/RT,
Rate = k(concentration of the reactant)n, Meaning of the symbols of Arrhenius
where k is rate constant and n is the order of equation, related graph, evaluation of E a and
the reaction, relationship between the rate of A from the graph, meaning of slope of the
the reaction with rate constant with respect graph, conversion from exponential to log
to various reactants. form of the equation, relationship between
the increase in temperature and the number
(v) Order of a reaction: meaning, relation of collisions. Numerical based on Arrhenius
between order and stoichiometric coefficients equation.
in balanced equations, order as an
experimental quantity, rate equation for zero 5. Surface Chemistry
order reaction and its unit, mathematical Absorption and Adsorption - physisorption and
derivation of rate equation for first order chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of
reaction, characteristics of first order gases on solids and liquids. Catalysis;
reaction – rate constant is independent of the homogenous and heterogenous, activity and
initial concentration, units to be derived, selectivity, enzyme catalysis.
definition of half-life period, derivation of
expression of half-life period from first order Colloidal state distinction between true solutions,
rate equation. colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic
multi-molecular, macromolecular and associated
Problems based on first order rate equation colloids; properties of colloids; Brownian
and half-life period. movement, Tyndall effect, coagulation and
(vi) Molecularity of the reaction: Meaning – electrophoresis. Emulsion - types of emulsions.
physical picture, Relation between order, (i) Difference between absorption and
molecularity and the rate of a reaction, adsorption: definition of physisorption and
Differences between order and molecularity chemisorption and their differences.
of a reaction.

182
Factors affecting adsorption of gases on Occurrence and principles of extraction of
solids, Freundlich adsorption isotherms, aluminium, copper, zinc, iron and silver.
graph, expression and application of (i) Definition of minerals, ores and metallurgy;
adsorption. principle ores of aluminium, iron, copper,
(ii) Catalysis: definition, types of catalysts – zinc and silver.
positive and negative, homogeneous and Methods of concentration of ores: hydraulic
heterogeneous catalyst based on the state of washing, magnetic separation, froth
the reactant and the catalyst, Elementary floatation method, leaching.
treatment of intermediate compound Extraction of metal from concentrated ore –
formation theory with examples; adsorption calcination, roasting and thermal reduction.
Theory, effect of catalyst on the rate of
reaction – the change in the energy of Thermodynamic principle of metallurgy -
Gibb’s energy (Ellingham diagram –
activation in the activation energy curve.
significance only).
Characteristics of a catalyst; specificity,
activity, surface area of a catalyst. Promoter Metallurgy of aluminium, iron, copper, zinc
and poison. Enzyme catalysis – basic idea and silver.
and lock and key mechanism. Refining of metals - distillation, liquation,
(iii) Colloidal State: Thomas Graham classified electrolysis, vapour phase refining (nickel),
the substances as crystalloid and colloid, zone refining.
classification of substances on the basis of (ii) Uses of metals and their alloys.
the particle size i.e. true solution, sol and
suspension, colloidal system is 7. p-Block Elements
heterogeneous. lyophilic and lyophobic
Group-15 Elements
colloid; classification of colloidal solutions
as micro, macro and associated colloids. Position in the periodic table, occurrence,
Preparation of lyophilic colloids. electronic configuration, oxidation states, trends
Preparation of lyophobic colloids by colloid in physical and chemical properties. Nitrogen:
preparation properties and its uses; compounds
mill, peptization, Bredig’s arc method,
of nitrogen: oxides of nitrogen. Ammonia and
oxidation, reduction, double decomposition
nitric acid – preparation and properties.
and exchange of solvent method, purification
Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of
of colloids (dialysis, ultra-filtration, and
p hosphorus: preparation and properties of
ultracentrifugation).
phosphine, halides and oxoacids.
Properties of colloidal solutions: Brownian
(i) General introduction, electronic
movement, Tyndall effect, coagulation,
configuration, occurrence, oxidation states.
electrophoresis (movement of dispersed
Trends in physical properties; chemical
phase), Protection of colloids, Gold number
properties with hydrogen, oxygen and
and Hardy- Schulze rule. Emulsions,
halogens.
surfactants, micelles (only definition and (ii) Nitrogen - Laboratory preparation,
examples). decomposition (ammonium dichromate,
Application of colloids and emulsions in barium azide). Properties and uses.
daily life. (iii) Oxides of nitrogen (N 2 O, NO, N 2 O 3 , N 2 O 4 ,
N 2 O 5 ) - preparation, structure and uses.
6. General Principles and Processes of Isolation (iv) Ammonia – Preparation and manufacture.
of Elements Properties: reaction with oxygen, copper
oxide, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, formation
Metals: metallurgy, ores, principles and
of complexes. Uses.
methods of extraction - concentration, (v) Nitric Acid - Preparation and manufacture.
oxidation, reduction, electrolytic refining. Properties: reaction with copper (dilute and

183
concentrated HNO 3 ), carbon and sulphur. Sulphuric Acid: manufacture by Contact
Uses. Process (equations, conditions and
(vi) Allotropes of phosphorus and their diagram), properties - acidic nature,
structures. mode of dilution, oxidising action,
Phosphine – preparation from phosphorus dehydrating nature and uses of sulphuric
and properties: reaction with halo acids). acid in industry.
Phosphorus trichloride - Preparation from
phosphorous. Uses. Group-17 Elements
Phosphorus pentachloride - preparation Position in the periodic table, occurrence,
from PCl 3 . Thermal dissociation and electronic configuration, oxidation states,
hydrolysis. Uses, properties. trends in physical and chemical properties;
Oxoacids of phosphorus (structures and Preparation, properties and uses of chlorine
preparation only). and hydrochloric acid. Compound of
Group-16 Elements halogen, oxoacids of halogens (structures
Position in the periodic table, occurrence, only), Interhalogen compounds.
electronic configuration, oxidation states, (i) General introduction, electronic
trends in physical and chemical properties. configuration, oxidation states. Trends in
Oxygen: methods of preparation, properties physical properties and chemical
and uses, classification of oxides. Ozone – properties (hydrogen, oxygen, halogens
methods of preparation. Sulphur -allotropic and metals).
forms. Compounds of sulphur: (ii) Chlorine – preparation from MnO 2 and
preparation, properties and uses of sulphur- HCl, from NaCl, MnO 2 and conc. H 2 SO 4
dioxide, sulphuric acid (industrial process (only equations), reactions of chlorine
of manufacture). Oxoacids of sulphur with H 2 S, NH 3, cold, dilute NaOH and
(structures only). hot, concentrated NaOH.
(i) Electronic configuration, oxidation (iii)Hydrochloric acid: Lab preparation, its
states, occurrence. Trends in physical acidic nature, reaction with ammonia,
properties; chemical properties with carbonates and sulphites, formation of
hydrogen, oxygen and halogens. aqua regia and its uses.
(ii) Oxygen – lab method of preparation, (iv) Oxoacids of halogens: structures and
formation of oxides with metals and non- acidic property.
metals and their common nature.
(v)Interhalogen compounds – structure,
(iii) Ozone: manufacture by Siemen’s hybridisation and shapes: XX′, XX′ 3 ,
ozoniser, thermal decomposition of XX′ 5 , XX′ 7 .
ozone, its oxidising nature – reaction
with lead sulphide, potassium iodide and Group-18 Elements
mercury, its uses. Position in the periodic table, occurrence,
(iv) Sulphur: allotropes of sulphur - electronic configuration, trends in physical and
rhombic, monoclinic, structure of chemical properties, inert nature, uses.
sulphur and action of heat; extraction (i) General introduction, electronic
by Frasch process. configuration, occurrence, trends in
(v) Sulphur dioxide: laboratory and physical; chemical properties, state and low
industrial preparation from sulphites and reactivity.
sulphide ores, reaction of sulphur (ii) Formation of xenon compounds with fluorine
dioxide with NaOH, Cl 2 , KMnO 4 and and oxygen (equations only), hybridisation,
structure of SO 2 . shape and structure of compounds.
(vi) Oxoacids of sulphur: structures only. (iii) Uses of noble gases.
184
8. d and f Block Elements Colour, magnetic properties and shapes.
Position in the periodic table, occurrence, Importance of coordination compounds (in
electronic configuration and characteristics of qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and
biological system).
transition metals, general trends in properties of
the 3d-series of transition metals - metallic (i) Definition of coordination compounds /
character, ionisation enthalpy, oxidation states, complex compounds, differences with a
ionic radii, colour of ions, catalytic property, double salt, study of ligands – mono-, bi-, tri-
magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, , tetra-, penta-, hexa- and polydentate,
chelating ligands, definition of coordination
alloy formation, preparation and properties of
number, its calculation for a complex
K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and KMnO 4 . coordination sphere, study of oxidation state
Lanthanoids and actinoids. of an element in a complex, its calculation,
(i) d-Block: 3d, 4d and 5d series IUPAC rules of nomenclature of
coordination compounds.
Study in terms of metallic character, atomic
(ii) Isomerism – structural, stereo types and
and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy,
examples.
oxidisation states, variable valency,
formation of coloured compounds, formation (iii) Valence bond theory of coordination
of complexes, alloy formation. compounds – examples of formation of inner
orbital and outer orbital complexes (high
(ii) f-Block: 4f and 5f series and low spin, octahedral, tetrahedral and
Electronic configuration, atomic and ionic square planar), prediction of magnetic
radii, oxidisation states, formation of character.
coloured compounds, formation of (iv) Crystal field theory – crystal field splitting in
complexes, alloy formation. Lanthanoid tetra and octahedral systems. Explanation of
contraction and its consequences. Chemical colour and magnetic character.
reactivity – with oxygen, hydrogen, halogen, (v) Stability of coordination compounds (explain
sulphur, nitrogen, carbon and water. stability on the basis of magnitude of K) as
Actinoids - oxidation states and comparison mentioned above).
with lanthanoids. (vi) Importance and uses.
(iii) Potassium permanganate: structure, shape,
10. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.
equation of extraction from pyrolusite ore, its
oxidising nature in acidic, basic and neutral Haloalkanes: General formula, nomenclature
medium, use in redox titration. and classification. Nature of C–X bond,
physical and chemical properties, mechanism
Oxidising nature in acidic [FeSO 4 ,
of substitution reactions, optical rotation.
(COOH) 2 .2H 2 O, KI], basic (KI) and neutral
(H 2 S) mediums to be done. Haloarenes: Basic idea, nature of C–X bond,
substitution reactions (directive influence of
(iv) Potassium dichromate: structure, shape, halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).
equation of extraction from chromite ore and
its use in titration. Oxidising nature in acidic, Uses and environmental effects of -
dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetra-
basic and neutral medium, use in redox
chloromethane, iodoform, freons and DDT.
titration. Interconversion of chromate and
dichromate ion (effect of pH). Nature of C-X bond
Naming the halogen derivatives of alkanes by
9. Coordination Compounds using common system and IUPAC system for
Concept of complexes, definition of ligands, mono, di and tri-halo derivatives.
coordination number, oxidation number. IUPAC Preparation of haloalkanes from:
nomenclature of mononuclear coordination
compounds. Isomerism (structural and stereo). - Alkane and halogen.
Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT and CFT. - Alkene and hydrogen halide.

185
- Alcohols with PX 3 , PCl 5 and SOCl 2 . mechanism of dehydration, uses with special
- Halide exchange method (Finkelstein and reference to methanol and ethanol.
Swarts) (i) Classification into monohydric, dihydric and
- Silver salt of fatty acids (Hunsdiecker). polyhydric alcohols, general formulae,
structure and nomenclature of alcohols.
Physical properties: State, melting point, boiling
Difference between primary, secondary and
point and solubility.
tertiary alcohols in terms of structure,
Chemical properties: nucleophilic substitution physical properties and chemical properties.
reactions (S N 1, S N 2 mechanism in terms of
(ii) Methods of preparation:
primary, secondary and tertiary halides)
Reaction with: sodium hydroxide, water, sodium - Hydration of Alkenes – direct hydration,
iodide, ammonia, primary amine, secondary indirect hydration, hydroboration
amine, potassium cyanide, silver cyanide, oxidation.
potassium nitrite, silver nitrite, silver salt of fatty - From Grignard’s reagent.
acid and lithium-aluminium hydride. - Hydrolysis of alkyl halides.
Elimination reaction (Saytzeff’s rule) / β - Reduction of carbonyl compounds.
elimination.
- From primary amines.
Reaction with metals: sodium and magnesium
Manufacture of methanol by Bosch process
(Wurtz’s reaction, Grignard’s reagent
and ethanol by fermentation of
preparation).
carbohydrates, chemical equations required
Chloroform and iodoform: preparation and (only outline of the method of manufacture,
properties. detail not required).
Structure of freons. Properties:
Preparation of haloarenes by Sandmeyer’s and - Acidic nature of alcohols:
Gattermann’s reaction, by electrophilic - Reaction with sodium.
substitution.
- Esterification with mechanism.
Physical properties: State, melting point, boiling
point and solubility. - Reaction with hydrogen halides.
Chemical properties: - Reaction with PCl 3, PCl 5 , and SOCl 2 .
- Electrophilic substitution (chlorination - Reaction with acid chlorides and acid
nitration and sulphonation) with mechanism. anhydrides
- Nucleophilic substitution (replacement of - Oxidation.
chlorine with -OH, -NH 2 ) with mechanism. - Dehydration with mechanism.
- Reduction to benzene. Uses of alcohols.
- Wurtz-Fittig reaction. (iii) Conversion of one alcohol into another.
- Fittig reaction. (iv) Distinction between primary, secondary and
- Addition reaction with magnesium tertiary alcohols by Lucas’ Test.
(formation of Grignard reagent).
Phenols: Classification and nomenclature.
- Structure of DDT. Methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic
11. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Alcohols: Classification, general formula, Preparation of phenol from diazonium salt,
structure and nomenclature. Methods of chlorobenzene (Dow’s process) and from
benzene sulphonic acid.
preparation, physical and chemical properties
(of primary alcohols only), identification of Manufacture from Cumene.
primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, Physical properties: state and solubility.

186
Chemical properties: • From alkynes (hydration).
- Acidic character of phenol. • From acid chlorides (Rosenmund’s
- Reaction with sodium hydroxide. reduction, reaction with dialkyl cadmium).
- Reaction with sodium. • From calcium salt of carboxylic acids.
- Reaction with zinc. • From nitriles (Stephen reaction, Grignard’s
- Reaction with acetyl chloride and acetic reagent).
anhydride. • From esters.
- Reaction with phosphorus penta chloride. Physical properties – state and boiling point.
- Bromination, nitration and sulphonation Chemical properties:
(Electrophilic substitution reactions). • Nucleophilic addition reactions with
- Kolbe’s reaction (formation of salicylic mechanism (ammonia and its derivatives,
acid). HCN, NaHSO 3 and Grignard’s reagent).
- Reimer – Tiemann reaction • Oxidation reactions, iodoform reaction.
- Test for phenol – FeCl 3 test, azo dye test. • Reduction: reduction to alcohol and alkanes
Aliphatic Ethers: General formula, structure and (Clemmensen’s reduction, Wolff-Kishner
nomenclature. Methods of preparation, physical reduction, Red phosphorus and HI).
and chemical properties, uses.
• Base catalysed reactions (with mechanism):
Ethers: structure of ethereal group. Aldol condensation, cross Aldol
Preparation from alcohol (Williamson’s condensation, Cannizzaro’s reaction.
synthesis). Tests: difference between formaldehyde and
Physical properties: state, miscibility. acetaldehyde; aldehydes and ketones.
Chemical properties: Uses of aldehydes and ketones.
- Reaction with chlorine.
- Oxidation (peroxide formation). Aromatic aldehyde (Benzaldehyde)
- Reaction with HI. Lab preparation from toluene by oxidation with
chromyl chloride.
- Reaction with PCl 5 .
Physical properties: state and stability.
Aryl ethers
Chemical properties:
Physical properties – state and solubility.
• Oxidation and reduction.
Chemical properties – preparation of anisole
• Nucleophilic addition reaction (hydrogen
(Williamson’s synthesis), electrophilic
cyanide and sodium bisulphite).
substitution (halogenation, nitration and
Friedel-Crafts reaction.) • Reactions with ammonia and its derivatives
(hydroxyl amine, hydrazine and phenyl
Uses of ether.
hydrazine).
12. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids • Reaction with phosphorus pentachloride.
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, • Cannizzaro reaction.
structure of methods of preparation of • Benzoin condensation.
aldehydes and ketones, physical and chemical
• Perkin’s reaction.
properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition,
reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes and • Electrophilic substitution - halogenation,
uses. nitration and sulphonation.
Preparation: Test: distinction between aromatic and aliphatic
• From alcohol. aldehydes.
• From alkenes (ozonolysis). Uses of benzaldehyde.

187
Carboxylic Acids: Classification, general - From alcohol.
formula and structure of carboxylic group.
Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of - From alkyl halide.
preparation, physical and chemical properties - From cyanide.
and uses.
- From amide (Hofmann’s degradation).
Classification of mono and di carboxylic acids
with examples. - From nitro compounds.
Preparation of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic - Gabriel phthalimide Synthesis.
acid: Physical properties: comparison between
- From alcohols, aldehydes. primary, secondary and tertiary amines in
- From nitriles. terms of – state, solubility, boiling point
- From Grignard’s reagent. (hydrogen bonding), comparison with
Physical properties: state, boiling point and alcohols.
solubility. Chemical properties:
Chemical properties: - Basic character of amines – comparison
between primary, secondary and tertiary
- Acidic character: (aliphatic, aromatic
alkyl amines/ ammonia/ aniline. Effect of
carboxylic acids with the effect of substituents on the basic strength of
substituents on the acidic character – to be aniline
dealt with in detail)
- Alkylation and acylation with
- Reaction with active metals, alkalies, mechanism.
carbonates and bicarbonates, - Reaction with nitrous acid.
- Formation of acid derivatives. - Carbylamine reaction.
- Decarboxylation (chemical and Kolbe’s Distinction between primary, secondary
electrolytic reaction). and tertiary amines (Hinsberg’s Test).
- HVZ reactions. Aniline
- Substitution of benzene ring (meta directive Preparation reduction of nitrobenzene.
effect of carboxylic acid group) nitration and Physical properties – state, solubility and boiling
sulphonation. point.
Tests for acids: formic acid, acetic acid and Chemical properties:
benzoic acid. - Reaction with HCl and H 2 SO 4 .
Uses of formic acid, acetic acid and benzoic acid. - Acetylation, alkylation.
- Benzoylation.
13. Organic compounds containing Nitrogen - Carbylamine reaction.
Aliphatic Amines: General formula and, - Diazotisation.
classification of amines. Structure of the amino - Electrophilic substitution (bromination,
group, nomenclature. Methods of preparation, nitration and sulphonation).
physical and chemical properties, uses, Tests for aniline.
identification of primary, secondary and tertiary
Uses of aniline.
amines.
• Amines Cyanides and Isocyanides
Nomenclature, classification with examples, Methods of preparation:
structure, general formula. Cyanides:
Methods of preparation: - From alkyl halide.

188
- From amide. and quaternary, structures of proteins,
Isocyanides: denaturation of proteins. (Definitions only.
Details and diagrams are not required).
- From alkyl halide.
From primary amines Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Vitamins A, B, C, D, E and K: classification
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical (fat soluble and water soluble), deficiency
reactions and importance in synthetic organic diseases. (Chemical names and structures are not
chemistry. required).
Preparation from aniline;
Properties: Sandmeyer’s reaction, Gattermann Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA.
reaction and Balz – Scheimann reaction, Nucleic acids: basic unit – purine and
replacement of diazo group by – H, -OH, -NO 2 , pyrimidine, DNA – structure (double helical),
coupling reaction with phenol and aniline. RNA (No chemical structure required).
Differences between DNA and RNA.
14. Biomolecules
15. Polymers
Carbohydrates – Definition, Classification
(aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose Definition and classification on different
and fructose), D-L configuration parameters. Methods of polymerisation
oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), (addition and condensation), copolymerisation,
polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); and some important polymers: natural and
Importance of carbohydrates. synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters,
Carbohydrates: definition, classification - mono bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-
(aldose, ketose), oligo (di, tri, tetra saccharides) biodegradable polymers.
and polysaccharides with examples: reducing Classification based on source, on structure, on
sugars and non-reducing sugars – examples and mode of polymerisation, on molecular forces, on
uses. growth (with free radical mechanism).
Establishment of structures for glucose and Preparation of important addition polymers -
fructose (open and cyclic) heating with HI, Polythene, polypropene, PVC, PTFE,
reaction with hydroxylamine, bromine water, polystyrene.
acetic anhydride, nitric acid and phenyl Rubber – natural and synthetic (Buna-N and
hydrazine. Buna-S), vulcanisation of rubber.
Test for glucose and fructose (bromine water test Preparation of important condensation polymers
with equation).
- polyester, Nylon 66, Nylon 6, Bakelite,
Disaccharides – structures of sucrose, maltose
melamine (to be learnt in terms of monomers and
and lactose (glycosidic linkage).
Polysaccharides – starch, cellulose, glycogen. equations).
Biodegradable polymers – PHBV, Nylon 2 -
Proteins – structural units of proteins. Basic Nylon 6.
idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, Uses.
polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins -
primary, secondary, tertiary structure and 16. Chemistry in Everyday life
quaternary structures (qualitative idea only),
Chemicals in medicines - analgesics,
denaturation of proteins. Enzymes, hormones -
tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants,
elementary idea only.
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics,
Proteins: Amino acids – general structure, antacids, antihistamines.
classification and zwitter ion formation.
In medicine: antipyretics, analgesics,
Isoelectric point.
tranquillisers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
Classification of proteins on the basis of
molecular shape; primary, secondary, tertiary
189
anti-microbials, anti-fertility drugs, OBSERVATION TABLE
antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids.
S. (A) (B) (B – A)
Definition, common examples, uses.
No.
Differences between antiseptics and
Initial Final Difference
disinfectants. burette burette (ml)
Structure not required. reading reading
Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial (ml) (ml)
sweetening agents, elementary idea of 1
antioxidants. 2
Preservatives: role, example (Sodium benzoate). 3
Artificial sweetening agents: role, examples
(aspartame, saccharine, sucralose and alitame). • Concordant reading is to be used for titre value.
Soaps and detergents - Classification and their Concordant reading is two consecutive values
cleansing action. which are exactly the same. Average will not be
Soaps and detergents: classification, structure accepted as titre value.
and some important examples. • The table is to be completed in ink only. Pencil is
Advantage of detergents over soaps; not to be used.
classification of detergents into • Overwriting will not be accepted in the tabular
anionic/biodegradable, cationic/non- column.
biodegradable and non-ionic. Observations:
• Pipette size (should be same for all the
PAPER II candidates at the centre).
PRACTICAL WORK – 15 Marks
• Titre value (concordant value).
Candidates are required to complete the following 2. Study of the rate of reaction
experiments: The candidates will be required, having been
1. Titrations given full instructions, to carry out an experiment
Oxidation-reduction titrations: potassium on the rate of reaction, e.g. reaction between
manganate (VII) / ammonium iron (II) sulphate; sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid
(using different concentrations for either),
potassium manganate (VII) / oxalic acid.
magnesium and dil. sulphuric acid/ dil.
The candidate may be required to determine the
hydrochloric acid (using different
percentage purity of a compound and the number
concentrations).
of molecules of water of crystallization in
1. Graph of volume vs. time and its
hydrated salts. In such experiments sufficient interpretation.
working details including recognition of the end 2. Relationship between concentration and rate,
point will be given. volume and rate and time and rate.
Candidates will be required to calculate:
3. Identification of the following compounds and
• Molarity
functional groups based on observations
• Concentration in grams L-1 / molecular mass
• Alcoholic group - glycerol
• Number of molecules of water of
crystallisation/ percentage purity. • Aldehyde group- formaldehyde
• Ketonic group – acetone
NOTE: Molarity must be calculated upto 4
decimal places at least, in order to avoid error. • Carboxylic group – benzoic acid
• Amino group - aniline

190
*Please Note: Carbylamine and acrolein tests Concentrated Acid Group – NO 3 -, Cl-,
should not be performed. Br-, I-, CH 3 COO-.
The student should learn to differentiate between Special Group - SO 4 2-, PO 4 3-, C 2 O 4 2-.
colours, solution, ring and precipitate. Cations: Group Zero: NH 4 +
4. Characteristic tests of carbohydrates and Group I: Pb2+
proteins Group II : Cu2+, Pb2+
• Carbohydrates – glucose Group III: Al3+, Fe3+
• Proteins – powdered milk Group IV: Zn2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Co2+
Identification should be of ‘Carbohydrate’ and Group V: Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+
‘Protein’ not of individual substances. Group VI: Mg2+
NOTE:
5. Experiments related to pH change using pH • Formal analytical procedure is required for
paper or universal indicator. Qualitative Analysis.
• Determination of pH of some solutions • Specific solvent for O.S. to be used;
obtained from fruit juice, solutions of known • Before adding Group III reagents to the
and varied concentrations of acids, bases and filtrate of Group II, H 2 S must be removed
salts. followed by boiling with conc. Nitric acid.
• Comparison of pH of the solutions of strong • The right order for buffer (NH 4 Cl and
and weak acids of the same concentration. NH 4 OH) must be used.
• The flame test with the precipitate obtained
Use of universal indicator/pH paper must be
in Group V for Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+ will also be
taught to the students.
accepted as a confirmatory test.
6. Electrochemistry
Setting up a simple voltaic cell. For wet test of anions, sodium carbonate
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+//Cu2+/Cu extract must be used (except for carbonate).
with change in concentration of electrolyte
(CuSO 4 , ZnSO 4 ) at room temperature. PATTERN OF CHEMISTRY
PRACTICAL PAPER
7. Qualitative analysis Questions in the practical paper will be set as
Qualitative analysis: identification of single salt follows:
containing one anion and one cation:
Question 1 Volumetric Analysis
Anions: CO 3 2-, NO 2 -, S2-, SO 3 2-, SO 4 2-, NO 3 -,
Question 2 Any one or a combination of the
CH 3 COO-, Cl-, Br-, I-, C 2 O 4 2-, PO 4 3-.
following experiments:
Cations: NH 4 +, Pb2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Mn2+ • Study of the rate of reaction.
, Ni2+, Co2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+, Mg2+. • Identification of the organic
NOTE: compounds and functional groups
Chromyl chloride test not to be performed. based on observations.
For wet test of anions, sodium carbonate • Characteristic tests of
extract must be used (except for carbonate). carbohydrates and proteins.
(Insoluble salts such as lead sulphate, barium • Experiments related to pH
sulphate, calcium sulphate, strontium sulphate determination using pH paper or
will not be given). universal indicator.
Anions: Dilute acid group – CO 3 2-, NO 2 -, S2-, • Electrochemistry.
SO 3 2-
Question 3 Qualitative Analysis (single salt).
191
PROJECT WORK AND PRACTICAL FILE - 5. Simple idea of chemical evolution.
15 Marks 6. Natural polymers (any five) - structure,
Project Work – 10 Marks characteristics, uses. Synthetic polymers (any
five) - method of preparation, structure,
The project work is to be assessed by a Visiting
characteristics and uses.
Examiner appointed locally and approved by the
Council. 7. Types of Dyes - methods of preparation,
characteristics and uses.
The candidate is to creatively execute one
8. Chemicals in medicines: antiseptics, antibiotics,
project/assignment on an aspect of Chemistry. antacids, etc. and their uses.
Teachers may assign or students may select a topic of
their choice. Following is only a suggestive list of 9. Preparation of soap, nail polish, boot polish,
projects. varnish, nail polish remover, shampoo and
perfumes.
Suggested Evaluation criteria for Project Work:
10. Chemicals and chemical processes in forensic
• Introduction / purpose
studies.
• Contents
11. Insecticides, pesticides and chemical fertilisers.
• Analysis/ material aid (graph, data, structure, pie
12. Ancient Indian medicines and medicinal plants.
charts, histograms, diagrams, etc.)
13. Organic Chemistry in Nutrition, Food Science
• Presentation
and Biotechnology.
• Bibliography
14. Effect of Green House Gases.
Suggested Assignments: 15. How Plastics have changed the world, both
1. Amino acids: Peptides, structure and socially and economically.
classification, proteins structure and their role in
the growth of living beings.
2. Nucleic Acid: DNA and RNA – their structure. Practical File – 5 Marks
Unique nature. Importance in evolution and their
The Visiting Examiner is required to assess students
characteristic features. on the basis of the Chemistry Practical file
3. Carbohydrates and their metabolism, Blood - maintained by them during the academic year.
haemoglobin and respiration.
4. Vitamins and hormones

NOTE: According to the recommendation of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the
groups are numbered from 1 to 18 replacing the older notation of groups IA ….. VIIA, VIII, IB …… VIIB and
0. However, for the examination both notations will be accepted.

Old IA IIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIII IB IIB IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 0
notation
New 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
notation

192
COMPUTER SCIENCE (868)
Aims (Conceptual)
(1) To understand algorithmic problem solving (3) To create awareness of ethical issues related to
using data abstractions, functional and computing and to promote safe, ethical behavior.
procedural abstractions, and object based and (4) To make students aware of future trends in
object-oriented abstractions. computing.
(2) To understand: (a) how computers represent, Aims (Skills)
store and process data at different levels of
abstraction that mediate between the machine To devise algorithmic solutions to problems and to
and the algorithmic problem solving level and be able to code, validate, document, execute and
(b) how they communicate with the outside debug the solution using the Java programming
world. system.

CLASS XI
There will be two papers in the subject: bases using English or pseudo code. These
algorithms are also good examples for defining
Paper I: Theory………….. 3 hours…70 marks
different functions in a class modelling numbers
Paper II: Practical………. 3 hours…30 marks (when programming is discussed). For addition
and subtraction (1’s complement and 2’s
PAPER I –THEORY – 70 MARKS complement) use the analogy with decimal
numbers, emphasize how carry works (this will be
Paper I shall be of 3 hours duration and be divided useful later when binary adders are discussed).
into two parts.
2. Encodings
Part I (20 marks): This part will consist of
compulsory short answer questions, testing (a) Binary encodings for integers and real
numbers using a finite number of bits (sign-
knowledge, application and skills relating to the entire
magnitude, 2’s complement, mantissa-
syllabus.
exponent notation).
Part II (50 marks): This part will be divided into
Signed, unsigned numbers, least and most
three Sections, A, B and C. Candidates will be
significant bits. Sign-magnitude
required to answer two questions out of three from
representation and its shortcomings (two
Section A (each carrying 10 marks) and two questions representations for 0, addition requires extra
out of three from Section B (each carrying 10 marks) step); two’s-complement representation.
and two questions out of three from Section C (each Operations (arithmetic, logical, shift), discuss
carrying 5 marks). Therefore, a total of six questions the basic algorithms used for the arithmetic
are to be answered in Part II. operations. Floating point representation:
SECTION A normalized scientific notation, mantissa-
exponent representation, binary point (discuss
Basic Computer Hardware and Software trade-off between size of mantissa and
1. Numbers exponent). Single and double precision.
Representation of numbers in different bases and (b) Characters and their encodings (e.g. ASCII,
interconversion between them (e.g. binary, octal, ISCII, Unicode).
decimal, hexadecimal). Addition and subtraction Discuss the limitations of the ASCII code in
operations for numbers in different bases. representing characters of other languages.
Introduce the positional system of representing Discuss the Unicode representation for the
numbers and the concept of a base. Discuss the local language. Java uses Unicode, so strings
conversion of representations between different in the local language can be used (they can be

236
displayed if fonts are available) – a simple 5. Objects
table lookup for local language equivalents
(a) Objects as data (attributes) + behaviour
for Latin (i.e. English) character strings may
(methods or methods); object as an instance of
be done. More details on Unicode are
a class.
available at www.unicode.org.
Difference between object and class should be
3. Propositional logic, Hardware implementation,
made very clear. BlueJ (www.bluej.org) and
Arithmetic operations
Greenfoot (www.greenfoot.org) can be used
(a) Propositional logic, well-formed formulae, for this purpose.
truth values and interpretation of well formed
(b) Analysis of some real-world programming
formulae, truth tables.
examples in terms of objects and classes.
Propositional variables; the common logical
Use simple examples like a calculator, date,
connectives ((not)(negation), ∧
number etc. to illustrate how they can be
(and)(conjunction), ∨ (or)(disjunction),
treated as objects that behave in certain well-
⇒ (implication), ⇔ (equivalence)); definition defined ways and how the interface provides a
of a well-formed formula (wff); representation way to access behaviour. Illustrate behaviour
of simple word problems as wff (this can be changes by adding new methods, deleting old
used for motivation); the values true and methods or modifying existing methods.
false; interpretation of a wff; truth tables;
satisfiable, unsatisfiable and valid formulae. (c) Basic concept of a virtual machine; Java
Virtual Machine (JVM); compilation and
(b) Logic and hardware, basic gates (AND, NOT, execution of Java programs (the javac and
OR) and their universality, other gates java programs).
(NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR), half adder, full
adder. The JVM is a machine but built as a program
and not through hardware. Therefore it is
Show how the logic in (a) above can be called a virtual machine. To run, JVM
realized in hardware in the form of gates. machine language programs require an
These gates can then be combined to interpreter. The advantage is that such JVM
implement the basic operations for arithmetic. machine language programs (.class files) are
Tie up with the arithmetic operations on portable and can run on any machine that
integers discussed earlier in 2 (a). has the java program.
SECTION B (d) Compile time and run time errors; basic
The programming element in the syllabus is aimed at concept of an exception, the Exception class,
algorithmic problem solving and not merely rote try-catch, throw, throws and finally.
learning of Java syntax. The Java version used Differentiate between compile time and run
should be 5.0 or later. For programming, the students time errors. Run time errors crash the
can use any text editor and the javac and java program. Recovery is possible by the use of
programs or any other development environment: for exceptions. Explain how an exception object
example, BlueJ, Eclipse, NetBeans etc. BlueJ is is created and passed up until a matching
strongly recommended for its simplicity, ease of use catch is found. This behaviour is different
and because it is very well suited for an ‘objects first’ from the one where a value is returned by a
approach. deeply nested method call.
4. Introduction to Object Oriented Programming 6. Primitive values, Wrapper classes, Types and
using Java casting
Note that topics 5 to 12 should be introduced Primitive values and types: byte, int, short, long,
almost simultaneously along with Classes and float, double, boolean, char. Corresponding
their definitions. wrapper classes for each primitive type. Class as
type of the object. Class as mechanism for user
defined types. Changing types through user defined

237
casting and automatic type coercion for some different behaviour of primitive and object
primitive types. arguments. Static methods and variables. The this
operator. Examples of algorithmic problem
Ideally, everything should be a class; primitive
solving using methods (number problems, finding
types are defined for efficiency reasons; each
roots of algebraic equations etc.).
primitive type has a corresponding wrapper class.
Classes as user defined types. In some cases types Methods are like complex operations where the
are changed by automatic coercion or casting – object is implicitly the first argument. Operator
e.g. mixed type expressions. However, casting in this denotes the current object. Methods typically
general is not a good idea and should be avoided, return values. Illustrate the difference between
if possible. primitive values and object values as arguments
(changes made inside methods persist after the
7. Variables, Expressions call for object values). Static definitions as class
Variables as names for values; named constants variables and class methods visible and shared by
(final), expressions (arithmetic and logical) and all instances. Need for static methods and
their evaluation (operators, associativity, variables. Introduce the main method – needed to
precedence). Assignment operation; difference begin execution. Constructor as a special kind of
between left-hand side and right-hand side of method; the new operator; multiple constructors
assignment. with different argument structures; constructor
returns a reference to the object.
Variables denote values; variables are already
defined as attributes in classes; variables have 10. Arrays, Strings
types that constrain the values it can denote. Structured data types – arrays (single and multi-
Difference between variables denoting primitive dimensional), strings. Example algorithms that
values and object values – variables denoting use structured data types (searching, finding
objects are references to those objects. The maximum/minimum, sorting techniques, solving
assignment operator = is special. The variable on systems of linear equations, substring,
the LHS of = denotes the memory location while concatenation, length, access to char in string,
the same variable on the RHS denotes the contents etc.).
of the location e.g. i=i+2.
Storing many data elements of the same type
NOTE: Library functions for solving expressions requires structured data types – like arrays.
may be used as and when required. Access in arrays is constant time and does not
8. Statements, Scope depend on the number of elements. Sorting
techniques (bubble, selection, insertion),
Statements; conditional (if, if else, if else if, switch Structured data types can be defined by classes –
case) ternary operator, looping (for, while, do String. Introduce the Java library String class and
while), continue, break; grouping statements in the basic operations on strings (accessing
blocks, scope and visibility of variables. individual characters, various substring
Describe the semantics of the conditional and operations, concatenation, replacement, index of
looping statements in detail. Evaluation of the operations).
condition in conditional statements. SECTION C
Nesting of blocks. Variables with block scope, 11. Basic input/output Data File Handling
method scope, class scope. Visibility rules when (Binary and Text)
variables with the same name are defined in
different scopes. (a) Basic input/output using Scanner and Printer
classes.
9. Methods and Constructors Input/output exceptions. Tokens in an input
Methods and Constructors (as abstractions for stream, concept of whitespace, extracting
complex user defined operations on objects), tokens from an input stream (String Tokenizer
methods as mechanisms for side effects; formal class). The Scanner class can be used for
arguments and actual arguments in methods; input of various types of data (e.g. int, float,

238
char etc.) from the standard input stream. correctness issues, implement and execute the
Similarly, the Printer class handles output. algorithm in Java and debug where necessary.
Only basic input and output using these
Self-explanatory.
classes should be covered.
14. Packages
Discuss the concept of a token (a delimited
continuous stream of characters that is Definition, creation of packages, importing user
meaningful in the application program – e.g. defined packages, interaction of objects across
words in a sentence where the delimiter is the packages.
blank character). This naturally leads to the Java Application Programming Interface (API),
idea of delimiters and in particular development of applications using user defined
whitespace and user defined characters as packages.
delimiters. As an example show how the
StringTokenizer class allows one to extract a 15. Trends in computing and ethical issues
sequence of tokens from a string with user
defined delimiters. (a) Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things,
Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality.
(b) Data File Handling. Brief understanding of the above and their
Need for Data file, Input Stream, Output impact on Society.
Stream, Byte Stream (FileInputStream and (b) Cyber Security, privacy, netiquette, spam,
FileOutputStream), Character Stream phishing.
(FileReader, FileWriter), Operations- Brief understanding of the above.
Creation, Reading, Writing, Appending, and
Searching. (c) Intellectual property, Software copyright and
patents and Free Software Foundation.
12. Recursion
Intellectual property and corresponding laws
Concept of recursion, simple recursive methods and rights, software as intellectual property.
(e.g. factorial, GCD, binary search, conversion of
representations of numbers between different Software copyright and patents and the
bases). difference between the two; trademarks;
software licensing and piracy. free Software
Many problems can be solved very elegantly by Foundation and its position on software,
observing that the solution can be composed of Open Source Software, various types of
solutions to ‘smaller’ versions of the same licensing (e.g. GPL, BSD).
problem with the base version having a known
simple solution. Recursion can be initially Social impact and ethical issues should be
motivated by using recursive equations to define discussed and debated in class. The important
certain methods. These definitions are fairly thing is for students to realise that these are
obvious and are easy to understand. The complex issues and there are multiple points
definitions can be directly converted to a of view on many of them and there is no single
‘correct’ or ‘right’ view.
program. Emphasize that any recursion must have
a base case. Otherwise, the computation can go
into an infinite loop. PAPER II: PRACTICAL – 30 MARKS
13. Implementation of algorithms to solve This paper of three hours duration will be evaluated
problems internally by the school.
The students are required to do lab assignments in The paper shall consist of three programming
the computer lab concurrently with the lectures. problems from which a candidate has to attempt any
Programming assignments should be done such one. The practical consists of the two parts:
that each major topic is covered in at least one
(1) Planning Session
assignment. Assignment problems should be
designed so that they are sufficiently challenging (2) Examination Session
and make the student do algorithm design, address

239
The total time to be spent on the Planning session and 4. Simulate Adders using Arduino Controllers and
the Examination session is three hours. Components.
A maximum of 90 minutes is permitted for the
5. Simulate a converter of Binary to Decimal
Planning session and 90 minutes for the Examination
number systems using Arduino Controllers and
session. Candidates are to be permitted to proceed
Components.
to the Examination Session only after the 90
minutes of the Planning Session are over. 6. Develop a console-based application using Java
for Movie Ticket Reservation.
Planning Session
7. Develop a console-based application using Java to
The candidates will be required to prepare an
encrypt and decrypt a message (using cipher text,
algorithm and a hand-written Java program to solve
Unicode-exchange, etc).
the problem.
8. Develop a console-based application using Java to
Examination Session
find name of the bank and branch location from
The program handed in at the end of the Planning IFSC.
session shall be returned to the candidates. The
candidates will be required to key-in and execute the 9. Develop a console-based application using Java to
Java program on seen and unseen inputs individually calculate taxable income (only direct tax).
on the Computer and show execution to the examiner. 10. Develop a console-based application using Java to
A printout of the program listing, including output develop a simple text editor (text typing, copy,
results should be attached to the answer script cut, paste, delete).
containing the algorithm and handwritten program.
This should be returned to the examiner. The program EVALUATION
should be sufficiently documented so that the
algorithm, representation and development process is Marks (out of a total of 30) should be distributed as
clear from reading the program. Large differences given below:
between the planned program and the printout will
Continuous Evaluation
result in loss of marks.
Candidates will be required to submit a work file
Teachers should maintain a record of all the
assignments done as part of the practical work containing the practical work related to programming
throughout the year and give it due credit at the time assignments done during the year and ONE project.
of cumulative evaluation at the end of the year.
Programming assignments done 10 marks
Students are expected to do a minimum of twenty
throughout the year
assignments for the year and ONE project based on
the syllabus. Project Work (based on any topic from the 5 marks
syllabus)
List of Suggested Projects:
PRESENTATION / MODEL BASED/ APPLICATION Terminal Evaluation
BASED Solution to programming problem on 15 Marks
1. Creating an expert system for road-traffic the computer
management (routing and re-routing of vehicles
depending on congestion). (Marks should be given for choice of algorithm and
implementation strategy, documentation, correct output
2. Creating an expert system for medical diagnosis
on the basis of symptoms and prescribe a suitable on known inputs mentioned in the question paper,
treatment. correct output for unknown inputs available only to the
examiner).
3. Creating a security system for age-appropriate
access to social media.

240
CLASS XII
There will be two papers in the subject: De Morgan’s laws; law of implication (p ⇒ q
≡ ~p ∨ q); law of biconditional ((p ⇔ q) ≡
Paper I: Theory……….. 3 hours….70 marks
(p ⇒ q) ∧ (q ⇒ p)); identity (p ≡ p); law of
Paper II: Practical…….. 3 hours….30 marks negation (~ (~p) ≡ p); law of excluded middle
(p ∨~p ≡ true); law of contradiction (p∧~p ≡
PAPER I –THEORY – 70 MARKS
false); tautology and contingency
Paper I shall be of 3 hours duration and be divided simplification rules for ∧, ∨. Converse,
into two parts. inverse and contra positive. Chain rule,
Modus ponens.
Part I (20 marks): This part will consist of
compulsory short answer questions, testing (b) Binary valued quantities; basic postulates
knowledge, application and skills relating to the entire of Boolean algebra; operations AND, OR and
syllabus. NOT; truth tables.
Part II (50 marks): This part will be divided into (c) Basic theorems of Boolean algebra
three Sections, A, B and C. Candidates will be (e.g. duality, idempotence, commutativity,
required to answer two questions out of three from associativity, distributivity, operations with 0
Section A (each carrying 10 marks) and two questions and 1, complements, absorption, involution);
out of three from Section B (each carrying 10 marks) De Morgan’s theorem and its applications;
and two questions out of three from Section C (each reducing Boolean expressions to sum of
carrying 5 marks). Therefore, a total of six questions products and product of sums forms;
are to be answered in Part II. Karnaugh maps (up to four variables).
SECTION A Verify the laws of Boolean algebra using truth
1. Boolean Algebra tables. Inputs, outputs for circuits like half
and full adders, majority circuit etc., SOP and
(a) Propositional logic, well formed formulae, POS representation; Maxterms & Minterms,
truth values and interpretation of well formed Canonical and Cardinal representation,
formulae (wff), truth tables, satisfiable, reduction using Karnaugh maps and Boolean
unsatisfiable and valid formulae. Equivalence algebra.
laws and their use in simplifying wffs.
2. Computer Hardware
Propositional variables; the common logical
(a) Elementary logic gates (NOT, AND, OR,
connectives (~ (not)(negation), ∧
NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR) and their use in
(and)(conjunction), ∨ (or)(disjunction), ⇒
circuits.
(implication), ⇔ (biconditional); definition of
a well-formed formula (wff); `representation (b) Applications of Boolean algebra and logic
of simple word problems as wff (this can be gates to half adders, full adders, encoders,
used for motivation); the values true and decoders, multiplexers, NAND, NOR as
false; interpretation of a wff; truth tables; universal gates.
satisfiable, unsatisfiable and valid formulae.
Show the correspondence between Boolean
Equivalence laws: commutativity of ∧, ∨; methods and the corresponding switching circuits
associativity of ∧, ∨; distributivity; or gates. Show that NAND and NOR gates are
universal by converting some circuits to purely
NAND or NOR gates.

241
SECTION B whitespace, extracting tokens from an input
stream (String Tokenizer class).
The programming element in the syllabus (Sections B
and C) is aimed at algorithmic problem solving and 6. Primitive values, Wrapper classes, Types and
not merely rote learning of Java syntax. The Java casting
version used should be 5.0 or later. For programming,
Primitive values and types: byte, int, short, long,
the students can use any text editor and the javac and
float, double, boolean, char. Corresponding
java programs or any other development environment:
wrapper classes for each primitive type. Class as
for example, BlueJ, Eclipse, NetBeans etc. BlueJ is
type of the object. Class as mechanism for user
strongly recommended for its simplicity, ease of use
defined types. Changing types through user
and because it is very well suited for an ‘objects first’
defined casting and automatic type coercion for
approach.
some primitive types.
3. Implementation of algorithms to solve
7. Variables, Expressions
problems
Variables as names for values; named constants
The students are required to do lab assignments in
(final), expressions (arithmetic and logical) and
the computer lab concurrently with the lectures.
their evaluation (operators, associativity,
Programming assignments should be done such
precedence). Assignment operation; difference
that each major topic is covered in at least one
between left hand side and right hand side of
assignment. Assignment problems should be
assignment.
designed so that they are sufficiently challenging.
Students must do algorithm design, address 8. Statements, Scope
correctness issues, implement and execute the Statements; conditional (if, if else, if else if,
algorithm in Java and debug where necessary. switch case, ternary operator), looping (for, while,
Self explanatory. do while, continue, break); grouping statements in
blocks, scope and visibility of variables.
4. Programming in Java (Review of Class XI
Sections B and C) 9. Methods

Note that items 4 to 13 should be introduced Methods (as abstractions for complex user defined
almost simultaneously along with classes and operations on objects), formal arguments and
their definitions. actual arguments in methods; different behaviour
of primitive and object arguments. Static method
While reviewing, ensure that new higher order
and variables. The this Operator. Examples of
problems are solved using these constructs.
algorithmic problem solving using methods
5. Objects (number problems, finding roots of algebraic
equations etc.).
(a) Objects as data (attributes) + behaviour
(methods); object as an instance of a class. 10. Arrays, Strings
Constructors.
Structured data types – arrays (single and multi-
(b) Analysis of some real-world programming dimensional), address calculations, strings.
examples in terms of objects and classes. Example algorithms that use structured data types
(e.g. searching, finding maximum/minimum,
(c) Basic input/output using Scanner and Printer
sorting techniques, solving systems of linear
classes from JDK; input/output exceptions.
equations, substring, concatenation, length, access
Tokens in an input stream, concept of
to char in string, etc.).

242
Storing many data elements of the same type abstract classes; class Object; protected
requires structured data types – like arrays. visibility. Subclass polymorphism and
Access in arrays is constant time and does not dynamic binding.
depend on the number of elements. Address
Emphasize inheritance as a mechanism to
calculation (row major and column major),
reuse a class by extending it. Inheritance
Sorting techniques (bubble, selection, insertion).
should not normally be used just to reuse
Structured data types can be defined by classes –
some methods defined in a class but only
String. Introduce the Java library String class and
when there is a genuine specialization (or
the basic operations on strings (accessing
subclass) relationship between objects of the
individual characters, various substring
super class and that of the derived class.
operations, concatenation, replacement, index of
operations). The class StringBuffer should be (b) Interfaces in Java; implementing interfaces
introduced for those applications that involve through a class; interfaces for user defined
heavy manipulation of strings. implementation of behaviour.

11. Recursion Motivation for interface: often when creating


reusable classes some parts of the exact
Concept of recursion, simple recursive methods
implementation can only be provided by the
(e.g. factorial, GCD, binary search, conversion of
final end user. For example, in a class that
representations of numbers between different
sorts records of different types the exact
bases).
comparison operation can only be provided
Many problems can be solved very elegantly by by the end user. Since only he/she knows
observing that the solution can be composed of which field(s) will be used for doing the
solutions to ‘smaller’ versions of the same comparison and whether sorting should be in
problem with the base version having a known ascending or descending order be given by
simple solution. Recursion can be initially the user of the class.
motivated by using recursive equations to define
Emphasize the difference between the Java
certain methods. These definitions are fairly
language construct interface and the word
obvious and are easy to understand. The
interface often used to describe the set of
definitions can be directly converted to a
method prototypes of a class.
program. Emphasize that any recursion must have
a base case. Otherwise, the computation can go 13. Data structures
into an infinite loop. (a) Basic data structures (stack, queue, circular
The tower of Hanoi is a very good example of how queue, dequeue); implementation directly
recursion gives a very simple and elegant solution through classes; definition through an
where as non-recursive solutions are quite interface and multiple implementations by
complex. implementing the interface. Conversion of
Infix to Prefix and Postfix notations.
SECTION C
Basic algorithms and programs using the
Inheritance, Interface, Polymorphism, Data
above data structures.
structures, Computational complexity
Data structures should be defined as abstract
12. Inheritance, Interfaces and Polymorphism
data types with a well-defined interface (it is
(a) Inheritance; super and derived classes; instructive to define them using the Java
member access in derived classes; redefinition interface construct).
of variables and methods in subclasses;

243
(b) Single linked list (Algorithm and Candidates are to be permitted to proceed to the
programming), binary trees, tree traversals Examination Session only after the 90 minutes of
(Conceptual). the Planning Session are over.
The following should be covered for each data Planning Session
structure:
The candidates will be required to prepare an
Linked List (single): insertion, deletion, algorithm and a hand written Java program to solve
reversal, extracting an element or a sublist, the problem.
checking emptiness.
Examination Session
Binary trees: apart from the definition the
The program handed in at the end of the Planning
following concepts should be covered: root,
session shall be returned to the candidates. The
internal nodes, external nodes (leaves),
candidates will be required to key-in and execute the
height (tree, node), depth (tree, node), level,
Java program on seen and unseen inputs individually
size, degree, siblings, sub tree, completeness,
on the Computer and show execution to the Visiting
balancing, traversals (pre, post and in-order).
Examiner. A printout of the program listing including
14. Complexity and Big O notation output results should be attached to the answer script
containing the algorithm and handwritten program.
Concrete computational complexity; concept of
This should be returned to the examiner. The program
input size; estimating complexity in terms of
should be sufficiently documented so that the
methods; importance of dominant term; constants,
algorithm, representation and development process is
best, average and worst case.
clear from reading the program. Large differences
Big O notation for computational complexity; between the planned program and the printout will
analysis of complexity of example algorithms result in loss of marks.
using the big O notation (e.g. Various searching
Teachers should maintain a record of all the
and sorting algorithms, algorithm for solution of
assignments done as part of the practical work through
linear equations etc.).
the year and give it due credit at the time of
PAPER II: PRACTICAL – 30 MARKS cumulative evaluation at the end of the year. Students
This paper of three hours’ duration will be evaluated are expected to do a minimum of twenty-five
by the Visiting Examiner appointed locally and assignments for the year.
approved by the Council. EVALUATION:
The paper shall consist of three programming Marks (out of a total of 30) should be distributed as
problems from which a candidate has to attempt any given below:
one. The practical consists of the two parts:
Continuous Evaluation
1. Planning Session
Candidates will be required to submit a work file
2. Examination Session containing the practical work related to programming
The total time to be spent on the Planning session and assignments done during the year.
the Examination session is three hours. Programming assignments done 10 marks
A maximum of 90 minutes is permitted for the throughout the year (Internal Evaluation)
Planning session and 90 minutes for the Examination
session. Programming assignments done 5 marks
throughout the year (Visiting Examiner)

244
Terminal Evaluation • A white board with white board markers should
be available.
Solution to programming problem on 15 Marks
the computer • A fully equipped Computer Laboratory that
allows one computer per student.
Marks should be given for choice of algorithm and
implementation strategy, documentation, correct output • Internet connection for accessing the World
on known inputs mentioned in the question paper, Wide Web and email facility.
correct output for unknown inputs available only to the • The computers should have a minimum of
examiner. 1 GB RAM and a P IV or higher processor. The
NOTE: basic requirement is that it should run the
Algorithm should be expressed clearly using any operating system and Java programming system
standard scheme such as a pseudo code. (Java compiler, Java runtime environment, Java
development environment) at acceptable speeds.
EQUIPMENT
• Good Quality printers.
There should be enough computers to provide for a
teaching schedule where at least three-fourths of the Software:
time available is used for programming. • Any suitable Operating System can be used.
Schools should have equipment/platforms such that all • JDK 6 or later.
the software required for practical work runs properly, • Documentation for the JDK version being used.
i.e. it should run at acceptable speeds. • A suitable text editor. A development
Since hardware and software evolve and change very environment with a debugger is preferred
rapidly, the schools may have to upgrade them as (e.g. BlueJ, Eclipse, NetBeans). BlueJ is
required. recommended for its ease of use and simplicity.

Following are the recommended specifications as of


now:
The Facilities:
• A lecture cum demonstration room with a
MULTIMEDIA PROJECTOR/ an LCD and
O.H.P. attached to the computer.

245
SAMPLE TABLE FOR PRACTICAL WORK
Assessment of Assessment of the Practical Examination TOTAL MARKS
Practical File (To be evaluated by the Visiting Examiner only) (Total Marks are to
Unique be added and
Identification Internal Visiting Algorithm Java Program with Hard Output entered by the
S. No.
Number (Unique Evaluation Examiner internal Copy Visiting Examiner)
ID) of the candidate 10 Marks 5 Marks Documentation (printout)
3 Marks 7 Marks 2 Marks 3 Marks 30 Marks

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Name of the Visiting Examiner:_________________________________


Signature: _______________________________
Date:___________________________________

246
Appendix I
INDIAN SCHOOL CERTIFICATE (YEAR-12)
EXAMINATION YEAR 2020
LIST OF PRESCRIBED TEXTBOOKS

ENGLISH (Compulsory) 9. On being Idle – Jerome K. Jerome


Paper 1. Language 10. My Visions for India – Dr. A.P.J. Abdul
No specific book is being recommended for Kalam
background reading. IV. Echoes: A Collection of ISC Short Stories
Paper 2. Literature in English: Prescribed Texts (For (Evergreen Publications (India) Ltd, New Delhi).
Classes XI & XII) 1. Salvatore – W. Somerset Maugham
Candidates will be required to answer five questions
2. Fritz – Satyajit Ray
as follows:
One textual question (compulsory) on The Tempest or 3. Quality – John Galsworthy
on Candida, together with four other questions on any 4. To Build a Fire – Jack London
three texts, which may include The Tempest or
Candida. 5. The Story of an Hour – Kate Chopin
6. The Chinese Statue – Jeffrey Archer
Note: While attempting questions on the Play,
candidates will be required to select one play only, 7. A Gorilla in the Guest Room - Gerald Durrell
either The Tempest or Candida. 8. The Singing Lesson – Katherine Mansfield

I. The Tempest: William Shakespeare 9. The Sound Machine – Roald Dahl


OR 10. B. Wordsworth – V.S. Naipaul
Candida: George Bernard Shaw
V. Reverie: A Collection of ISC Poems (Evergreen
II. Things fall Apart: Chinua Achebe
Publications (India) Ltd, New Delhi)
III Contemplations: A Collection of ISC Essays
1. The Darkling Thrush – Thomas Hardy
(Evergreen Publications (India) Ltd. New Delhi)
2. Birches – Robert Frost
1. Dream Children – Charles Lamb
2. The Voice of Humanity – Rabindranath 3. The Dolphins – Carol Ann Duffy
Tagore 4. The Gift of India – Sarojini Naidu
3. On Going out for a Walk – Max Beerbohm 5. Crossing the Bar – Alfred, Lord Tennyson
4. Gifts – R. W. Emerson 6. John Brown – Bob Dylan
5. On the Decay of the Art of Lying – Mark 7. Desiderata - Max Ehrmann
Twain
8. Dover Beach – Matthew Arnold
6. On the Art of Living with Others –
Sir Arthur Helps 9. The Spider and the Fly – Mary Botham
Howitt
7. Attitude – Margaret Atwood
10. We are the Music Makers – Arthur William
8. On the Choice of a Profession –
Edgar O’Shaughnessy
R.L. Stevenson

327
ELECTIVE ENGLISH (Optional) The following poets and poems are to be studied:
CLASS XI D.H. Lawrence: Discord in Childhood, Piano,
Snake, Bavarian Gentians, The Ship of Death.
Prescribed Books (Any three of the following):
Edward Thomas: October, March, As the Team’s
1. Lord of the Flies: William Golding (Novel)
Head Brass, Beauty, The Signpost.
2. Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard: Kiran Desai
(Novel) Seamus Heaney: Digging, Follower, At a Potato
Digging, Casualty, Punishment.
3. Silence! The Court is in Session: Vijay Tendulkar
(Play) Ted Hughes: The Thought Fox, Pike, Crow
Tyrannosaurus, Ravens, The Stag.
4. Cat on a Hot Tin Roof: Tennessee Williams (Play)
5. Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Verse (An Philip Larkin: Church Going, Dockery and Son,
anthology of sixteen poets. Edited by Chris The Building, The Whitsun Weddings, Wild Oats.
Woodhead) (OUP) W.H. Auden: Refugee Blues, The Shield of
The following poets and poems are to be studied: Achilles, The Unknown Citizen, Musee des Beaux
Arts, As I Walked Out One Evening.
William Wordsworth: Lucy Poems (4 poems),
Upon Westminster Bridge, Resolution and
INDIAN LANGUAGES
Independence, Nutting.
FOR CLASSES XI & XII
Alfred Tennyson: Mariana, The Lady of Shalott,
Ulysses, In Memoriam (3 extracts).
1. ASSAMESE (817)
John Keats: On First Looking into Chapman’s
Homer, On the Sea, La Belle Dame Sans Merci, Any three of the following books are to be
Ode to a Nightingale, To Autumn, The Last offered:
Sonnet. I Pragviswavidyalay Kavita Chayan
(University of Gauhati)
William Blake: The Lamb, The Tiger, London,
Nurse’s Song, Chimney Sweeper, On Another’s The following are to be studied:
Sorrow. (i) Dadhi-mathan
Gerard Manley Hopkins: God’s Grandeur, Spring, (ii) Kankhowa
Hurrahing in Harvest, Binsey Poplars, No Worst (iii) Dhanbar Aru Ratani
there is None.
(iv) Tejimala
Robert Browning: My Last Duchess, Porphyria’s (v) Padum
Lover, A Light Woman, A Woman’s Last Word,
Two in the Campagna. (vi) Keteki
(vii) Ei Bate Nahiba Dunai
CLASS XII (viii) Urmila
(ix) Sesh Arghya
Prescribed Textbooks (Any three of the following):
(x) Devadasi
1. To Kill a Mocking Bird: Harper Lee (Novel)
II. Phul by Dandinath Kalita
2. The Hungry Tide: Amitav Ghosh (Novel)
III. Gaonburha by Padamanath Gohainbarua
3. A Doll’s House: Henrik Ibsen (Play)
IV. Anandaram Barua by Dr. Surya Kumar
4. Death of a Salesman: Arthur Miller (Play) Bhuyan
5. Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Verse (An
anthology of sixteen poets. Edited by Chris
Woodhead) (OUP)

328
2. BENGALI (803) Any three of the following books are to be
Any three of the following books are to be offered:
offered: I. Shething Tsadrel (Prose)
I. Koni (Novel): Moti Nondi II. Chushingi Tenchoed (Proverbs)
II. Mukut (Drama): Rabindra Nath Tagore III. Biography of Khando Dowa Zangmo
III. Probondho O Godya Sonkolon (ISC IV. Lhakreg Dang Tshromreg
Collection of Short Stories and Essays) – (i) Essay – Detsham
Published by: Power Publishers, Kolkata.
(ii) Nyealtshom – Poem
(i) Thakurda: Rabindra Nath Tagore (iii) Sung – Story
(ii) Jora Sankor Dhare (essay): Abanindra (iv) Chyetam – Proverbs
Nath Tagore
(v) Damling – Culture
(iii) Taser Ghar: Tara Shankar
(vi) Chelug – Religious
Bandyopadhyay
(iv) Anachaar: Ashapurna Devi Publisher of all the above books:
(v) Record: Narayan Gangyopadhyay CAPSD Publications, Ministry of Education,
Thimpu, Bhutan. Phone: 009758271226,
(vi) Birjo Shulka: Saradindu Bandyopadhyay Email: capsd@druknet.bt.
(vii) Aadab: Samaresh Basu
(viii) Lachmaner Ma: Mahasweta Devi 4. GUJARATI (804)
(ix) Ekti Tulsi Gacher Kahini: Walli Ullah Any three of the following books are to be
offered:
(x) Na Paharar Parikhsha (essay): Shankhyo
I. Aandhli Gali (Novel): Dhiruben Patel
Ghosh
IV. Kobita Sonkolon (ISC Collection of Poems) - II. Chinu Modi na Pratinidhi Aekankio: a
Published by: Cambridge India (Educational selection of representative one-act plays:
(Chinu Modi, Edited by Satish Vyas,
Publishers), Kolkata.
Published by Adarsh Prakashan, Gandhi
(i) Ora Kaaj Kore: Rabindra Nath Tagore Marg, Near Balahanuman Ahmedabad,
(ii) Poob - Poschim: Achintya Kumar Sen 380001)
Gupta Only the following are to be studied:
(iii) Banolata Sen: Jibanananda Das (i) Dayalna Pankhi
(iv) Barno Porichoy: Tarun Sanyal (ii) Khullan Barana
(v) Salomoner Ma: Subhash Mukhopadhyay (iii) Photographer
(vi) Baboreprarthana: Shankhyo Ghosh (iv) Bhasmasur
(vii) Jodi Nirbasan Dao: Sunil (v) Hajrahajur
Gangyopadhyay
(vi) Zaalya na rahya
(viii) Raasta Karor Ekar Noy: Birendra
(vii) MatsyaVedh
Chattopadhyay
(ix) Swadhinata Tumi: Samsur Rahman III. Gadya Sanchaya (ISC collection of Short
Stories and Essays) – (Gurjar Granthratna
(x) Noon: Joy Goswami Karyalaya, Ahmedabad, 380001).

3. DZONGKHA (819) (i) Bhaiyadada: Gaurishanker Joshi


Dhumketu
Recommended for background work:
(ii) Jakshani: Ramnarayan Pathak
Keayad Dang Yeakguye Jorya – Language and
Grammar. (iii) Matanu Smarak: Mohammad Mankad
(iv) Bhawan Bhagat: Joseph Makwan

329
(v) Kaan: Madhu Ray (vii) Kya Nirash Hua Jai (Essay): Hazari
(vi) Aavajonu ghar: Varsha Adalja Prasad Dwivedi
(vii) Chhakado – Jayantilal Gohel – “My Dear (viii) Bhaktin: Mahadevi Verma
Jayu” (ix) Sanskriti Hai Kya (essay): Ramdhari Singh
(viii) Be Laghu Katha ‘Dinkar’
(a) Ashwamedh: Bhagwat Suthar (x) Majburi: Mannu Bhadari
(b) Hisaab: Mohan Patel IV. Kavya Manjari (ISC Collection of Poems) –
Published by: Evergreen Publications (India)
(ix) Motu dukh (Essay): Jyotindra Dave Ltd., New Delhi.
(x) Sadhuonu piyar (Essay): Kaka Saheb (i) Sakhi: Kabir
Kalerkar.
(ii) Balleela: Surdas
IV. Padya Sanchaya (ISC Collection of Poems) -
(Gurjar Granthratna Karyalaya, Ahmedabad, (iii) Ek Phool Ki Chah: Siyaram Sharan Gupta
380001) (iv) Aah Dharati Kitna Deti Hai : Sumitra
(i) Harino Marg: Pritam Nandan Pant
(ii) Janani: Damodar Botadkar (v) Nadi Ke Dweep: Agyeya
(iii) Shun shun saathe lai Jaish Hoon: (vi) Tulsi Das Ke Pad: Tulsi Das
Umashankar Joshi (vii) Jag Tujhko Door Jana Hai: Mahadevi
(iv) Baano photograph: Sundaram Verma
(v) Shreshtha daan: Prahlad Parekh (viii) Udyami Nar: Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’
(vi) Taaro Mewad Meera chhodshe: Ramesh (ix) Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai: Nagarjun
Parekh (x) Andhere Ka Deepak: Hari Bansh Rai
(vii) Male na Male: Aadil Mansuri Bachchan
(viii) Etlama Raaji: Ramnik Someshwar 6. KANNADA (806)
(ix) Zhad tane mara sogand: Hiten Anandpara
Any three of the following books are to be
(x) Subhashito ane Duha offered:

5. HINDI (805) I. Prema Bikshu (Novel): Dr. Prabhu Shankar


Recommended for background work: II. Hebberalu (Drama): Manjeshwara Govinda
Vyakaran Manjusha (I.U.P.) Pai
Any three of the following books are to be III. Kannada Kirana (ISC Collection of Short
offered: Stories and Essays) – Published by:
Navakarnataka Publications Private Limited,
I. Saara Akash (Novel): Rajendra Yadav
Bangalore.
II. Aashad Ka Ek Din (Drama): Mohan Rakesh
(i) Namma Meshtru : Maasthi Venkatesha
III. Gadya Sanklan (ISC Collection of Short Ayyangar
Stories and Essays) – Published by:
Evergreen Publications (India) Ltd., New (ii) Maguvina Kare: D.R. Bendre
Delhi. (iii) Bharathambeya Padathalalli: Swami
(i) Puthra Prem: Munshi Premchand Purushothamananda
(ii) Gauri: Subhadra Kumar Chauhan (iv) Mannu Dibbada Mele: Anupama
(iii) Sharanagat: Vrindavan Lal Verma Niranjana
(iv) Sati: Shivani (v) Parisara Mathu Vikasa (essay): Sunderlal
Bahuguna & translated by Surendra
(v) Outsider: Malti Joshi
Koulagi
(vi) Dasi: Jai Shankar Prasad
330
(vi) Kolada Tadiyalli: Pu. Ti. Narasimhachar 8. MIZO (808)
(vii) Savitri: A.R. Krishnashastri Recommended for background work:
Grammar – Mizo Grammar Thar by Remkunga
(viii) Manava Prema: S. Ananthanarayana
Any three of the following books are to be
(ix) Idara Notu: Shantadevi - Kanavi offered:
(x) Ondu Oushadha (essay): A.R. Mithra I. Thi-Hna, An anthology of Mizo Prose and
Poetry, North-Eastern Hill University
IV. Kavya Sudhe (ISC Collection of Poems) – Publications.
Published by: Navakarnataka Publications II. Thiahrang (Short Novel) by Lalzuithanga,
Private Limited, Bangalore. Published by Laldinga and printed at Bethel
(i) Panchami Habba: Janapada Geethe Press, Khatla, Aizawal, Mizoram.
III. Hawilopari, by Bikliana, North-Eastern Hill
(ii) Vachanagalu: Allama Dasimayya
University Publications.
(iii) Sukha Jeevana: Madhura Chenna IV. Lalngaihawmi (Drama) by Dr. R.L. Thanmawia
(iv) Doni Hadu: Kuvempu
9. MALAYALAM (809)
(v) Kueudu Kanchana: D. R. Bendre
Any three of the following books are to be
(vi) Udara Vairagya: Purandara dasaru offered:
(vii) Dhuryodhana Vilapa: Ranna I. Asuravith (Novel): M.T. Vasudevan Nair
(viii) Sariyadiru Irule: Sadananda II. Aa Manushyan Nee Thanne (Drama):
(ix) Railina Antharanga Bahiranga: C.J. Thomas
Mooduradu Chinnaswamy III. Gadya Kairali (ISC Collection of Short
(x) Avva: P Lankesh Stories and Essays) – Published by: D C
Books, Kottayam.
7. KHASI (807) (i) Vellappokkathil: Takazhi Shivasankara
Any three of the following books are to be Pillai
offered: (ii) Kallan: M.P. Narayana Pillai
I. Ki Poetry Khasi by V.G. Bareh (iii) Gurukulam: Sethu
The following are to be studied: (iv) Kadaltheerathu: O.V. Vijayan
(i) Ka Lunti Umian (v) Evideyo Tornnu Tirunna Mazha:
(ii) U Tngam had ka Wahduk Mundoor Krishnan Kutty
(iii) Ka Jingud Ka Sohlyngngem (vi) Higuitta: N.S. Madhavan
(iv) Ka Pyrem (vii) Komala: Santosh Echikkanam
(v) Ka Weiking (viii) Kalluvacha Nuna: Ashitha
(vi) U Klew bad Ka Sugi (ix) Dharmapareekhshakal (essay): Kutti
(vii) Ka Sngi ba la noh Krishna Marar
(viii) Ka Synrai hala ka Ri (x) Sahityakarante Kadama (essay): C.
(ix) Ka Duitara jong nga Achuta Menon
(x) Ka Wah Umkhrah IV. Kavyanjali (ISC Collection of Poems) –
Published by: D C Books, Kottayam.
(xi) Ka saia Nongum
(i) Syamantakam: Kunjan Nambiar
II. U Don Putit by D.S. Khonglah
(ii) Sahyante Makan: Vyloppilly Sridhara
III. Ka Tiew Larum by S.J. Duncan Menon
IV. Mihngi - Spengi by H. Elias (Lynnong 2, 7, (iii) Swarga Sangeetham: Vayalar Rama
12, 15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 29 and 30 only) Verma
331
(iv) Ratri Mazha: Sugatakumari (v) Jallianwala Baug
(v) Sooryakanti: G. Sankarakurup (vi) Columbus che Garvageet
(vii) Pachola
(vi) Safalamee Yaatra: N.N. Kakkadu
(viii) Pavankhindeet
(vii) Kochiyile Vrikshangal: K.G. Sankara (ix) Baalkavi
Pillai (x) Tilakanchya Putalyajaval
(viii) Kothambumanikal: O.N. V. Kuruppu IV. Tu Jhe Ahe Tuj Pashi by Deshpande
(ix) Veena Poovu: Kumaranassan (Published by Parachure Prakashan Mandir,
(x) Kadinte Vili: Vishnu Narayan Girgaon, Bombay-400001).
Nampoothiri
12. NEPALI (811)
10. MANIPURI (818) Any three of the following books are to be
I. Manipuri Sheireing (Published by Manipur offered:
Sahitya Parishad, available at the Parishad I. Juneli Rekha (Novel): Indra Sundas
office).
II. Ani Dewrali Runcha (Drama): Man Bahadur
II. Manipuri Wareng (Published by the Cultural Mukhia
Forum, Manipuri - available in the Public
Book Store, Paona Bazar, Imphal). III. Gadya Kunj (ISC Collection of Short Stories
and Essays) - Published by: Gamma
11. MARATHI (810) Publication, Darjeeling.
Any three of the following books are to be (i) Paralko aago: Guruprasad Mainali
offered: (ii) Biteka Kura: Rupnarayana Singh
I. Mandeshi Manase: Vyankatesh Madgulkar (iii) Jyanmara: ShivKumar Rai
(Continental Prakashan) (iv) Tesro Ghar: Dr Lakhidevi Sundas
Only the following to be studied: (v) Totolako Phool: Matilda Rai
(i) Dharma Ramoshi (vi) Biha: Bishweshawar Prasad Koirala
(ii) Jhelya (vii) Jaymaya Aafumatra Likhapani Aaipugi:
Dr Indrabahadur Rai
(iii) Nama Master
(viii) Lahuri Bhainshi: Ramesh Vikal
(iv) Mulanyacha Bakas
(ix) Nepali Sahityama Ukhanko Sthan (essay):
(v) Banya Bapu Dr Parasmani Pradhan
(vi) Kondiba Gaikwad (x) Euta Aaitabar yasari Bityo (essay):
(vii) Tambolyachi Khaala Rajnarayan Pradhan
(viii) Raghu Karkun IV. Kavita Kunj (ISC Collection of Poems) -
(ix) Maza Baap Published by: Gamma Publication,
(x) Bita Kaka Darjeeling.
II. Vadildhari Manase: Shanta J. Shelake (i) Kehi Phutkar Kavita: Bhanubhakta
(Published by: Gulabrao Marutirao Karle, Acharya
Suresh Agency, 205 Shukravar Peth, Pune (ii) Jiwan Changa: Lekhnath Paudyal
411002) (iii) Nimto: BalaKrishna Sam
III. Vishakha: Kusumagraj (Continental (iv) Gaine: Laxmi Prasad Devkota
Prakashan)
(v) Sukha - Dukha: Gopal Singh Nepali
Only the following to be studied: (vi) Nachinine Bhayeehhau: Agam Singh Giri
(i) Kinaryavar
(ii) Godakathcha Sandikaal (vii) Aakash Ko Tara Ke Tara: Haribhakta
(iii) Aaag Gadi ani Jameen Katuwal
(iv) Kranticha Jay Jaykar
332
(viii) Shahidharuko Samjhnama: Bhupi (vi) Ghasa – By Raj Kishore Pattanaik
Serchen (vii) Kalinga Shilpi – By Raj Kishor Roy
(ix) Asarko Pandhra: Gumansingh Chamling
(viii) Nayanpur Express – By Surendra
(x) Mela: Birendra Subba Mohanty
13. ODIA (812) (ix) Pagala – By Brahmananda Panda

Any three of the following books are to be (x) Dimiri Phool – By Akhila Mohan
offered: Pattanaik
(xi) Aneka Smita Hasa – By Manoj Das
I. Pallishree (Poems) - by Dr. Sachidananda
Routray, Published by Granth Mandir, (xii) Andhuni – By Ramachandra Behera
Cuttack - 753002 IV. Chha Mana Athaguntha (Novel) - by Fakir
(i) Chhota Mora Gaan ti Mohan Senapati, Published by Friends
(ii) Palli – Sakala Publishers, Vinod Bihari, Cuttack
(iii) Rangoon – Jaatree 14. PUNJABI (813)
(iv) Maluni Any three of the following books are to be
(v) Shiva Puja offered:
(vi) Mun ta Bhrata Nahak Jhua I. Mari Da Diva (Novel): Gurdial Singh
(vii) Grama Sabha
II. Kal Ajj Te Bahalak (Drama): Dr. Harcharan
(viii) Bhoota Chhada Singh
(ix) Grama Smasana III. Katha Sangam (ISC Collection of Short
(x) Jaganathnku (Eka Janana) Stories and Essays) – Published by:
Evergreen Publications (India) Ltd., New
II. Dig Darshak (Life History of Great Persons) -
Delhi.
by Sri Lokanath Mishra, Published by Granth
Mandir, Cuttack - 753002 (i)Aalanay De Boat: Gurmukh Singh
Musafir
(i) Chintanayak Socrates
(ii) Goae: Prem Parkash
(ii) Upanyasaru Griha Judha
(iii) Saver Hon Taak: Santokh Singh Dheer
(iii) Biswabisruta Michae Angelo
(iv) Sherniyan : Kulwant Singh Virk
(iv) Bigyani Chitra Shilpi Da’Vinci
(v) Mian Mithu: Sukhwant Kaur Maan
(v) Anubigyani Einstein (vi) Iikveen Sadi: Gurbachan Singh Bhullar
(vi) Darwin O Bibartanbada (vii) Baraf Da Danav: Jasbir Bhullar
(vii) Dig Vijayee Shankar (viii) Dard Vishorhey Da Haal: Khalid Hussain
III. Galpa Baridhi (Short Stories) - Compiled by (ix) Ghar Da Pyar (essay): Principal Teja
Dr. Ratnakar Chaini, Published by Sudha Singh
Prakashan, Bakhrabad, Cuttack - 753002. (x) Lagatar Vadh Rahi Vasson Attay
(i) Rebati – By Fakir Mohan Senapati Mnaukhi Laparvahi (essay): Surjit Singh
Dhillon
(ii) Budha Sankhari – By Laxmikant
Mohapatra IV. Kav-Keyari (ISC Collection of Poems) –
Published by: Evergreen Publications (India)
(iii) Magunira Sagada – By Godabaris Ltd., New Delhi.
Mohapatra
(i) Shabad Atte Shalok: Baba Farid
(iv) Mansara Bilap – By Kalindi Charan
Panigrahi (ii) Japuji: Guru Nanak Dev
(v) Shikar – By Bhagabati Charan Panigrahi (iii) Chandi Di Vaar: Guru Gobind Singh

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(iv) Puran Bhakat: Kadar Yaar (v) Arrukadigina eddu : T. Gopichand
(v) Jangnama: Shah Mohamad (vi) Kaasi Majili Kathalu: Madhira Subbanna
Dikshitha
(vi) Ganga Ram: Bhai Veer Singh
(vii) Pipeelikamu: Rachakonda Viswanadha
(vii) Radha Sandesh: Dhani Ram Chatrik Sastry
(viii) Taj Mahal: Prof. Mohan Singh (viii) Deepam Unnappude lllu Chakka
(ix) Puran Bhakat: Shiv Kumar Bettukonumu: Vidya Prakasanandagiri
Swamy
(x) Uoddo Waris Nu Vandaian See: Surjit
Patar (ix) Yatra Charithralu (Essay): Dr. Veldonda
Nithyananda Rao
15. TAMIL (814) (x) Naa Godava - Kaloji Kavithva
Paramarsha (Essay): Prof. Kathyayani
Any three of the following books are to be Vidmahee
offered:
IV. Padya Mandaramu: A collection of ISC
I. Podhu Tamil (Published by Tamil Nadu Text Poetry (S.R. Book Links, Vijaywada)
Book Corporation for Higher Secondary
Second Year, Part I Tamil, 2005 Edition). (i) Subhashitaalu : Enugu Lakshmana Kavi

II. Kadhai Kovai (Tamil Stories for non-detailed (ii) Shakuntala Dharma Prabhodhamu:
study – 2005 Edition, Published by Tamil Nannayya
Nadu Text Book Corporation, College Road, (iii) Nagarjuna Sagaramu: Dr. C. Narayan
Chennai 600 006). Reddy
III. Sinekithi by Akilan (Published by Vaskar (iv) Indeevarakshuni Vrutantam: Allasaani
Vattan Puthagappanippirvu,14, Thanigachalan Peeddanna
Chetti Road, Madras). (v) Gabbilam: Gurram Jashuva
IV. Yon Canda Elangi by Dr. M. Varadarajan (vi) Chaatuvulu: Compilation of different
(Published by Pari Nilayam, 59, Broadway, writers
Madras-600001).
(vii) Saranaagati: Errapragada
16. TELUGU (815) (viii) Mahakavi Pothathana: Jandyala
Paapayya Sastry
Any three of the following books are to be
offered: (ix) Gaana Matsaryam: Pingali Soorana
I. Varasathvam (Novel): Kodavatiganti (x) Draupathi Nivedana: Tikkana Somayaji
Kutumba Rao
17. URDU (816)
II. Dharma Vijayamu (Drama): Anaparthi
Sitharamanjaneyulu Any three of the following books are to be
III. Gadya Mandaramu: A collection of ISC prose offered:
(S.R. Book Links, Vijaywada) I. Moorthy (Novel): Tarannum Riyaz
(i) Sangha Samskarthaga Gidugu : Adapa II. Khotot Ki Wapasi (Drama): Ibrahim Yusuf
Ramakrishna Rao III. Ganjina-e-Adab - ISC collection of Short
(ii) Gulabi Attaru : Sree Pada Subrahmanya stories and Essays (Published by Huda
Sastry Publications, Hyderabad, 500002)
(iii) Charles Brown Sahitya Seva: Acharya (i) Doodh Ki Qimat: Prem Chand
Kothapalli Veerabhadra Rao (ii) Jamoon Ka Ped: Krishan Chandra
(iv) Avva Tirunnallalo Tappipoyindi: (iii) Touba Tek Singh: Sadat Hasan Mantoo
Devulapalli Krishna Sastry (iv) Nannhi Ki Nani: Ismat Chughtai

334
(v) Garam Coat: Rajender Singh Bedi MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES
(vi) Tafreeh: Saleha Abid Hussain (FOR CLASSES XI & XII)
(vii) Dahleez: Sharvan Kumar Varma
(viii)Aathara Aane: Akhtar Ansari 1. FRENCH (828)
(ix) Insan Kisi Haal Mein Khush Nahi Rahta I. Le Roi des Montagnes – Edmond About
(Essay): Mohd Hussain Azad II. Le Château de ma Mère – Marcel Pagnol
(x) Jheengur Ka Janaza (Essay): Khawja III. Le Voyage de Monsieur Perrichon –
Hasan Nizami E. Labiche
IV. Rooh-e-Adab - ISC collection of Ghazals and IV. La Poudre aux yeux – E. Labiche
Poems (Published by Huda Publications,
Hyderabad, 500002) 2. GERMAN (829)
Ghazals: I. Die Kapuzinergruft – Josef Roth
(i) Muflesi Sab Bahar: Wali Daccani II. Des Teufels General – Carl Zuckmeyer
(ii) Bas Ke Dushwar Hai: Mirza Ghalib III. Die Judenbuche – Annette Dorste – Hûlshoff
(iii) Ghazab Kiya Tere Wadey: Dagh Dehlawi IV. Leseheft Fur Auslander – Dora Schulz / Heinz
(iv) Yeh Aaarzoo Thi: Aatish Lakhnawi Griesbach
(v) Dil Gaya Raunaque Hayat Gayee: Jigar CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Muradabadi
(FOR CLASSES XI & XII)
Poems:
(i) Shame Rangeen: Hafeez Jalandhari 1. ARABIC (837)
(ii) Gulzare Watan: Suroor Jahanabadi I. Durus Al-Lughatal-Arabiyya Part 1 Complete
(iii) Subhe Azadi: Faiz Ahamed Faiz II. Durus Al-Lughatal-Arabiyya Part 2
(iv) Oh Desh Se Aane Wale Bata: Akhtar (1-15 Lessons) by Dr. V. Abdur Rahim
Sheerani Publishers: Islamic Foundation Trust
(v) Mashrique O Maghrib: Ali Sardar Jaferi (Chennai – India).

18. LEPCHA (821) 2. SANSKRIT (838)


I. Ringmom Chhyogyu (Poetry) I. Chandrapid Katha by Pandit V.
II. Kongchhen Panol (Prose) Anantacharya, Published by Ram Narayana
Lal Beni Madhava, Publisher and Book-seller,
III. Thongom Kat Nahan (Drama)
Allahabad-211002
Recommended for background work:
II. Raghuvamsa by Kalidasa, Canto I
Muthenchin Rongringthum (Grammar &
Text with English Translation and Notes by
Composition)
M.R. Kale, Published by Moti Lal Banarsi
Das, Delhi, Patna & Varanasi.

3. PERSIAN (Classical) (839)


Farsi Va Dastoor
Available from Anjuman Tarrqie Urdu

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