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The Mole

6.02 X 10 23
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STOICHIOMETRY
- the study of the
quantitative
aspects of
chemical
reactions.
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The Mole

mole (mol)
• is the amount of a
substance that contains as
many elementary entities
(atoms, molecules, or
other particles) as there
are atoms in exactly 12 g
(or 0.012 kg) of the
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The Mole
• Similar to a dozen, except instead
of 12, it’s 602 billion trillion
602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
• 6.02 X 1023 (in scientific notation)
• This number is named in honor of
Amedeo Avogadro (1776 – 1856),
who studied quantities of gases
and discovered that no matter what
the gas was, there were the same
number of molecules present
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Just How Big is a Mole?
• Enough soft drink cans to cover the
surface of the earth to a depth of
over 200 miles.
• If we were able to count atoms at the
rate of 10 million per second, it
would take about 2 billion years to
count the atoms in one mole.
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The Mole
• 1 dozen cookies = 12 cookies
• 1 mole of cookies = 6.02 X 1023 cookies

• 1 dozen cars = 12 cars


• 1 mole of cars = 6.02 X 1023 cars

• 1 dozen Al atoms = 12 Al atoms


• 1 mole of Al atoms = 6.02 X 1023 atoms
Note that the NUMBER is always the same,
but the MASS is very different!
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A Mole of Particles
Contains 6.02 x 1023 particles
1 mole C = 6.02 x 1023 C atoms
1 mole H2O = 6.02 x 1023 H2O molecules
1 mole NaCl = 6.02 x 1023 NaCl “molecules”
(technically, ionics are compounds not
molecules so they are called formula units)

6.02 x 1023 Na+ ions and


6.02 x 1023 Cl– ions
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Avogadro’s Number as
Conversion Factor

6.02 x 1023 particles


1 mole
or

1 mole
6.02 x 1023 particles

Note that a particle could be an atom OR a molecule!


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Learning Check

1. Number of atoms in 0.500 mole of Al


a) 500 Al atoms
b) 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms
c) 3.01 x 1023 Al atoms

2.Number of moles of S in 1.8 x 1024 S atoms


a) 1.0 mole S atoms
b) 3.0 mole S atoms
c) 1.1 x 1048 mole S atoms
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Molar Mass
• The Mass of 1 mole (in grams)
• Equal to the numerical value of the average
atomic mass (get from periodic table)
1 mole of C atoms = 12.0 g
1 mole of Mg atoms = 24.3 g
1 mole of Cu atoms = 63.5 g
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Other Names Related to Molar Mass


• Molecular Mass/Molecular Weight: If you have a single
molecule, mass is measured in amu’s instead of grams. But,
the molecular mass/weight is the same numerical value as 1
mole of molecules. Only the units are different.
• Formula Mass/Formula Weight: Same goes for
compounds. But again, the numerical value is the same.
Only the units are different.

• THE POINT: You may hear all of these terms


which mean the SAME NUMBER… just different units
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Learning Check!
Find the molar mass
(usually we round to the tenths place)

A. 1 mole of Br atoms = 79.90 g/mole


B. 1 mole of Sn atoms = 118.71 g/mole
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Molar Mass of Molecules and


Compounds
Mass in grams of 1 mole equal numerically to
the sum of the atomic masses
1 mole of CaCl2 = 111.1 g/mol
1 mole Ca x 40.1 g/mol
+ 2 moles Cl x 35.5 g/mol = 111.1 g/mol CaCl2

1 mole of N2O4 = 92.0 g/mol


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Learning Check!
A. Molar Mass of K2O = ? Grams/mole

B. Molar Mass of antacid Al(OH)3 = ?


Grams/mole
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Calculations with Molar Mass

molar mass
Grams Moles
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Converting Moles and Grams


Aluminum is often used for the structure
of light-weight bicycle frames. How
many grams of Al are in 3.00 moles of
Al?

3.00 moles Al ? g Al
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1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 26.98 g Al

2. Conversion factors for Al


26.98g Al or 1 mol Al
1 mol Al 26.98 g Al

3. Setup 3.00 moles Al x 26.98 g Al


1 mole Al
Answer = 80.88 g Al
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• Calculate the number of


grams of lead (Pb) in
12.4 moles of lead.
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1. Molar mass of Pb 1 mole Pb = 209 g/mol Pb

2. Conversion factors for Pb


209.0g Pb or 1 mol Pb
1 mol Pb 209.0 g Pb

3. Setup 12.4 moles Pb x 209.0 g Pb


1 mole Pb
Answer = 2591.6 g Pb
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Atoms/Molecules and Grams


• Since 6.02 X 1023 particles = 1 mole
AND
1 mole = molar mass (grams)
• You can convert atoms/molecules to
moles and then moles to grams! (Two step
process)
• You can’t go directly from atoms to
grams!!!! You MUST go thru MOLES.
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Calculations

molar mass Avogadro’s number


Grams Moles particles

Everything must go through


Moles!!!
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Atoms/Molecules and Grams

How many atoms of


Cu are present in
35.4 g of Cu?
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Atoms/Molecules and Grams

How many atoms of Cu are


present in 35.4 g of Cu?

35.4 g Cu 1 mol Cu 6.02 X 1023 atoms Cu


63.5 g Cu 1 mol Cu

= 3.4 X 1023 atoms Cu


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Example
• Sulfur (S) is a nonmetallic element that
is present in coal. When coal is burned,
sulfur is converted to sulfur dioxide and
eventually to sulfuric acid that gives rise
to the acid rain phenomenon. How
many atoms are in 16.3 g of S?
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Solution
• We need two conversions: first from
grams to moles and then from moles to
number of particles (atoms).
1 mol S = 32.07 g S
• Avogadro’s number is the key to the
second step.
• 1 mol = 6.022 x 1023 particles (atoms)

• 3.06 x 1023 atoms S


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Stoichiometry
• By combining our abilities to balance
equations and do simple unit
conversions, we can now complete
stoichiometry problems (mass to mass
conversions)
• Chemical reactions stop when one of
the reactants is used up.
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Stoichiometry
• Stoichiometry problems consist of predicting
the amount of grams of product that will form
from a reaction if you know how many grams of
reactant you have, or predicting the number of
grams of reactant that will be needed to
produce a certain amount of product.
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Mole-Mole Calculations
• How many moles of water can be obtained
from the reaction of 4 moles of O2?
2 H2 (g) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 H2O (g)

4 mol O2 2 mol H2O


x = 8 mol H2O
1 1 mol O2

Mole Ratio
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• How many moles of NH3 can be obtained


from the reaction of 8 moles of H2 with N2 ?

__ 1 N2 (g) → __
3 H2 (g) + __ 2 NH3 (g)

8 mol H2 2 mol NH3


x = 5.33 mol NH3
1 3 mol H2

Mole Ratio
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Mole-Mass Calculations
2 Al (s) + 6 HCl (aq) → 2 AlCl3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g)
• What mass of hydrogen gas can be produced by
reacting 6 moles of aluminum with HCl?

6 mol Al 3 mol H2 2.0 g H2


x x = 18 g H2
1 2 mol Al 1 mol H2

Mole Ratio Molar Mass


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Al (s) + HCl (aq) → AlCl3 (aq) + H2 (g)


• What mass of HCl is needed to react with 6
moles of aluminum?

6 mol Al 6 mol HCl 36.0 g HCl


x x = 648 g HCl
1 2 mol Al 1 mol HCl

Mole Ratio Molar Mass


Mass-Mass Calculations 34

How many grams of SnF2 can be produced


from the reaction of 30.00 g of HF with Sn?
Sn(s) + HF (g) → SnF2 (s) + H2 (g)

30.00 g HF 1 mole HF 1 molSnF2 156.71 g SnF2


x x
x
20.01 g HF 2 mol HF 1 mol SnF2

= 117.5 g
Molar Mass
SnF2 Molar Mass
Mole Ratio
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16.0 g of H2 react completely with N2


to form NH3. How many grams of
NH3 will be formed?
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• Similarly, we can calculate the mass in grams


of N2 consumed in this reaction.

grams of H2 → moles of H2 → moles of N2 → grams of N2


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