HOW DO WE DO SAMPLING?
Nonprobability Sampling
 Judgement or purposive
Expert sampling involves the assembling of a sample
of persons with known or demonstrable experience
and expertise in some area.
In snowball sampling, the process starts by
identifying someone who meets the criteria for
inclusion in the study. The respondent is then asked
to recommend others whom they may know who
also meet the criteria.
 Accidental or haphazard

Probability Sampling
 Simple random
 Systematic random
 Stratified random
 Cluster random
 Multistage random
Probability Nonprobability
Random selection Nonrandom selection
Sampling frame is needed Sampling frame is not required
Can compute for sampling error Can’t compute for sampling
TERMS TO DEFINE IN SAMPLING error
Results can be generalized Results cannot be generalized
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Target Population Group of interest All elderly in NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING METHODS
Dasmariñas, Cavite
Sample Solution Representative 100 elderly living in
Non probability sampling methods are more appropriate in
subset of the target Dasmariñas, Cavite
population some social science research/ health research (qualitative or
Sampling frame List of sampling List of name of all exploratory studies).
units (List of names the elderly or list of
or places) the barangays in Accidental or Haphazard
Dasmariñas or list of  Respondents or participants are selected based on the
households in
Dasmariñas
convenience of the researcher.
Sampling unit The unit of selection Barangays or Example: Street interviews to get a quick assessment of
households or the public opinion
elderly people
Elementary unit Unit of Elderly person Judgement or Purposive Sampling
measurement
 Respondents are selected with a purpose in mind
 Respondents are predefined
 In depth interviews or focal group discussions
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Examples: Examples: The researcher wants to determine prevalence of
In marketing research – for a shampoo – target would be tuberculosis among the elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite
female 2530 years old, with long hair Target population: All elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite (N= 1000)
In health services research for elderly population –target Sample population: 100 elderly living in Dasmariñas, Cavite
could be elderly patients with a certain disease Sampling frame: List of names of all the elderly (Assign
numbers 0001 to 1000)
Snowball Sampling – inaccessible or hard to get target Use random process of selection (random numbers table,
population (hidden population – HIV+ persons, commercial calculator, soft wares)
sex workers)
Researcher will identify someone who meets the criteria Stratified Random Sampling
for inclusion in the study  The population is first divided into groups or strata.
First respondent is then asked to recommend others  A simple random sample (SRS) is then selected from
whom they may know who also have the same criteria. each stratum.
Succeeding respondents will also be asked to refer  Subgroups of interest are represented adequately.
possible respondents.
3 methods to distribute sample size among the strata
PROBABILITY SAMPLING METHODS 1. Proportional to the size of each strata
2. Proportional to the variability of the parameter in the
Simple Random Sampling (SRS) different strata
 Sampling frame is needed 3. Assign the same size to each strata
 Every unit in the population has equal chance of being
selected Advantages
 Random selection can be done by: Would have more representative sample because each
balloting stratum are represented in the sample
using a table of random numbers, or computers or Permits analyses of withinstratum patterns and separate
calculator reporting of the results for each stratum
Permits comparisons between stratum
Steps
1. Construct a list (or “frame”) of the sampling units. Disadvantages
2. Assign numbers to each sampling unit. Requires information on population distribution, requires
3. Use a random process (e.g. random number table) to sampling frame per stratum
generate n numbers between 1 and N that identifies the n More expensive, time consuming and complicated
individuals in the sample. (design and analysis)
(n = sample size, N = target population size)
Examples: The researcher wants to determine prevalence of
Random process of selection tuberculosis among the elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite
Lottery Target population: All elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite (N= 1000,
Generate random numbers using the RAN function of the Males = 300, Females =700)
calculator Sample population: 100 elderly living in Dasmariñas, Cavite
Generate random numbers using statistical soft wares. Sampling frame: List of elderly people per gender (gender =
(OneEpi) strata)
Generate random numbers using table of random of Using simple random sampling, select 30 from males;
numbers. select 70 from males (proportionate sampling)
Disadvantages
Requires a sampling frame of the sampling units (which
may not be available at all times)
May result to larger sampling errors, less precise
estimates Sample population= 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34….
Subgroups of interest may not be well represented
Maybe costly if target population is widely geographically Advantages
dispersed. Easier to do than SRS. You don't have to keep running
Have to number the list. back to the random number generator.
Hard to do when the population is large. Almost similar result with SRS if the elements in sampling
frame are randomly arranged.
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Ensures spread of sample population across the target
RANDOM SAMPLING VS. RANDOM ALLOCATION
population.
Random sampling – randomly selecting participants from
Disadvantages the target population. The goal is to choose a
Still need a list/sampling frame that is numbered. representative set of cases from the full population
Might run into periodicity problem. If the list happened under consideration.
to be arranged by class (1,2,3,4…), you might end up
picking all first years. Have to make sure the list is not so Random allocation – random assignment. The goal is
structured. usually to give all participants an equal chance of being
Pseudo simple random sampling or quasi random assigned to each experimental condition (regardless of
sampling because only the selection of the first sample is how represented the participants are)
randomly selected.  Randomly assigning participants to treatment groups
May not have representative sample if sampling frame is  A process that assigns research participants by
arranged according to a variable. chance, rather than by choice, to treatment groups
 The goal of random allocation is to produce
Examples: The researcher wants to determine prevalence of comparable groups in terms of general participant
tuberculosis among the elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite characteristics
Target population: All elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite (N= 1000)
Sample population: 100 elderly living in Dasmariñas, Cavite
RANDOM ALLOCATION? HOW?
Sampling frame: List of elderly people
k = 1000/100 = 10 Different types – simple, block, stratified
Choose the random start from numbers 110 Randomisation in Clinical Trials by Beller et al
Ex. Random start = 8 http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/177_10_181102/
Sample population: Elderly with Id no. 8, 18, 28, 38, 48 bel10697_fm.html )
Randomization Schedule
Cluster sampling Using random number tables from statistical books
 The population is first divided into clusters (naturally Using computer softwares (http://www.randomizer.org/)
occurring groups) of homogenous units, usually space
based (geographical proximity – barangays, province) or
organizationbased (schools, classes, office) WHAT MAKES A GOOD SAMPLE?
 Random sample of such clusters is selected
 All units in the clusters are selected. 1. Selected at random to reduce bias
2. Representative to improve validity
Advantages
3. Large enough to increase precision.
Doesn’t require sampling frame of elementary units
If clusters are spacebased, less time and resources
SUMMARY
needed.
Statistical inference allows us to generalize sample
Disadvantages results to the target population
Variances may be larger, larger sampling error Random sampling ensures the “representativeness” of
Requires more complex analysis of data the sample
Probability sampling methods
Simple Random Sampling
Examples: The researcher wants to determine prevalence of Stratified Random Sampling
tuberculosis among the elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite Cluster Random Sampling
Target population: All elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite (N= 1000, Systematic Random Sampling
if 20 barangays, roughly there would be 50 elderly per
barangay)
Sample population: 100 elderly living in Dasmariñas, Cavite END OF TRANSCRIPTION
Sampling frame: List of barangays (barangay = sampling unit)
Select clusters (barangays) using simple random
sampling. “I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me.” –
Choose randomly 2 barangays. Philippians 4:13
Include all elderly living in the selected barangays.
Transcription Team 2019
Multistage sampling design Transcribed by: Trisha Mae Bongcales
Edited by:
For sample surveys of wide geographical coverage, ie.
References: Lecture, PPT
Nationwide surveys Remarks: Please refer to the ppt
for some images.
Goodluck!
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