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SAMPLING METHODS

Danaida B. Marcelo, MSPH Biostatistics

SAMPLING  Population parameters – summary measures if all


members will be observed.
 The process of selecting units, like people, organizations
 Sample statistics – summary measures from the sample
or objects from a population of interest in order to study
population.
and generalize the results back to the population from
which the sample was chosen.
ERROR IN SAMPLING
 It may lead to improved accuracy of collected data.
Smaller sample – allows more effort to be made to
Sample Statistics (Sample means, Sample proportions) may
reduce non-sampling errors and biases due to non-
not be equal to Population Parameters (Population mans,
response.
Population proportions)
WHY DO WE NEED TO SAMPLE?
Sampling Error
 We cannot study all elements of the target population.
 Error due to chance
 Quicker
 The difference between the sample value and the
 Less expensive
unknown true value
 More efficient
 Cannot be eliminated, but can be minimized
 Enough sample size, appropriate sampling methodology

HOW DO WE DO SAMPLING?

 Non-probability Sampling
- Judgement or purposive
 Expert sampling involves the assembling of a sample
of persons with known or demonstrable experience
and expertise in some area.
 In snowball sampling, the process starts by
identifying someone who meets the criteria for
inclusion in the study. The respondent is then asked
to recommend others whom they may know who
also meet the criteria.
- Accidental or haphazard
-
 Probability Sampling
- Simple random
- Systematic random
- Stratified random
- Cluster random
- Multi-stage random

Probability Non-probability
Random selection Non-random selection
Sampling frame is needed Sampling frame is not required
Can compute for sampling error Can’t compute for sampling
TERMS TO DEFINE IN SAMPLING error
Results can be generalized Results cannot be generalized
TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE
Target Population Group of interest All elderly in NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING METHODS
Dasmariñas, Cavite
Sample Solution Representative 100 elderly living in
Non probability sampling methods are more appropriate in
subset of the target Dasmariñas, Cavite
population some social science research/ health research (qualitative or
Sampling frame List of sampling List of name of all exploratory studies).
units (List of names the elderly or list of
or places) the barangays in  Accidental or Haphazard
Dasmariñas or list of - Respondents or participants are selected based on the
households in
Dasmariñas
convenience of the researcher.
Sampling unit The unit of selection Barangays or Example: Street interviews to get a quick assessment of
households or the public opinion
elderly people
Elementary unit Unit of Elderly person  Judgement or Purposive Sampling
measurement
- Respondents are selected with a purpose in mind
- Respondents are predefined
- In depth interviews or focal group discussions
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Examples: Examples: The researcher wants to determine prevalence of
 In marketing research – for a shampoo – target would be tuberculosis among the elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite
female 25-30 years old, with long hair Target population: All elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite (N= 1000)
 In health services research for elderly population –target Sample population: 100 elderly living in Dasmariñas, Cavite
could be elderly patients with a certain disease Sampling frame: List of names of all the elderly (Assign
numbers 0001 to 1000)
Snowball Sampling – inaccessible or hard to get target  Use random process of selection (random numbers table,
population (hidden population – HIV+ persons, commercial calculator, soft wares)
sex workers)
 Researcher will identify someone who meets the criteria  Stratified Random Sampling
for inclusion in the study - The population is first divided into groups or strata.
 First respondent is then asked to recommend others - A simple random sample (SRS) is then selected from
whom they may know who also have the same criteria. each stratum.
 Succeeding respondents will also be asked to refer - Subgroups of interest are represented adequately.
possible respondents.
3 methods to distribute sample size among the strata
PROBABILITY SAMPLING METHODS 1. Proportional to the size of each strata
2. Proportional to the variability of the parameter in the
 Simple Random Sampling (SRS) different strata
- Sampling frame is needed 3. Assign the same size to each strata
- Every unit in the population has equal chance of being
selected Advantages
- Random selection can be done by:  Would have more representative sample because each
 balloting stratum are represented in the sample
 using a table of random numbers, or computers or  Permits analyses of within-stratum patterns and separate
calculator reporting of the results for each stratum
 Permits comparisons between stratum
Steps
1. Construct a list (or “frame”) of the sampling units. Disadvantages
2. Assign numbers to each sampling unit.  Requires information on population distribution, requires
3. Use a random process (e.g. random number table) to sampling frame per stratum
generate n numbers between 1 and N that identifies the n  More expensive, time consuming and complicated
individuals in the sample. (design and analysis)
(n = sample size, N = target population size)
Examples: The researcher wants to determine prevalence of
Random process of selection tuberculosis among the elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite
 Lottery Target population: All elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite (N= 1000,
 Generate random numbers using the RAN function of the Males = 300, Females =700)
calculator Sample population: 100 elderly living in Dasmariñas, Cavite
 Generate random numbers using statistical soft wares. Sampling frame: List of elderly people per gender (gender =
(OneEpi) strata)
 Generate random numbers using table of random of  Using simple random sampling, select 30 from males;
numbers. select 70 from males (proportionate sampling)

Advantages  Systematic Random Sampling


 Assures good representativeness of sample (particularly - Selection of every kth unit in the population
if large). - Sampling interval
 Allows us to make generalizations/inferences. In fact, 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 # 𝑖𝑛 𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
K = 𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒
most of the statistical stuff we'll do later assumes that
The first unit is selected randomly from among the
we've actually done a simple random sample, even if we
first k units.
haven't.
 Avoids biases that are possible in some of the other
methods we'll talk about.
 Doesn’t need other supporting information to proceed
with sampling
 Easier to comprehend and explain to others
 Requires simple analysis

Disadvantages
 Requires a sampling frame of the sampling units (which
may not be available at all times)
 May result to larger sampling errors, less precise
estimates Sample population= 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34….
 Subgroups of interest may not be well represented
 Maybe costly if target population is widely geographically Advantages
dispersed.  Easier to do than SRS. You don't have to keep running
 Have to number the list. back to the random number generator.
 Hard to do when the population is large.  Almost similar result with SRS if the elements in sampling
frame are randomly arranged.
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 Ensures spread of sample population across the target
RANDOM SAMPLING VS. RANDOM ALLOCATION
population.
 Random sampling – randomly selecting participants from
Disadvantages the target population. The goal is to choose a
 Still need a list/sampling frame that is numbered. representative set of cases from the full population
 Might run into periodicity problem. If the list happened under consideration.
to be arranged by class (1,2,3,4…), you might end up
picking all first years. Have to make sure the list is not so  Random allocation – random assignment. The goal is
structured. usually to give all participants an equal chance of being
 Pseudo simple random sampling or quasi- random assigned to each experimental condition (regardless of
sampling because only the selection of the first sample is how represented the participants are)
randomly selected. - Randomly assigning participants to treatment groups
 May not have representative sample if sampling frame is - A process that assigns research participants by
arranged according to a variable. chance, rather than by choice, to treatment groups
- The goal of random allocation is to produce
Examples: The researcher wants to determine prevalence of comparable groups in terms of general participant
tuberculosis among the elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite characteristics
Target population: All elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite (N= 1000)
Sample population: 100 elderly living in Dasmariñas, Cavite
RANDOM ALLOCATION? HOW?
Sampling frame: List of elderly people
 k = 1000/100 = 10  Different types – simple, block, stratified
 Choose the random start from numbers 1-10  Randomisation in Clinical Trials by Beller et al
 Ex. Random start = 8  http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/177_10_181102/
 Sample population: Elderly with Id no. 8, 18, 28, 38, 48 bel10697_fm.html )
 Randomization Schedule
 Cluster sampling  Using random number tables from statistical books
- The population is first divided into clusters (naturally  Using computer softwares (http://www.randomizer.org/)
occurring groups) of homogenous units, usually space-
based (geographical proximity – barangays, province) or
organization-based (schools, classes, office) WHAT MAKES A GOOD SAMPLE?
- Random sample of such clusters is selected
- All units in the clusters are selected. 1. Selected at random to reduce bias
2. Representative to improve validity
Advantages
3. Large enough to increase precision.
 Doesn’t require sampling frame of elementary units
 If clusters are space-based, less time and resources
SUMMARY
needed.
 Statistical inference allows us to generalize sample
Disadvantages results to the target population
 Variances may be larger, larger sampling error  Random sampling ensures the “representativeness” of
 Requires more complex analysis of data the sample
 Probability sampling methods
 Simple Random Sampling
Examples: The researcher wants to determine prevalence of  Stratified Random Sampling
tuberculosis among the elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite  Cluster Random Sampling
Target population: All elderly in Dasmariñas, Cavite (N= 1000,  Systematic Random Sampling
if 20 barangays, roughly there would be 50 elderly per
barangay)
Sample population: 100 elderly living in Dasmariñas, Cavite END OF TRANSCRIPTION
Sampling frame: List of barangays (barangay = sampling unit)
 Select clusters (barangays) using simple random
sampling. “I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me.” –
 Choose randomly 2 barangays. Philippians 4:13
 Include all elderly living in the selected barangays.
Transcription Team 2019
 Multi-stage sampling design Transcribed by: Trisha Mae Bongcales
Edited by:
For sample surveys of wide geographical coverage, ie.
References: Lecture, PPT
Nationwide surveys Remarks: Please refer to the ppt
for some images.
Goodluck! 

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