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# Outline

##  Loads on Bridges  Design Lane

 Truck
 Tandem
 LL Combinations
 LL Placement
 Influence Line
EGCE 406 Bridge Design  O h LLoads
Other d  Design Equation
 Fatigue  Design Charts
Loads on Bridge  W d
Wind  Multiple Presence
 Earthquake  Distribution to Girders
 …
Mahidol University D i
Design
Praveen Chompreda First Semester, 2009

 DD = downdrag (wind)  BR = breaking force of vehicle
L d off  CE = centrifugal force of vehicle (at curves)
structural and  CR = creep of concrete
nonstructural components  CT = vehicle collision force (on bridge or at
surface

piers)
CV = vessel collision force (bridge piers over
river)
Typical d
 EH = earth pressure  EQ = earthquake
(horizontal)  FR = friction
 EL = secondary forces such as  IC = ice Dead Loads: DC/DW
from posttensioning  IM = d dynamic i load
l d off vehicles
hi l
 LL = live load of vehicle (static) Live Loads of Vehicles: LL
 ES = earth surcharge load
(vertical)
EV = earth pressure (vertical)
  SE = settlement Dynamic (Impact) Loads: IM
 SH = shrinkageg of concrete
 TG = load due to temperature differences
 TU = load due to uniform temperature
 WA = water load/ stream pressure
 WL = wind on vehicles on bridge
 WS = wind load on structure
 Dead load includes the self weight of:  It is the weight of the wearing surface
 structural components such as girder, slabs, cross beams, etc… (
(usually
ll asphalt)
h lt) andd utilities
tiliti ((pipes,
i
 nonstructural components such as medians, railings, signs, etc…
lighting, etc…)
 B d
But does not include
i l d the
h weight
i h off wearing
i surface
f (asphalt)
( h l)  Different category is needed due to
large variability of the weight compared
 We can estimate dead load from the material’s density with those of structural components
(DC)
Material Density (kg/m3)  Asphalt surface may be thicker than
designed and may get laid on top of old
Concrete (Normal Weight.) 2400
layer over and over
Concrete (Lightweight) 1775-1925  Density of asphalt paving material
Steel 7850 = 2250 kg/m3
Aluminum Alloy 2800  Average Thickness of asphalt on bridge
= 9 cm
Wood 800-960
Stone Masonryy 2725

 Dead loads are distributed to girder through Tributary Area  Section for maximum moment is not the same as the section
for maximum shear
wDC or wDW
 For simply-supported beams
 Maximum M occurs at midspan
 Maximum V occurs over the support
 As we shall see in the designs of girders, the Critical Section for shear is
M=wL2/8 about d from the support.(where d is the effective depth of section,
approximately 0.8h)
 At this point, shear is slightly lower than at the support. If we use shear at
the support for the design of stirrups, we are conservative.

V= L/2
V=wL/2
 Live load is the force due to  The effect of live load on the
vehicles moving on the bridge bridge structures depends on
 There are several types
yp of many parameters including:
vehicles  span length
 Car  weight of vehicle
 V
(l d per wheel)
h l)
 Buses  axle configuration
 Trucks  position of the vehicle on the
 Semi-Trailer bridge (transverse and
longitudinal)
 Special vehicles
 number b off vehicles
hi l on the
h bridge
b id
 Military vehicles
(multiple presence)
 ggirder spacing
p g
 stiffness of structural members
(slab and girders)

## Live Loads of Vehicles: LL Bridge LL vs. Building LL

 BRIDGE  BUILDING

##  LL is very heavy (several tons per  LL is not very heavy, typical

wheel)) 300-500 kg/m
g 2
 LL can be series of point loads (wheel  LL is assumed to be uniformly
of smaller vehicles)
 Need to consider the placement within  Do not generally consider
a span
p to get
g the maximum effect placement of load within a span
 Loads occur in one direction within  Loads are transferred in to 2
lanes directions
 N d to
Need t consider
id alsol the
th placement
l t off  Need to consider various
span bridges) entire floor
 Dynamic effects of live load cannot be  Do not generally consider
ignored dynamic/impact effect of live
Analysis Strategy for LL Design Lane
 Need to know how many lanes there is on the bridge
 Design Lane ≠ Actual Traffic Lane
3.0 m 3.3 m to 4.6 m (3.6 m recommended)
 Number of Design Lanes = Roadway width/ 3.6
36m
≥ No. of Actual Traffic Lane
Place them Moment/ Shear  Number of Lane must be an integer
g (1,2,3,…)
( , , , ) – there is no fraction of lane
Various
V i to get Consider Distribute from Live Load (no 2.5 lanes, for example)
Live maximum dynamic Load to to be used in the  For roadway width from 6 m to 7.2 m, there should be 2 design lanes, each
Loads effects on effects each girder design of girders
span equal ½ of the roadway width
Design Truck
Design Tandem

## Live Loads of Vehicles: LL 1. Design Truck

 For design purpose, we are interested the kind of vehicle that produce the  The design truck is called HS-20
worstt effect
ff t (stands for Highway Semi-Trailer
with 20-kips weight on first two
 AASHTO has 3 basic types of LL called the HL-93 loading (stands for HS-20 axles)
 Weight shown are for each one
 Design truck axle = 2 wheels
 Design tandem  Total Wt = 325 kN ~ 33 t. t
 Uniform loads  Distance between second and
third axles may be varied to
produce
d maximum
i effect
ff
 Need to multiply this load by
dynamic allowance factor (IM)
 Two axle vehicle with 110 kN  Uniform load of 9.3 kN/m acting over a tributary width of 3 m. (i.e. the
on eachh axle
3 1 kN/m2)
110 kN 110 kN
per axle per axle  Need to multiply this load by  May be apply continuously or discontinuously over the length of the
dynamic allowance factor (IM) bridge to produce maximum effect
PROFILE
 No dynamic allowance factor (IM) for this load
 Lead to larger moment than the
HS20 truck for simple-support
p pp
spans less than about 13.4 m

55 kN 55 kN

L
Lane 18m
1.8 TOP
VIEW

55 kN 55 kN

1.2 m

## Analysis Strategy for LL Live Load Combinations

 3 ways to add the design truck, design tandem, and uniform load together
 Combination
C b 1 one HS20 truckk on top off a uniform
1: f lane
l d per design
d lane
l
 Combination 2: one Design Tandem on top of a uniform lane load per design
lane
 Combination 3: (for negative moments at interior supports of continuous
Place them beams) place two HS20 design truck, one on each adjacent span but not less
Moment/ Shear
Various
V i to get Consider Distribute th 15 m apartt (measure
than ( from
f front
f t axlel off one truck
t k tot the
th rear axle
l off
Live maximum dynamic Load to another truck), with uniform lane load. Use 90% of their effects as the design
to be used in the
Loads effects on effects each girder moment/ shear
design of girders
span  The loads in each case must be positioned such that they produce
maximum effects (max M or max V)
Load Combinations  Th maximum effect
The ff off these
h 3 cases is used
d for
f the
h design
d
Transverse Placement
L i di l Pl
Longitudinal Placement
 Need to consider two dimensions  The design truck or tandem shall be positioned transversely such that the
 Transversely (for designs of slabs and overhangs) center
t off any wheel
d iis nott closer
l than:
th
 30 cm from the face of the curb or railing for the design of the deck overhang
 60 cm from the edge of the design lane for the design of all other components

Minimum distance
min. 2' from curb = 60 cm

##  Longitudinally (for design of main girder)

 Note
N t th
thatt if th
the sidewalk
id lk iis nott separated
t d bby a crashworthy
h th ttraffic
ffi bbarrier,
i
must consider the case that vehicles can be on the sidewalk

 Need to place the LL along the span such that it produces the maximum  Methods of finding maximum moment and shear in span
effect
ff t  Influence Line (IL) – Simple and Continuous spans
 For simple 1-point loading, the maximum moment occurs when the load is  Design Equation – Simple span only
placed at the midspan
 Design Chart – Simple span only

P
Point of Max
Moment

L/2 L/2
 However, truck load is a group of concentrated loads. It is not clear where
to place the group of loads to get the maximum moment
 REMEMBER: MAXIMUM MOMENT DOES NOT ALWAYS OCCURS
AT MIDSPAN !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line
 Influence line is a graphical method for finding the variation of the
“ t t l response”” att a point
“structural i t as a concentrated
t t d live
l d moves across
the structure
 Structural response can be support reaction, moment, shear, or displacement

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line
Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line
 Influence line is a powerful visualization tool for the effects of live load 1.0
placements
l t to
t th
the structural
t t l response 0 75
0.75
0.5
110 kN 110 kN 0.25

## “response” is equal to the

value of point load multiplied 1.0
by the ordinate (y
(y-value)
value) of 0.75
05
0.5
the influence line 1.0
0.25
0.75 IL (RL)
0.5
0.25
IL (RL)

##  For Uniform Load, the 1.0

0.75
response is equal to the value 05
0.5
of the uniform load multiplied 0.25

## by the area under the IL (RL)

i fl
influence line
li within
ithi th
the
0.75
0.5
0.25
IL (RL)

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line
 Müller-Breslau Principle: “If a function at a point on a beam, such as
reaction,
ti or shear,
h or moment, t is
i allowed
ll d tto actt without
ith t restraint,
t i t the
th
deflected shape of the beam, to some scale, represent the influence line of
the function.
Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line
 Notes  For series of concentrated load (such as the design truck), the placement
 Influence line tells you how to place the LL such that the maximum off lload
d ffor maximum
i moment,t shear,
h or reaction
ti may nott be
b apparent.
t
moment at a point occurs; i.e. you pick a point then you try to find  The maximum always occur under one of the concentrated loads – but
what is the maximum moment at that point when loads are moved which one?
around  Two methods
 It does not tell you where the absolute maximum moment in the span  Trial and Errors: Move the series of concentrated loads along the span
occurs; i.e. the maximum moment on the point you picked is not by letting each load on the peak of IL
always the absolute maximum moment that can occur in the span  Use when you have only 2-3 concentrated loads
( hi h will
(which ill occur at a different
diff point
i and
d under
d a diff
different  Can be tedious when you have a lot of concentrated loads
Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line
 Increase/ Decrease Method
 This method determine whether the response (moment, shear, or
reaction) increases or decreases as the series of concentrated loads
move into the span
 As the series of loads move into the span, the response increases.
When it starts to decrease, yyou’ll know that the last pposition was
the one that produce the maximum effect.

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line
 Increase/ Decrease Method  Example
 For shear

## Sloping Line Jump

ΔV = Ps(x2-x1) ΔV = P (y2-y1)

 For moment
Sloping Line IL for moment
has no jumps!
ΔM = Ps(x2-x1)

 Note: not all loads may be in the span at the same time. Loads that have
just moved in or moved out may travel on the slope at a distance less
than distance moved between 2 concentrated loads.
Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line
 For Statically Indeterminate Structures, the Müller-Breslau Principle also
h ld
holds
 “If a function at a point on a beam, such as reaction, or shear, or moment,
is allowed to act without restraint
restraint, the deflected shape of the beam
beam, to
some scale, represent the influence line of the function”
 For indeterminate structures, the influence line is not straight
g lines!

## Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement - Longitudinal

 Methods of finding maximum moment and shear in span
 Influence Line (IL) – Simple and Continuous spans
 Design Equation – Simple span only
 Design Chart – Simple span only
Live Load Placement – Design Equation Live Load Placement – Design Equation
 Another Method: Using Barre’s Theorem for simply Resultant 0.73 m
supported spans
 The absolute maximum moment in the span occurs under the load 145 kN 145 kN
35 kN
closet
l to the
h resultant
l fforce and
d placed
l d iin suchh a way that
h the
h
centerline of the span bisects the distance between that load and the
resultant
L/2 L/2
HS20
Point of Max
Resultant 0.73 m Moment

145 kN 145 kN
35 kN 172.1 19.8
M max = 81.25l + − 387 kN-m M max = 55l + − 66 kN-m
l l
Mmax occurs at a section under middle Mmax occurs at a section under one of
L/2 L/2 axle located a distance 0.73 m from the axle located a distance 0.30 m from
HS20 midspan midspan
Point of Max
Moment

Live Load Placement – Design Equation Live Load Placement – Design Equation
Case Load Configuration Moments (kips-ft) and
shears (kips)
(x and l in feet)  If we combine the truck/tandem load with uniform load, we can get the
f ll i equations
following ti ffor maximum
i momentt iin spans

8 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ 42 ⎤ P = 16 kips
M ( x) = Px ⎢4.5⎜1 − ⎟−
⎣ ⎝ l ⎠ l ⎥⎦ MA ≥ MB for:
A l > 28
⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ 42 ⎤ x ≤ l/3
V ( x ) = P ⎢4.5⎜1 − ⎟ − ⎥ x + 28 ≤ l
x ⎣ ⎝ l⎠ l ⎦ VA > VB for any x

8 M ( x) = Px ⎢4.5⎜1 − ⎟ − − ⎥ P = 16 kips
B ⎣ ⎝ l⎠ l x⎦ MB ≥ MA for:
l > 28
⎡ x 21⎤
V ( x) = P ⎢4 − 4.5 − ⎥ x > l/3
⎣ l l ⎦ 14 ≤ x ≤ l/2
x

⎛ x 2⎞
25 25 M ( x) = 50 x⎜1 − − ⎟
C
⎛ x 2⎞ is more severe than truck
V ( x) = 50⎜1 − − ⎟ loading for l ≤ 37 ft
⎝ l l⎠
x

0.64 k/ft (l − x)
M ( x) = 0.64 x
2
⎛l ⎞
V ( x) = 0.64⎜ − x ⎟
x ⎝2 ⎠
 Methods of finding maximum moment and shear in span Bending Moment in Simple Span
 Influence Line (IL) – Simple and Continuous spans for AASHTO HL-93 Loading
 Design Equation – Simple span only for a fully loaded lane
 Design Chart – Simple span only Moment in kips-ft
IM is included
1 ft = 0.3048 m
1 kips = 4.448 kN
1 kips-ft = 1.356 kN-m

Live Load Placement – Design Chart Live Load Placement – Design Chart
 Design chart is meant to be used for preliminary designs.
Shear in Simple Span
for a fully loaded lane  We assume that maximum moment occurs at midspan – this produces
Shear in kips
slightly lower maximum moment than the Design Equation method.
method
However, the error is usually small.
IM is included
1 ft = 0.3048 m  Maximum shear occurs at support. However, the chart does not have
1 kips = 4.448 kN x = 0 ft. The closest is 1 ft from support.
 In general, the bridge girder much higher than 1 ft. Therefore, shear at 1 ft is
still higher than the shear at critical section for shear (at d) so we are still
conservative here.
here
Live Load Placement – Design Chart Outline
 Loads on Bridges  Design Lane
 Truck
 Tandem
 LL Combinations
 LL Placement
 Influence Line
Other d  Design Equation
 Fatigue  Design Charts
 W d
Wind  Multiple Presence
 Earthquake  Distribution to Girders
Design Chart for Negative Moment due to Live Load Combination 3  …
at Interior Support of Continuous Beams with Equal Spans
Design
IM is included

## Pedestrian Live Load: PL Analysis Strategy for LL

 Use when has sidewalk wider
th 60 cm
than
 Considered simultaneously with
truck LL

##  Pedestrian only: 3.6 kN/m2 Place them Moment/ Shear

Various
V i to get Consider Distribute
 Pedestrian and/or Bicycle: 4.1 from Live Load
Live maximum dynamic Load to to be used in the
kN/m2 Loads effects on effects each girder design of girders
span
 No IM factor (Neglect dynamic Dynamic
y
effect of pedestrians) Allowance Factor
(IM)
 Sources of Dynamic Effects
 Hammering effect
H ff when
h wheels
h l hit
h the
h discontinuities
d on the
f
such as joints, cracks, and potholes
 Dynamic
y response
p of the bridge
g due to vibrations induced byy traffic
 Actual calculation of dynamic effects is very difficult and involves a lot of
unknowns
 To make life simpler, we account for the dynamic effect of moving vehicles
by multiplying the static effect with a factor

Allowance Factor
Effect due to Effect due to
IM

## Dynamic Load Allowance: IM Analysis Strategy for LL

 Design Truck
D T k
 Design Tandem
 But NOT to these loads:
 Design
g Lane Load Place them Moment/ Shear
Various
V i to get Consider Distribute from Live Load
Live maximum dynamic Load to to be used in the
Table 3.6.2.1-1 ((modified)) Loads effects on effects each girder design of girders
Component IM span
Deck Joint 75%
All limit
li i states M l i l Presence
Multiple P off LL
All other components above ground Distribution Factors
Fatigue/ Fracture Limit States 15%
All Other Limit States 33%
Foundation components below ground 0%

## * Reduce the above values by 50% for wood bridges

Multiple Presence of LL Multiple Presence of LL
 We take care of this by using
Multiple Presence Factor
 1.0 for two lanes and less for 3 or
Number of Multiple
p more lanes
“m” (indirectly) into the GDF Tables
in AASHTO code so we do not
1 1.20 need to multiply this again
2 1.00  Use this only when GDF is
d
determined
i d ffrom other
h analysis
l i
3 0.85 (such as from the lever rule,
>3 0.65 computer
p model, or FEM))
 We’ve considered the effect of load placement in ONE lane
 But bridges has more than one lane
 It’s almost impossible to have maximum load effect on ALL lanes at the same time
 The more lanes you have, the lesser chance that all will be loaded to maximum at
the same time

## Distribution of LL to Girders AASHTO Girder Distribution Factor

 A bridge usually have more than one girder so the question arise on how  DFs are different for different kinds of superstructure system
t distribute
to di t ib t the
d tto the
th girders
id  DFs are different for interior and exterior beam

##  Using AASHTO’s table: for typical design, get an approximate

(conservative) value
 No need to consider multiple presence factor
Exterior Exterior
Distribution Factor Interior
Lane Moment DF Girder Moment
L
Lane Sh
Shear Gi d Shear
Girder Sh  DFs are available for one design lane and two or more design lanes (the
larger one controls)
 Must make sure that the bridge
g is within the range
g of applicability
pp y of the
 Refined analysis by using finite element method equation
 Need to consider multiple
p ppresence factor
AASHTO Girder Distribution Factor DF
 Factors affecting the distribution factor includes:  For AASHTO method
first we must identify
 Span Length (L)
the type of
 Girder Spacing (S) superstructure
 Modulus
M d l off elasticity
l i i off bbeam and dddeckk (
(support beam
b & deck
d k
types)
 Moment of inertia and Torsional inertia of the section
 Slab
Sl b Thickness
Thi k (ts)
 Width (b), Depth (d), and Area of beam (A)
 Number of design lanes (NL)
 Number of girders (Nb)
 Width of bridge (W)

DF DFM
 Types  Distribution factor for
(Continued) moment in Interior
Beams
DFM DFM
 Distribution factor for  Distribution factor for
moment in Interior moment in Exterior
Beams (continued) Beams

DFV DFV
 Distribution factor for  Distribution factor for
shear in Interior Beams shear in Exterior Beams
GDF – Finite Element Analysis GDF – Finite Element Analysis

Bridge Model

( )
(a)

(b)

3
(c)
1 2
Boundary (Support)
Conditions

## Moment and Shear in Typical Girder Outline

 At any section, if not using AASHTO’s GDF  Loads on Bridges  Design Lane
 VLL+IM, Girder = DFV×(Vtruck/tadem,Lane×IM + Vuniform,Lane )×m  Truck
 Tandem
 At any section, if using AASHTO’s GDF  Live Load
 MLL+IM, Girder = DFM×(Mtruck/tadem,Lane×IM + Muniform,Lane )  Live Load of Vehicle
 LL Combinations
 LL Placement
 Influence Line
Placed such that
Other d  Design Equation
we have maximum  Fatigue  Design Charts
effects  W d
Wind  Multiple Presence
Live  Earthquake  Distribution to Girders
Place them Increase the Moment/ Shear
L d
(Truck, Multiply
Tandem
maximum IM to account to be used in the  Load and Resistance Factor
byy DF
static for dynamic d i off girders
design id D i
Design
and Lane
effects effects
Fatigue
bridge components
 Fatigue load depends on two factors
Other d  Magnitude of Load
 Use HS-20 design truck with 9m between 145 kN axles for determination
off maximum
i effects
l d
Fatigue
Wind
Earthquake
Vehicle/ Vessel Collision

 Frequency of Occurrence:
 U ADTTSL = average d
Use daily
il ttruckk ttraffic
ffi iin a single
i l llane

 Horizontal loads  For small and low bridges, wind
Average Daily Traffic Table C3.6.1.4.2-1  There are two types of wind l d ttypically
load i ll d do nott control
t l ththe
(All Vehicles/ 1 Direction) loads on the structure design
From Survey (and extrapolate Class of Hwy
y % of Truck For longer span bridge over
 WS = wind load on structure 
to future) Rural Interstate 0.20 river/sea, wind load on the
Wind pressure on the
Max ~ 20,000 vehicles/day structure is very important
Urban Interstate 0.15 structure itself
Other Rural 0.15  WL = wind on vehicles on  Need to consider the
% of Truck
in Traffic Other Urban 0.10 bridge aerodynamic effect of the
Wi d pressure on the
Wind h wind on the structure
ADTT vehicles on the bridge, which (turbulence) Æ wind tunnel
Averageg Dailyy Truck Traffic Table 3.6.1.1.2-1 the load is transferred to the tests
(Truck Only/ 1 Direction) Number of Lanes p bridge superstructure  Need to consider the
Available to Trucks  Wind loads are applied as static dynamic effect of flexible
Fraction of Truck Traffic in a l
long-span b id under
bridge d the h
Single Lane (p) wind Æ dynamic analysis
2 0.85
3 or more 0.80
Average Daily Truck Traffic
(Truck Only/ 1 Lane)

WL

WS
(on Superstructure)

WS
(on Substructure)

 T
Tacoma Narrows
N Bridge
B id (Tacoma,
(T Washington,
W hi USA)
 The bridge collapsed in 1940 shortly after completion under wind speed lower
than the design
g wind speed
p but at a frequency
q y near the natural frequency
q y of
the bridge
 The “resonance” effect was not considered at the time

 Horizontal load  The January 17, 1995 Kobe
earthquake
it epicenter
i t right
i ht
 The magnitude of earthquake is characterized by return period between the two towers of the
 Large return period (e.g.
(e g 500 years) Æ strong earthquake Akashi-Kaikyo
y Bridge g
 Small return period Æ (e.g. 50 years) Æ minor earthquake  The earthquake has the
magnitude of 7.2 on Richter scale
 For large earthquakes (rarely occur), the bridge structure is allowed to  The uncompleted bridge did not
suffer significant structural damage but must not collapse have any structural damages
 F smallll earthquakes
For th k ((more lik likely
l tto occur),
) the
th bbridge
id should
h ld still
till bbe iin  Th original
The i i l planned
l d llength
h was
the elastic range (no structural damage) 1990 meters for the main span,
but the seismic event moved the
 Earthquake must be considered for structures in certain zones towers apart by almost a meter!

##  Analysis for earthquake forces is taught in Master level courses

 Typically considered in the design of substructures (foundation, piers,
abutment)
b t t)
 Water loads may be categorized into:
 Static Pressure (acting perpendicular to all surfaces)
 Buoyancy (vertical uplifting force)
 Stream pressure (acting in the direction of the stream)
 Loads depend on the shape and size of the substructure

## Vehicular Collision Force: CT Vehicular Collision Force: CT

 Bridge structures are very vulnerable to  Typically considered in the design of substructures (foundation, piers,
vehicle
hi l collisions
lli i abutment)
b t t)
 We must consider the force due to  The nature of the force is dynamic (impact), but for simplicity, AASHTO
vehicle collision and designed for it allows us to consider it as equivalent static load.

##  Need to consider if the structures (typically pier or abutment) are not

protected by either:
 Embankment
 Crash-resistant barriers 1.37m height located within 3 m
 Any barriers of 1.07 m height located more than 3 m
 For piers and abutment located within 9 m from edge of roadway or 15 m
from the centerline of railway track
 Assume
A an equivalent
i l static
i fforce off 1800 kN acting
i hhorizontally
i ll at 1.2
12
m above ground
Vehicular Collision Force: CT Vessel Collision: CV
No protection to
the bridge piers

## Bridge piers are

protected
No protection to the bridge Better protection (still not sufficient)
structure

Outline
 Loads on Bridges  Design Lane
 Truck
 Tandem
 Uniform Load AASHTO LRFD Designs
D i
 LL Combinations
 LL Placement
 Influence Line
Introduction
Other d  Design Equation Design Criteria
 Fatigue  Design Charts
W d
Wind
  Multiple Presence
 … R i
Resistance FFactors
D i
Design
Historical Development of AASHTO Code Changes of LRFD from Standard Specifications
 The first US standard for bridges in was published in 1931 (AASHO)  Introduction of a new philosophy of safety
 Working stress design (WSD), based on allowable stresses  Id tifi ti off ffour lilimit
Identification it states
t t (strength,
(t th service,
i fatigue,
f ti extreme
t event)
t)
 Now call “Standard Specifications”  Development of new load models (including new live load)
 Work on the new code bagan in 1988-93
1988 93  Development of new load and resistance factors
 1st edition of AASHTO LRFD Specifications was published in 1994, the  Revised techniques for the analysis and load distribution
2nd in 1998,, 3rd in 2004 – as an alternative document to the Standard  New shear designg method for plain,
p reinforced and prestressed
p concrete
Specification  Introduction of limit state-based provisions for foundation design
 By 2007, only AASHTO LRFD method is allowed for the design of bridges  Revised load provisions
in the USA  Hydraulics and scour

##  Now in 4th Edition  Earthquake

 Thailand’s
’ Department off Highway (DOH)
( O ) still refers
f to Standard
S  Ship collision

Specification but will eventually switch to LRFD Specifications  Introduction of isotropic deck design process
 Commentary are now side side-by-side
by side with the standard

## Design Criteria Design Criteria

 General design criteria in AASHTO LRFD Code:

## Factored Load ≤ Factored Resistance

∑ ηγiQi ≤ ΦRn LOAD Mean
Mean
Resistance
RESISTANCE
Nominal
N i l
Nominal
Resistance
η = ηI ηD ηR
Nominal Resistance
R
Resistance FFactor

 Load and resistance factors serve as partial safety factors Factored FAILURE Factored
 They are determined using the code calibration procedure
 ηI = Importance factor
 The owner may declare a bridge or any structural component and
connection to be of operational importance.

L dM
l i li  For strength and extreme event limit states
 1.05 for bridge considered of operational importance e.g. the only bridge
crossing the river
 1.00 for typical bridges

η = ηI ηD ηR 
 0.95 for bridge considered nonimportant
For all other limit states
 1.00 for all bridges

 ηD = Ductility factor (Brittle v.s. Ductile failure)  ηR = Redundant factor
 The structural system shall be proportioned and detailed to ensure the  Multiple load path and continuous structures should be used. Main
development of significant and visible inelastic deformations at the elements whose failure is expected to cause the collapse of the bridge
strength and extreme event limit states before failure.
failure shall be designated as failure
failure-critical
critical (nonredundant)
 For strength limit states  For strength limit states
 1.05 for nonductile components
p & connection which mayy fail in a brittle  1.05 for nonredundant members e.g. g a simple
p span
p bridges g
manner  1.00 for conventional level of redundancy
 1.00 for conventional designs  0.95 for exceptional level of redundancy e.g. multi-girder continuous beam
 0 95 for
0.95 f components with i h enhanced
h d ductility
d ili e.g. has
ddi i l stirrups
i for
f b id
bridge
shear reinforcements  For all other limit states
 For all other limit states  1 00
1.00
 1.00
 How do we apply all the loads for the structural analysis?
d Factor
F &  Add all the mean (average) value of loads together?
 No, because we must consider the chance that the load may be larger or

L dC
bi i 
smaller than calculated.
calculated
 No, because then the bridge must have to resist an enormous load and
that would make it really expensive!

γi
 The chance that the maximum value of one load occurring at the same
time
i as the
h maximum
i value
l off another
l d is
i very small.
ll
 We need to consider several cases where each case we have one load
at its maximum value expected while other loads are around their
mean values

## Loads & Probabilities Limit States

 Load factors are There are 4 types of “limit states”
d t
determined
i d so that,
th t for
f  Ultimate
Ulti t lilimit
it states
t t – involvingi l i th
the strength
t th and
d stability
t bilit off th
the structure,
t t
each factored load, the both local and global
pprobabilityy of beingg  Strength
g I,, II,, III,, IV
exceeded is about the  Extreme Event limit states - relates to the structural survival of a bridge
same for all load during a major earthquake, flood, or collision
components. t  Extreme
E Event
E I,I II
 Serviceability limit states – involving the usability of the structure including
stress, deformation, and crack widths
 Service I, II, III
 Fatigue limit state - relates to restrictions on stress range to prevent crack
growth as a result of repetitive loads during the design life of the bridge
 Fatigue
 All limit states are equally important (AASHTO LRFD 1.3.2.1) 1 3 2 1)
 DC = dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments  LL = vehicular live load  CR = creep
l d off wearing
i surface
f and
d utilities
tiliti  IM = vehicular dynamic load  SH = shrinkage
 EL = accumulated locked-in force effects resulting from the allowance  FR = friction
construction process
p PL = pedestrian live load
  TG = temperature gradient
di
 DD = downdrag
 LS = live load surcharge  TU = uniform temperature
 EH = horizontal earth pressure load
 BR = vehicular braking force  WA = water
l d andd stream
t
 ES = earth surcharge load
 EV = vertical pressure from dead load of earth fill  CE = vehicular centrifugal force pressure
 CT = vehicular collision force  IC = ice load
 CV = vessel collision force  WL = wind on live load
 EQ = earthquake  WS = wind load on structure
 SE = settlement

designs
 Why do we need to have minimum and maximum load factors for  STRENGTH I: Basic load combination relating to the normal use of bridge.
l d ? Isn’t
I ’t it safer
f tot consider
id the
th maximum???
i ??? M i
Maximum combination
bi ti iis used d when
h LL produces
d th
the same effect
ff t as DC
DC.
 Because in some cases, large permanent load can help reduce the Minimum combination is used when LL produces opposite effect to DC.
force in the structure.
structure  STRENGTH II: load combination for special vehicles specified by owner
 STRENGTH III: load combination where the bridge is subjected to high
wind ((> 90 km/h)) and traffic is pprevented
Gravity Load  STRENGTH IV: load combination for long span bridges (>67 m span)
which has large ratio of DC to LL
of the If the ggravityy load
superstructure is is small, this may  STRENGTH V: load combination where bridge and traffic on the bridge is
large, it offsets the be in tension. If subjected to wind velocity of 90 km/h
wind load and we the pier is
will get small concrete, it will
compression here crack!!!

## May be in Tension or Light

Under
U d High
Hi h C
Compression
i
Compression

 EXTREME EVENT I: load combination for structural survival under major  Example of combinations:
earthquake
 1.25DC + 1.50DW + 1.75(LL+IM) (Strength I)
 EXTREME EVENT II: load combination for structural survival under
combination of events such as flood and vessel collision  1.25DC + 1.50DW + 1.4WS (Strength III)
 0.90DC + 0.65DW + 1.4WS (Strength III)
 SERVICE I: load combination for normal operation of the bridge and for  1.50DC + 1.50DW (Strength IV)
checking compression in prestressed concrete  1.25DC + 1.50DW + 1.35(LL+IM) + 0.4(WS+WL) (Strength V)
 SERVICE II: load combination for steel bridges to control yielding  1.25DC + 1.50DW + 0.5(LL+IM) + 1.0EQ (Extreme I)
 SERVICE III: load combination relating to tension in prestressed concrete
during service  0 90DC + 0.65DW
0.90DC 0 65DW + 0.5(LL+IM)
0 5(LL IM) + 1.0EQ
1 0EQ (Extreme
(E I)
 1.25DC + 1.50DW + 0.5(LL+IM) + 1.0 (CT or CV) (Extreme I)
 FATIGUE: load combination for fatigue and fracture due to repetitive LL  0 90DC + 0.65DW
0.90DC 0 65DW + 0.5(LL+IM)
0 5(LL+IM) + 1.0
1 0 (CT or CV) (Extreme
(E t I)
and IM
 For slabs and girders designs, we normally have only DC, DW,  Note that the sections for maximum moment of dead load
and (LL+IM) and live load are not the same!!!
 1.25DC + 1.50DW + 1.75(LL+IM) (Strength I)  Dead Load: midspan
 1.50DC + 1.50DW (Strength IV)  Live Load: some small distance away from midspan
 If we add them together, we are conservative!
 1.00DC + 1.00DW + 1.00(LL+IM) (Service I)
 1.00DC + 1.00DW + 1.30(LL+IM) (Service II, Steel)
 C t ca moment
Critical o e t for
o shear
s ea iss d away from
o the
t e support.
suppo t. Wee
 1 00DC + 1.00DW
1.00DC 1 00DW + 0.80(LL+IM)
0 80(LL IM) (S
(Service
i III
III, P
Prestressed)
d)
can calculate shear at this location for both dead load and live
g of the section
load IF we know the height
 We estimate the height from past experiences of similar projects
 If we don’t know, we calculate shear at the support.
pp This is
conservative but may not be economical.

## Resistance and Probabilities

 Resistance factor is
d t
determined
i d so that
th t the
th
reliability index, β, is
close to the target
g
R i
Resistance FFactors value, βT (about 3.5)

Φ
Resistance Factors Resistance Factors
 Resistance factors are different for different types of action (moment or
shear,
h ffor example)
l ) and
d ffor different
diff t ttypes off materials
t i l (steel
( t l or S
Steel
lSStructures
concrete). They are specified under each section of materials.
Types Φ
Flexure 1.00
Shear 1.00
Axial Compression (steel or composite) 0.90
Concrete Structures
Block shear 0.80
Types Φ Tension
Flexure and Tension Yielding limit state 0.95
in Reinforced Concrete 00.90
90 Fracture limit state 0 80
0.80
in Prestressed Concrete 1.00
g Concrete
Shear in Normal Weight 0.90
Axial Compression 0.75
Bearing on Concrete 0.70