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Typical Loads AASHTO HL93 Loads

Truck

Dead Load

Tandem

Live Load

Uniform Load

Live Load of Vehicle

LL Combinations

Pedestrian Load

LL Placement

Dynamic Load Allowance

Influence Line

EGCE 406 Bridge Design O h LLoads

Other d Design Equation

Fatigue Design Charts

Loads on Bridge W d

Wind Multiple Presence

Earthquake Distribution to Girders

…

Load and Resistance Factor

Mahidol University D i

Design

Praveen Chompreda First Semester, 2009

Loads on Bridge

DD = downdrag (wind) BR = breaking force of vehicle

DC = dead

d d Load

L d off CE = centrifugal force of vehicle (at curves)

structural and CR = creep of concrete

nonstructural components CT = vehicle collision force (on bridge or at

DW = dead load of wearing

surface

piers)

CV = vessel collision force (bridge piers over

river)

T i l LLoads

Typical d

EH = earth pressure EQ = earthquake

(horizontal) FR = friction

EL = secondary forces such as IC = ice Dead Loads: DC/DW

from posttensioning IM = d dynamic i load

l d off vehicles

hi l

LL = live load of vehicle (static) Live Loads of Vehicles: LL

ES = earth surcharge load

LS = live load surcharge Pedestrian Load: PL

(vertical)

PL = pedestrian load

EV = earth pressure (vertical)

SE = settlement Dynamic (Impact) Loads: IM

SH = shrinkageg of concrete

TG = load due to temperature differences

TU = load due to uniform temperature

WA = water load/ stream pressure

WL = wind on vehicles on bridge

WS = wind load on structure

Dead Load: DC Dead Load of Wearing Surface: DW

Dead load includes the self weight of: It is the weight of the wearing surface

structural components such as girder, slabs, cross beams, etc… (

(usually

ll asphalt)

h lt) andd utilities

tiliti ((pipes,

i

nonstructural components such as medians, railings, signs, etc…

lighting, etc…)

B d

But does not include

i l d the

h weight

i h off wearing

i surface

f (asphalt)

( h l) Different category is needed due to

large variability of the weight compared

We can estimate dead load from the material’s density with those of structural components

(DC)

Material Density (kg/m3) Asphalt surface may be thicker than

designed and may get laid on top of old

Concrete (Normal Weight.) 2400

layer over and over

Concrete (Lightweight) 1775-1925 Density of asphalt paving material

Steel 7850 = 2250 kg/m3

Aluminum Alloy 2800 Average Thickness of asphalt on bridge

= 9 cm

Wood 800-960

Stone Masonryy 2725

Dead loads are distributed to girder through Tributary Area Section for maximum moment is not the same as the section

for maximum shear

wDC or wDW

For simply-supported beams

Maximum M occurs at midspan

Maximum V occurs over the support

As we shall see in the designs of girders, the Critical Section for shear is

M=wL2/8 about d from the support.(where d is the effective depth of section,

approximately 0.8h)

At this point, shear is slightly lower than at the support. If we use shear at

the support for the design of stirrups, we are conservative.

V= L/2

V=wL/2

Live Loads of Vehicles: LL Live Loads of Vehicles: LL

Live load is the force due to The effect of live load on the

vehicles moving on the bridge bridge structures depends on

There are several types

yp of many parameters including:

vehicles span length

Car weight of vehicle

V

Van axlel lloads

d (load

(l d per wheel)

h l)

Buses axle configuration

Trucks position of the vehicle on the

Semi-Trailer bridge (transverse and

longitudinal)

Special vehicles

number b off vehicles

hi l on the

h bridge

b id

Military vehicles

(multiple presence)

ggirder spacing

p g

stiffness of structural members

(slab and girders)

BRIDGE BUILDING

wheel)) 300-500 kg/m

g 2

LL can be series of point loads (wheel LL is assumed to be uniformly

loads of trucks) or uniform loads (loads distributed within a span

of smaller vehicles)

Need to consider the placement within Do not generally consider

a span

p to get

g the maximum effect placement of load within a span

Loads occur in one direction within Loads are transferred in to 2

lanes directions

N d to

Need t consider

id alsol the

th placement

l t off Need to consider various

loads in multiple spans (for continuous placements of loads for the

span bridges) entire floor

Dynamic effects of live load cannot be Do not generally consider

ignored dynamic/impact effect of live

loads

Analysis Strategy for LL Design Lane

Need to know how many lanes there is on the bridge

Design Lane ≠ Actual Traffic Lane

3.0 m 3.3 m to 4.6 m (3.6 m recommended)

Number of Design Lanes = Roadway width/ 3.6

36m

≥ No. of Actual Traffic Lane

Place them Moment/ Shear Number of Lane must be an integer

g (1,2,3,…)

( , , , ) – there is no fraction of lane

Various

V i to get Consider Distribute from Live Load (no 2.5 lanes, for example)

Live maximum dynamic Load to to be used in the For roadway width from 6 m to 7.2 m, there should be 2 design lanes, each

Loads effects on effects each girder design of girders

span equal ½ of the roadway width

Design Truck

Design Tandem

Uniform Lane Load roadway width

For design purpose, we are interested the kind of vehicle that produce the The design truck is called HS-20

worstt effect

ff t (stands for Highway Semi-Trailer

with 20-kips weight on first two

AASHTO has 3 basic types of LL called the HL-93 loading (stands for HS-20 axles)

Highway Loading,

Loading year 1993)

Weight shown are for each one

Design truck axle = 2 wheels

Design tandem Total Wt = 325 kN ~ 33 t. t

Uniform loads Distance between second and

third axles may be varied to

produce

d maximum

i effect

ff

Need to multiply this load by

dynamic allowance factor (IM)

2. Design Tandem 3. Uniform Lane Loading

Two axle vehicle with 110 kN Uniform load of 9.3 kN/m acting over a tributary width of 3 m. (i.e. the

on eachh axle

l load is 3.1

3 1 kN/m2)

110 kN 110 kN

per axle per axle Need to multiply this load by May be apply continuously or discontinuously over the length of the

dynamic allowance factor (IM) bridge to produce maximum effect

PROFILE

No dynamic allowance factor (IM) for this load

Lead to larger moment than the

HS20 truck for simple-support

p pp

spans less than about 13.4 m

55 kN 55 kN

L

Lane 18m

1.8 TOP

VIEW

55 kN 55 kN

1.2 m

3 ways to add the design truck, design tandem, and uniform load together

Combination

C b 1 one HS20 truckk on top off a uniform

1: f lane

l load

l d per design

d lane

l

Combination 2: one Design Tandem on top of a uniform lane load per design

lane

Combination 3: (for negative moments at interior supports of continuous

Place them beams) place two HS20 design truck, one on each adjacent span but not less

Moment/ Shear

Various

V i to get Consider Distribute th 15 m apartt (measure

than ( from

f front

f t axlel off one truck

t k tot the

th rear axle

l off

from Live Load

Live maximum dynamic Load to another truck), with uniform lane load. Use 90% of their effects as the design

to be used in the

Loads effects on effects each girder moment/ shear

design of girders

span The loads in each case must be positioned such that they produce

maximum effects (max M or max V)

Load Combinations Th maximum effect

The ff off these

h 3 cases is used

d for

f the

h design

d

Transverse Placement

L i di l Pl

Longitudinal Placement

Live Load Placement Live Load Placement - Transverse

Need to consider two dimensions The design truck or tandem shall be positioned transversely such that the

Transversely (for designs of slabs and overhangs) center

t off any wheel

h l lload

d iis nott closer

l than:

th

30 cm from the face of the curb or railing for the design of the deck overhang

roadway width

60 cm from the edge of the design lane for the design of all other components

Minimum distance

min. 2' from curb = 60 cm

Note

N t th

thatt if th

the sidewalk

id lk iis nott separated

t d bby a crashworthy

h th ttraffic

ffi bbarrier,

i

must consider the case that vehicles can be on the sidewalk

Need to place the LL along the span such that it produces the maximum Methods of finding maximum moment and shear in span

effect

ff t Influence Line (IL) – Simple and Continuous spans

For simple 1-point loading, the maximum moment occurs when the load is Design Equation – Simple span only

placed at the midspan

Design Chart – Simple span only

P

Point of Max

Moment

L/2 L/2

However, truck load is a group of concentrated loads. It is not clear where

to place the group of loads to get the maximum moment

REMEMBER: MAXIMUM MOMENT DOES NOT ALWAYS OCCURS

AT MIDSPAN !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line

Influence line is a graphical method for finding the variation of the

“ t t l response”” att a point

“structural i t as a concentrated

t t d live

li load

l d moves across

the structure

Structural response can be support reaction, moment, shear, or displacement

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line

Influence line is a powerful visualization tool for the effects of live load 1.0

placements

l t to

t th

the structural

t t l response 0 75

0.75

0.5

110 kN 110 kN 0.25

value of point load multiplied 1.0

by the ordinate (y

(y-value)

value) of 0.75

05

0.5

the influence line 1.0

0.25

0.75 IL (RL)

0.5

0.25

IL (RL)

0.75

response is equal to the value 05

0.5

of the uniform load multiplied 0.25

i fl

influence line

li within

ithi th

the

uniform load 1.0

0.75

0.5

0.25

IL (RL)

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line

Müller-Breslau Principle: “If a function at a point on a beam, such as

reaction,

ti or shear,

h or moment, t is

i allowed

ll d tto actt without

ith t restraint,

t i t the

th

deflected shape of the beam, to some scale, represent the influence line of

the function.

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line

Notes For series of concentrated load (such as the design truck), the placement

Influence line tells you how to place the LL such that the maximum off lload

d ffor maximum

i moment,t shear,

h or reaction

ti may nott be

b apparent.

t

moment at a point occurs; i.e. you pick a point then you try to find The maximum always occur under one of the concentrated loads – but

what is the maximum moment at that point when loads are moved which one?

around Two methods

It does not tell you where the absolute maximum moment in the span Trial and Errors: Move the series of concentrated loads along the span

occurs; i.e. the maximum moment on the point you picked is not by letting each load on the peak of IL

always the absolute maximum moment that can occur in the span Use when you have only 2-3 concentrated loads

( hi h will

(which ill occur at a different

diff point

i and

d under

d a diff

different Can be tedious when you have a lot of concentrated loads

arrangement of loads)

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line

Increase/ Decrease Method

This method determine whether the response (moment, shear, or

reaction) increases or decreases as the series of concentrated loads

move into the span

As the series of loads move into the span, the response increases.

When it starts to decrease, yyou’ll know that the last pposition was

the one that produce the maximum effect.

Train Loading

(AREA: American Railroad Engineers Association)

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line

Increase/ Decrease Method Example

For shear

ΔV = Ps(x2-x1) ΔV = P (y2-y1)

For moment

Sloping Line IL for moment

has no jumps!

ΔM = Ps(x2-x1)

Note: not all loads may be in the span at the same time. Loads that have

just moved in or moved out may travel on the slope at a distance less

than distance moved between 2 concentrated loads.

loads

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line

For Statically Indeterminate Structures, the Müller-Breslau Principle also

h ld

holds

“If a function at a point on a beam, such as reaction, or shear, or moment,

is allowed to act without restraint

restraint, the deflected shape of the beam

beam, to

some scale, represent the influence line of the function”

For indeterminate structures, the influence line is not straight

g lines!

Methods of finding maximum moment and shear in span

Influence Line (IL) – Simple and Continuous spans

Design Equation – Simple span only

Design Chart – Simple span only

Live Load Placement – Design Equation Live Load Placement – Design Equation

Another Method: Using Barre’s Theorem for simply Resultant 0.73 m

supported spans

The absolute maximum moment in the span occurs under the load 145 kN 145 kN

35 kN

closet

l to the

h resultant

l fforce and

d placed

l d iin suchh a way that

h the

h

centerline of the span bisects the distance between that load and the

resultant

L/2 L/2

HS20

Point of Max

Resultant 0.73 m Moment

145 kN 145 kN

35 kN 172.1 19.8

M max = 81.25l + − 387 kN-m M max = 55l + − 66 kN-m

l l

Mmax occurs at a section under middle Mmax occurs at a section under one of

L/2 L/2 axle located a distance 0.73 m from the axle located a distance 0.30 m from

HS20 midspan midspan

Point of Max

Moment

Live Load Placement – Design Equation Live Load Placement – Design Equation

Case Load Configuration Moments (kips-ft) and

shears (kips)

Loading and limitations

(x and l in feet) If we combine the truck/tandem load with uniform load, we can get the

f ll i equations

following ti ffor maximum

i momentt iin spans

32 32 Truck loadingg

8 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ 42 ⎤ P = 16 kips

M ( x) = Px ⎢4.5⎜1 − ⎟−

⎣ ⎝ l ⎠ l ⎥⎦ MA ≥ MB for:

A l > 28

⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ 42 ⎤ x ≤ l/3

V ( x ) = P ⎢4.5⎜1 − ⎟ − ⎥ x + 28 ≤ l

x ⎣ ⎝ l⎠ l ⎦ VA > VB for any x

32 32 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ 21 7 ⎤ Truck loading

8 M ( x) = Px ⎢4.5⎜1 − ⎟ − − ⎥ P = 16 kips

B ⎣ ⎝ l⎠ l x⎦ MB ≥ MA for:

l > 28

⎡ x 21⎤

V ( x) = P ⎢4 − 4.5 − ⎥ x > l/3

⎣ l l ⎦ 14 ≤ x ≤ l/2

x

⎛ x 2⎞

25 25 M ( x) = 50 x⎜1 − − ⎟

⎝ l l⎠ Tandem loading

C

⎛ x 2⎞ is more severe than truck

V ( x) = 50⎜1 − − ⎟ loading for l ≤ 37 ft

⎝ l l⎠

x

0.64 k/ft (l − x)

M ( x) = 0.64 x

2

D Lane loading

⎛l ⎞

V ( x) = 0.64⎜ − x ⎟

x ⎝2 ⎠

Live Load Placement - Longitudinal Live Load Placement – Design Chart

Methods of finding maximum moment and shear in span Bending Moment in Simple Span

Influence Line (IL) – Simple and Continuous spans for AASHTO HL-93 Loading

Design Equation – Simple span only for a fully loaded lane

Design Chart – Simple span only Moment in kips-ft

IM is included

1 ft = 0.3048 m

1 kips = 4.448 kN

1 kips-ft = 1.356 kN-m

Live Load Placement – Design Chart Live Load Placement – Design Chart

Design chart is meant to be used for preliminary designs.

Shear in Simple Span

for AASHTO HL-93 Loading

for a fully loaded lane We assume that maximum moment occurs at midspan – this produces

Shear in kips

slightly lower maximum moment than the Design Equation method.

method

However, the error is usually small.

IM is included

1 ft = 0.3048 m Maximum shear occurs at support. However, the chart does not have

1 kips = 4.448 kN x = 0 ft. The closest is 1 ft from support.

In general, the bridge girder much higher than 1 ft. Therefore, shear at 1 ft is

still higher than the shear at critical section for shear (at d) so we are still

conservative here.

here

Live Load Placement – Design Chart Outline

Loads on Bridges Design Lane

Typical Loads AASHTO HL93 Loads

Truck

Dead Load

Tandem

Live Load

Uniform Load

Live Load of Vehicle

LL Combinations

Pedestrian Load

LL Placement

Dynamic Load Allowance

Influence Line

O h LLoads

Other d Design Equation

Fatigue Design Charts

W d

Wind Multiple Presence

Earthquake Distribution to Girders

Design Chart for Negative Moment due to Live Load Combination 3 …

at Interior Support of Continuous Beams with Equal Spans

Load and Resistance Factor

For one lane loading D i

Design

IM is included

Use when has sidewalk wider

th 60 cm

than

Considered simultaneously with

truck LL

Various

V i to get Consider Distribute

Pedestrian and/or Bicycle: 4.1 from Live Load

Live maximum dynamic Load to to be used in the

kN/m2 Loads effects on effects each girder design of girders

span

No IM factor (Neglect dynamic Dynamic

y

effect of pedestrians) Allowance Factor

(IM)

Dynamic Load Allowance: IM Dynamic Load Allowance: IM

Sources of Dynamic Effects

Hammering effect

H ff when

h wheels

h l hit

h the

h discontinuities

d on the

h road d surface

f

such as joints, cracks, and potholes

Dynamic

y response

p of the bridge

g due to vibrations induced byy traffic

Actual calculation of dynamic effects is very difficult and involves a lot of

unknowns

To make life simpler, we account for the dynamic effect of moving vehicles

by multiplying the static effect with a factor

Dynamic Load

Allowance Factor

Effect due to Effect due to

Static Load Dynamic Load

IM

Add dynamic effect to the following loads:

Design Truck

D T k

Design Tandem

But NOT to these loads:

Pedestrian Load

Design

g Lane Load Place them Moment/ Shear

Various

V i to get Consider Distribute from Live Load

Live maximum dynamic Load to to be used in the

Table 3.6.2.1-1 ((modified)) Loads effects on effects each girder design of girders

Component IM span

Deck Joint 75%

All limit

li i states M l i l Presence

Multiple P off LL

All other components above ground Distribution Factors

Fatigue/ Fracture Limit States 15%

All Other Limit States 33%

Foundation components below ground 0%

Multiple Presence of LL Multiple Presence of LL

We take care of this by using

Multiple Presence Factor

1.0 for two lanes and less for 3 or

Number of Multiple

p more lanes

Loaded Lane Presence Factor This is already included

“m” (indirectly) into the GDF Tables

in AASHTO code so we do not

1 1.20 need to multiply this again

2 1.00 Use this only when GDF is

d

determined

i d ffrom other

h analysis

l i

3 0.85 (such as from the lever rule,

>3 0.65 computer

p model, or FEM))

We’ve considered the effect of load placement in ONE lane

But bridges has more than one lane

It’s almost impossible to have maximum load effect on ALL lanes at the same time

The more lanes you have, the lesser chance that all will be loaded to maximum at

the same time

A bridge usually have more than one girder so the question arise on how DFs are different for different kinds of superstructure system

t distribute

to di t ib t the

th llane lload

d tto the

th girders

id DFs are different for interior and exterior beam

(conservative) value

No need to consider multiple presence factor

Exterior Exterior

Distribution Factor Interior

Lane Moment DF Girder Moment

L

Lane Sh

Shear Gi d Shear

Girder Sh DFs are available for one design lane and two or more design lanes (the

larger one controls)

Must make sure that the bridge

g is within the range

g of applicability

pp y of the

Refined analysis by using finite element method equation

Need to consider multiple

p ppresence factor

AASHTO Girder Distribution Factor DF

Factors affecting the distribution factor includes: For AASHTO method

first we must identify

Span Length (L)

the type of

Girder Spacing (S) superstructure

Modulus

M d l off elasticity

l i i off bbeam and dddeckk (

(support beam

b & deck

d k

types)

Moment of inertia and Torsional inertia of the section

Slab

Sl b Thickness

Thi k (ts)

Width (b), Depth (d), and Area of beam (A)

Number of design lanes (NL)

Number of girders (Nb)

Width of bridge (W)

DF DFM

Types Distribution factor for

(Continued) moment in Interior

Beams

DFM DFM

Distribution factor for Distribution factor for

moment in Interior moment in Exterior

Beams (continued) Beams

DFV DFV

Distribution factor for Distribution factor for

shear in Interior Beams shear in Exterior Beams

GDF – Finite Element Analysis GDF – Finite Element Analysis

Bridge Model

( )

(a)

(b)

3

(c)

1 2

Boundary (Support)

Load distribution in model

Conditions

At any section, if not using AASHTO’s GDF Loads on Bridges Design Lane

MLL+IM, Girder = DFM×(Mtruck/tadem,Lane×IM + Muniform,Lane )×m Typical Loads AASHTO HL93 Loads

VLL+IM, Girder = DFV×(Vtruck/tadem,Lane×IM + Vuniform,Lane )×m Truck

Dead Load

Tandem

At any section, if using AASHTO’s GDF Live Load

Uniform Load

MLL+IM, Girder = DFM×(Mtruck/tadem,Lane×IM + Muniform,Lane ) Live Load of Vehicle

LL Combinations

VLL+IM, Girder = DFV×(Vtruck/tadem,Lane×IM + Vuniform,Lane ) Pedestrian Load

LL Placement

Dynamic Load Allowance

Influence Line

Placed such that

O h LLoads

Other d Design Equation

we have maximum Fatigue Design Charts

effects W d

Wind Multiple Presence

Live Earthquake Distribution to Girders

Place them Increase the Moment/ Shear

L d

Loads …

to get static load by from Live Load

(Truck, Multiply

Tandem

maximum IM to account to be used in the Load and Resistance Factor

byy DF

static for dynamic d i off girders

design id D i

Design

and Lane

effects effects

Loads)

Fatigue

g Load

Repeated loading/unloading of live loads can cause fatigue in

bridge components

Fatigue load depends on two factors

O h LLoads

Other d Magnitude of Load

Use HS-20 design truck with 9m between 145 kN axles for determination

off maximum

i effects

ff off load

l d

Fatigue

Wind

Earthquake

Vehicle/ Vessel Collision

Frequency of Occurrence:

U ADTTSL = average d

Use daily

il ttruckk ttraffic

ffi iin a single

i l llane

ADT

Horizontal loads For small and low bridges, wind

Average Daily Traffic Table C3.6.1.4.2-1 There are two types of wind l d ttypically

load i ll d do nott control

t l ththe

(All Vehicles/ 1 Direction) loads on the structure design

From Survey (and extrapolate Class of Hwy

y % of Truck For longer span bridge over

WS = wind load on structure

to future) Rural Interstate 0.20 river/sea, wind load on the

Wind pressure on the

Max ~ 20,000 vehicles/day structure is very important

Urban Interstate 0.15 structure itself

Other Rural 0.15 WL = wind on vehicles on Need to consider the

% of Truck

in Traffic Other Urban 0.10 bridge aerodynamic effect of the

Wi d pressure on the

Wind h wind on the structure

ADTT vehicles on the bridge, which (turbulence) Æ wind tunnel

Averageg Dailyy Truck Traffic Table 3.6.1.1.2-1 the load is transferred to the tests

(Truck Only/ 1 Direction) Number of Lanes p bridge superstructure Need to consider the

Available to Trucks Wind loads are applied as static dynamic effect of flexible

Fraction of Truck Traffic in a l

long-span b id under

bridge d the h

1 1.00 horizontal load

Single Lane (p) wind Æ dynamic analysis

2 0.85

ADTTSL

3 or more 0.80

Average Daily Truck Traffic

(Truck Only/ 1 Lane)

Wind Loads (WS, WL) Wind Load

WL

WS

(on Superstructure)

WS

(on Substructure)

T

Tacoma Narrows

N Bridge

B id (Tacoma,

(T Washington,

W hi USA)

The bridge collapsed in 1940 shortly after completion under wind speed lower

than the design

g wind speed

p but at a frequency

q y near the natural frequency

q y of

the bridge

The “resonance” effect was not considered at the time

Horizontal load The January 17, 1995 Kobe

earthquake

th k hhad d its

it epicenter

i t right

i ht

The magnitude of earthquake is characterized by return period between the two towers of the

Large return period (e.g.

(e g 500 years) Æ strong earthquake Akashi-Kaikyo

y Bridge g

Small return period Æ (e.g. 50 years) Æ minor earthquake The earthquake has the

magnitude of 7.2 on Richter scale

For large earthquakes (rarely occur), the bridge structure is allowed to The uncompleted bridge did not

suffer significant structural damage but must not collapse have any structural damages

F smallll earthquakes

For th k ((more lik likely

l tto occur),

) the

th bbridge

id should

h ld still

till bbe iin Th original

The i i l planned

l d llength

h was

the elastic range (no structural damage) 1990 meters for the main span,

but the seismic event moved the

Earthquake must be considered for structures in certain zones towers apart by almost a meter!

Earthquake Load: EQ Water Loads: WA

Typically considered in the design of substructures (foundation, piers,

abutment)

b t t)

Water loads may be categorized into:

Static Pressure (acting perpendicular to all surfaces)

Buoyancy (vertical uplifting force)

Stream pressure (acting in the direction of the stream)

Loads depend on the shape and size of the substructure

Bridge structures are very vulnerable to Typically considered in the design of substructures (foundation, piers,

vehicle

hi l collisions

lli i abutment)

b t t)

We must consider the force due to The nature of the force is dynamic (impact), but for simplicity, AASHTO

vehicle collision and designed for it allows us to consider it as equivalent static load.

load

protected by either:

Embankment

Crash-resistant barriers 1.37m height located within 3 m

Any barriers of 1.07 m height located more than 3 m

For piers and abutment located within 9 m from edge of roadway or 15 m

from the centerline of railway track

Assume

A an equivalent

i l static

i fforce off 1800 kN acting

i hhorizontally

i ll at 1.2

12

m above ground

Vehicular Collision Force: CT Vessel Collision: CV

No protection to

the bridge piers

protected

No protection to the bridge Better protection (still not sufficient)

structure

Outline

Loads on Bridges Design Lane

Typical Loads AASHTO HL93 Loads

Truck

Dead Load

Live Load

Live Load of Vehicle

Tandem

Uniform Load AASHTO LRFD Designs

D i

LL Combinations

Pedestrian Load

LL Placement

Dynamic Load Allowance

Influence Line

Introduction

O h LLoads

Other d Design Equation Design Criteria

Fatigue Design Charts

W d

Wind

Load Multiplier

Multiple Presence

Earthquake Distribution to Girders Load Factor and Load Combinations

… R i

Resistance FFactors

Load and Resistance Factor

D i

Design

Historical Development of AASHTO Code Changes of LRFD from Standard Specifications

The first US standard for bridges in was published in 1931 (AASHO) Introduction of a new philosophy of safety

Working stress design (WSD), based on allowable stresses Id tifi ti off ffour lilimit

Identification it states

t t (strength,

(t th service,

i fatigue,

f ti extreme

t event)

t)

Now call “Standard Specifications” Development of new load models (including new live load)

Work on the new code bagan in 1988-93

1988 93 Development of new load and resistance factors

1st edition of AASHTO LRFD Specifications was published in 1994, the Revised techniques for the analysis and load distribution

2nd in 1998,, 3rd in 2004 – as an alternative document to the Standard New shear designg method for plain,

p reinforced and prestressed

p concrete

Specification Introduction of limit state-based provisions for foundation design

By 2007, only AASHTO LRFD method is allowed for the design of bridges Revised load provisions

in the USA Hydraulics and scour

Thailand’s

’ Department off Highway (DOH)

( O ) still refers

f to Standard

S Ship collision

Specification but will eventually switch to LRFD Specifications Introduction of isotropic deck design process

Commentary are now side side-by-side

by side with the standard

General design criteria in AASHTO LRFD Code:

∑ ηγiQi ≤ ΦRn LOAD Mean

Load

Mean

Resistance

RESISTANCE

Nominal

N i l

Nominal

Load Multiplier Load

Resistance

η = ηI ηD ηR

Nominal Resistance

Load Factor

R

Resistance FFactor

Nominal Load Effect

Load and resistance factors serve as partial safety factors Factored FAILURE Factored

Load Resistance

They are determined using the code calibration procedure

Load Multiplier

ηI = Importance factor

The owner may declare a bridge or any structural component and

connection to be of operational importance.

L dM

Load Multiplier

l i li For strength and extreme event limit states

1.05 for bridge considered of operational importance e.g. the only bridge

crossing the river

1.00 for typical bridges

η = ηI ηD ηR

0.95 for bridge considered nonimportant

For all other limit states

1.00 for all bridges

ηD = Ductility factor (Brittle v.s. Ductile failure) ηR = Redundant factor

The structural system shall be proportioned and detailed to ensure the Multiple load path and continuous structures should be used. Main

development of significant and visible inelastic deformations at the elements whose failure is expected to cause the collapse of the bridge

strength and extreme event limit states before failure.

failure shall be designated as failure

failure-critical

critical (nonredundant)

For strength limit states For strength limit states

1.05 for nonductile components

p & connection which mayy fail in a brittle 1.05 for nonredundant members e.g. g a simple

p span

p bridges g

manner 1.00 for conventional level of redundancy

1.00 for conventional designs 0.95 for exceptional level of redundancy e.g. multi-girder continuous beam

0 95 for

0.95 f components with i h enhanced

h d ductility

d ili e.g. has

h additional

ddi i l stirrups

i for

f b id

bridge

shear reinforcements For all other limit states

For all other limit states 1 00

1.00

1.00

Loads & Probabilities

How do we apply all the loads for the structural analysis?

LLoad

d Factor

F & Add all the mean (average) value of loads together?

No, because we must consider the chance that the load may be larger or

L dC

Load Combinations

bi i

smaller than calculated.

calculated

Add all the extreme value of loads together?

No, because then the bridge must have to resist an enormous load and

that would make it really expensive!

γi

The chance that the maximum value of one load occurring at the same

time

i as the

h maximum

i value

l off another

h load

l d is

i very small.

ll

We need to consider several cases where each case we have one load

at its maximum value expected while other loads are around their

mean values

Load factors are There are 4 types of “limit states”

d t

determined

i d so that,

th t for

f Ultimate

Ulti t lilimit

it states

t t – involvingi l i th

the strength

t th and

d stability

t bilit off th

the structure,

t t

each factored load, the both local and global

pprobabilityy of beingg Strength

g I,, II,, III,, IV

exceeded is about the Extreme Event limit states - relates to the structural survival of a bridge

same for all load during a major earthquake, flood, or collision

components. t Extreme

E Event

E I,I II

Serviceability limit states – involving the usability of the structure including

stress, deformation, and crack widths

Service I, II, III

Fatigue limit state - relates to restrictions on stress range to prevent crack

growth as a result of repetitive loads during the design life of the bridge

Fatigue

All limit states are equally important (AASHTO LRFD 1.3.2.1) 1 3 2 1)

Permanent Loads Transient Loads

DC = dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments LL = vehicular live load CR = creep

DW = dead

d d load

l d off wearing

i surface

f and

d utilities

tiliti IM = vehicular dynamic load SH = shrinkage

EL = accumulated locked-in force effects resulting from the allowance FR = friction

construction process

p PL = pedestrian live load

TG = temperature gradient

di

DD = downdrag

LS = live load surcharge TU = uniform temperature

EH = horizontal earth pressure load

BR = vehicular braking force WA = water

t load

l d andd stream

t

ES = earth surcharge load

EV = vertical pressure from dead load of earth fill CE = vehicular centrifugal force pressure

CT = vehicular collision force IC = ice load

CV = vessel collision force WL = wind on live load

EQ = earthquake WS = wind load on structure

SE = settlement

case for Gravity load

designs

Load Combinations Load Combinations

Why do we need to have minimum and maximum load factors for STRENGTH I: Basic load combination relating to the normal use of bridge.

permanentt loads?

l d ? Isn’t

I ’t it safer

f tot consider

id the

th maximum???

i ??? M i

Maximum combination

bi ti iis used d when

h LL produces

d th

the same effect

ff t as DC

DC.

Because in some cases, large permanent load can help reduce the Minimum combination is used when LL produces opposite effect to DC.

force in the structure.

structure STRENGTH II: load combination for special vehicles specified by owner

STRENGTH III: load combination where the bridge is subjected to high

wind ((> 90 km/h)) and traffic is pprevented

Gravity Load STRENGTH IV: load combination for long span bridges (>67 m span)

If the gravity load

which has large ratio of DC to LL

of the If the ggravityy load

superstructure is is small, this may STRENGTH V: load combination where bridge and traffic on the bridge is

large, it offsets the be in tension. If subjected to wind velocity of 90 km/h

wind load and we the pier is

will get small concrete, it will

compression here crack!!!

Under

U d High

Hi h C

Compression

i

Compression

EXTREME EVENT I: load combination for structural survival under major Example of combinations:

earthquake

1.25DC + 1.50DW + 1.75(LL+IM) (Strength I)

EXTREME EVENT II: load combination for structural survival under

combination of events such as flood and vessel collision 1.25DC + 1.50DW + 1.4WS (Strength III)

0.90DC + 0.65DW + 1.4WS (Strength III)

SERVICE I: load combination for normal operation of the bridge and for 1.50DC + 1.50DW (Strength IV)

checking compression in prestressed concrete 1.25DC + 1.50DW + 1.35(LL+IM) + 0.4(WS+WL) (Strength V)

SERVICE II: load combination for steel bridges to control yielding 1.25DC + 1.50DW + 0.5(LL+IM) + 1.0EQ (Extreme I)

SERVICE III: load combination relating to tension in prestressed concrete

during service 0 90DC + 0.65DW

0.90DC 0 65DW + 0.5(LL+IM)

0 5(LL IM) + 1.0EQ

1 0EQ (Extreme

(E I)

1.25DC + 1.50DW + 0.5(LL+IM) + 1.0 (CT or CV) (Extreme I)

FATIGUE: load combination for fatigue and fracture due to repetitive LL 0 90DC + 0.65DW

0.90DC 0 65DW + 0.5(LL+IM)

0 5(LL+IM) + 1.0

1 0 (CT or CV) (Extreme

(E t I)

and IM

Load Combinations Notes on Load Combinations

For slabs and girders designs, we normally have only DC, DW, Note that the sections for maximum moment of dead load

and (LL+IM) and live load are not the same!!!

1.25DC + 1.50DW + 1.75(LL+IM) (Strength I) Dead Load: midspan

1.50DC + 1.50DW (Strength IV) Live Load: some small distance away from midspan

If we add them together, we are conservative!

1.00DC + 1.00DW + 1.00(LL+IM) (Service I)

1.00DC + 1.00DW + 1.30(LL+IM) (Service II, Steel)

C t ca moment

Critical o e t for

o shear

s ea iss d away from

o the

t e support.

suppo t. Wee

1 00DC + 1.00DW

1.00DC 1 00DW + 0.80(LL+IM)

0 80(LL IM) (S

(Service

i III

III, P

Prestressed)

d)

can calculate shear at this location for both dead load and live

g of the section

load IF we know the height

We estimate the height from past experiences of similar projects

If we don’t know, we calculate shear at the support.

pp This is

conservative but may not be economical.

Resistance factor is

d t

determined

i d so that

th t the

th

reliability index, β, is

close to the target

g

R i

Resistance FFactors value, βT (about 3.5)

Φ

Resistance Factors Resistance Factors

Resistance factors are different for different types of action (moment or

shear,

h ffor example)

l ) and

d ffor different

diff t ttypes off materials

t i l (steel

( t l or S

Steel

lSStructures

concrete). They are specified under each section of materials.

Types Φ

Flexure 1.00

Shear 1.00

Axial Compression (steel or composite) 0.90

Concrete Structures

Block shear 0.80

Types Φ Tension

Flexure and Tension Yielding limit state 0.95

in Reinforced Concrete 00.90

90 Fracture limit state 0 80

0.80

in Prestressed Concrete 1.00

g Concrete

Shear in Normal Weight 0.90

Axial Compression 0.75

Bearing on Concrete 0.70

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