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**Loads on Bridges Typical Loads
**

Dead Load Live Load

Live Load of Vehicle Pedestrian Load Dynamic Load Allowance

**Design Lane AASHTO HL93 Loads
**

Truck Tandem Uniform Load

**LL Combinations LL Placement
**

Influence Line Design Equation Design Charts

EGCE 406 Bridge Design Loads on Bridge

Other Loads Oh L d

Fatigue Wind W d Earthquake …

Mahidol University First Semester, 2009

Multiple Presence Distribution to Girders

Praveen Chompreda

Load and Resistance Factor Design D i

Loads on Bridge

DD = downdrag (wind) DC = dead Load of d dL d f structural and nonstructural components DW = dead load of wearing surface EH = earth pressure (horizontal) EL = secondary forces such as from posttensioning ES = earth surcharge load (vertical) EV = earth pressure (vertical) BR = breaking force of vehicle CE = centrifugal force of vehicle (at curves) CR = creep of concrete CT = vehicle collision force (on bridge or at piers) CV = vessel collision force (bridge piers over river) EQ = earthquake FR = friction IC = ice IM = d dynamic load of vehicles i l d f hi l LL = live load of vehicle (static) LS = live load surcharge PL = pedestrian load SE = settlement SH = shrinkage of concrete g TG = load due to temperature differences TU = load due to uniform temperature WA = water load/ stream pressure WL = wind on vehicles on bridge WS = wind load on structure

Typical Loads T i lL d

Dead Loads: DC/DW Live Loads of Vehicles: LL Pedestrian Load: PL Dynamic (Impact) Loads: IM

Dead Load: DC

Dead load includes the self weight of: structural components such as girder, slabs, cross beams, etc… nonstructural components such as medians, railings, signs, etc… But does not i l d the weight of wearing surface (asphalt) B d include h i h f i f ( h l) We can estimate dead load from the material’s density

Material Concrete (Normal Weight.) Concrete (Lightweight) Steel Aluminum Alloy Wood y Stone Masonry Density (kg/m3) 2400 1775-1925 7850 2800 800-960 2725

**Dead Load of Wearing Surface: DW
**

It is the weight of the wearing surface (usually asphalt) and utilities ( i ( ll h lt) d tiliti (pipes, lighting, etc…) Different category is needed due to large variability of the weight compared with those of structural components (DC)

Asphalt surface may be thicker than designed and may get laid on top of old layer over and over

Density of asphalt paving material = 2250 kg/m3 Average Thickness of asphalt on bridge = 9 cm

**Tributary Area for Dead Loads y
**

Dead loads are distributed to girder through Tributary Area

wDC or wDW

DC, DW

Section for maximum moment is not the same as the section for maximum shear For simply-supported beams

Maximum M occurs at midspan Maximum V occurs over the support

As we shall see in the designs of girders, the Critical Section for shear is about d from the support.(where d is the effective depth of section, approximately 0.8h) At this point, shear is slightly lower than at the support. If we use shear at the support for the design of stirrups, we are conservative.

M=wL2/8

V=wL/2 V= L/2

Live Loads of Vehicles: LL

**Live Loads of Vehicles: LL
**

Live load is the force due to vehicles moving on the bridge There are several types of yp vehicles

Car Van V Buses Trucks Semi-Trailer Special vehicles Military vehicles

**The effect of live load on the bridge structures depends on many parameters including:
**

span length weight of vehicle axle l d (load per wheel) l loads (l d h l) axle configuration position of the vehicle on the bridge (transverse and longitudinal) number of vehicles on the bridge b f hi l h b id (multiple presence) g girder spacing p g stiffness of structural members (slab and girders)

Live Loads of Vehicles: LL

Bridge LL vs. Building LL

BRIDGE LL is very heavy (several tons per wheel) ) LL can be series of point loads (wheel loads of trucks) or uniform loads (loads of smaller vehicles) Need to consider the placement within a span to get the maximum effect p g Loads occur in one direction within lanes Need t N d to consider also the placement of id l th l t f loads in multiple spans (for continuous span bridges) Dynamic effects of live load cannot be ignored BUILDING LL is not very heavy, typical 300-500 kg/m2 g LL is assumed to be uniformly distributed within a span Do not generally consider placement of load within a span Loads are transferred in to 2 directions Need to consider various placements of loads for the entire floor Do not generally consider dynamic/impact effect of live loads

5 lanes. for example) For roadway width from 6 m to 7. Distance between second and third axles may be varied to produce maximum effect d i ff Need to multiply this load by dynamic allowance factor (IM) .2 m.2. there should be 2 design lanes. Design truck Design tandem Uniform loads 1. each equal ½ of the roadway width roadway width Live Loads of Vehicles: LL For design purpose.3 m to 4.6 m recommended) Number of Design Lanes Various V i Live Loads Design Truck Design Tandem Uniform Lane Load Place them to get maximum effects on span Moment/ Shear from Live Load to be used in the design of girders Consider dynamic effects Distribute Load to each girder = Roadway width/ 3 6 m 3.6 ≥ No.6 m (3. we are interested the kind of vehicle that produce the worst effect t ff t AASHTO has 3 basic types of LL called the HL-93 loading (stands for Highway Loading year 1993) Loading. Design Truck HS-20 The design truck is called HS-20 (stands for Highway Semi-Trailer with 20-kips weight on first two axles) Weight shown are for each one axle = 2 wheels Total Wt = 325 kN ~ 33 t t. ) (no 2.…) – there is no fraction of lane g ( .Analysis Strategy for LL Design Lane Need to know how many lanes there is on the bridge Design Lane ≠ Actual Traffic Lane 3. .3. . of Actual Traffic Lane Number of Lane must be an integer (1.0 m 3.

the load is 3 1 kN/m2) 3. (i. and uniform load together Combination 1 one HS20 truck on top of a uniform lane load per design lane C b 1: k f f l l d d l Combination 2: one Design Tandem on top of a uniform lane load per design lane Combination 3: (for negative moments at interior supports of continuous beams) place two HS20 design truck. Uniform Lane Loading Two axle vehicle with 110 kN on each axle h l Need to multiply this load by dynamic allowance factor (IM) Lead to larger moment than the HS20 truck for simple-support p pp spans less than about 13.2 m 55 kN TOP VIEW Analysis Strategy for LL Live Load Combinations 3 ways to add the design truck.e. one on each adjacent span but not less than th 15 m apart (measure from front axle of one truck to the rear axle of t( f f t l f t k t th l f another truck).2. design tandem.1 May be apply continuously or discontinuously over the length of the bridge to produce maximum effect No dynamic allowance factor (IM) for this load 55 kN Loading Lane L 55 kN Traffic Directions 1. with uniform lane load. Design Tandem 110 kN per axle 110 kN per axle PROFILE 3.4 m Uniform load of 9. Use 90% of their effects as the design moment/ shear Various V i Live Loads Place them to get maximum effects on span Consider dynamic effects Distribute Load to each girder Moment/ Shear from Live Load to be used in the design of girders Load Combinations Transverse Placement Longitudinal Placement L i di l Pl The loads in each case must be positioned such that they produce maximum effects (max M or max V) The Th maximum effect of these 3 cases is used for the design ff f h df h d .8 18m 55 kN 1.3 kN/m acting over a tributary width of 3 m.

Longitudinal Need to place the LL along the span such that it produces the maximum effect ff t For simple 1-point loading.Transverse The design truck or tandem shall be positioned transversely such that the center of any wheel l d i not closer than: t f h l load is t l th 30 cm from the face of the curb or railing for the design of the deck overhang 60 cm from the edge of the design lane for the design of all other components min.Live Load Placement Need to consider two dimensions Transversely (for designs of slabs and overhangs) roadway width Live Load Placement . the maximum moment occurs when the load is placed at the midspan P Live Load Placement . truck load is a group of concentrated loads.Longitudinal Methods of finding maximum moment and shear in span Influence Line (IL) – Simple and Continuous spans Design Equation – Simple span only Design Chart – Simple span only Point of Max Moment L/2 L/2 However. 2' Minimum distance from curb = 60 cm Longitudinally (for design of main girder) Note that the id N t th t if th sidewalk i not separated b a crashworthy t ffi b i lk is t t d by h th traffic barrier. must consider the case that vehicles can be on the sidewalk Live Load Placement . It is not clear where to place the group of loads to get the maximum moment REMEMBER: MAXIMUM MOMENT DOES NOT ALWAYS OCCURS AT MIDSPAN !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .

shear. moment.Live Load Placement – Influence Line Influence line is a graphical method for finding the variation of the “structural “ t t l response” at a point as a concentrated live load moves across ” t i t t t d li l d the structure Structural response can be support reaction. or displacement Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line .

25 IL (RL) 1.5 0.0 0.0 0. such as reaction. the “response” is equal to the value of point load multiplied by the ordinate (y value) of (y-value) the influence line 1. .0 0. or moment.75 0. is allowed t act without restraint.5 0.Live Load Placement – Influence Line Influence line is a powerful visualization tool for the effects of live load placements to th structural response l t t the t t l 110 kN 110 kN Live Load Placement – Influence Line 1.75 0.0 0.25 IL (RL) 0.5 05 0.75 1.0 0. the ti h t i ll d to t ith t t i t th deflected shape of the beam. represent the influence line of the function. or shear.5 0.5 05 0. the response is equal to the value of the uniform load multiplied by the area under the influence line within th i fl li ithi the uniform load 1.75 0. to some scale.25 IL (RL) For Uniform Load.75 0 75 0.25 IL (RL) For Point Load.25 IL (RL) Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line Müller-Breslau Principle: “If a function at a point on a beam.

Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line Notes Influence line tells you how to place the LL such that the maximum moment at a point occurs. i. the maximum moment on the point you picked is not always the absolute maximum moment that can occur in the span (which ill ( hi h will occur at a different point and under a diff diff i d d different arrangement of loads) Live Load Placement – Influence Line For series of concentrated load (such as the design truck).e. i. or reaction may not be apparent.e. you pick a point then you try to find what is the maximum moment at that point when loads are moved around It does not tell you where the absolute maximum moment in the span occurs. f load for i t h ti tb t The maximum always occur under one of the concentrated loads – but which one? Two methods Trial and Errors: Move the series of concentrated loads along the span by letting each load on the peak of IL Use when you have only 2-3 concentrated loads Can be tedious when you have a lot of concentrated loads . shear. the placement of l d f maximum moment.

shear. you’ll know that the last position was y p the one that produce the maximum effect. Loads that have just moved in or moved out may travel on the slope at a distance less than distance moved between 2 concentrated loads loads. . When it starts to decrease. Train Loading (AREA: American Railroad Engineers Association) Live Load Placement – Influence Line Increase/ Decrease Method For shear Sloping Line ΔV = Ps(x2-x1) For moment Sloping Line ΔM = Ps(x2-x1) IL for moment has no jumps! Jump ΔV = P (y2-y1) Live Load Placement – Influence Line Example Note: not all loads may be in the span at the same time. the response increases.Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line Increase/ Decrease Method This method determine whether the response (moment. or reaction) increases or decreases as the series of concentrated loads move into the span As the series of loads move into the span.

represent the influence line of the function” For indeterminate structures. beam. the Müller-Breslau Principle also holds h ld “If a function at a point on a beam.Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement – Influence Line For Statically Indeterminate Structures. such as reaction. or shear. is allowed to act without restraint the deflected shape of the beam to restraint. the influence line is not straight lines! g Live Load Placement – Influence Line Live Load Placement . some scale.Longitudinal Methods of finding maximum moment and shear in span Influence Line (IL) – Simple and Continuous spans Design Equation – Simple span only Design Chart – Simple span only . or moment.

5⎜1 − ⎟ − ⎥ l⎠ l ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ Truck loading g P = 16 kips MA ≥ MB for: l > 28 x ≤ l/3 x + 28 ≤ l VA > VB for any x 8 B 32 32 x 25 25 C ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ 21 7 ⎤ M ( x) = Px ⎢4.64 x Lane loading .73 m L/2 Point of Max Moment 35 kN M max = 81.5⎜1 − ⎣ ⎝ x ⎞ 42 ⎤ ⎟− l⎠ l ⎥ ⎦ x ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ 42 ⎤ V ( x ) = P ⎢4.5 − ⎥ l l ⎦ ⎣ x 2⎞ ⎛ M ( x) = 50 x⎜1 − − ⎟ l l⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x 2⎞ V ( x) = 50⎜1 − − ⎟ l l⎠ ⎝ Truck loading P = 16 kips MB ≥ MA for: l > 28 x > l/3 14 ≤ x ≤ l/2 Tandem loading is more severe than truck loading for l ≤ 37 ft x 0.73 m from midspan Mmax occurs at a section under one of the axle located a distance 0.5⎜1 − ⎟ − − ⎥ l⎠ l x⎦ ⎣ ⎝ x 21⎤ ⎡ V ( x) = P ⎢4 − 4.25l + 172.Live Load Placement – Design Equation Another Method: Using Barre’s Theorem for simply supported spans The absolute maximum moment in the span occurs under the load closet to the resultant f l h l force and placed i such a way that the d l d in h h h centerline of the span bisects the distance between that load and the resultant Live Load Placement – Design Equation Resultant 145 kN 145 kN 0.8 − 66 kN-m l L/2 HS20 L/2 Point of Max Moment Mmax occurs at a section under middle axle located a distance 0.64⎜ − x ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ M ( x) = 0.30 m from midspan Live Load Placement – Design Equation Case Load Configuration Moments (kips-ft) and shears (kips) Loading and limitations (x and l in feet) Live Load Placement – Design Equation If we combine the truck/tandem load with uniform load.64 k/ft D x (l − x) 2 ⎛l ⎞ V ( x) = 0.73 m 35 kN L/2 HS20 Resultant 145 kN 145 kN 0.1 − 387 kN-m l M max = 55l + 19. we can get the following f ll i equations f maximum moment i spans ti for i t in 32 A 32 8 ⎡ ⎛ M ( x) = Px ⎢4.

However. the error is usually small. Therefore. shear at 1 ft is still higher than the shear at critical section for shear (at d) so we are still conservative here here. .3048 m 1 kips = 4.Longitudinal Methods of finding maximum moment and shear in span Influence Line (IL) – Simple and Continuous spans Design Equation – Simple span only Design Chart – Simple span only Live Load Placement – Design Chart Bending Moment in Simple Span for AASHTO HL-93 Loading for a fully loaded lane Moment in kips-ft IM is included 1 ft = 0.Live Load Placement . In general.356 kN-m Live Load Placement – Design Chart Shear in Simple Span for AASHTO HL-93 Loading for a fully loaded lane Shear in kips IM is included 1 ft = 0.448 kN 1 kips-ft = 1. the chart does not have x = 0 ft. We assume that maximum moment occurs at midspan – this produces slightly lower maximum moment than the Design Equation method method. the bridge girder much higher than 1 ft. However.448 kN Live Load Placement – Design Chart Design chart is meant to be used for preliminary designs.3048 m 1 kips = 4. The closest is 1 ft from support. Maximum shear occurs at support.

6 kN/m2 Pedestrian and/or Bicycle: 4.Live Load Placement – Design Chart Outline Loads on Bridges Typical Loads Dead Load Live Load Live Load of Vehicle Pedestrian Load Dynamic Load Allowance Design Lane AASHTO HL93 Loads Truck Tandem Uniform Load LL Combinations LL Placement Influence Line Design Equation Design Charts Other Loads Oh L d Fatigue Wind W d Earthquake … Multiple Presence Distribution to Girders Design Chart for Negative Moment due to Live Load Combination 3 at Interior Support of Continuous Beams with Equal Spans For one lane loading IM is included Load and Resistance Factor Design D i Pedestrian Live Load: PL Use when has sidewalk wider than th 60 cm Considered simultaneously with truck LL Pedestrian only: 3.1 kN/m2 No IM factor (Neglect dynamic effect of pedestrians) Analysis Strategy for LL Various V i Live Loads Place them to get maximum effects on span Consider dynamic effects Dynamic y Allowance Factor (IM) Distribute Load to each girder Moment/ Shear from Live Load to be used in the design of girders .

1-1 (modified) ( ) Component Deck Joint All li i states limit All other components above ground Fatigue/ Fracture Limit States All Other Limit States Foundation components below ground IM 75% Various V i Live Loads Place them to get maximum effects on span Consider dynamic effects Distribute Load to each girder Moment/ Shear from Live Load to be used in the design of girders Multiple P M l i l Presence of LL f Distribution Factors 15% 33% 0% * Reduce the above values by 50% for wood bridges .6.2. cracks. and potholes Dynamic response of the bridge due to vibrations induced by traffic y p g y Dynamic Load Allowance: IM Actual calculation of dynamic effects is very difficult and involves a lot of unknowns To make life simpler.Dynamic Load Allowance: IM Sources of Dynamic Effects Hammering effect when wheels hit the discontinuities on the road surface H ff h h l h h d h d f such as joints. we account for the dynamic effect of moving vehicles by multiplying the static effect with a factor Dynamic Load Allowance Factor IM Effect due to Static Load Effect due to Dynamic Load This IM factor in the code was obtained from field measurements Dynamic Load Allowance: IM Add dynamic effect to the following loads: Design Truck D T k Design Tandem Analysis Strategy for LL But NOT to these loads: Pedestrian Load Design Lane Load g Table 3.

get an approximate (conservative) value No need to consider multiple presence factor AASHTO Girder Distribution Factor DFs are different for different kinds of superstructure system DFs are different for interior and exterior beam roadway width Exterior Distribution Factor DF Lane Moment Girder Moment Lane Sh L Shear Girder Sh Gi d Shear Interior Exterior Refined analysis by using finite element method Need to consider multiple p p presence factor DFs are available for one design lane and two or more design lanes (the larger one controls) Must make sure that the bridge is within the range of applicability of the g g pp y equation . computer model.00 0.Multiple Presence of LL Multiple Presence of LL We take care of this by using Multiple Presence Factor 1.85 0.65 >3 Distribution of LL to Girders A bridge usually have more than one girder so the question arise on how to di t ib t th lane l d t the girders t distribute the l load to th i d Two main methods Using AASHTO’s table: for typical design. the lesser chance that all will be loaded to maximum at the same time Multiple p Presence Factor “m” 1.0 for two lanes and less for 3 or more lanes This is already included (indirectly) into the GDF Tables in AASHTO code so we do not need to multiply this again Use this only when GDF is determined f d i d from other analysis h l i (such as from the lever rule. or FEM) p ) Number of Loaded Lane 1 2 3 We’ve considered the effect of load placement in ONE lane But bridges has more than one lane It’s almost impossible to have maximum load effect on ALL lanes at the same time The more lanes you have.20 1.

Depth (d).AASHTO Girder Distribution Factor Factors affecting the distribution factor includes: Span Length (L) Girder Spacing (S) Modulus f l i i M d l of elasticity of b f beam and d k d deck Moment of inertia and Torsional inertia of the section Slab Thi k Sl b Thickness (ts) Width (b). and Area of beam (A) Number of design lanes (NL) Number of girders (Nb) Width of bridge (W) DF For AASHTO method first we must identify the type of superstructure (support beam & deck ( b d k types) DF Types (Continued) DFM Distribution factor for moment in Interior Beams .

DFM Distribution factor for moment in Interior Beams (continued) DFM Distribution factor for moment in Exterior Beams DFV Distribution factor for shear in Interior Beams DFV Distribution factor for shear in Exterior Beams .

Girder = DFM×(Mtruck/tadem.GDF – Finite Element Analysis Bridge Model GDF – Finite Element Analysis ( ) (a) (b) 3 (c) Boundary (Support) Conditions 1 2 Load distribution in model Moment and Shear in Typical Girder At any section. Girder = DFV×(Vtruck/tadem.Lane×IM + Muniform.Lane ) Placed such that we have maximum effects Live Loads L d (Truck. Girder = DFM×(Mtruck/tadem. if not using AASHTO’s GDF MLL+IM.Lane×IM + Vuniform.Lane×IM + Vuniform.Lane ) VLL+IM.Lane )×m Outline Loads on Bridges Typical Loads Dead Load Live Load Live Load of Vehicle Pedestrian Load Dynamic Load Allowance Design Lane AASHTO HL93 Loads Truck Tandem Uniform Load At any section.Lane )×m VLL+IM.Lane×IM + Muniform. Tandem and Lane Loads) Place them to get maximum static effects Increase the static load by IM to account for dynamic effects Moment/ Shear from Live Load to be used in the design f i d d i of girders LL Combinations LL Placement Influence Line Design Equation Design Charts Other Loads Oh L d Fatigue Wind W d Earthquake … Multiple Presence Distribution to Girders Multiply y by DF Load and Resistance Factor Design D i . if using AASHTO’s GDF MLL+IM. Girder = DFV×(Vtruck/tadem.

4. wind load typically do t l d t i ll d not control th t l the design For longer span bridge over river/sea.1.20 0.00 0.2-1 Class of Hwy y Rural Interstate Urban Interstate Other Rural Other Urban Table 3.1.15 0.6.2-1 Number of Lanes Available to Trucks 1 2 3 or more p 1.80 % of Truck 0.15 0.10 Wind Load Horizontal loads There are two types of wind loads on the structure WS = wind load on structure Wind pressure on the structure itself WL = wind on vehicles on bridge Wind Wi d pressure on the h vehicles on the bridge.Fatigue Load g Repeated loading/unloading of live loads can cause fatigue in bridge components Fatigue load depends on two factors Magnitude of Load Use HS-20 design truck with 9m between 145 kN axles for determination of maximum effects of load f i ff fl d Other Loads Oh L d Fatigue Wind Earthquake Vehicle/ Vessel Collision Frequency of Occurrence: Use U ADTTSL = average d il t k t ffi i a single l daily truck traffic in i l lane Fatigue Load ADT Average Daily Traffic (All Vehicles/ 1 Direction) From Survey (and extrapolate to future) Max ~ 20. which the load is transferred to the bridge superstructure Wind loads are applied as static horizontal load For small and low bridges.6.000 vehicles/day % of Truck in Traffic ADTT g y Average Daily Truck Traffic (Truck Only/ 1 Direction) Fraction of Truck Traffic in a Single Lane (p) ADTTSL Average Daily Truck Traffic (Truck Only/ 1 Lane) Table C3. wind load on the structure is very important Need to consider the aerodynamic effect of the wind on the structure (turbulence) wind tunnel tests Need to consider the dynamic effect of flexible long-span b id under the l bridge d h wind dynamic analysis .85 0.1.

50 years) minor earthquake For large earthquakes (rarely occur).2 on Richter scale The uncompleted bridge did not have any structural damages The i i l l Th original planned l d length was h 1990 meters for the main span.g. 1995 Kobe earthquake h d its epicenter right th k had it i t i ht between the two towers of the Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge y g The earthquake has the magnitude of 7. the b id should still b i likely to ) th bridge h ld till be in the elastic range (no structural damage) Earthquake must be considered for structures in certain zones Analysis for earthquake forces is taught in Master level courses Earthquake Load: EQ The January 17. strong earthquake Small return period (e.Wind Loads (WS.g. Washington. but the seismic event moved the towers apart by almost a meter! . WL) WL WS (on Superstructure) Wind Load WS (on Substructure) Tacoma Narrows Bridge (Tacoma. USA) T N B id (T W hi The bridge collapsed in 1940 shortly after completion under wind speed lower than the design wind speed but at a frequency near the natural frequency of g p q y q y the bridge The “resonance” effect was not considered at the time Earthquake Load: EQ Horizontal load The magnitude of earthquake is characterized by return period Large return period (e g 500 years) (e. the bridge structure is allowed to suffer significant structural damage but must not collapse For F small earthquakes ( ll th k (more lik l t occur).

Earthquake Load: EQ Water Loads: WA Typically considered in the design of substructures (foundation. AASHTO allows us to consider it as equivalent static load load. abutment) b t t) Water loads may be categorized into: Static Pressure (acting perpendicular to all surfaces) Buoyancy (vertical uplifting force) Stream pressure (acting in the direction of the stream) Loads depend on the shape and size of the substructure Vehicular Collision Force: CT Bridge structures are very vulnerable to vehicle collisions hi l lli i We must consider the force due to vehicle collision and designed for it Vehicular Collision Force: CT Typically considered in the design of substructures (foundation. but for simplicity.37m height located within 3 m Any barriers of 1. piers.2 m above ground .07 m height located more than 3 m For piers and abutment located within 9 m from edge of roadway or 15 m from the centerline of railway track Assume an equivalent static f A i l i force of 1800 kN acting h i f i horizontally at 1 2 ll 1. Need to consider if the structures (typically pier or abutment) are not protected by either: Embankment Crash-resistant barriers 1. abutment) b t t) The nature of the force is dynamic (impact). piers.

Vehicular Collision Force: CT Vessel Collision: CV No protection to the bridge piers Bridge piers are protected No protection to the bridge structure Better protection (still not sufficient) Outline Loads on Bridges Typical Loads Dead Load Live Load Live Load of Vehicle Pedestrian Load Dynamic Load Allowance Design Lane AASHTO HL93 Loads Truck Tandem Uniform Load AASHTO LRFD D i Designs Introduction Design Criteria Load Multiplier Load Factor and Load Combinations Resistance F R i Factors LL Combinations LL Placement Influence Line Design Equation Design Charts Other Loads Oh L d Fatigue Wind W d Earthquake … Multiple Presence Distribution to Girders Load and Resistance Factor Design D i .

reinforced and prestressed concrete g p p Introduction of limit state-based provisions for foundation design Revised load provisions Hydraulics and scour Earthquake Ship collision Introduction of isotropic deck design process Commentary are now side-by-side with the standard side by side Work on the new code bagan in 1988 93 1988-93 1st edition of AASHTO LRFD Specifications was published in 1994. only AASHTO LRFD method is allowed for the design of bridges in the USA Now in 4th Edition Thailand’s Department of Highway (DOH) still refers to Standard ’ f ( O ) f S Specification but will eventually switch to LRFD Specifications Design Criteria General design criteria in AASHTO LRFD Code: Design Criteria Factored Load ≤ Factored Resistance ∑ ηγiQi ≤ ΦRn Load Multiplier LOAD Mean Load Mean Resistance Nominal N i l Nominal Load Resistance RESISTANCE η = ηI ηD ηR Load Factor Nominal Load Effect Nominal Resistance Resistance F R Factor Load and resistance factors serve as partial safety factors They are determined using the code calibration procedure Factored FAILURE Load Factored Resistance . service. the 2nd in 1998. Specification By 2007. fatigue.Historical Development of AASHTO Code The first US standard for bridges in was published in 1931 (AASHO) Working stress design (WSD). 3rd in 2004 – as an alternative document to the Standard . based on allowable stresses Now call “Standard Specifications” Changes of LRFD from Standard Specifications Introduction of a new philosophy of safety Identification f four li it states (strength. extreme event) Id tifi ti of f limit t t ( t th i f ti t t) Development of new load models (including new live load) Development of new load and resistance factors Revised techniques for the analysis and load distribution New shear design method for plain.

has additional stirrups for ih h d d ili h ddi i l i f shear reinforcements Load Multiplier ηR = Redundant factor Multiple load path and continuous structures should be used.00 For all other limit states 1. the only bridge crossing the river 1.95 for bridge considered nonimportant Load Multiplier L d M l i li η = ηI ηD ηR For all other limit states 1.g. Main elements whose failure is expected to cause the collapse of the bridge shall be designated as failure-critical (nonredundant) failure critical For strength limit states 1.05 for nonductile components & connection which may fail in a brittle p y manner 1. multi-girder continuous beam bridge b id For all other limit states 1. For strength limit states 1.95 for exceptional level of redundancy e. Ductile failure) The structural system shall be proportioned and detailed to ensure the development of significant and visible inelastic deformations at the strength and extreme event limit states before failure failure. For strength and extreme event limit states 1.g.g.Load Multiplier ηI = Importance factor The owner may declare a bridge or any structural component and connection to be of operational importance.s. a simple span bridges g p p g 1.05 for bridge considered of operational importance e.00 for typical bridges 0.05 for nonredundant members e.00 1 00 .00 for conventional designs 0.95 for 0 95 f components with enhanced ductility e.00 for all bridges Load Multiplier ηD = Ductility factor (Brittle v.g.00 for conventional level of redundancy 0.

Extreme Event limit states .2. . IV g .1) . t Limit States There are 4 types of “limit states” Ultimate limit t t Ulti t li it states – i l i th strength and stability of th structure.3. III. and crack widths Service I.Loads & Probabilities Load F L d Factor & Load Combinations L d C bi i How do we apply all the loads for the structural analysis? Add all the mean (average) value of loads together? No. II. Add all the extreme value of loads together? No.relates to restrictions on stress range to prevent crack growth as a result of repetitive loads during the design life of the bridge Fatigue All limit states are equally important (AASHTO LRFD 1 3 2 1) 1. .relates to the structural survival of a bridge during a major earthquake. II E E I Serviceability limit states – involving the usability of the structure including stress. i h i l f h l di ll γi We need to consider several cases where each case we have one load at its maximum value expected while other loads are around their mean values Loads & Probabilities Load factors are determined so that. or collision Extreme Event I. III Fatigue limit state . II. because we must consider the chance that the load may be larger or smaller than calculated calculated. for d t i d th t f each factored load. involving the t th d t bilit f the t t both local and global Strength I. deformation. flood. the p probability of being y g exceeded is about the same for all load components. because then the bridge must have to resist an enormous load and that would make it really expensive! The chance that the maximum value of one load occurring at the same time as the maximum value of another load is very small.

DW Consider Maximum case for Gravity load designs .Permanent Loads DC = dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments DW = dead load of wearing surface and utilities d dl d f i f d tiliti EL = accumulated locked-in force effects resulting from the construction process p DD = downdrag EH = horizontal earth pressure load ES = earth surcharge load EV = vertical pressure from dead load of earth fill Transient Loads LL = vehicular live load IM = vehicular dynamic load allowance PL = pedestrian live load LS = live load surcharge BR = vehicular braking force CE = vehicular centrifugal force CT = vehicular collision force CV = vessel collision force EQ = earthquake CR = creep SH = shrinkage FR = friction TG = temperature gradient di TU = uniform temperature WA = water load and stream t l d d t pressure IC = ice load WL = wind on live load WS = wind load on structure SE = settlement Load Combinations Load Factors for DC.

0EQ (Extreme I) 0 90DC + 0 65DW + 0 5(LL IM) + 1 0EQ (E 1.25DC + 1.50DW + 0.65DW 0. Load Combinations STRENGTH I: Basic load combination relating to the normal use of bridge.25DC + 1.25DC + 1.90DC 0.50DW (Strength IV) 1. large permanent load can help reduce the force in the structure structure.35(LL+IM) + 0.50DW + 0.65DW 0. Minimum combination is used when LL produces opposite effect to DC. it offsets the wind load and we will get small compression here If the gravity load g y is small.5(LL+IM) + 1. Maximum combination i used when LL produces th same effect as DC M i bi ti is d h d the ff t DC.25DC + 1.75(LL+IM) (Strength I) 1.5(LL+IM) 1.50DW + 1.0EQ (Extreme I) 0.50DW + 1.25DC + 1.50DC + 1.4(WS+WL) (Strength V) 1.4WS (Strength III) 0.50DW + 1.0 0 90DC + 0 65DW + 0 5(LL+IM) + 1 0 (CT or CV) (Extreme I) (E t .Load Combinations Why do we need to have minimum and maximum load factors for permanent loads? Isn’t it safer to consider the maximum??? t l d ? I ’t f t id th i ??? Because in some cases. this may be in tension.65DW + 1.5(LL+IM) + 1.90DC 0.5(LL+IM) 1.0 (CT or CV) (Extreme I) 0.90DC + 0. STRENGTH II: load combination for special vehicles specified by owner STRENGTH III: load combination where the bridge is subjected to high wind (> 90 km/h) and traffic is p ( ) prevented STRENGTH IV: load combination for long span bridges (>67 m span) which has large ratio of DC to LL STRENGTH V: load combination where bridge and traffic on the bridge is subjected to wind velocity of 90 km/h Gravity Load If the gravity load of the superstructure is large. If the pier is concrete.4WS (Strength III) 1. it will crack!!! May be in Tension or Light Compression C i Under Hi h U d High Compression Load Combinations EXTREME EVENT I: load combination for structural survival under major earthquake EXTREME EVENT II: load combination for structural survival under combination of events such as flood and vessel collision SERVICE I: load combination for normal operation of the bridge and for checking compression in prestressed concrete SERVICE II: load combination for steel bridges to control yielding SERVICE III: load combination relating to tension in prestressed concrete during service FATIGUE: load combination for fatigue and fracture due to repetitive LL and IM Load Combinations Example of combinations: 1.

Prestressed) 1 00DC + 1 00DW + 0 80(LL IM) (S i III P d) Notes on Load Combinations Note that the sections for maximum moment of dead load and live load are not the same!!! Dead Load: midspan Live Load: some small distance away from midspan If we add them together. βT (about 3.50DW + 1.00DC 1. and (LL+IM) 1.50DC + 1.Load Combinations For slabs and girders designs. is close to the target g value.00DC + 1. DW.00DW + 1. we calculate shear at the support.50DW (Strength IV) 1.00DW + 1.25DC + 1.00(LL+IM) (Service I) 1. Resistance and Probabilities Resistance factor is determined so that the d t i d th t th reliability index. β.75(LL+IM) (Strength I) 1. We o t e suppo t. Steel) 1. we normally have only DC.00DW 0.00DC + 1.5) Resistance F R i Factors Φ . we are conservative! C t ca o e t o s ea s Critical moment for shear is d away from the support.30(LL+IM) (Service II. e can calculate shear at this location for both dead load and live g load IF we know the height of the section We estimate the height from past experiences of similar projects If we don’t know. This is pp conservative but may not be economical.80(LL+IM) (Service III.

90 0 90 1. Resistance Factors Steel S S l Structures Types Flexure Shear Axial Compression (steel or composite) Block shear Φ 0. They are specified under each section of materials.95 0.80 0 80 Concrete Structures Types Flexure and Tension in Reinforced Concrete in Prestressed Concrete g Shear in Normal Weight Concrete Axial Compression Bearing on Concrete .70 Tension Yielding limit state Fracture limit state Φ 1.80 0.00 0.Resistance Factors Resistance factors are different for different types of action (moment or shear.75 0.90 0. f example) and f different t h for l ) d for diff t types of materials (steel or f t i l (t l concrete).00 0.90 0.00 1.

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- Bridge.pdf
- 13103598 Design of Bridge
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- Inroduction to Bridge Engineering
- Bearings Book
- Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for Highway Bridge Substructures
- Bridge Design Eurocodes Worked Examples
- Designers’ Guide to Eurocode 1 - Actions on Bridges
- Bearings for Bridges
- Conceptual Design of Bridges
- Preliminary Steel Composite Bridge Design example
- Bridge Loads
- Bridge design
- Design of Highway Bridges
- MODERN PRESTRESSED BRIDGES
- 40610 - Loads
- PCI Bridge Manual
- Guidelines Bridge Design
- Eurocode road traffic load models for weight restricted bridges
- Bridge Seismic Design
- Concrete Bridge Design to BS:5400, L.A. Clark (1981)
- Comprehensive Design Example for Prestressed Concrete (Psc) Girder Superstructure Bridge
- Bridge Ch 5 Example on Slab Bridge
- Aashto Steel_bridge Manual
- Grillage Modelling Example
- EuroCode 1
- BS 5400 Part 2

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