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exam 28 – 32

Chapter 31
- Is the world between the war.
- 1914 to 1918 ------------- 1937 to 1945
- the only countries destroyed by the war were France and Germany.
o Germany: lost people (who died and were wounded)
o France: properties destroyed, people died and were wounded
o Russia: properties destroyed, people died and were wounded
o US: (key to winning the war: there were no properties destroyed)
- US President Woodrow Wilson suggested so that there will be no more war
with the following suggestions:
o Peace without victory: winners should not treat the losers harshly, but
should rather help the losers progress economically. this is such so
that the people of the defeated country will not seek revenge.
- Countries that belong to the defeated faction: Germany, Austria-Hungary,
Ottoman Empire
- Countries were formed: Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland
- Loser side lost territories; winners won territories
- Soldiers were deactivated and returned to civilian life after the war. They lost
their jobs as soldiers and lost their income. This resulted to no income. So,
there were several problems for the people of either the winning or the
losing country.
- Immediately after the war, some countries were ruled by absolute monarchy
before WWI. They metamorphosed to democracy.
- Italy:
o first sided with the triple alliance (composed of: Germany, Austria-
hungary, Italy)
o however, Italy and Austria were enemies since time in memorial.
When the Roman empire fell, Austria-Hungary became a strong
country. There were parts of Italy which were ruled by Austria. The
Italians do not like to be with Austria-Hungary. In the later part of the
war, Italy sided with the Triple Entente.
- Most of the countries were democratic in nature. However, to change to a
democratic form of government, it take stime and there were many delays.
- The people eventually adapted a dictatorial form of government in Italy
which is Feudalism.
o Feudalism: it is about nationalism, love of country, where the priority
is the love for country.
o Fascism: the priority of the country is the national interest. however,
there should be a strong political leader who is backed up by
- Mussolini: ruled the dictatorial form of gov’t in Italy
- Versailles Treaty: the treaty of peace between Germany and the allies.
o the proposal of President Wilson not to treat Germany harshly was
not followed esp by France. France saw Germany as a potential
enemy. France asked for reparations from Germany and some portion
of the territory, esp industrial portions. France did not follow the
suggestion of Wilson. And thus, the people in Germany felt that they
should seek revenge since they were treated harshly by the allies esp
Germany and France.
o Another party emerged from the disgruntled people which is also a
dictatorial form of government (within Germany): the Nazi Party.
o Germany after the war becomes a republic. This republic is a
democratic form of government but was not able to handle the
problems of the people. The Nazi party took over and hurried the
process of change.
 Because of the dictatorial form of gov’t, Hitler was able to
hasten the progress of Germany militarily and economically.
 Hitler violated the treaty of Versailles esp in the formulation of
its territory.
 treaty says they should only have a hundred soldiers
but hitler had five hundred.
 Germany is not allowed to associate with Austria-
o bc: Austria-Hungary has a populace of majorly
Germans. For this reason, they cannot merge to
become a powerful country.
- this situation in Germany helped in the Civil War of Spain.
- Germany progressed economically and militarily. This dictatorship in
Germany plus the dictatorship in Spain, helped other countries to establish
dictatorship in many countries in Eastern and other parts of Europe.

- In Japan:

o japan was already considered to be a world power during this period.

o Japan developed an ambition to look for raw materials, markets and
industries. They wanted to gather resources from other countries.
 Japan saw China as a weak country bc of weak government
with a big territory. Japan waged war with China and China lost
Taiwan and Korea.
 1937: Japan started to invade Mainland China, esp in the
Eastern part of China (Shantung Peninsula)

- In China:
o Manchu Dynasty was removed in 1911 and a democratic gov’t was
installed by Sun Yat Sen.
 Sun Yat Sen left and was succeeded by Chiang Kai Shiek which
formed the Nationalist Party.
 CKS was not able to unite the people of China. Thus, China was
still a weak country and can be easily subdued by the military
forces of other countries.
 CKS was not able to unite the country bc: democratic form of
gov’t is a weak form of gov’t. there were many corrupt officials
and thus communist form of gov’t seemed ideal to them.
 Communist forces of Mao Tze Dong vs Nationalist party of CKS:
 CKS was busy fighting the Japs
 MTZ was busy recruiting people to their side
- Eventually, the communist forces have become stronger than the nationalist
- 1949: the nationalist forces of CKS escaped to Formosa. The communist
forces were able to become the gov’t of mainland China.

Important things to know in WWII:

1 War between ideologies: democratic vs dictatorial form of government
- during world war one: wars between countries were only between the
- world war two: war between eveyrhting that concerns the countries
1918- 1930
- two words that are important here: tactics and strategy (procedures and
methods of war)
o Tactics: in tactics, there is only one particular battle; a procedure to
win only one particular battle
 example: battle of tirad pass
o Strategy: involves winning wars between several nations; you have to
discuss about people, soldiers, eqpt, and sustainability of the war
(since you have to supply the soldiers with food and eqpt, weapons)
(supplied by the people who are left behind in a country to maintain
the income and economy of the country); strategy is composed of
several battles
 what was the strategy of Germany against france
2 knowledge about military
two kinds of people:
a. officers: in career for life until they retire; president assigns appointment,
b. enlisted men: contractual people; mercenaries; every contract they have to
volunteer to continue their service
- there are different ranks for both officers and enlisted men
- highest rank of enlisted man:
- highest rank officer: general

3 units in the military

- smallest unit: squad (composed of 11 people)
- five squads become a platoon
- five platoon becomes a company
- five companies become a battalion
- five battalions become a brigade
- five brigades become a division
- two to five divisions become a corps (division: about 10,000 people)
- two to five corps becomes an army
- two to five armies become a group of armies (about five million soldiers)

- invasion of france sa Germany: five armies

- invasion of Normandy:

o Paton – commanded the third army

o group of armies was headed (france side, 1944); the units of the allies
were about two groups of armies: one british and American.

3 navy
major eqp’t of army: ships, or are called warships
- smallest warship is called a frigate
o with about two cannons on each side
- next: cruiser
- third: battleship
- submarines
- aircraft carrier

- the frigate (during WWII), were the ships used by enemies.

- Battleships are obsolete now since they have cannons on both sides.

- very important: aircraft carrier: since they carry planes with bombs
o big ships which have runways and parking areas for airplanes.
o US has many of these.
o ph has five frigates. Malaysia has small frigates and submarines

4 airforce
- eqpts during wwii
a. recon plane: small plane that flies very high to see the places on the ground
with cameras to photograph terrain
b. fighters: small planes armed with missiles and machine guns
c. bombers: big planes that carries bombs
- present eqp’ts are different now bc we have fast technology

5 world war conflict

- wwi: ph was not involved; wwii: ph was involved bc we were a colony of us who
was enemies with japan who sided with germany