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ASP Study Guide Test#3
____ 1. The U.S. Census defines family as a. a kinship system of all relatives living together or recognized as a social unit. b. two or more persons related by blood, marriage or adoption. c. two or more persons who share a common residence. d. a unit that consists of a mother, father and at least one child, who share a common residence. 2. The sociological definition of the family includes all of the following EXCEPT a. foster families. c. unmarried same-sex couples. b. unmarried opposite-sex couples. d. all of these. 3. A form of marriage that involves one husband having more than one wife is a. serial monogamy. c. polyandry. b. polygyny. d. monogamy. 4. Polyandry is _____ than polygyny. a. more common worldwide c. equally as common worldwide b. more common in the U.S. d. less common worldwide 5. In which of the following countries are women and men most likely to have egalitarian relationships? a. Norway c. India b. the United States d. Pakistan 6. In France a. homosexuality is punishable by death. b. homosexuality is punishable by imprisonment. c. same-sex couples are granted the legal right to marry. d. same-sex couples can enter a type of marital arrangement that offers some legal rights and protections but is more limited than marriage. 7. In some U.S. cities and counties, heterosexual cohabiting couples as well as gay and lesbian couples who apply for a _____ are granted such legal entitlements as health insurance and inheritance rights. a. domestic partnership designation c. family status certificate b. cohabitation license d. committed couples status 8. An emerging family form known as living apart together relationships is one in which a. couples who are married or unmarried live in separate residences by choice. b. a married couple lives in separate residences due to employment situations. c. an unmarried couple lives together but emotionally remains apart. d. a divorced couple shares joint custody of their children. 9. In most states, a. stepparents have no legal obligation to support their stepchildren during the marriage. b. stepparents who divorce the biological parent have the same legal rights to custody and visitation of their stepchildren as biological parents. c. stepparents who divorce the biological parent have a legal obligation to pay child support. d. stepchildren have the right of inheritance in the event of the stepparent’s death.
____ 10. The marital resiliency perspective argues a. people today seek personal happiness from their family relationships. b. poverty, violence, and delinquency are effects, not causes, of family breakdown. c. divorce provides a second chance at happiness for adults and an escape from a dysfunctional family for children. d. legal reforms should include repeal of no-fault divorce laws and require a two-year waiting period to finalize a divorce. ____ 11. The main purpose of marriage today is to a. be viewed as an adult by the rest of society. b. have and raise children. c. provide adult intimacy and companionship. d. provide financial security. ____ 12. Structural-functionalists attribute the high rate of divorce and single-parent households to a. the still-existing problem of male domination. b. rapid social change and social disorganization. c. change in societal definitions of divorce. d. domestic abuse that creates negative self-concepts. ____ 13. The term “patriarchy” refers to which of the following? a. fatherless homes b. the practice of granting fathers sick leave upon the birth of their child c. traditional male domination of families d. single parent homes in which the father has custody of his children ____ 14. Conflict theorist Engels believed one of the aims of monogamy was to a. bequeath the husband’s wealth to his own children. b. ensure a mother would love and nurture her children. c. decrease competition among wives for male sexual favors. d. avoid the high cost of maintaining more than one wife. ____ 15. Conflict theorists emphasize that the policies of the American government a. serve the interests of for-profit corporations rather than families. b. are significantly contributing to the stabilization of family structure in response to pressures from the religious right to maintain family values. c. are gradually reducing the forces in American society that contribute to divorce and unwed pregnancy. d. serve the interests of lower-income families more than middle-income families. ____ 16. According to symbolic interactionists, the significance of social interaction in children’s developing self-concepts suggests a. the importance of maintaining the traditional family form. b. society should accept, rather than stigmatize, nontraditional family forms. c. equal parenting roles will confuse and frustrate the child. d. acceptance of a stepparent will weaken the child’s development of an independent identity. ____ 17. According to your text, which of the following is almost entirely perpetrated by men and is more likely to escalate over time and involve serious injury? a. mutual violent control c. violent resistance b. intimate terrorism d. common couple violence
____ 18. The physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, negligent treatment, or maltreatment of a child under the age of 18 by a person who is responsible for the child’s welfare is called a. corporal punishment. c. child abuse. b. neglect. d. common family violence. ____ 19. _____ occurs when a caregiver shakes a baby to the point of causing the child to experience brain or retinal hemorrhage, most often in response to a young baby who will not stop crying. a. Neglect c. Oppositional baby response b. Juvenile hemorrhage disorder d. Shaken baby syndrome ____ 20. In violent parental abuse, a. more violence is directed against fathers than mothers. b. daughters tend to be more violent than sons toward their parents. c. the parents usually had been violent toward the children. d. all siblings tend to be violent toward their parents. ____ 21. How many American states recognize marital rape as a crime? a. none c. 35 b. 20 d. 50 ____ 22. All of the following are factors that contribute to abuse EXCEPT a. family history of violence. b. maternal employment. c. acceptance of corporal punishment. d. inaccessible health care, day care and elder care. ____ 23. Which of the following statements is true regarding the relationship between poverty and child abuse? a. Most poor people abuse their children. b. Poverty causes abuse and neglect. c. The correlates of poverty, including stress, drug abuse, and inadequate resources for food and other needs, increase the likelihood of maltreatment. d. Adults who experienced childhood poverty tend to abuse their own children. ____ 24. Which of the following is an abuse-prevention strategy? a. foster care placement c. shelters and safe houses b. public education and media campaigns d. weekly counseling meetings ____ 25. An emotional and psychological disturbance in which children engage in exaggerated and unjustified denigration and criticism of a parent is a. divorce adjustment disorder. c. parental alienation syndrome. b. divorce fault syndrome. d. child retaliation syndrome. ____ 26. The term _____ refers to the lack of resources that leads to hunger and physical deprivation a. socioeconomic inequality c. lower class b. absolute poverty d. relative poverty ____ 27. _____ poverty refers to a deficiency of material and economic resources compared with some other population. a. Relative c. Absolute b. Comparative d. Standardized ____ 28. Which of the following industrialized countries has the highest rate of human poverty, as measured by the Human Poverty Index? a. the United States c. the Netherlands b. Norway d. Sweden
____ 29. The United States poverty line calculates the poverty line at a. the average cost of food, shelter, and transportation. b. 2 times the average cost of food and shelter. c. 3 times the minimum cost of an adequate diet. d. 4 times the average cost of an adequate diet. ____ 30. Critics of the U.S. poverty line argue that a. low-income families today spend far less than one-third of their income on food. b. the U.S. poverty line accounts too much for regional differences and not enough for local variations in the cost of living. c. the homeless are overrepresented among the poor. d. Medicaid and public housing are inappropriately included in income estimates of a family. ____ 31. Among the developed countries of the world, the United States has all of the following EXCEPT a. highest degree of income inequality. b. highest rate of poverty. c. highest child poverty rate. d. highest number of women in the workforce ____ 32. The “culture of poverty” is characterized by a. elderly householders. b. an emphasis on the future, rather than the present. c. feelings of powerlessness. d. heavy participation in and dependence on society’s major institutions. ____ 33. The term “underclass” refers to people who a. are the first members of their family to go to college. b. live in persistent poverty. c. are under age 18 and live in poor households. d. are working-class and live just above the poverty line. ____ 34. Which of the following perspectives are most likely to argue that physicians should be paid higher than most occupations because their job is more important than most and requires so much education and training? a. Structural-functionalism c. Symbolic interactionism b. Conflict theory d. Feminist theory ____ 35. According to modern conflict theorists, the power to influence economic outcomes in a society comes from all of the following EXCEPT a. ownership of the means of production. c. interlocking board memberships. b. advertising. d. control of media. ____ 36. Which of the following is an example of corporate welfare? a. a large corporation donates money to a homeless shelter b. severance pay and unemployment insurance c. low-interest government loans, subsidies, and tax breaks to corporations d. employee assistance programs ____ 37. Which sociological perspective is most likely to focus on the meanings of being poor? a. Structural-functionalism c. Symbolic Interactionism b. Conflict Theory d. Feminist Theory ____ 38. The “feminization of poverty” refers to the a. higher proportion of females than males in poverty. b. dependence upon female income that occurs with male unemployment. c. higher percentage of females who become poor elderly. d. fact that more females than males are born to poor families. 4
____ 39. Many industrialized countries have lower rates of poverty among female-headed households than the U.S. because other developed countries a. have higher rates of employment among single mothers. b. have lower rates of divorce and out-of-wedlock births. c. offer more support for single mothers, such as income supplements, universal child care and national health care. d. do not have welfare programs, which encourage single mothers to live in poverty. ____ 40. Your text mentions all of the following as factors contributing to poverty among minorities EXCEPT a. discrimination. b. large numbers of children. c. the loss of manufacturing jobs from the inner city. d. the movement of whites and middle-class blacks out of the inner city. ____ 41. The working poor are individuals who spend at least _____ weeks per year in the labor force but whose income falls below the official poverty level. a. 8 c. 27 b. 16 d. 42 ____ 42. Compared to non-poor children in the United States, U.S. children living in poverty a. receive about the same grades. b. receive lower grades on standardized tests. c. are about as likely to finish high school. d. are about as likely to attend college. ____ 43. The primary cause of homelessness is a. substance abuse. c. unemployment. b. lack of affordable housing. d. domestic violence. ____ 44. Your text cites all of the following factors to explain intergenerational poverty EXCEPT a. the movement of well-paid jobs out of urban areas. b. decline in the availability of marriageable males able to support a family. c. relative lack of family and educational values among inner-city mothers. d. increase in out-of-wedlock births ____ 45. Under the federal 1996 federal welfare reform legislation, able-bodied individuals who are aged 18-50 without dependents a. can receive TANF up to a maximum of 10 years during their lifetime. b. can receive TANF up to a maximum of 5 years during their lifetime. c. can receive TANF up to a maximum of 2 years during their lifetime. d. are not eligible to receive TANF . ____ 46. The largest food assistance program in the United States is now called a. food stamps. b. school lunch and breakfast programs. c. the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). d. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. ____ 47. “Inclusionary zoning” refers to a. zoning restrictions in the suburbs that set minimum lot size requirements, density restrictions, and other controls to keep out low income residents. b. requirements that developers reserve a percentage of housing units for affordable housing. c. urban renewal of inner city areas in which low-income slum areas are destroyed to attract higher income business and residents. d. the annexation of suburbs and edge cities by the central cities of large metropolitan areas. 5
____ 48. Medicaid a. is federally subsidized medical services and hospitalization for the elderly. b. provides medical care for the poor through reimbursements to physicians and hospitals. c. specializes in medical care for severely, chronically ill children. d. is federally subsidized food assistance for malnourished children. ____ 49. The Dependent Care Assistance Plan a. permits individuals to exclude the value of employer-provided child care services from their gross income. b. is a government insurance plan designed to enable chronically ill or the disabled to live in long-term health-care facilities. c. provides financial assistance to adult children who care for their parents in their own homes. d. is a supplemental insurance to the Medicare benefits for the very old (over age 80). ____ 50. President G. W. Bush’s Faith-Based and Community Initiative a. enables religious organizations to compete for federal funding for programs that serve the needy. b. provides government subsidies to build churches and community centers. c. grants greater tax exemptions for charitable contributions made through religious organizations. d. exempts religious organizations from paying income taxes on profit-making enterprises they own. ____ 51. An interconnected network of economic activity that transcends national boundaries and spans the world is referred to as a. global economy. c. post-industrial economy. b. transnational economic structure. d. transnational corporation. ____ 52. The _____ refers to the structure and means by which a society produces, distributes and consumes goods and services. a. ergonomics c. economic institution b. transnational corporation d. corporatocracy ____ 53. Globalization of the economy means that _____ are influenced by economic activities occurring around the world. a. our jobs b. the products and services we buy c. our nation’s political policies and agendas d. all of these choices ____ 54. Socialism is defined as a. a totalitarian political system in which one or a few people control all government and economic decisions. b. a political system in which the masses (the people) rule—i.e., make all political decisions. c. an economic system in which the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned. d. an economic system based on commercialization of the means of production—i.e., private individuals invest money in public businesses. ____ 55. Critics of capitalism argue that it creates a. too much government control. b. poor working conditions, low wages and unemployment. c. reduced work incentives and technological development. d. competition, which keeps prices low. 6
____ 56. Industrialization led to a. the emergence of large cities. b. family-centered societies. c. development of hand tools. d. social interaction in primary group relationships. ____ 57. Post-industrialization is characterized by a. decreased government involvement in economic issues. b. a lower standard of living. c. service-oriented occupations d. assembly line work. ____ 58. McDonaldization refers to the process by which a. the McDonald restaurant chain has spread to countries outside the U.S. b. the principles of the fast food industry are being applied to more and more sectors of society. c. chain restaurants and stores, such as McDonalds and Wal-Mart, are displacing smaller, independently owned enterprises in U.S. cities. d. more and more consumers eat at fast food restaurants. ____ 59. A retail store worker reciting a script when interacting with customers is an example of which principle of McDonaldization identified by Ritzer? a. priority on quality c. calculability b. efficiency d. predictability ____ 60. The organization currently overseeing the multilateral trading system throughout the world is the a. World Trade Organization (WTO). b. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). c. North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). d. European Union (EU). ____ 61. Free trade agreements a. increase foreign restrictions on exports. b. make it easier to trade goods across national boundaries. c. increase tariffs on imported goods. d. allow competitors to copy or use U.S. technology. ____ 62. Transnational corporations a. help the U.S. to compete in the global economy. b. help reduce the U.S. trade deficit. c. decrease U.S. unemployment. d. decrease the U.S. budget deficit. ____ 63. The _____ perspective analyzes the relationship between unemployment rates, college enrollments, and crime. a. symbolic interactionist c. structural-functionalist b. conflict d. postmodern ____ 64. “Soft money” is money that flows through a loophole to provide political parties, candidates, and contributors a means to a. invest political contributions in high yield, low interest mutual funds. b. evade federal limits on political contributions. c. mutually decide how campaign contribution money will be spent. d. fund the campaigns of poor or minority political candidates.
____ 65. On a global scale, the policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank a. increase local consumption in a country, instead of exportation of their products. b. are designed to protect natural resources, such as forests and minerals. c. reduce exploitation of labor by foreign corporations. d. pressure developing countries to open their economies to foreign investors. ____ 66. The symbolic interactionist perspective of work and unemployment is most likely to be concerned with explaining a. inequalities in income among workers. b. how work gives meaning and self-worth to the individual. c. the importance of a person’s occupation to family well-being. d. the power of large corporations in modern society. ____ 67. All of the following are major causes of unemployment emphasized by your text EXCEPT a. job exportation. c. automation. b. welfare dependency. d. corporate downsizing. ____ 68. Social Security protects against loss of income due to a. divorce. b. time off as a result of childbirth or adoption. c. outsourcing or downsizing. d. retirement, disability or death. ____ 69. Slaves in the United States are LEAST likely to be used for a. migrant farm labor. c. sex work. b. domestic work. d. assembly-line manufacturing labor. ____ 70. Which of the following have the lowest annual family incomes of any U.S. wage and salary workers? a. garment industry workers b. migrant farm workers c. assembly-line workers in the automobile industries d. construction workers ____ 71. “Alienation” in industrialized societies is often caused by a. a high degree of division of labor. b. lack of sufficient knowledge or training for one’s job. c. dislike of fellow employees. d. unreasonable expectations of employers. ____ 72. In contrast to American workers, European workers a. work more hours per year. b. have less vacation. c. have shorter work weeks. d. are more willing to work longer hours to achieve higher earnings. ____ 73. The Fair Labor Association (FLA) is a. a college student organization devoted to ending child labor. b. a national coalition of labor unions representing jobs that have high concentrations of women and racial and ethnic minorities. c. an international coalition of labor unions around the world that pool their resources to collectively bargain with employers. d. a coalition of companies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations that works to promote adherence to international labor standards and improve working conditions worldwide.
____ 74. The Clean Clothes Campaign is a. a United States campaign to provide clean clothes for poor school children. b. a college student movement to provide clean clothes for the homeless. c. an international campaign to improve working conditions in the global garment and sportswear industries. d. an international campaign to provide clothes, food, and decent living conditions for immigrant workers. ____ 75. Behavior-based safety programs a. are government sponsored programs to determine how businesses can better design their workplaces to eliminate occupational injuries. b. focus on teaching employees and managers to identify, discipline, and change unsafe worker behaviors that cause accidents. c. have determined that it is primarily workplace conditions, not workers’ behaviors, that cause accidents. d. have determined that chronic work-related disorders or illnesses are best treated by putting the worker in a less physically demanding job. ____ 76. Worldwide, 1 in ___ adults cannot read or write. a. 5 c. 15 b. 10 d. 20 ____ 77. Which of the following is a function of the educational institution? a. socializing children into the dominant culture b. teaching children to obey authority c. sorting of individuals into various statuses d. all of these choices ____ 78. Conflict theorists argue that the socialization function of education is to a. indoctrinate students into a capitalist ideology. b. teach students about cultural diversity. c. foster the value of equality in American society. d. reduce delinquency among American youth. ____ 79. Conflict theorists argue education is a mechanism for cultural imperialism, which means a. the spread of cultural norms and values from one society to another. b. the cultural development and progress that results from technology. c. the preservation of historical cultural artifacts. d. indoctrination into the dominant culture of a society. ____ 80. Which of the following sociological perspectives is more likely to emphasize the relationship between teacher approval/disapproval and class differences in the social and verbal skills students bring to the classroom? a. structural-functionalists c. symbolic interactionists b. conflict theorists d. feminist theorists ____ 81. The self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when individuals a. are satisfied with their occupation. b. are satisfied with their family life. c. act in a manner consistent with the expectations of others. d. rebel against the demands of authority figures. ____ 82. Low-income parents are less likely than parents of high or middle incomes to a. have resources for books, computers and tutors. b. volunteer at school. c. take children to the library. d. all of these choices 9
____ 83. Project Head Start provided children from disadvantaged homes with an integrated program that included all of the following EXCEPT a. education. c. after-school care. b. health care. d. parental involvement. ____ 84. Which of the following is identified as a problem with the Head Start program? a. lack of adequate funding b. evidence of poorer socioemotional development of the participants c. lack of parental support for the program d. lack of effective influence on cognitive and language measures ____ 85. Statistics show which of the following are narrowing or decreasing? a. the high school graduation gap between racial and ethnic groups. b. racial and ethnic differences in the college graduation rate. c. the number of children who spoke a language other than English in their homes. d. the number of children who spoke English with some difficulty. ____ 86. In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregated education was a. a matter for each individual state to decide. b. constitutional as long as all schools received equal funding. c. in the best interests of U.S. society. d. unconstitutional because it was inherently unequal. ____ 87. Research has found that attending a desegregated school a. has positive effects on black and Hispanic achievement and negative effects on white achievement. b. has negative effects on black and Hispanic achievement and positive effects on white achievement. c. has positive effects on black and Hispanic achievement and no effect on white achievement. d. has positive effects on white achievement and no effect on black and Hispanic achievement ____ 88. Males are more likely than females to a. have learning disabilities. b. drop out or be expelled from school. c. be diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. d. all of these choices ____ 89. The text suggests boys’ greater achievement in math and girls’ achievement in reading likely results from all of the following EXCEPT a. traditional gender roles. b. messages from schools, teachers, and educational materials. c. biases in standardized tests. d. education laws. ____ 90. The Program for International Assessment (PISA) showed a. U.S. students scored above the international average in science. b. U.S. students scored below the OECD country average in math. c. the United States has the highest high school graduation rate. d. the United States ranks first in college completions. ____ 91. In a survey of high school dropouts, the most common answer to the question of what could be done to improve students’ chances of staying in school was a. smaller classes. c. opportunities for real-world learning. b. shorter school days. d. more technology in classrooms. 10
____ 92. Higher rates of student crime victimization are associated with a. schools in neighborhoods with gang activity. b. private schools. c. rural schools. d. suburban schools. ____ 93. A recent evaluation of alternative schools concluded that they a. may contribute to a “school-to-prison pipeline.” b. provide students who are bullied in regular schools a “safe haven” where they can thrive socially, emotionally and academically. c. are most effective when they serve as short-term “boot camps” to rehabilitate bullies. d. result in revictimization, as students who were bullied in their old schools create a hierarchy of bullies in alternative schools. ____ 94. Research shows that a. no relationship exists between school environment and academic achievement and quality once socioeconomic status is controlled. b. school environment impacts teachers but not students. c. school environment impacts students but not teachers. d. school environment impacts students, teachers and staff. ____ 95. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) mandates that public schools provide access to education for disabled students a. at no cost to their parents. b. at a cost not to exceed $1,000 per academic year. c. at an alternative campus. d. unless they are blind or deaf. ____ 96. Evidence regarding the quality of America’s teachers suggests a. those who choose teaching as a career have, on average, higher college entrance exam scores than the average college student. b. high school principals are pleased with the training of the teachers by U.S. colleges and universities. c. a child from a poor family having a good teacher for 5 consecutive years can close the achievement gap between children from poor and higher income families. d. most teachers feel ready to meet the needs of the diverse student population. ____ 97. Alternative certification programs a. allow people with 60 college hours to receive emergency certification to teach in elementary schools. b. require teachers to have a post-graduate degree before they can be fully certified to teach in high schools. c. allow college graduates with degrees in fields other than education to become certified to teach if they have “life experience” in industry, the military, or other relevant jobs. d. allow teachers helpers to earn college credits for supervised teaching experience. ____ 98. Critics of alternative certification programs argue that these programs a. increase social promotion. b. are too costly. c. increase segregation in the schools. d. may place unprepared teachers in the classroom.
____ 99. Under the No Child Left Behind Act, a. every state must test math and reading abilities of the third-through eighth-grade students each year and issue a report card rating the performance of each school, teacher, and student. b. the federal government has more control, and the local schools, less over the use of federal funds to the schools than they had in the past. c. schools with high rates of school failure or dropouts are given additional federal funds to recruit additional teachers and improve the quality of teaching. d. schools use federal funds to retrain teachers in the specialty area they are teaching. ____ 100. Each of the following is one of the four assurances states must commit to in order to receive federal stimulus funds, EXCEPT a. improving teacher quality. b. reducing inequality based on race and socioeconomic status. c. raising academic standards in failing schools. d. developing assessment databases.
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