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1. Conduction- is the heat transfer within a medium.

In solids, particularly metals, conduction is due to

the drift of free electrons and phonon vibration.

2 Radiation - is thermal energy flow, via electromagnetic waves, between two bodies separated by a
distance. Electromagnetic waves, which are a function of body-surface temperature, transfer heat and
thus constitute thermal radiation.

31Convection is the heat transfer between a solid surface and a fluid. This is a mixed mode, in that at the
solid-fluid interface heat is transferred by conduction, molecular collisions between the solid and fluid

4.Radial flow- is the primary direction of flow in many turbomachines, such as pumps and compressors,
and particularly so in the case of industrial fans.

5 Nozzle- is a device with two purposes: to convert thermal energy into kinetic energy and to direct the
mass flow exiting from it in a specified direction.

6 Mach number,( M)- is defined as the ratio of the actual velocity, v, divided by the local speed of sound,
a, in the fluid.

7 Acoustic or sonic velocity- is the velocity at which a small pressure wave moves through a fluid.

8 Air is conditioned in the winter as well, by adding moisture and heat.1

9 Compressor is the heart of the refrigeration system, where the conversion of mechanical w.ork to
thermal energy allows the movement of heat from a low temperature to a high temperature.1

10 Adiabatic saturation process - is an important process in the study of air-water vapor mixtures. In this
process, as the name implies, the mixture is saturated with water vapor adiabatically. 1

11 Blackbody- A body with a surface emissivity of 1. Such a body will emit all of the thermal radiation it
can (as described by theory), and will absorb 100% of the thermal radiation striking it. Most physical
objects have surface emissivities less than 1 and hence do not have blackbody surface properties.

12 Density - works with the specific heat to determine how much energy a body can store per unit
increase in temperature.

13 Graybody-A body that emits only a fraction of the thermal energy emitted by an equivalent
blackbody. By definition, a graybody has a surface emissitivy less than 1, and a surface reflectivity greater
than zero.

14 Heat flux( q)-The rate of heat flowing past a reference datum.

15 Internal energy,+ e)-A measure of the internal energy stored within a material per unit volume. For
most heat transfer problems, this energy consists just of thermal energy. The amount of thermal energy
stored in a body is manifested by its temperature.

16 Thermal diffusivity,- A material property that describes the rate at which heat diffuses through a body.
It is a function of the body's thermal conductivity and its specific heat. A high thermal conductivity will
increase the body's thermal diffusivity, as heat will be able to conduct across the body quickly.
Conversely, a high specific heat will lower the body's thermal diffusivity, since heat is preferentially
stored as internal energy within the body instead of being conducted through it.

17 Thermal conductivity-A material property that describes the rate at which heat flows within a body
for a given temperature difference.

18 Viscosity - A measure of a fluid resistance to flow.

19 Vapor Pressure- Most liquid form vapors when heated.

20 Thermal Expansion - Heat transfer fluids change in volume according to temperature.

21 Seal and Gasket Extender - An additive that condition seals and gasket to help keep them form drying
out and failing.

22 Specific Heat - is a measurement of a fluid's capacity to carry heat.

23 Specific gravity - refers to a materials weight or compactness, which changes temperature.

24 Inhibitor - A substance that slows or prevent chemical reactions, such as a oxidation or corrosion.

25 Distillation Range - is a measurement of the temperature within which a liquid distills.

26 Autoignition - Minimum temperature which substance must be heated without application of flame
or spark to cause substance to ignite.

27 Catalyst - A material which promotes some chemical action without itself entering into the reaction.

28 Cavitation - is a failure of the material to flow to the suction of the system pump for any reason.

29 Heat of reaction - is the heat evolved or absorbed as a result of the complete chemical reaction of
molar amounts of the reactants.

30 Absolute temperature - denoting a temperature measured on the absolute scale, a scale of

temperature based on absolute zero as the lowest temperature.
31 Additive - is a substance added to a material to improve its properties in some way.

32 Adsorbent - is a substance on the surface of which a substance is adsorbed.

33 Baffle Plate - Also called support plate. A plate in which the tubes pass through for support. Also
provides a blocked path for the shellside medium. This blocked path forces the shellside medium across
the tubes providing better heat exchanger performance.

34 Baffle Spacing - The space in-between the baffle plates on a tube bundle. Baffle spacing is adjusted to
achieve maximum heat exchanger performance.

35 Bolt Circle - The circular dimension line on which bolt holes are drilled.

36 Bonnet Assembly - The name of a tube sheet exchanger part. It directs the tubeside medium for
distribution through the tubes. It may also contain the tubeside inlet and outlet connections and/or pass
ribs. It differs from a channel in the sense that it does not have a removable cover.

37 Bundle Assembly - The name of the tubing assembly in removable bundle heat exchangers. It usually
consist of tubes, tubesheets, baffles, spacers, and tierods.

38 Capscrew - The threaded bolt used to hold the bonnet onto the core of heat exchangers. Hex head
capscrews may be used, but many different head types are available. Capscrews always have a head on
one end with threads at the other.

39 Core Assembly - The name of the shell assembly and tube assembly in fixed tubesheet heat

40 Setting Drawing - The final assembly drawing of a heat exchanger.