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You are on page 1of 11

The exam for RRB JE and SSC JE Exams will be taking place soon. As there is not much

time left, you need to buck up and catch up in your preparations for these exams. To

help you in this we have come up with study notes on the topic of Linear Integrated

Circuits. This article on Linear Integrated Circuits Study Notes for SSC JE & RRB JE will

provide you detailed notes on different stages of Operational Amplifier. Go through this

Study Notes on linear Integrated Circuits and prepare for your trade to ace in the ace.

You can also download the free PDF to refer the Study notes on Linear Integrated

Circuits.

Operational Amplifier

An Operational Amplifier is an amplifier with high gain and high input impedance

(usually with external feedback), used especially in circuits for performing mathematical

operations on an input voltage. Before we proceed further, let us just have a brief

overview of basic definition and application of an operational amplifier.

• Direct coupled

• High gain

• Amplify Both AC & DC

• Originally was used for Mathematical Operations

ways. Some of them are highlighted below.

1. Linear Applications:

• Adders

• Subtractors

• Multipliers

• Integrators

• Differentiators

• I to V converter

• V to I converter

1|Page

2. Non - Linear Applications:

• Active Filters

• Oscillators

• Comparators

• Regulators

3. Timers

• 555 Astable Multivibrator

5. Voltage Regulators

• This enables the amplification of both AC and DC signals.

2|Page

• Provides most of the voltage gain

• Provides High input resistance to op-amp

• Provides high CMRR

• +VCC & - VEE Supply are due to this stage

• Because of direct coupling, output of Intermediate stage has DC voltage above ground

3|Page

• Function of level shifting stage is to shift the dc level at the output of the intermediate

stage down to zero.

• Emitter follower in common collector configuration is used for BJT.

• Source follower or common drain is case of FET/MOSEFT.

• High current supply capacity

• Short circuit protection

Characteristics of Op-Amp

1. Input Offset Voltage (Vio)

• When both the terminals are grounded, output voltage Vo should be zero.

• Input offset voltage is the voltage that must be applied between the two input terminals

to null the output voltage.

• Should be small

• Can be positive or negative

• The Algebraic difference between the currents into the inverting & non-inverting

terminals is referred as Input offset current

Iio=|IB1-IB2|

• Offset current is the base current that is flowing in the differential amplifier.

4|Page

3. Input Bias Current (IB)

IB is the average of the currents that flow into the inverting & non-inverting terminal of

the op-amp

• Defined as

5|Page

5. Output Offset Voltage (VDD)

• Output voltage caused by mismatching between two input terminal is the Output

Offset Voltage VOO

• Occurs due to mismatch between the two transistors of the differential amplifier

• Output Offset Voltage is the DC voltage it may be positive or negative

• Input offset voltage, Input Bias current are responsible for Output Offset Voltage.

To nullify the output offset voltage due to input bias current, compensation resistor is

used at non-inverting terminal of the amplifier

Vout = - IB2Rb

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To Remember:

• Optimized value of Rc is given by Rc = R1||Rf

7|Page

6. Supply Voltage Rejection Ration (SVRR) Or Power Supply Rejection Ratio

(PSRR)

• That is between the maximum and minimum values of the supply voltage

• Units: volts/microseconds

•

• Specifies how rapidly the output of an op-amp can change in response to input

frequency

• Expressed at unity voltage gain

• Puts limitation on the maximum frequency of that can be applied at the input terminals

of the op-amp.

8|Page

Ideal Op Practical Op-

S.No. Parameter

Amp Amp

Input Impedance

2) ∞ 2 MΩ

(Zin)

Output Impedance

3) 0 75 Ω

(Zout)

6) Bandwidth ∞ 0 to 10 Hz

7) CMRR ∞ 90 dB

resistance R2 is choses as R1||Rf to:

a) Increase CMRR

b) Increase gain

Ques 2. An Analog signal has slew rate of 100 V/μ second for a frequency of

10 mHz, the maximum (peak) value of the sine wave output voltage will be

a) 100 V

b) 500/π

c) 10 V

9|Page

d) 5/π

Ans: d Solution:

Ques 3. Find the maximum frequency in kHz of an Input sine wave which

can be produced at an amplitude of 1.5 V. Of the slew rate of op-amp is

0.5V/μ sec

a) 50

b) 53

c) 59

d) 63

Ans. b Solution:

Ques 4. A differential Amplifier has differential gain of 20,000, CMRR = 80

dB. The common mode gain is:

a) 0

10 | P a g e

b) 1

c) 0.5

d) 2

Ans. D Solution:

11 | P a g e

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