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ISSN 2347-307X (Print) & ISSN 2347-3142 (Online)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20431/2347-3142.0408002

www.arcjournals.org

Neeradha. C. K. Dr. V. Madhukar Mallayya

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Science & Humanities Professor & Head of Dept. of Mathematics,

Mar Baselios College of Engineering & Mohandas College of Engineering &

Technology, Technology,

Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Abstract: Magic squares have been known in India from very early times. The renowned mathematician

Ramanujan had immense contributions in the field of Magic Squares. A magic square is a square array of

numbers where the rows, columns, diagonals and co-diagonals add up to the same number. The paper discuss

about a well-known class of magic squares; the strongly magic square. The strongly magic square is a magic

square with a stronger property that the sum of the entries of the sub-squares taken without any gaps between

the rows or columns is also the magic constant. In this paper a generic definition for Strongly Magic Squares is

given. Some interesting properties of Strongly Magic Squares are briefly described.

Keywords: Magic squares, Magic constant,Strongly Magic Squares ,Product of magic squares.

1. INTRODUCTION

Magic squares date back in the first millennium B.C.E in China [1], developed in India and Islamic

World in the first millennium C.E, and found its way to Europe in the later Middle Ages [2] and to

sub-Saharan Africa not much after [3]. Magic squares generally fall into the realm of recreational

mathematics [4, 5], however a few times in the past century and more recently, they have become the

interest of more-serious mathematicians. Srinivasa Ramanujan had contributed a lot in the field of

magic squares. Ramanujan’s work on magic squares is presented in detail in Ramanujan’s Notebooks

[6]. A normal magic square is a square array of consecutive numbers from where the rows,

columns, diagonals and co-diagonals add up to the same number. The constant sum is called magic

constant or magic number. Along with the conditions of normal magic squares, strongly magic square

has a stronger property that the sum of the entries of the sub-squares taken without any gaps between

the rows or columns is also the magic constant [7]. There are many recreational aspects of strongly

magic squares. But, apart from the usual recreational aspects, it is found that these strongly magic

squares possess advanced mathematical properties.

2. NOTATIONS AND MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES

2.1 Magic Square

A magic square of order n over a field where denotes the set of all real numbers is an nth order

matrix [ ] with entries in such that

©ARC Page | 7

Neeradha. C. K. & Dr. V. Madhukar Mallayya

Equation (1) represents the row sum, equation (2) represents the column sum, equation (3) represents

the diagonal and co-diagonal sum and symbol represents the magic constant. [8]

2.2 Magic Constant

The constant in the above definition is known as the magic constant or magic number. The magic

constant of the magic square A is denoted as .

2.3 Strongly magic square (SMS): Generic Definition

A strongly magic square over a field is a matrix [ ] of order with entries in such that

Equation (4) represents the row sum, equation (5) represents the column sum, equation (6) represents

the diagonal & co-diagonal sum, equation (7) represents the sub-square sum with no gaps in

between the elements of rows or columns and is denoted as and is the magic

constant.

Note: The order sub square sum with column gaps or row gaps is generally denoted as

or respectively.

2.4 Notations

2. denotes the set of all real numbers.

3. SMS

Proposition 3.1

Let where be a strongly magic square of order

Proof:

General Properties of Strongly Magic Squares

Also

Thus

Proposition 3.2

The sum of the corner elements of a SMS is the magic constant.

Proof:

Its an immediate consequence of the definition of SMS

Proposition 3.3

Let be a strongly magic square with order and , then there exists another

strongly magic square of order with

Proof:

Let for such that

for

since

Therefore

Neeradha. C. K. & Dr. V. Madhukar Mallayya

Now for the subsqaures

Proposition 3.4

Proof:

[ ] and

(Since a

j 1

ij )

For the sum of the diagonal elements;

General Properties of Strongly Magic Squares

Proposition 3.5

Proof:

Let and

For the sum of the diagonal elements,

Neeradha. C. K. & Dr. V. Madhukar Mallayya

Proposition 3.6

, where

Proof:

Proceeding as in Proposition 3.5, we will get the required result.

Proposition 3.7

Proof:

Let [ ] and

General Properties of Strongly Magic Squares

Proposition 3.8

where . Here the 0 matrix is excluded.

Proof:

Proceeding as in Proposition 3.7, the required result can be obtained.

4. CONCLUSION

While magic squares are recreational in grade school, they may be treated somewhat more seriously

in different mathematical courses. The study of strongly magic squares is an emerging innovative area

in which mathematical analysis can be done. Here some advanced properties regarding strongly magic

squares are described which can be used to explore new horizons. Certainly more can be done in the

context of linear algebra.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors express sincere gratitude for the valuable suggestions given by Dr.Ramaswamy Iyer,

Former Professor in Chemistry, Mar Ivanios College, Trivandrum, in preparing this paper.

Neeradha. C. K. & Dr. V. Madhukar Mallayya

REFERENCES

[1] Schuyler Cammann, Old Chinese magic squares. Sinologica 7 (1962), 14–53.

[2] Andrews, W. S. Magic Squares and Cubes, 2nd rev. ed. New York: Dover, 1960

[3] Claudia Zaslavsky, Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture. Prindle, Weber &

Schmidt, Boston, 1973.

[4] Paul C. Pasles. Benjamin Franklin’s numbers: an unsung mathematical odyssey. Princeton

UniversityPress, Princeton, N.J., 2008.

[5] C. Pickover. The Zen of Magic Squares, Circles and Stars. Princeton University Press, Princeton,

NJ, 2002.

[6] Bruce C.Berndt ,Ramanujan’s Notebooks Part I,Chapter1(pp 16-24),Springer ,1985

[7] T.V. Padmakumar “Strongly Magic Square” , Applications Of Fibonacci Numbers Volume 6

[8] Proceedings of The Sixth International Research Conference on Fibonacci Numbers and Their

Applications, April 1995

[9] Charles Small, “Magic Squares Over Fields” The American Mathematical Monthly Vol. 95, No.

7 (Aug. - Sep., 1988), pp. 621-625

AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY

Neeradha. C. K, is working as Assistant Prof. at Mar Baselios College of

Engineering and Technology, Department of Science And Humanities, APJ Abdul

Kalam University of Technology,Kerala,India. Her fields of interest include abstact

algebra, magic squares and linear algebra.

Prof. and Head of the Department, Department of Mathematics at Mohandas College

of Engineering and Technology, APJ Abdul Kalam University of Technology,

Kerala, India. His fields of interest include numerical analysis, linear algebra and

vedic mathematics.

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