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Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, Vol.6 No.

2 November 2018


Muhammad Sahrain1 , Lalu Ari Irawan2
Lembaga Genius NTB1, IKIP Mataram2

This study aims at describing variation of meaning carried in kalembo ade as an instrument of
resolving conflict among individuals and groups in Mbojo community by applying speech act
analysis. Data were collected from speech events in Mbojo community and further analyzed
descriptively. One type of speech acts was taken by considering its relevancy towards to focus of
this study, i.e. expressive. Results showed that kalembo ade dealt with one of types of speech acts,
i.e. Expressive type. The expression was found to reflect some actions, including condolences,
apologies, greetings, thanksgivings, refusal, and congratulations. Hence, by viewing the context of
usage, members of Mbojo community used this expression as an instrument in communication to
resolve conflict, in which the phrase was used as tool to control verbal interaction during a speech

Key words: Kalembo Ade, Resolving Conflict, Mbojo, Speech Act

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan variasi pemaknaan kalembo ade sebagai instrumen
pemecahan konflik di Mbojo dalam tinjauan tindak tutur. Data dikumpulkan dari peristiwa tutur
antara individu dalam masyarakat bahasa Mbojo yang kemudian dianalisis dengan analisis
deskriptif. Dalam proses menganalisis data, kajian ini menerapkan teori tindak tutur, yaitu tipe
tindak tutur ekspresif. Tipe ini terbagi menjadi ungkapan belasungkawa, permintaan maaf, ucapan
salam, ungkapan penerimaan, ungkapan penolakan, dan ungkapan selamat. Ekspresi ungkapan
kalembo ade menunjukkan ragam makna yang direpresentasikan mencakup lima hal, yakni
ucapan salam, ungkapan penerimaan, ungkapan penolakan, dan ungkapan selamat. Selenjutnya,
dengan mengkaji konteks pengunaan ekspresi ini, dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa masyarakat
Mbojo menggunakan ungkapan kalembo ade sebagai salah satu instrumen komunikasi dalam hal
pemecahan masalah, di mana penggunaannya dilihat sebagai alat control dalam komunikasi
verbal pada peristiwa tutur.

Kata Kunci: Kalembo Ade, Pemecahan Konflik, Mbojo, Tindak Tutur

BACKGROUND OF STUDY is known as social control. Roucek and

In a society, people live with various Berger (in Soekanto, 2007) define social
norms, including norms of politeness, control as a mechanism to prevent social
morality, religion, laws, and many more. deviations, as well as to suggest and direct
These norms are expected to be obliged by members of society to act and behave in
every individual in order to achieve accordance with convinced norms and
harmonic social life. However, numbers of system of values by the entire members of
phenomenon found in society, even in many the society. The act and behaviors are
places across the globe, show how norms are manifested within linguistics concepts,
contempt. Therefore, monitoring or control therefore, it requires control.
system becomes necessary. In sociology, One of concepts for appreciative and
control towards various violations of norms persuasive expression can be found in

Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, Vol.6 No.2 November 2018

various verbal expressions of Mbojo B: “Kalembo Ade juga karena tidak

language. This expression is historically and langsung antar ke rumahnya.”
culturally used by people in Bima and Kalembo ade too because I did
Dompu (two regencies in West Nusa not deliver (the money) to your
Tenggara). Recently, Mbojo language has house. (Own translation)
been developed into various variations.
However, there is an expression in the form The sequence above shows a
of phrase known and used as controlling discourse between two sides (debtor and
element in communication among members creditor) talking about debt. Both speakers
of Mbojo speech community, i.e. kalembo use kalembo ade in their utterances. In this
ade. sense, this phrase is used as ice breaker for a
As stated by Sahrain (2018), kalembo not easy context to occur in a conversation.
ade is a component of Mbojo linguistic Therefore, it is reasonable to take this phrase
system that he convinces to have several to be studied further considering its uses as a
functions, i.e. to convey cultural values and feature of discourse related to interpersonal
to reflect the mind and customs of its communication and a guidance of behaving
speakers. In this sense, the expression has in using a language in order to achieve better
two functions, i.e. linguistic and cultural. social dynamic (Sahrain, 2018). This article
Linguistically, it is placed as means of daily aims at analyzing the role of kalembo ade to
communication among Mbojo speakers. neutralize potential of conflict or violence
Every member of a speech community can represented in speech events.
deliver or transmit feelings, thoughts or
ideas through language and later create Symbolic Violence
customs. On the other hand, in terms of Etymologically, the word violence
culture, an expression is functioned when comes from a word in Old French “violent”
dealing with system of culture and social in or directly from Latin “violentus”
routine interaction among members of the ( In Indonesia, it may
society. be roughly translated as “kekerasan”, which
Phrasal expression of kalembo ade is has got a morphological process by addition
seen as a tool to control, in which its deeper of prefix (ke-) and suffix (-an) to its root
meaning conveys a sense of language that of “keras” (severe or hard). According to
humanizing people and to stand for peoples‟ Poerwadarminta (2003: 1025-1026), this
dignity and pride. Its use can be well word refers an attitude of forcing someone
depicted in the following example of event. or thing. This derivative word is also used to
In one situation, an interpersonal conflict mention a state behavior (overt or covert) of
occurred when someone (A) tried to collect being offensive or defensive that is shown
money she lent to a friend. She used by the use of power (strength) toward
kalembo ade in her statements. On the other someone (or thing) (Santoso, 2002: 11).
hand, interlocutor (B) also used the phrase in The term symbolic violence is
her statement, as shown in the following introduced by Bourdieu in some of his
sequence: works. He defines it as a subtle violence and
unnoticeable, which hides behind a force of
A: “Kalembo Ade ya saya menagih domination. Symbolic violence is not merely
utang terlalu cepat.” an intention of domination through language
Kalembo ade yes I am here too and communication tool. Study reveals how
early to collect the money you it often uses motive within utterances.
owed me. (Own translation) Therefore, speech community requires

Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, Vol.6 No.2 November 2018

natural social control within their mentioned above. In attempt to examine

communication. variation of meaning carried in kalembo ade,
Greisman (in Santoso, 2002: 12) this study also uses Searle‟s classifications
refers how common expressions used to on illocutionary and perlocutinary acts.
discuss ideas of violence are highly related Austin (1965) further classifies illocution
to basic notion of dominating relationship, into four categories. First, constantive; is a
which is legitimate and illegitimate. He speech act expressing belief supported by
convinces that a similar action can be certain expression to make an interlocutor to
interpreted differently based on the actor, build or hold the same belief. Second,
whether a revolutionary person or official directive; is a speech act that expresses
functionary. Greisman points out that this speaker‟s attitude towards action that would
distinction is made by considering that the be conducted to an interlocutor. Third,
power of a state is implicitly legitimate and commissive; is a speech act that compels or
rational. On the other hand, one who refuses to compel an interlocutor from doing
conducts the same action without official what would be specified within speaker‟s
motive, he can be seen as someone who proposition (may also emerge in the form of
conducts terrorism against the state and is exception of condition, place, or content).
considered to have no rational understanding Fourth, acknowledgement; is a speech act to
about purposes and goals of the action. express certain feelings towards interlocutor
dealing with routines or pure things.
Speech Act To discuss variation of meaning of
Speech event is an event of linguistic kalembo ade, this study took
interaction within utterances of two or more acknowledgement as an angle to further
parties, which has certain discourse, time, study the phrase. The reason was that this
place, and situation (Chaer and Agustina, type of speech act contains acts of apology,
1995: 61). In this sense, conservation condolence, bid, greeting, acceptability,
between bus conductor and passengers, rejection, and congratulation.
merchant and buyer, and host and guest in
certain time, place, and situation by using RESEARCH METHOD
language as means of communication are This study was designed as
considered as speech events. Hymes (in descriptive qualitative study, in which the
Chaer and Agustina, 1995: 62) argues that a real circumstances is carried out to support
speech event should fulfill eight data display (Sutopo, 2006: 40). Within this
components, including setting and scene, method, it is potential for researchers to
participants, ends, purpose and goal, act engage with meaning carried out in a speech
sequences, key: tone or spirit of act, event from various events. Therefore, this
instrumentalities, norms of interaction and study employed pragmatic approach to come
interpretation, and genres. with relevant findings.
Searle (1969) (in Wijana, 1996: 17) Data were collected from various
and Austin (in Tarigan, 2009: 100) mention speech events between children and parents,
that pragmatically, there are at least three adults, teenagers, and teenager and parents.
types of actions can be carried out by a Data, which were in the forms of utterances,
speaker, including (1) locution, illocution, were taken in some places and situations,
and (3) perlocution. including in a public bus, garden, farm,
From the angle of pragmatics, there houses, and neighborhood. The researchers
are some distinctions of speech act. Searle followed, recorded, and transcribed all
(1969) distinguishes speech act into three, as utterances. Later, data were reduced into

Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, Vol.6 No.2 November 2018

those were related to kalembo ade. used to carry values. Next, this article
Therefore, object of this study was any presents the variation of meanings carried
speech event dealing with the use of out in kalembo ade.
kalembo ade with its contexts of discourses.
Researchers were the key instrument during 1. Kalembo Ade as Apology
the study. Affluence in meanings of kalembo
Data were further analyzed using ade could be viewed as communication tool
technique suggested by Miles and Huberman in a high culture entity, including Mbojo.
(2014: 15-20). They suggest three-step This phrase was also used as verbal
protocol in data analysis, i.e. reduction, expression of apology, as shown in [1].
display, and drawing conclusion. Since
beginning, data were analyzed by [1]
considering some aspects, such as speaker, a. Farmer A: Aka sangadina mboto ringa
interlocutor, components of utterance, ku mbi’a kuta ta sabae ele na
purposes of utterance, and materials being aka.
spoken. These components were based on (Last night, I heard sounds from
facts within speech events. the east fence)
b. Farmer B: Eli ma bauna?
According to Cummings (2007), c. Farmer A: Tio ba nahu, wara edaku
speech act is a phenomenon of pragmatics – lao kai kopa wawi. Kayaknya
a branch of linguistics that studies about wara lu’u na aka sangadi na
meaning in speech by dealing with context. re. Nahu wati loa kacihi wali.
In the case of kalembo ade, this study makes Be si di ake di tonggu.
use Austin‟s (1965) theories, who classifies Kalembo Ade re, laina da
speech act into four, i.e. constantive, ne’e sandaka inga wea.
directive, commissive, and (I saw a track of boar. It
acknowledgement. Based on the aim of this seemed that it trespassed last
study, to examine variation of meaning night. I could not handle it
might be carried in kalembo ade and its since I had to guard this side.
representations of neutralizing violence. In Kalembo ade, not because I
the early stage, the researchers needed to did not want to help you)
find variation of meaning by using Austin‟s d. Farmer B: Iyora wati bune-bune na,
breakdown on acknowledgement, i.e. ampota loa kabune romo ja ni
apology , condolence, bid, greeting, (Yes, no problem. True, you
acceptability, rejection, and congratulation. could not do anything if from
two sides like that)
Variation of Meanings in Kalembo Ade Conversation [1] above occurred
Various meanings carried out in the among two farmers – Farmer A and Farmer
phrase kalembo ade became main B. Farmer A guarded his garden actively,
consideration of studying it, which served while Farmer B in one night did not come to
social function for people. It was stated to guard his own due to some problems.
have social value due to how the content of Therefore, Farmer B asked help from Farmer
the phrase brought positive impression in a A who worked that night. Their garden was
speech event. However, it may seem to be not so far to each other. In the morning,
used in negative sense, but in fact, it was

Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, Vol.6 No.2 November 2018

Farmer B talked to Farmer A that he found verbally. In response to this situation, Person
track of boar around his garden. Farmer A B came for soothe Person A by expressing
felt guilty to Farmer B since he failed to help condolence. For this purpose, she used
him to watch Farmer B‟s garden last night. kalembo ade two times in the beginning of
From the script, it was revealed that Farmer two sentences. The rest of first sentence
A could not guar two gardens at the same coming after kalembo ade talked about
time since his own garden was also being religious concept of God as the owner of
attacked. However, he felt guilty for he had human rooted from Islamic tenet (2.b).
stated his willingness to respond Farmer B‟s Meanwhile, in the other sentence, after
request the previous night. In order to saying the second kalembo ade, Person B
neutralize the situation, Farmer A said an also used the phrase to begin her motivation
apology using kalembo ade as in [1.c]. By to the Person A in order to strengthen her to
using the phrase, it seems that Farmer A cope with the situation. In this context,
tried to reduce disappointment of Farmer B, kalembo ade was understood as a feature to
which was responded well by Farmer B, as communicate people‟s sympathy and
in [1.b]. motivation at the same time.

2. Kalembo Ade as Condolence 3. Kalembo Ade as Acceptability

In different conversation, it was In different context, kalembo ade
found that kalembo ade was used to express also showed another function compared to
condolence or expression of sympathy. This earlier two, apology and condolence. As
use of the phrase emerged in use by mentioned earlier, meaning of language in
someone when he met or with someone in a use can be influenced by context of
profound sorrow. The use of this phrase for discourse. Context of using the phrase
this situation can be seen in the next kalembo ade immediately gave different
conversation [2]. meaning in use for both sides. Next data [3]
shows how the phrase was used to announce
[2] a delivery of thing in order to achieve
a. Person A : Lao ja mu ita ee waura wi’i acceptability from an interlocutor.
paki mu mada doho.
(while crying) (You have left [3]
us all) a. Person A: Kalembo Ade sandake pa
b. Person B: Kalembo Ade ee, ede waupa wara ra sadia ba ina ke.
rawi ruma. Kalembo Ade, (Kalembo ade, please accept
tiloa di ipi iha kai ade ba this. This is the only thing
ndai ma mori. my mother had prepared)
(Kalembo ade, it is God‟s
b. Person B: Iyora tibune na,
will. Kalembo ade, we who
mboto-mboto kangampu
are still alive cannot take up
waura karepo ba nahu.
in this sadness)
(Yes. No problem. Deeply
This speech event emerged between sorry for making lots of
Person A and Person B. Context of trouble for you)
conversation was when Person A was in Context of speech event in [3] was
profound sorrow after the death of one of his when Person A gave something requested by
family members. The sadness could be seen Person B. What Person A gave to Person B
from the tears while expressing her sadness was prepared earlier by his mother, in which
Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, Vol.6 No.2 November 2018

he considered the amount of gift was small kalembo ade was used to keep both parties
or not enough. That is why Person A decided engaged in a conversation in keeping a good
to say kalembo ade while giving the thing. mood of interaction. Disappointment may be
On the other side, Person B took the gift reduced by placing the phrase in the
without any objection. By using the phrase, beginning of rejection response towards a
Person A expected Person B to accept the request. However, it may function if both
gift happily; even he thought that the gift did sides have the same level of sensitivity and
not fulfill the needs of Person B. In this experience in communication using Mbojo
sense, Person A tried to fill up the gap language.
between expectation and reality by putting a
resolving component, i.e. multi-meaning DISCUSSION
phrase kalembo ade. In every social reciprocal action
among Mbojonese, the use of kalembo ade
4. Kalembo Ade as Rejection has become a primary tool of
Rejection is not easy thing to cope communication. It functions as a tool to
with. It may trigger conflict among regulate interaction within society naturally,
individuals or groups in certain contexts. which cause collective consciousness to
However, among Mbojo people, rejection emerge among participants in conversations.
can be undertaken while keep a good Whenever individuals in Mbojo community
relationship among interacted people. hear this phrase, it is not necessarily felt as
Conflict might be avoided by placing group identity through linguistic feature, but
kalembo ade in a speech event, as long as also contributes significantly in reducing
both sides have the same level of acquiring potential violence among individuals that
Mbojo language in terms of sensitivity and may cause group violence, if it is not being
experience in using the language. Data [4] overcome. In many cases, social
shows how this phrase works in a phenomenon like cence ncihi (debate about
conversation. right and wrong) may cause group conflict,
which is called as perang kampung
[4] (kampong war).
a. Person A: Mai talao lampa-lampa ee Space of the existence for kalembo
(Let‟s have a walk) ade is living in people‟s soul, thoughts, and
b.Person B: “Kalembo Ade nahu tiloaku behaviors among Mbojonese. This phrase is
lao rero” used at least in three regencies, as the origin
(Kalembo ade, I cannot go sites of Mbojonese community, including
anywhere) Bima City, Bima Regency, and Dompu
Regency. Syntactically, kalembo ade is a
Among Mbojonese, it is often to see phrase. Morphologically, this phrase was
negative response towards rejection, for created trough partial affixation of the first
instance in a verbal expression “Ka ingge- word kalembo, which is derived from the
ingge weki, cou si sia ede” (Arrogant. Who word lembo (broad or wide) and
does he think he is). This kind of response compounded with the word ade (heart). By
may cause a conflict since the rejected combining the two words, this phrase
person may count it as humiliation. actually may be understood as an appeal of
Therefore, members of Mbojo community being „generous‟ or „cordial‟ in certain
use kalembo ade to avoid the conflict with a situations (see Dictionary Mbojo-Indonesia,
gentle way. Data [3.b] shows us how 2016). In Thesaurus of Mbojo language

Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, Vol.6 No.2 November 2018

(2017: 73), the other word for kalembo is and rejection. These findings were found by
kapaja (means enlarging). Therefore, the use studying the contexts of usage. Hence, by
of kalembo ade generally is to suggest hearer viewing Bourdieu‟s conception regarding
to be patient. Discussing the phrase using violence, this study found the use of
morphology or semantic might give very kalembo ade in reducing symbolic violence
little perspective, but not in pragmatics. That in society through a linguistic feature that
is why this study also found that native was considered to have attribute as
speakers seemed to have rough translation of neutralizer of situation leading to conflict
this phrase into Indonesia, which was in fact among individuals or groups within
their second language. Whenever they are Bimanese speech community.
asked to explain the meaning of kalembo ade Moreover, there were some
in Indonesian language, they mostly conditions considered important to be
translated as “banyak maaf” (many sorry) understood to use kalembo ade properly in
not using its lexical or morphological communication. Those conditions were
meaning. Therefore, it is better using gentle voice, no rough intonation, no loud
pragmatic point of view to understand the voice, modesty, and equal level of sensitivity
carried meaning of this phrase. Pragmatics and experience in Mbojonese language. The
allows us to see how a single phrase can last condition was considered vital in order
bring some meanings. Throughout to allow both sides to have equivalent
pragmatics, one existence may carry multi understanding of contexts in using the
senses of meanings. This affluence within phrase. In other words, cultural background
kalembo ade may engage some aspects, such is very crucial aspect to see this phrase
as contexts of when, where, to whom, and in functions properly in communication.
what situation. Cultural aspect enables both sides to
As a multi-meaning phrase in one of view kalembo ade as neutralizer in
indigenous languages of Indonesia, by communication. In sociology, social system
borrowing Austin‟s (1965) classifications on manifested in semiotic is viewed as an
speech act, kalembo ade is necessarily instrument that enacts networking within
studied. Based on findings and discussion society. By adapting Jung‟s (1990)
presented earlier, it is found variation of collective unconsciousness, this study came
meaning of this phrase from the perspective with a view that kalembo ade has been
of speech act analysis by examining its uses institutionalized within the speech
in various settings. As explained earlier, this community becoming a collective
study collected data directly from the field agreement, as what Durkheim (1893) calls as
by participating as observers among speech collective consciousness (in Allan & Allan,
community in three regencies where the 2005). Other experts have coined different
local people spoke Mbojonese as their native terms to mention the same notion, such as
language, i.e. Bima City, Bima Regency, and hive mind, group mind, mass mind, and
Dompu Regency. By applying this technique social mind (Greenwood, 2004).
of entering the site, the researchers could get
valid data, in which one of the researchers CONCLUSION
was seen as insider considering his origin. Conflict among individuals is one of
Results of data analysis procedure complex problems to be solved. Experts are
show that there were four variations of still trying to study patterns that construct
meaning within the use of phrase „kalembo conflicts. In linguistics, pragmatics is used to
ade‟, i.e. apology, condolence, acceptability, investigate how a conflict may be triggered

Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, Vol.6 No.2 November 2018

and/or resolved through language in use. By Allan, Kenneth; Kenneth D. Allan. 2005.
applying speech act analysis, this study Explorations in Classical
found variation representation of meaning of Sociological Theory: Seeing the
kalembo ade, a phrase in Mbojo speech
Social World. Pine Forge Press.
community that dealt with resolving conflict
among members of the community. Austin, J. L. 1965. How to do Things with
This study came with findings Words. Oxford: Oxford University
regarding four variation of meaning in using Press.
kalembo ade based on the contexts of Bourdieu, Pierre. 1991. Language and
conversations. Those variations are kalembo Symbolic Power. Terjemahan Gino
ade as tool dealing with apology, Raymond dan Matthew Adamson.
condolence, acceptability, and rejection. All
1994. Cambridge: Harvar University
variations were found contributive to reduce
potential symbolic violence among Press.
Mbojonese speakers. Furthermore, there Chaer, Abdul dan Leonie Agustina. 1995.
were some conditions that enables the phrase Sosiolinguistik Perkenalan Awal.
to function, i.e. gentle voice, no rough Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta.
intonation, no loud voice, modesty, and Cummings, Louise. 2007. Pragmatik sebuah
equal level of sensitivity and experience in Perspektif Multidisipliner.
Mbojonese language. Other important thing
Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
to be highlighted in this study is the
importance of seeing this phenomenon as Greenwood, John D. 2004. The
something cultural. In this sense, in studying Disappearance of the Social in
a conflict, it is important to take culture into American Social Psychology.
discussion, as well as viewing how linguistic Jung, Carl. 1990. The Archetypes and the
analysis may give valuable insights Collective Unconscious. Princeton
regarding the cause and solution of conflict University Press.
among individuals or groups in a society. Kantor Bahasa Nusa Tenggara Barat. 2016.
Therefore, it is highly recommended to Kamus Mbojo Indonesia. Mataram:
maintain kalembo ade through education, Kantor Bahasa Nusa Tenggara Barat.
which gives next generation chances to Kantor Bahasa Nusa Tenggara Barat. 2017.
study the wisdom inherited from their Tesaurus Bahasa Mbojo. Mataram.
ancestors. It seems to be highly relevant with
Kantor Bahasa Nusa Tenggara Barat.
the substances or spirit attached in the 2013
National Curriculum, i.e. character building. Miles, B. Matthew., A. Michael Huberman.
2014. Analisis Data Kualitatif.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Penerjemah:Tjejep Rohendi Rohidi.
This study is dedicated to Mbojo Jakarta: UI Press.
people for their willingness to maintain Poerwadarminta, W. J. S. 2003. Kamus
kalembo ade in their social life. Next, the Umum Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta:
researchers deliver gratitude to Genius NTB Balai Pustaka.
Foundation for their supports during the Sahrain, Muhammad. 2018. Kalembo Ade:
study. Transformasi Nilai Masyrakat Bima-
Dompu. Mataram : Penerbit Genius.

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