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Solutions to

C Social Science Me ‘n’ Mine



(Answers of 1 and 3 marks questions only)


Anuradha Wahi
M.A., M.Ed.

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1. HOW, WHEN AND WHERE ...................................................................................................... 5

h Worksheets 1 to 4


THE COMPANY ESTABLISHES POWER .............................................................................. 6
h Worksheets 5 to 8

3. RULING THE COUNTRYSIDE ................................................................................................. 7

h Worksheets 9 to 12

4. TRIVALS, DIKUS AND THE VISION OF A GOLDEN AGE ........................................... 9

h Worksheets 13 to 17


1857 AND AFTER ....................................................................................................................... 10
h Worksheets 18 to 22


THE STORY OF AN IMPERIAL CAPITAL ......................................................................... 11
h Worksheets 23 to 27

7. WEAVERS, IRON SMELTERS AND FACTORY OWNERS ............................................ 12

h Worksheets 28 to 31

8. CIVILISING THE “NATIVE”, EDUCATING THE NATION ......................................... 13

h Worksheets 32 to 35

9. WOMEN, CASTE AND REFORM ......................................................................................... 14

h Worksheets 36 to 39

10. THE CHANGING WORLD OF VISUAL ARTS ................................................................. 15

h Worksheets 40 to 43

11. THE MAKING OF THE NATIONAL MOVEMENT: 1870s-1947..................................... 16

h Worksheets 44 to 46

12. INDIA AFTER INDEPENDENCE ........................................................................................... 17

h Worksheets 47 to 49


1. RESOURCES ................................................................................................................................. 18
h Worksheets 50 to 53


h Worksheets 54 to 58

3. MINERAL AND POWER RESOURCES ................................................................................ 20

h Worksheets 59 to 64
4. AGRICULTURE ................................................................................................................................... 23
h Worksheets 65 to 71

5. INDUSTRIES ....................................................................................................................................... 24
h Worksheets 72 to 78

6. HUMAN RESOURCES ...................................................................................................................... 26

h Worksheets 79 to 82


1. THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION ..................................................................................................... 27

h Worksheets 83 to 86

2. UNDERSTANDING SECULARISM .............................................................................................. 28

h Worksheets 87 to 90

3. WHY DO WE NEED A PARLIAMENT? ....................................................................................... 29

h Worksheets 91 to 93

4. UNDERSTANDING LAWS .............................................................................................................. 30

h Worksheets 94 to 96

5. JUDICIARY ........................................................................................................................................... 30
h Worksheets 97 to 99

6. UNDERSTANDING OUR CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM ..................................................... 31

h Worksheets 100 to 103

7. UNDERSTANDING MARGINALISATION ................................................................................ 32

h Worksheets 104 to 106

8. CONFRONTING MARGINALISATION ...................................................................................... 33

h Worksheets 107 to 109

9. PUBLIC FACILITIES .......................................................................................................................... 33

h Worksheets 110 to 112


h Worksheets 113 to 115 ..................................................................................................................... 34




1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (d) 7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10. (d)

1. Dates are of great importance in history as history is certainly about changes that occur overtime. As dates tell
us about the features of certain times, that is why they are important for historians and for others.
2. There are many types of surveys like botanical surveys, zoological surveys, archaeological surveys, forest
surveys, census surveys etc.
3. Main sources of modern India are — 1. Books 2. Official records 3. Newspapers 4. Magazine and Novels
5. Historical monuments 6. Sculptures and paintings etc.
4. Ancient age. It started with the start of human history and it lasted till 7th century A.D. In this age, man was
very backward from all aspects.
5. The age was slightly improved one. This age saw style, improved manner, some improvement in different
forum of life, science reason, liberty and equality were in their initial stages. This period lasted till 18th
century A.D.
6. Modern age. It started in 18th century in India and in 16th century in Europe. This age is associated with all
modern amenities – democracy, equality and liberty.
7. Religious intolerance, caste taboos and superstitious practices dominated the social life of India. That is why
James Mill felt that British rule could civilise India.
8. They preserved the official documents because they liked to have permanent records. They believed that the
act of writing was important. Every type of plan instructions, agreement, policy, investigation should be
properly written and then carefully be preserved.
9. James Mill believed that in India there prevailed:
1. Religious intolerance 2. Superstitious practices 3. Caste taboos

1. There are abundant sources of information of studying history. These sources can be divided as—1. Primary
sources 2. Secondary sources.
1. Primary sources — They include original documents like government reports, literary and artistic evidence
like books and paintings and archaeological remains such as monuments and artefacts. Most of the primary
sources are preserved in archives and museums.
2. Secondary sources — The conclusions that were reached by historians after studying those sources are called
secondary sources. They are available to us as reports, reviews articles and books.
2. 1. They help in reconstructing the history of a region.
2. They help us to know about what kind of administration was at that time.
3. The British believed that the act of writing was important. Every instruction, plans, policy decision, agreement
investigation had to be clearly written up. Once this was done, they could be properly studied and debated.
3. 1. British East India Company came into being in 1600.
2. Later it conquered India and established its rule.
3. The British exploited Indians in every possible way.
4. The rule brought in new values and tastes, customs and practices.

S O L U T I O N S 5
4. We can get important information about modern history of India by: official records, popular books, novels,
autobiographies of important personalities, newspapers and magazines, historical monuments, letters, paintings,
accounts of pilgrim and travellers etc.
5. The survey was conducted to know: — The topography, the soil quality, the flora, the fauna, the local histories,
cropping pattern and many other things so as to give effective administration.
6. We can get information through the these sources: 1. Administrative records from the office of the collector.
2. Journals, newspapers, magazines etc. 3. Agriculture Department. 4. A few elderly people. 5. Documents
produced by different scholars.

A. 1. Medieval 2. Aurangzeb 3. Warren Hastings 4. Lord Mountbatten
5. James Mill 6. writing 7. three-volume 8. archives; museums

B. 1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (e) 5. (d) 6. (g) 7. (f )

C. 1. F 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. T 7. T 8. T

D. Do yourself.


1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10. (a)
1. Literally, a toy that you can move with strings. In other words, a person who is controlled by someone else.
Here, the term is used for the Britishers how they controlled the Indians.
2. A business enterprise that makes profit primarily through trade, buying goods at cheaper rate and selling
them at higher profits.
3. The name ‘Nawabs’ given to the officials of the East India Company in late 18th century, because they
followed the lifestyle of the Indian aristocracy.
4. Residents were political or commercial agents of the Britishers whose job was to protect the interests of the
5. Haider Ali was the ruler of Mysore who ruled from 1761 to 1782 A.D. After his death, his son Tipu Sultan
became new king and ruled till 1799 A.D.
6. British territories in India were broadly divided into administrative units which were known as Presidencies.
There were three Presidencies – Bengal, Madras and Bombay.
7. Lord Hastings started this policy. Now the Company claimed that its authority was supreme or paramount.
Hence, its power was greater than that of Indian states.
8. Doctrine of Lapse — It was Lord Dalhousie who implemented this policy very strictly. According to this
policy, if any Indian ruler died without a natural male heir, his state would be annexed by the British empire.
He could not adopt a child as his successor without the permission of the English. Dalhousie did not grant
such permission. As a consequence many Indian states were annexed by the British empire.
Reaction — Princes, whose states were annexed became the sworn enemies of the British. Hence there spread
a wave of anger and resentment among most of the Indian princes which ultimately led to the outbreak of the
Revolt of 1857.

6 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
1. The consequences of the Battle of Plassey are: The Nawab’s army was defeated and the Nawab himself was
captured and brutally put to death. Mir Jaffar was made the Nawab and he gave away large sums of money to
Clive and other officials of English company as reward of their support. The battle made the beginning of the
establishment of British power in India. After the Battle of Plassey, the East India Company became the real
power in Bengal with Nawab as its puppet. This was the beginning of the subsequent victory of the whole of
the country by the British.
2. Civil Service was the steel frame of the British administration in India. The widespread corruption in the
Company’s commercial officials forced Clive and Warren Hastings to adopt some corrective measures. But it
was Cornwallis who was the real founder of the British service in India.
Main features of the British Civil Service:
1. He separated the commercial and revenue branches of administration, banned acceptance of presents by
the administrative staff and arranged for paying them handsome salaries.
2. The nominative system of appointment in Civil Service was done away with and a system of open
competition through examination system was introduced.
3. Indians were not allowed to enter Civil Services.
4. To train the young recruits to the civil service. In the system of government, social conditions, languages
and the traditions prevalent in India was the college of Fort William started in Calcutta in 1801. Later on
for the same purpose the East India College was set up at Hailabury in England.
3. 1. Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces.
2. Indian rulers were to be protected by the Company but for this they had to pay the ‘subsidiary forces’.
3. If the Indian rulers somehow failed to make the payment then part of their territory was to be taken away
as penalty.
4. Each Indian ruler had to keep an English resident at his court.
4. 1. The East India Company introduced a uniform military culture.
2. The soldiers were in few warfare technology on European lines.
3. Drill and discipline were also introduced to regulate their life.

A. 1. Plassey 2. 1757 3. Mysore 4. Doctrine of Lapse
5. South-West 6. Lord Wellesley 7. Mir Jaffar

B. 1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (e) 5. (c) 6. (g) 7. (f )

C. 1. F 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. T 6. T 7. T

D. Do yourself.
1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (a) 10. (a)
1. According to this system, the government made settlements with the cultivators for the specific period (30
years) during which the cultivators had to pay 50 per cent of the produce to the government.

S O L U T I O N S 7
2. A large farm operated by a planter employing various forms of forced labour. Plantations are associated with
the production of coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, tea and cotton.
3. Lord Cornwallis was the Governor General of British India. The Permanent Settlement was introduced by
him in 1793.
4. In this system, the planters produced indigo in India that they directly controlled. He either brought the land
or rented it from other Zamindars and produced indigo by directly employing hired labourers.
5. A person who is owned by someone else – the slave owner. A slave has no freedom and is compelled to work
for his master.
6. 1. The British officials did not patronise the Indian goods.
2. They had different tastes and liked the European patrons only.
3. Restrictions were imposed on the entry of Indian textile products. Steps were taken in both India and
Britain to serve the interests of the British traders and manufacturers at the cost of Indian industries.
4. The Company’s agents in India forced the products or goods to charge 20 to 40% less than the market price.
5. They manipulated the prices of raw cotton. This almost ruined cotton textile industry in India.
7. A peasant from Bihar persuaded Mahatma Gandhi to visit Champaran and to see the plight of indigo cultivators.
Gandhiji visited Champaran in 1917 and then he began Champaran movement against the indigo planters.


1 1. The indigo factories were attacked by ryots.

2. They refused to pay rents to the planters.
3. Women also joined them.
4. Planters were socially boycotted.
2. 1. The zamindars were made the owners of land.
2. They became the supporters of British government.
3. Zamindars sided the British even during mutiny of 1857 and National Movement.
4. It was easy to have transaction with the zamindars than the peasants.
3. 1. The financial control or administration of the territory of Bengal brought under the control of the
2. The Company had to think of administrating the land and organising its revenue resources.
3. The Company had to ensure that it could buy the product it needed and sell it if wanted.
4. Capitalism. It is a system of production in which all the means of production – machines, goods and raw
materials etc. belong to the capitalist. He is the owner, takes the profit and hire the labour on work in the


A. 1. indigo 2. Industrial Revolution 3. synthetic dye 4. Indigo plantation workers

5. Holt Mackenzie 6. Bihar 7. fixed
B. 1. (e) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (g) 7. (f )
C. 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. T 7. F
D. Do yourself.

8 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII

I. 1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (d)
II. 1. They belonged not from Munda tribe but from other tribal groups like Santhals. People thought about Birsa
Munda that he had miraculous powers and he could cure all diseases and multiply grain.

1. Tribe is a group of people who lives away from our society in forests, valleys and mountains. They have their
own ways of living and culture.
2. Occupations of the tribe:
(a) Agriculture (b) Hunting (c) Trade (d) Rearing animals
(e) Gathering forest produce
3. Jhum cultivators were known as shifting cultivators. They were found in north-eastern parts and Central
4. A patch of forest land has been cleared by burning the forest vegetation. After clearing the land, cultivation
is done for 2 to 3 years. After 2 to 3 years when unwanted plants grow over there, farmers shift the patch of
land by the same process and this is known as shifting cultivation.
5. They were a community of tribal people living in Orissa.
— They regularly went out on collective hunts and then divided the meat among themselves.
— They used many forest shrubs and herbs for medicinal purposes.
— They cooked food with the oil they extracted from the seeds of sal and mahua.
6. The British policies were that which exploit the adivasis.
— Birsa Munda challenged the British by raising the slogans.
— In 1897, the tribals had attacked the police station and in 1900 the British opened firing on unarmed tribals
who had come to listen Birsa, in which number of tribals died.
— The uprisings transformed the lives of hundreds of adivasis.
7. 1. The land settlement policies introduced by the British adversely affected the traditional joint ownership
structure of the tribals and created a lot of unrest in the societies.
2. The British took over large chunks of land cultivated by the tribals so as to grow cash crops such as poppy,
indigo, cotton etc.
3. The British sold the land of the tribals to the cultivators at will and forced them to pay unjust dues.
4. The activities of the Christian missionaries were also objected by the tribal societies.
5. Tribal economy was also disrupted by the Britishers by levying taxes on the tribal products.

A. 1. backward 2. broadcast 3. land 4. tea plantations; coal mines
5. Khasi 6. 1875; Chhotanagpur 7. Madhya Pradesh
B. 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. F 6. F 7. T
C. Do yourself D. Do yourself E. Do yourself

S O L U T I O N S 9

1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (b)

1. Rani Lakshmibai had no son who could become successor to the throne. She adopted a son and wanted the
Company to recognise her adopted son as heir to the kingdom after the death of her husband. But this
demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi was refused by the Britishers.
2. Barrackpore, Meerut, Delhi, Lucknow, Jhansi, Saharanpur, Kanpur were the areas where the uprising was
most widespread.
3. Mangal Pandey was a brave soldier of the British military at Barrackpore. He was the first person who
refused the loading of the new rifles with greased cartridges. Due to this reason, he was killed by the
4. The leadership of the revolt was in the hands of Princes and landlords. The main weakness was that they
stuck to their old ideas and fought only to fulfil their own selfish objectives.
5. (a) Mangal Pandey (b) Bahadur Shah Zafar (c) Nana Sahib (d) Bakht Khan (e) Kunwar Singh
(f ) Tantia Tope (g) Lakshmibai (Rani of Jhansi).
6. The First Indian war of Independence. Delhi, Meerut, Bihar, Lucknow, Barrackpore were the main centres of
Revolt of 1857.
7. The Queen of Wajid Ali Shah who became the regent of her young son Birjis Qadar. She belonged to
8. Greased cartridges is the main reason of discontent among the Indians against the British. To overthrow the
British rule from India was the immediate cause of the revolt of 1857.

1. Ahmadullah Shah, a Maulvi from Faizabad prophesied that the rule of British would come to end soon. He
came to Lucknow to fight the British.
2. The last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II lived a miserable life in the last years of his life. He was arrested
and tried in the court. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. He and his wife were sent to Rangoon in
October, 1858. He died in the Rangoon jail in November, 1862.
3. 1. They were unhappy about their pay allowances and conditions of services.
2. Some of the rulers violated their religious sensibilities and beliefs.
3. In 1856, the Company passed a new law which stated that every new person who took up employment in
the Company’s army had to agree to serve overseas if required.
4. 1. Absence of a developed political consciousness among the Indians.
2. Lack of support for the rebellion from the enlightened middle class.
3. Internal feuds and jealousies among the rebels.
4. Absence of a strong common leadership of the rebels.
Reason: The middle class was not so influential and strong yet. it had some foothold in some parts of India
only. It was almost absent in rural India. Because of these reasons their share in the revolt was quite
negligible. As such, this class was least responsible for the failure of the Revolt of 1857.
5. Social causes:
1. The Christian Missionaries created a fear that the British were out to forcibly convert the people of India into

10 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
2. The social reforms like abolishing the Sati System, Child Marriage etc. also increased the fear of India.
3. The spread of western education and culture was a blow to Indian society.
Political causes:
1. The most important cause was the annexation policy of Lord Dalhousie.
2. Dalhousie announced that the successor of Bahadur Shah Zafar would have to abandon the historical Red
Fort deeply wounded the Muslim sentiments.
3. The annexation of Awadh under the pretext of misgovernment caused great resentment among sepoys as
most of them came from Awadh.

A. 1. Bengal 2. hanged 3. Tantia Tope 4. Bahadur Shah Zafar
5. high taxes; revenue 6. Meerut 7. 1850

B. 1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (e) 5. (b)

C. 1. T 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. F 6. F 7. F

C. Do yourself.


I. 1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (d) 6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. (b) 10. (b)
II. 1. For administration purposes, colonial India was divided into three Presidencies – Madras, Bengal and
Bombay which developed from the East India Company’s factories at Surat, Madras and Calcutta.

1. After the revolt of 1857, the Britishers came to know about the importance of Delhi as it was the main centre
of revolt and they realised its importance. That is why the Grand Darbar was held in Delhi.
2. The city of Bombay began to grow when in 18th century the East India Company started using Bombay as its
main port in Western India.
3. Machlipatnam developed as an important port town in the seventeenth century. Its importance declined by
the late eighteenth century as trade shifted to the new British parts of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta.
4. Production of articles in factories through machines. Industrial revolution first began in the later part of 18th
century in England.
5. When powerful countries control over the weaker countries, it is known as colonisation. Political, economic
and social domination of an imperial power is also called colonialism.
6. (a) Due to industrialisation of these towns, more and more opportunity of new jobs opened. More and more
people got jobs and settled there.
(b) There were more facilities of housing and other essential things in these cities.
7. As many as 14 capital cities were founded in a small area of about 60 sq. miles on east bank of Yamuna, in
Delhi. The period of 1830 to 1857 A.D. is known as the period of Delhi Renaissance.
8. Occupations of hawkers, workers, carpenters and ironsmith were selected by refugees in Delhi. Many of them
became successful in their business.

S O L U T I O N S 11
1. George V was crowned in England and a Darbar was held in Delhi to celebrate this occasion. The decision to
shift capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi was announced at this Darbar.
2. Civil Lines—The colonial policies were focussed on providing facilities that concerned government servants in
capital cities and towns. Even in big cities the facilities were limited on Civil Lines and localities housing the
senior civil servants.

Cantonments—Here the people lived on their own and cut off from the rest of the civilian population.

3. 1. In the 17th century, Bombay was the group of seven Islands under Portuguese. After 1661, its control
passed into they hands of the East India Company.

2. After gaining Bombay, Company was quick to shift its base from its principal western port Surat to

3. It became an important administrative centre in the western India and by the end of the 19th century
a major industrial centre.

4. With the growth of trade in opium and cotton large communities of artisans and shopkeepers on one hand
and traders and bankers on the other started setting in Bombay.

5. Marine trade attracted more and more people to Bombay.

4. 1. Decline of port towns—The port towns like Surat and Masulipatnam declined due to the lost of major share
of sea born trade to Europeans.

2. The pilgrimage towns—The pilgrimage towns like Madurai, Kanchipuram, Bhubaneshpur had grown on
accounts of pilgrimage and trade. They were important as trade as well as religious towns. These towns too
declined on the account of the authority.

3. Decline of provincial capitals and important towns — Delhi, Agra, Sonepat, Poona, Nagpur, Lucknow,
Tanjore were some of the main important cities during Mughal period. With the decline of Mughal Empire
migration of administrators and artisans and these cities suffered a lot. Although renewed economic
activities at some centres like Delhi and Hyderabad. The political uncertainty was responsible for the
economic decline and colonial patronage helped to create new parts of these cities.

A. 1. central dome 2. Edward Lutyens; Herber Barker 3. unhygenic
4. Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme 5. urbanisation 6. Presidency 7. Gulfaroshan

B. Do yourself.

C. 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. T 7. T

D. Do yourself.


1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (c)
6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (a)

12 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
I. 1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (d)
II. 1. A machine by which a single worker could operate several spindles on to which thread was spun. When the
wheel was turned, all the spindles rotated. It was invented by John Kaye in 1764.
2. Bandanna refers to any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. It is derived from the word
‘bandhna’ which refers to a variety of brightly coloured clothes produced through a method of tying
and dying.
3. Charkha and the takli was the household spinning instruments. The thread was spun on the charkha and
rolled on the takli.
4. Jamdani weave is a mixture of cotton and gold thread woven on the loom in the 20th century. The most
important centres of Jamdani weaving were Decca in Bengal and Lucknow in the United Provinces.


1. 1. The Tanti weavers of Bengal.

2. Julahas weavers of North India.
3. Sali, Saikollar and Devang of South India.
2. 1. Bengal was one of the most important centres.
2. Decca in Eastern Bengal was famous for its mulmul and Jamdani weaving
3. A cluster of cloth weaving centres stretching from Madras to Northern Andhra Pradesh.
4. Few important centres were on the western coast of Gujarat.
3. 1. It had an hard and sharp edge.
2. It was made from a special type of high Carbon Steel called wook which was produced all over South India.
3. Wook steel was produced in many hundreds of smelting furnaces in Mysore. In these furnaces, iron was
mixed with charcoal and put inside small clay pots.
4. Through an intricate control of temperature the smelters produced this type of steel.

A. 1. chhint 2. Wootz 3. textiles; eighteenth 4. 1912
5. Darobji Tata 6. rangrez 7. John Kaye 8. Dutch; French; English
9. 1914 10. Rajhara Hills

B. 1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (g) 6. (e) 7. (f ) 8. (j) 9. (i) 10. (h)

C. 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. T 9. T 10. F

D. Do yourself.



1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (a)

9. (b) 10. (c)

S O L U T I O N S 13
1. William Jones was a junior judge of the Supreme Court. He was an expert in law and was a linguist. Henry
Thomas Colebrooke was a scholar of Sanskrit and ancient sacred writings of Hinduism.
2. (a) English was started in India by Lord Macaulay.
(b) It is the language of common people and one can come to the conclusion on any other.
3. 1. English was to become the medium of instruction for higher education.
2. The promotion of oriental institutions like the Calcutta, Madras and Banaras. Sanskrit education was now to
3. English textbooks now began to be produced for schools.
4. Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi had almost identical views on education. However, following
differences were found:
1. Gandhiji was highly critical of western civilisation and its craze for machines and technology.
2. Tagore wanted to combine the best in both the civilisations the Indian and the western at Shantiniketan.
5. The Wood’s Despatch — It was the educational policy based on European knowledge that was to be followed
in India. It was issued by Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control of the East India Company in
Its justification:
1. It emphasised on its practical benefits.
2. It argued that European learning would change Indians tastes and desires and create a demand for British
3. It would enables Indians to recognise the advantages that flow from the expansion of trade and commerce.
4. Indian would begin to appreciate and buy things that were produced in Europe.

A. 1. Linguistic 2. orientalist 3. Lord Macaulay 4. Wood’s Despatch Act of 1854
5. Anglioists 6. Nai Talim 7. Aligarh Muslim 8. Law
9. Rabindranath Tagore 10. Raja Ram Mohan Roy

B. 1. (j) 2. (i) 3. (f) 4. (d) 5. (h) 6. (e) 7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (g)

C. 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. F 8. F 9. T
D. Do yourself.


1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (b) 7. (b) 8. (a)
9. (a) 10. (c)


1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (d)

6. 1. Girls started getting education.
2. They started getting better treatment than ever before.

14 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
3. Sati system was banned in 1829.
4. Marriageable age of women was raised to 16.
5. Polygamy was discouraged.
6. Now widows could remarry.
7. 1. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was one of the most famous reformers who did a lot for the education of women
in Calcutta.
2. He waged a long struggle for widow remarriage.
3. The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act, 1856 was passed by the government due to the efforts of Ishwar
Chandra Vidyasagar.
8. 1. The Brahmo Samaj was found by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in Calcutta, a great social reformer. He strongly tell
to bring positive change in society and to stop unjust practices.
2. Keen to spread the knowledge of western education.
3. Made efforts to bring about greater freedom and equality for women.
4. Began a campaign against the practice of Sati which was at last banned by the British Government in 1829.
5. Emphasised on women education.


A. 1. 1875 2. 1829 3. Sanskrit 4. Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain

5. Lord Bentick 6. Satya Shodhak Samaj 7. Henry Vivian Derozio
8. Polygamy 9. Kandukuri Veenesalingam 10. Polygamy

B. 1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (e) 4. (b) 5. (d) 6. (g) 7. (h) 8. (f) 9. (j) 10, (i)

C. 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. T 8. F 9. T 10. F

D. Do yourself.


1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (a) 8. (b)
9. (c) 10. (b)

I. 1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (d)

II. 1. (a) Engraving is a picture printed on to paper from a piece of wood or metal into which the design or
drawing has been cut.
(b) The way that objects appear smaller when they are further away and the way parallel lines appear to
meet each other at a point is the distance.
2. It is the third category of imperial art, called history painting.

1. The British painters wanted to depict British Victories their power and their Supremacy.

2. Thus they wanted to implant in the memory of people both in India and Britain showing that they were
invincible and all powerful.

S O L U T I O N S 15
3. 1. It was the battle of Seringapatam in which Tipu Sultan of Mysore was finally defeated in 1799.
2. It is a painting full of action and energy.
3. The painting dramatises the event and glorifies the British triumph.
4. 1. Raja Ravi Verma belonged to the family of the Maharajas of Travancore in Kerala. He was addressed as
2. He became famous as he mastered the western art oil painting. He painted themes from the Ramayana and
the Mahabharata.
3. He painted a large number of mythological of paintings on canvas which became famous among Indian
princes and art collectors from the 1880s. He filled their palaces galleries with his work.
4. On popular appeal he set-up a picture production team and printing press on the outskirts of Bombay. He
produced his religious paintings there on large-scale.

A. 1. Portrait 2. Picturesque 3. engravings 4. history paintings
5. Max Muller 6. Printing Press 7. English 8. British
9. Rabindra Nritya 10. Max Muller
B. 1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (e) 6. (g) 7. (f)
C. 1. T 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. F 8. T 9. T 10. F
D. Do yourself.


1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (d) 10. (b)

1. Moderates were those leaders, who wanted to attain freedom in a peaceful manner. The moderate leaders
were Surindranath Banerjee, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Dadabhai Naroji.
2. Their struggle against the British rule were:
1. They believed in petitions and appeals.
2. They used peaceful means to overthrow the British.
3. They criticised the British in their speeches.
3. The resolution of Muslim League in 1940 were:
1. Jinnah was an important leader of Muslim League, who gave the notion of two-nation theory where
separate state Pakistan was demanded by him for Muslims.
2. In order to win Pakistan, Muslim League decided to launch mass agitation.
4. 1. Bengal was partitioned in 1905 by Lord Curzon.
2. It was not partitioned because of administration convenience. It had, in fact altogether different motive
behind it. Clearly it was closely tied to the interests of the British officials and businessmen. Perhaps the
main motive was to curtail the influence of Bengali politicians and to split the Bengal people.
5. 1. He had a experience of leading Indians in South Africa in non-violent way against racist restrictions.
2. He was known internationally.
3. He spent many years, understanding the people, their needs and the overall situation.

16 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
4. He made all efforts to keep all the people of the country united in the struggle against the British rule.
5. His personal character, values, non-violent means and methods and selfless work made him great and
acceptable to almost all the countrymen.

A. 1. Bal Gangadhar Tilak 2. Lala Lajpat Rai; Sardar Ajit Singh 3. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
4. Rajagopalachari 5. extreme 6. 1942 7. 1878
8. 1919; Satyagraha; Rowlatt Act 9. 1940; independent states 10. Radicals
B. Do yourself.
C. 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. T 7. T 8. F 9. F 10. F
D. Do yourself.


1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (b) 7. (b) 8. (c)
9. (a) 10. (b) 11. (c) 12. (a)

1. 1. Removal of poverty and ignorance.
2. Equality of opportunity for one and all.
3. To unite all the communities under one flag.
4. Consolidation of princely states in India.
5. To open educational institutions.
6. To provide good administration.
2. 1. It provides same political rights to all the citizens of a country without any discrimination on the basis of
caste, colour and creed.
2. Universal Adult Franchise and right to contest elections.
3. Equal access to office of authority.
3. It was the Planning Commission to help design and execute suitable policies.
1. It recommended ‘mixed economy’ model to be followed for increasing production and generating jobs.
2. The state and the private sector were to play important and complementary roles to achieve the above stated
3. Heavy industries such as steel building, large dams were to be under the state control.

A. 1. 15th August, 1947 2. Portuguese 3. East 4. taxes; defence; foreign affairs
5. forest; agriculture 6. mixed economy 7. Potti Sriramulu 8. Punjab; Haryana
9. 345 10. B.R. Ambedkar
B. 1. (e) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (h) 7. (f) 8. (j) 9. (g) 10. (i)
C. 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. T 9. F 10. T
D. Do yourself.

S O L U T I O N S 17



1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (d)

7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (b) 11. (b)

I. 1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (a) 6. (b)
7. (d) 8. (d)
II. 1. Five resources which we use in our home are:
(a) Cloth (b) Utensils (c) Foodgrains (d) Comb (e) Honey.
Five resources which we use in our classroom are:
(a) Blackboard (b) Chalk (c) Books, notebooks (d) Pen, pencil (e) Desks, benches.
2. Utility or usability is what makes an object or substance a resource. For example, water, electricity,
rickshaw, vegetable and textbook used by all so they have utility.
3. The resources which are made by human knowledge and skill are called the human-made resources. For
example, iron ore was not a resource until people learnt to extract iron from it. Hence, technology is also a
human-made resource.

1. The physical factors responsible for the distribution of resources are following:
(i) Terrain (ii) Climate (iii) Altitude.
2. Sustainable Development. Developments that meet the needs of the present without compromising the fare
share of future generation to meet their own needs.
3. List of human-made resources that we observe around us:
(a) Vehicles (b) Buildings (c) Bridges (d) Roads (e) Machinery.
4. A majority of resources are limited in nature. To prolong the life of such limited resources it is necessary to
make their proper utilisation. Recycling of resources where possible must be undertaken. Recycling is a
process by which waste goods are reconstituted into useful material. Its importance:
1. It helps in saving our environment from pollution.
2. It helps in saving our resources.
3. It helps in providing employment.
4. It is a judicious and planned use of natural resources.
5. These can be classified into two groups:
1. Biotic resources
2. Abiotic resources
1. Biotic resources are all living things, receive, we receive them from the biosphere. Examples are forests,
agricultural crops, animals etc.

18 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
2. Abiotic resources are all non-living things. They cannot be renewed. They do not have life. Example—
soil, rocks and minerals.
6. Conservation of resources means the management of resources by human beings. The main aim of this
management is to give sustainable benefits to the present generation and to maintain potential to meet the
needs and aspiration of future generation. We can conserve resources by:
1. Recycling waste matter
2. Minimizing waste
3. Substituting non-renewable items with renewable ones.
4. Estimating resource requirement in future.

A. 1. utility 2. Time; technique 3. non-renewable 4. patent
5. biotic 6. actual; potential 7. renewable
B. 1. T 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. T 6. F 7. T
C. 1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (e) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (g) 7. (f)
D. Do yourself.



1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (a) 6. (c)

7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (d)

I. 1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (b) 6. (c)

II. 1. Four uses of land are:

(a) Constructing buildings (b) Roads, railway lines
(c) Cultivation (d) Rearing of animals.
2. The factors responsible for the uneven distribution of population in different parts of the world are:

(a) Varied characteristics of land (b) Climate (c) Rugged topography

(d) Low-lying areas where water logging is there (e) Desert areas (f) Thickly forested areas.

3. Landslide. It is defined as the mass movement of rock, debris or earth down the slope.

Causes of the landslide are:

(a) Earthquakes (b) Floods (c) Volcanic eruption (d) Prolonged spell of rainfall.

4. The effects of landslides and destructive erosion can be reduced by the following ways:

(a) Proper development (b) Sound construction techniques (c) Seasonal inspections

(d) Regular maintenance of drainage.

S O L U T I O N S 19
1. Major vegetation species of India are:
(a) Tropical Evergreen forests (b) Tropical Deciduous forests (c) Thorn forests (d) Mountainous forests
(e) Tidal forests.

2. 1. The earth is called a blue planet because water is found in abundance on the planet earth.
2. It covers about 3/4 of the earth’s surface.
3. Earth appears blue from space and hence called a blue planet.
3. 1. Wild animals like lions, tigers, rhinos are faced with the threat of total extinction. These are known as
endangered species.
2. Man is responsible for this as he has been killing these animals out of sheer greed since ages.
3. If not protected then these species may totally vanish.
4. The government has responded to the need for protecting these animals by developing wildlife sanctuaries,
biosphere reserves and national parks.

4. Evergreen forests Deciduous forests

1. These are tropical rainforests. 1. These are monsoon forests.
2. These are tall trees. 2. These are not so tall.
3. These forests are found in regions which receive 3. These forests are found in the region which
more than 200 cm rainfall. receives rainfall between 70 cm to 200 cm.
4. Import trees are Ebony, Mahagony and Rosewood. 4. Important trees are Teak, Sal, Bamboo and

A. 1. common property 2. population; technology 3. soil 4. parent rock; climatic factors
5. soil conservation 6. ecosystem
B. 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. T
C. 1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (f) 6. (e)
D. Do yourself.



1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (b) 6. (d)

7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (a) 11. (b)

I. 1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (c) 7. (c)
8. (b) 9. (d)
II. 1. Minerals that are classified on the basis of their composition are:
(a) Metallic minerals
(b) Non-metallic minerals.

20 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
2. (a) Opencast Mining: Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer. This
is known as opencast mining.
(b) Shaft Mining: Deep bores, called shafts have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great
depths. This is called shaft mining.
3. Rocks from which minerals are mined are known as ores. Ores of metallic minerals are generally located in
igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus.
4. Various minerals found in South America are gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica,
platinum and diamond. Mineral oil is found in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia.


1. Wind Energy

Advantages Disadvantages

(a) It is pollution free. (a) It has noise pollution.

(b) It has low cost of electricity once set up. (b) It is costly to set up windmills.
(c) It is safe and clean. (c) It disturbs radio and TV reception.

2. Advantages: (a) It is pollution free. (b) It is inexhaustible.

Disadvantages: (a) It destroys wildlife habitat. (b) Difficult to harness.

3. Advantages: (a) It has low cost. (b) It is easy to operate. (c) It makes use of bio waste.
Disadvantages: It causes greenhouse effect.
4. Advantages: It is clean, eco-friendly and always available.
Disadvantages: It is located far away from cities and so costly to transport the electricity.
5. Benefits of natural gas:
(a) Easy to transport through pipelines.
(b) It is cleaner than oil and coal.
(c) Cheaper than oil.
6. 1. They are unevenly distributed over the surface of earth.
2. They are formed in various types of geological environment.
3. They are exhaustible.
4. They can be identified on the basis of their colour, density, hardness and chemical properties.
7. 1. They have great economic importance. They have greatly contributed in the economic development of
the nation.
2. All the different ages of the advancement of civilisation have been named after such as Copper age,
Bronze age, Iron age etc.
3. In Electronic age, the use of minerals in various forms clearly show the electronic importance of the
4. Minerals provide sound base for economic and industrial development.

S O L U T I O N S 21


2. Advantages: (a) Large deposits are found. (b) Relatively efficient conversion to electricity.
Disadvantages: (a) It is non-renewable. (b) It causes large-scale pollution. (c) Bulky and having weight.
3. There are three types of rocks:
(a) Igneous rocks
(b) Metamorphic rocks
(c) Sedimentary rocks.
4. 1. By Recycling — It is the industrial process which makes new products from discarded and waste
2. Substitutes — In recent years biodegradable plastic and other substitutes have been used to conserve
mineral resources, which must be encouraged.
3. By avoiding wastage — They can also be conserved by using efficient methods of extraction and
processing. At consumption level, they can also be conserved.
4. By reducing overdependence — They can be secured for future generations.

A. 1. Minerals 2. mining 3. opencast mining 4. drilling
5. quarrying 6. non-ferrous minerals 7. thermal power
B. 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. T 7. T
C. Do yourself.
D. Do yourself.

22 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII


1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (d) 8. (a) 9. (b) 10. (b)
11. (c) 12. (d)

I. 1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (b) 7. (c) 8. (d)

II. 1. The word agriculture is derived from Latin word ager or agri meaning soil and culture meaning cultivation
or tilling of soil. Thus, cultivation of the crops are termed as agriculture.
2. Three types of economic activities are:
(a) Primary activites
(b) Secondary activities
(c) Tertiary activities.
3. Primary activities include all those connected with extraction and production of natural resources. Agriculture
and fishing are its good examples.
4. Secondary activities are concerned with the processing of these resources. Manufacturing of steel, baking of
bread and weaving of cloth are the examples of secondary activities.

1. Tertiary activities provide support to the primary and secondary sector through services. Transport, trade,
banking, insurance and advertisement are the good examples of tertiary activities.
2. In this type of farming, organic manure and natural pesticides are used instead of chemicals. No genetic
modification is done to increase the yield of the crop.
3. Farming is practised in various ways across the world. Depending upon the geographical conditions, demand
of produce, labour and level of technology it can be classified into two main types:
(a) Subsistence farming
(b) Commercial farming.
4. This type of farming is practised to meet the needs of the farmer family. Low level of technology, traditional
methods and household labour are used to produce small output.
5. In commercial farming, crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market. The area cultivated and
amount of the capital used is large. Klork is done by machines. It includes commercial grain farming, mixed
farming and plantation agriculture.
6. Primitive subsistence agriculture is a traditional method of agriculture. It includes shifting cultivation and
nomadic herding. Old tools are used in this method. Farming is done by manual labour.
7. Nomadic herding is practised in the semi-arid and the regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India
like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.
8. Major plantations are found in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Rubber in Malaysia, coffee
in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka, Banana plantation in Central America, Cocoa plantation in Ghana.

S O L U T I O N S 23
1. Different crops are grown in different regions. The methods of farming, the types of crops and the amount of
field vary from place to place due to the different environmental conditions. There are many physical and
economic factors, which greatly affect agriculture like availability of water, soil rainfall, relief of land etc.
2. 1. Subsistence Farming 2. Shifting Agriculture
3. Plantation Agriculture 4. Intensive Agriculture
5. Commercial Agriculture
3. Agriculture is the life blood of Indian economy due to the following reasons:
1. It contributes nearly 25% of GDP.
2. About 70% of population of India is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood.
3. It ensures food security for the country and produces several raw material for industries.
4. Wheat is the staple food in mid latitudes and dry subtropical regions. Following are the conditions helpful in
the cultivation of wheat.
1. It is a Rabi crop. Temperature needed – 10° to 15°C at the time of sowing and at the time of harvest
2. It grows well in area where rainfull is about 75 cm to 100 cm.
3. It grows on alluvial soil.
4. Major wheat producing countries are Russia, USA, Australia, India, China, France and Turkey etc.

A. 1. intensive subsistence; primitive subsistence 2. shifting cultivation; nomadic herding
3. forested 4. mixed farming 5. Plantations 6. plantation
7. Millets 8. high temperature; high humidity 9. black 10. loamy
B. 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. T 7. F
C. 1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (f) 6. (g) 7. (e)
D. Do yourself.



1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (c) 9. (d) 10. (d)

I. 1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (d)
II. 1. Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals
or the provision of services. Example, iron and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining industry
(extraction of coal), and tourism industry (service industry).
2. Classification of industries on the basis of size are: Both in terms of the number of their employees and the
amount of money invested, they are classified as:
(a) Large-scale industries
(b) Medium-scale industries
(c) Small-scale industries.

24 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
3. Classification of industries on the basis of ownership are:
(a) Public Sector industries
(b) Private Sector industries
(c) Cooperative Sector industries.
4. Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers and suppliers of raw materials,
workers or both. Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are success stories of a Cooperative Venture.

1. Mumbai-Pune cluster, Bengaluru-Tamil Nadu region, Hooghly region, Ahmedabad-Badodara region,
Chhotanagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon, Delhi-Meerut region and Kollam-
Thiruvananthapuram industrial cluster.
2. Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro are situated in a region that spreads
over four states. West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh. Bhadravati and Vijay Nagar
in Karnataka, Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, Salem in Tamil Nadu are other important centres.
3. Computer industry has developed in Silicon Valley because the climate is pleasant, area is good to start
computer industry, professionals are there from the Standford University, California. Resource and
infrastructure are abundantly available there.

4. Similarities between information technology industry in Bengaluru and California: (a) Climate
(b) Neat and clean environment (c) Good network of transport facilities (d) Skilled professionals.
5. Cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai because of the warm, moist climate, port for importing
machinery, availability of raw material and skilled labour resulted in rapid expansion of the industry in the

S O L U T I O N S 25
6. 1. Agro based industries
2. Mineral based industries
3. Animal based industries
4. Marine based industries
5. Forest based industries

1. 1. Raw material — It is the basic factor for location of industry. Industries should be located where raw
material is easily available.
2. Efficient and skilled labour— Industries should be located to those places where cheap and skilled labour
is easily available.
3. Power— Industries should be located where power resources are very near.
4. Market— Market is essential in order to send the finished goods to the market. So industries should be
located near the market place.

2. Agro based industries Mineral based industries

1. These industries derive the raw material from 1. These industries derive raw material from
agriculture. minerals.
2. They provide employment to rural people. 2. They provide employment to urban people.
3. They mostly produce consumer goods. 3. They produce both consumer and value based
4. Examples—Textile, sugar, jute, vegetable oils 4. Example—Iron and steel, engineering industry,
etc. shipbuilding, machine, tools etc.

A. 1. secondary 2. Industry 3. mineral based 4. small-scale
5. Private sector industries 6. Joint sector industries 7. Information Technology
B. 1. F 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. T 7. F
C. 1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (e) 5. (a)
D. Do yourself.


1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (b)

7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (b) 10. (a) 11. (c) 12. (a)

I. 1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (c) 6. (d) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (d)
II. 1. Our earth has been blessed with a large variety of natural resources like water, soil, forests, animals,
minerals etc. But only human beings can discover, exploit, develop and convert these resources into wealth.
Thus, the greatest resource of the earth is the human beings.
2. It is divided into three broad groups:
(a) Children: 0-14 years
(b) Adult: 15-59 years
(c) Aged/Old: 60 years and above

26 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
1. 1. In urban areas there are many employment opportunities whereas in rural area population mostly depends
on agricultural related activities.
2. In urban areas better facilities of education are there.
3. Development of industrial sector in urban area also attracts people.
4. Better facilities like good standard of living, health facilities.
2. The births and deaths are the natural causes of population change. The difference between the birth rate and
death rate of a country is called the natural growth rate. The population increase in the world is mainly due
to rapid increase in natural growth rate.
3. 1. People prefer to live on plains because these areas are more fertile and service activities are easily
2. Mountains and plateau regions are less populated due to uneven surface.
3. The Ganga Plains are most densely populated areas of the world while mountain areas are having less
4. The metropolitan cities are those where the population is high, industrial and transport facilities are good and
latest modes of infrastructure are there. Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai are metropolitan cities of India.
5. 1. Infant Mortality: It is one of the most important unfavourable causes of unfavourable sex ratios in India.
2. Male child preference: India is a male dominating country where boys are preferred more than girls.
3. Female infanticide: Due to superstitions new girl child is killed at time of her birth.

A. 1. Human resource 2. pattern; distribution 3. population density 4. Birth rate 5. Migration
6. country; natural growth rate 7. Emigrants; Immigrants
B. 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. F 7. T
C. 1. (c) 2. (e) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (d) 6. (g) 7. (f )
D. Do yourself.
E. Do yourself.




1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (b) 6. (c)

7. (c) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (a)

1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (c) 7. (b)
8. (b) 9. (c) 10. (b) 11. (d) 12. (a) 13. (a)

S O L U T I O N S 27
1. They are:
(a) To protect citizens against the absolute exercise of power by the state.
(b) The objective is that each citizen must be in a position to claim these rights.
2. They are:
(a) It ensures universal adult franchise for all citizens.
(b) Every citizen can contest elections.
3. Right to Equality 2. Right to Freedom 3. Right to Freedom of Religion 4. Right against Exploitation 5. Cultural
and Educational Rights 6. Right to Constitutional Remedies.
4. They are:
(a) There are three organs of the state – legislative, executive and judiciary.
(b) Each organ exercises different powers and keeps a watch on other organs of the state.

A. 1. Legislative, Executive; Judiciary 2. democratic 3. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
4. 2007 5. Dr. Rajendra Prasad 6. Constituent Assembly 7. Dowry Prohibition Act
B. 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. F 7. F
C. 1. (e) 2. (g) 3. (d) 4. (f) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (b)
D. Do yourself.



1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (b)

6. (a) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (b) 10. (a)


1. Yes, the government will intervene because infanticide is a crime and a social practice. It discriminates
boys and girls and violates the Fundamental Rights that all people are equal.
2. Because according to secularism, all religions are equal. State ensures that laws relating to equal inheritance
rights are respected.
3. People within the same religion may go to pray in their holy places or places of worship and others may not
go. They may read scriptures and some may not.
4. They are not allowed to build a temple, church etc. and they cannot even gather in a public place for prayers.
5. Every religion should respect the sentiments of other religion. We should try to intermingle our cultures. We
should invite people of other religions on our festivals.
6. The essence of secularism is that no one should be discriminated against on grounds of their religions. All
forms of dominations related to religion should end.
7. Because the Indian state recognises that wearing a turban is central to a Sikh’s religious practice and in order
not to intervene with this, allows an exception in the law.

28 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
8. 1. It ensures Fundamental Rights that are based on the secular principles.

2. The practice of untouchability has been banned.


1. Unlike the strict separation between religion and the state in American secularism, in Indian secularism the
state can interfere in religious affairs.
2. He said, ‘‘Secularism means that in this country all are free to profess or preach the faith of their liking and
that we wish well of all religions and want to develop them in their own way without any hindrance.’’

A. 1. separation of religion 2. wearing a pagri is a very important part of Sikh religion.
3. strict separation between religion and the state 4. support 5. Fundamental Rights
6. secular 7. untouchability
B. 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. F 6. T 7. F
C. 1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (f) 6. (g) 7. (d)
D. Do yourself.



1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (a)

7. (b) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10. (b)

I. 1. (c) 2. (d)

II. 1. We need a Parliament because it helps citizens of India to participate in decision-making and control the
government. It makes the most important symbol of Indian democracy and a key feature of the Constitution.
2. Because if they are elected for life, they will not have the fear to be overthrown from their post and they
will work according to their wishes and not for the welfare of the people.
3. The opposition is made by the political parties that oppose the majority party or the coalition formed. The
largest amongst these parties is called the opposition party.

A. 1. bicameral 2. Lok Sabha 3. Rajya Sabha 4. Six 5. Speaker
6. 15th August, 1947 7. MPs 8. executive

B. 1. T 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. T 6. T 7. T 8. T 9. T 10. T
C. 1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (g) 4. (a) 5. (h) 6. (b) 7. (f) 8. (e)
D. Do yourself.

S O L U T I O N S 29


1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (b) 6. (c)

7. (a) 8. (a) 9. (d) 10. (a)

1. 1. The colonial law was arbitrary.
2. The Indian nationalists played a major role in the development of the legal sphere in British India.
2. This applies to anything that the government might consider as stirring up resistance or rebellion against it.
In such cases, the government does not need absolute evidence in order to arrest persons.
3. When nothing is fixed and is instead left to one’s judgement or preference is arbitrary. These are the rules
that are not fixed or decisions that have no bases etc.
4. No, laws do not apply to all in India because the government officials do not let themselves and their family
to involve in any punishment even if they have committed a big crime also.
5. It refers to the harm or injury or injury caused by an adult male. Injury may be caused by physically beating
up the woman or by emotionally abusing her.
6. It means that the citizens can make the government hear their voice through TV reports, newspaper
editorials, radio broadcasts, local meetings and the Parliament has to listen to it.
7. 1. To be able to carry on our work smoothly.
2. For the welfare of all.
3. For developing good habits.
4. To get the maximum out of our resources.
5. Laws made by Central Government.
6. Laws made by State Government.
7. Laws made by Local self-government institutions.

A. 1. Rule of Law 2. 1964 3. Sedition Act of 1870 4. British
5. Parliament 6. courts 7. democracy 8. President
B. 1. (d) 2. (f) 3. (e) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (b)
C. 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. T 7. F 8. F
D. Do yourself.



1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (b)


1. Judiciary gives a mechanism for resolving disputes between citizens, between citizens and the government,
between two state governments and between the state and central governments.

30 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
2. The judiciary has the power to strike down particular laws passed by the Parliament if it feels that they are
violative of the basic structure of the Constitution. It is called judicial review.
3. It permits any individual or organisation to file a PIL in the High Court or the Supreme Court on behalf of
those whose rights were being violated.
4. It means the judgement takes long number of years and court takes a long time to hear a case and pronounce
judgement. Everyone does not have access to the courts because the procedure involves a lot of money and
paperwork as well as take a lot of time.
5. Supreme Court is the highest court of India. Chief Justice of India presides over the Supreme Court. The
judges of this court are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Chief Justice.

A. 1. 65 2. President 3. Supreme Court 4. High Court
5. 26th Jan., 1950 6. Fundamental Right to Life 7. three 8. Criminal Law
B. 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. T 8. F
C. 1. (d) 2. (e) 3. (a) 4. (f) 5. (g) 6. (b) 7. (c)
D. Do yourself.



1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (a) 6. (a)

7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (a) 10. (a)


1. After a person is arrested, it is a court of law that decides whether the accused person is guilty or not.
2. 1. Record the statement of witness
2. Take photograph of burnt homes
3. Record the evidence
4. Arrest the accused presons.
3. 1. Cross-examine the witnesses
2. Get the assaulted women medically examined
3. Meet the accused persons.
4. 1. Hear the witness
2. Argue the case for victims
3. Examine the witnesses in court.
5. 1. Writes the judgement
2. Decides for how many years the accused will be put in jail
3. Passes the judgement
4. Conducts a fair trial.

S O L U T I O N S 31
6. It refers to the questioning of a witness who has already been examined by the opposing side in order to
determine the veracity of his/her testimonials.
7. Witness is a person who is called upon in court to provide first hand account of what he/she has seen,
known or heard.
8. It places a duty upon the state to provide a lawyer to any citizen who is unable to engage one due to poverty
or other disability.
9. If the police officer refuses to record an FIR, a written complaint can be sent to the Superintendent of Police
either by post or in person explaining the facts.

1. The court helps in imparting justice to the guilty, while the police is responsible for arresting the criminals
and maintaining law and order.
2. The main function of the police is to investigate any complaint about the commission of a crime.
3. Because the accused can be pressurised by the police to confess the crime by resorting to third degree

A. 1. FIR 2. two 3. torture; beat; shoot 4. Public Prosecutor
5. umpire; impartially; open 6. equal 7. defended
B. 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. F
C. Do yourself.
D. Do yourself.



I. 1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (d) 6. (d)

7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (a) 10. (a)
II. 1. In the classroom, groups of people or communities may have the experience of being excluded.
They may experience a sense of loss and powerlessness and in their inability to assert their

1. 1. Their original homes i.e. forests have been taken away from them.
2. They have been forced to leave their homes.
2. A graded system or arrangement of persons or things. Often, persons at the bottom of the hierarchy are those
who have the least power.
3. Literally, Adivasis means original inhabitants. They are the communities who live in close association with
4. They live in Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra
Pradesh, West Bengal and north-eastern states.

32 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII
5. They often involve in the worship of ancestors, village and nature spirits, the last associated with and living
in various sites in the landscape.

A. 1. original inhabitants 2. 13.4 3. 45; 35 4. Islam; Christianity
5. Muslim 6. militarised
B. 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. F
C. 1. (e) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (d) 5. (b)
D. Do yourself.



I. 1. (d) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (a)

7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (a)

II. 1. Fundamental Rights are known as the basic rights which are essential for the all-round development of
human being. They provide equality among the people.

1. Tribes are those members of the community who belong to backward areas. They live in remote areas and
are separated by rest of the society.
2. The main problems are lack of resources, education, poverty, unemployment and exploitation. These problems
are interlinked and they are cut off with the rest of the population.
3. Morally reprehensible refers to an act that violates all norms of decency and dignity that a society believes in.
It usually refers to a hideous and repugnant act that goes against all the values that a society has accepted.
4. Dalit means ‘brakes’ and is used deliberately and actively by groups to highlight the centuries of discrimination
they have experienced within the caste system.

A. 1. 17 2. Brahmans 3. laws; policies 4. scavengers
5. Dalit; Adivasi 6. Dalit
B. 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. T 6. T
C. 1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (f ) 6. (e)
D. Do yourself.



I. 1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (a) 6. (c)

7. (a) 8. (a) 9. (a) 10. (b)
II. 1. Chennai.
Other areas or towns are Anna nagar, Saidpet, Madipakkam, Mylapore, Subramaniam.

S O L U T I O N S 33
A. 1. welfare 2. government 3. human; cattle 4. life; 21
5. people; taxes 6. rain; groundwater
B. 1. F 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T
C. 1. (f ) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (e) 5. (d) 6. (g) 7. (a)
D. Do yourself.



I. 1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (b)

7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (a)

II. 1. Social justice means that all the people living in the society are equal. There should be no discrimination on
the basis of caste, colour, religion, sex, race etc.

1. It means our surroundings should be neat and clean and Bhopal tragedy brought the issue of environment to
the forefront.
2. New laws are there because new problems are arising day by day and in order to fight with the new
problems new laws are needed.
3. An association of workers is common in factories, offices and the market. In this union, the problem faced by
the workers is regularly discussed like wages, work rules and regulation, hiring, promotion of workers,
benefits and workplace safety.

A. 1. December 2, 1984 2. environmental 3. red 4. Methyl-Isocynite
5. American 6. 14
B. 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T
C. 1. (e) 2. (f) 3. (g) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (d)
D. Do yourself.


34 S O C I A L S C I E N C E – VIII