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Modern Solutions for Fatigue Life

Assessment of Elastomers / Rubbers /


Polymeric Materials
William V. Mars
Endurica LLC

22 Nov 2017

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Agenda
• Overview of Endurica solutions
• Materials testing for durability
• User Examples
• Caterpillar - Critical Plane Analysis / strain crystallization
• Tenneco – Bushing under radial / axial / conical / torsion loads
• GM – Bushing w/ road loads
• Tire durability analysis
• Live Demo

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Endurica Solutions: Get Durability Right!

Endurica is a complete solution, from testing to modeling.

Characterization Testing Instruments Software


Know Your Material Our Methods, Your Lab Tools for Developers

• Material behavior • Intrinsic Strength Analyser • Geometry


• Tear & Fatigue Analyser
• Service History

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Endurica CL v2.6

MSC Marc

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Characterization Toolbox for Durability

Hyperelastic Module Nonrelaxing Module


Creep Module
Simple, Planar, and Quantify Strain
Quantify Creep Crack Growth
Equibiaxial tension, Mullins Crystallization, Min and
Rate Effects
Effect Mean Strain Effects

Thermal Module
Core Fatigue Module Quantify dissipative Cyclic Softening Module
Fully Relaxing Behavior from
properties, thermal Quantify Cyclic Softening
both nucleation and fracture
properties, temperature Effects
mechanical perspectives
dependence

Extended Life (>106


Intrinsic Strength (>106 cycles) Module
Quantify endurance limit,
cycles) Module estimate aging rate of
Quantify endurance limits stiffness, intrinsic and
ultimate strength

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Fatigue Crack Growth Testing
Tear and Fatigue Analyser
dc  mm 
 
dN  cyc 
Intrinsic Strength Analyser Crack growth rate Endurance Limit

Ultimate Strength
mm
108
cyc

J 
T0 Tc T  2 
m 
Intrinsic Strength Option
(>106 cycles)
Energy Release Rate
Quantify endurance limit

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Strain Life Curve / Crack Precursor Size

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Strain Crystallization Effects
Nonrelaxing Option
Quantify Strain
Crystallization, Min and
Mean Strain Effects

1.E-03

R=0
Energy Release Rate T

1.E-04 R=0.09, Crystallizing


R=0.18, Crystallizing
1.E-05

T

Growth Rate, m/cyc


1.E-06

Tmax 1.E-07

Tmin 1.E-08
R Tmin
Tmax 1.E-09

1.E-10
Time x
1.E-11
1.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04
Peak Driving Force, J/m^2

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GM – Analysis of Bushing Under Road Loads
4000

Fx, N 2000

-2000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
500

Fy, N 0

-500
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
5000

Fz, N 0

-5000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

Bushing FEM Sample Load History for Single Event

Barbash, Kevin P., and William V. Mars. Critical Plane Analysis of Rubber
Bushing Durability under Road Loads. No. 2016-01-0393. SAE Technical
Paper, 2016.
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Material Characterization
4
Observations
c0=0.0123 mm
c0=0.008 mm
c0=0.020 mm
2

Engineering Strain
1

0.5
1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06
Fatigue Life, cycles

Stress-Strain Curve Fit Crack Growth Curve Fit Crack Precursor Size Fit
1
1.5 8
0.9

2
0.8 7

0.7
6
1

3
0.6
2

Strain Amplitude

2
5
x(R)

0.5 GC71_23C_FCG_nrF_6

3
GC71_23C_FCG_nrM_6

4
0.4 3 2
GC71_23C_FCG_nrL_6a 4
4 4
0.3
pick=1 0.5 3
2

5
5

5
0.2 3
4
3
6
0.1 5

6
6 6 2
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
R ratio 0 1
-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

Strain Crystallization Function Mean Strain

Haigh Diagram
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Failure modes for different road load cases

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Multi-axis FLCA Bush Validation
Test Inputs Radial Axial Torsional Radial & Torsional
Test Conditions +/- 7,000N +/- 2,000N +/- 43° +/- 4,500N & +/- 30°
Termination Conditions +/- 9.5 mm +/-22 mm 80,000 Cycles +/-7.75 mm Radial Travel
fe-safe/Rubber Cycles (1 mm Tear) 17,257 65,912 37,668 12,162
Cycle of Initial Rate Change 24,132 77,275 50,000 13,362
Part Rate Life vs Prediction 140% 117% 133% 110%
Bench Durability Cycles 28,142 83,685 79,195 21,374
Tear Length End of Test 14.32 mm 17.55 mm 23.57 mm 19.57 mm

Goossens, Joshua R., William Mars, Guy Smith, Paul Heil, Scott Braddock,
and Jeanette Pilarski. Durability Analysis of 3-Axis Input to Elastomeric
Front Lower Control Arm Vertical Ride Bushing. No. 2017-01-1857. SAE
Technical Paper, 2017.

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www.endurica.com 13
Fully relaxing vs. Nonrelaxing
R is the R-ratio

Relaxing Load cases (R=0) Nonrelaxing Load cases (R>0)


Load Case Nominal Strains
Load Case Nominal Strains
R80% 0% - 80%
NR20-120% 20% - 120%
R100% 0% - 100%
NR50-150% 50% - 150%
NR50-170% 50% - 170%
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Analysis vs. Test
•A. Ramachandran, R. P. Wietharn, S.I. Mathew, W. V. Mars, and M. A.
Bauman, “Critical Plane Selection Under Nonrelaxing Simple Tension with
Strain Crystallization”, Presented at the Fall 192nd Technical Meeting of the
Rubber Division, ACS, Cleveland, Ohio, October 10-12, 2017 (Paper #E15).

• Material of samples is 75 shore A, carbon black filled, natural rubber compound


• Test frequency = 2Hz

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Crack Orientation – Test vs. Analysis – 0%-100%

900 Fexp = 12

• Cracks appear to consistently prefer an angle close to 90deg.


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Crack Orientation – Test vs. Analysis – 20%-120%

Range of probable angles Fexp = 12

• Cracks appear to be distributed in random angles compared to other load cases. Failed
samples qualitatively look very different.
• Due to this random distribution of cracks this load case could be used to gauge
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strength of the strain crystallization effect (Fexp).
Crack Orientation – Test vs. Analysis – 50%-150%

170 Fexp = 12

• Cracks appear to favor a steep angle consistent with the analysis


predictions. www.endurica.com
Tire Durability Analysis
Abaqus

TIRE.HFO

**HISTORY
HISTTYPE=6CNE3D
HISTPERIOD=0.1 ! sec
ROLLING, STRIDE=2098
HIST=1, MAT=APEX
(NE11,NE22,NE33,NE12,NE,23,NE13)

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Material Behavior: Crack growth rate law
1.E-02
GJ Lake, PB Lindley,
Rubber Journal, Vol
1.E-03 146, No 11, pp 30-
Crack Growth Rate, mm/cyc

39 1964.

1.E-04 Abrasion Gum, Belt


Apex
1.E-05 Carcass
Reinforcement
1.E-06 Sidewall Tire Component(s) c0 (mm)
Abrasion Gum, Belt 0.1
Tread
Apex 0.03
1.E-07 Innerliner Carcass 0.01
Shoulder Wedge Reinforcement 0.1
1.E-08 Sidewall 0.1
0.1 1 10 100 1000 Tread 0.1
Innerliner 0.1
Tearing Energy, kJ/m2 Shoulder Wedge 0.008

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100% Nf ΔW
.24
.12

.25

.12

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Crack Closure during Tire Rolling

Mars, W. V., Wei Y.T., Wang, H., Bauman, M. (2017). Computing Tire Component
Durability via Critical Plane Analysis, Tire Science and Technology, 45 (in press).
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Thermal Effects

56.8°C – peak temperature


56.8°C – peak temperature
N = 3.8E7 cycles = 131E3 km

Cycles to 1 mm Crack

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Tire Loading History
• FMVSS 139 schedule
• 85% load – 4 hrs. at 75 mph
• 90% load – 6 hrs. at 75 mph
• 100% load – 24 hrs. at 75 mph
• Additional Loads after running FMVSS
• Increasing loads were applied after completing the FMVSS schedule to
examine the effect on the fatigue life.
• Loads at 110%, 125%, 150%, and 200% were applied for 24 hrs. at 75mph.

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Analysis workflow Finite Element
Analysis

85% Steady State 90% SS Solution 100% SS solution


Solution

.hfi Initial
Damage State

Fatigue Solver Fatigue Solver Fatigue Solver

.hfr Updated .hfr Updated .hfr Updated


Damage State Damage State Damage State

.hfo residual life for


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Fatigue Life Results after Cumulative Loading
• History 1 Load Steps (Blue line)
• 0 – No prior loading
• 1 – FMVSS 139
• 2 – 110% load for 1800 miles
• 3 – 125% load for 1800 miles
• 4 – 150% load for 1800 miles
• 5 – 200% load for 1800 miles
• History 2 Load Steps (Red line)
• 0 – No prior loading
• 1 – 200% load turning at 5 degrees for 100 miles

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Fatigue Life Remaining after Damaging Event

Damaging overload
applied prior to 100% load

139,000
miles life

Tire fatigue life at 100% load


- No prior loading

64,000
miles life
Tire fatigue life at 100% load with 100
miles of history at 200% load and 5
degree turn applied prior to 100% load.
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Forward Paths…
Analyze Durability of
Learn More about Characterize
your Finite Element
Principles and Practices Your Material
Model

•23-27 October 2017 – Ann Arbor Michigan


•Experiments
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Test My
Material!

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