This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

**Applications of Calculus to the Physical World
**

General Formulae Equations and Deriving Equations Problems

http://fatmuscle.cjb.net 1

net 2 . d a= dx Motion in 2D (v) 1 2 2 4. Simple Harmonic Motion 2 && = − n x x v 2 = n 2 (a 2 − x 2 ) T = 2π 1 = n F Projectile Motion =0 = Vcosθ = Vcosθt = & & x2 + y 2 n a T F Period Amplitude Period Frequency 5. && x & x x V && y & y y = −g = − gt + Vsinθ gt 2 + Vsinθt =− 2 = -10 = -10t + Vsinθ = -5t2 + Vsinθt Equation of Motion − gx 2 (1 + tan 2 θ ) = + x tan θ 2V 2 Time of Flight = 2V sin θ g Maximum Height V 2 sin 2 θ = 2g Maximum Range = V 2 sin 2θ g http://fatmuscle.cjb. Rates of Change dy dy dx = × dt dx dt 2.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World 1. Exponential Growth and Decay k dQ = kQ Q dt dN = k ( N − B) dt N k B = Constant = Aekt = B + Aekt = Constant = Constant 3.

B are constants dt Let u = N – B du d = ( N − B) dt dt dN dB ___ = − ____B is a constant dt dt dN −0 ___ = dt dN ___ = = ku dt This has solution u = Aekt.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Equations and Deriving Equations Rates of Change ! What you want to find is on the LHS ! Get into form: dy dy dx = × dt dx dt Exponential Growth and Decay ! Basic Form dQ = kQ dt k Q = Constant = Aekt A = Constant – initial value e = k = Constant t = Time = B + Aekt = Constant = Constant N = B + Aekt dN = kAe kt dt ___-= k(B + Aekt – B) ___-= k(N – B) ! Complex Form dN = k ( N − B) dt **Proof** dN = k ( N − B) ___k.cjb.net 3 . where A is a constant But u = N – B So N – B = Aekt N = B + Aekt N k B http://fatmuscle.

not t Velocity d 1 2 dx a= v = 2 dx dt d dx Acceleration = dx dt dv dv dx = = × dt dx dt dv ×v = dx dv d 1 2 = × v dx dv 2 d 1 2 = v dx 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) http://fatmuscle.net 4 .cjb.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Motion in 2D x x x Displacement & v x dx Velocity dt && a x dv Acceleration dt At origin x =0 & At rest x =0 When velocity is constant a =0 Special Form: Expressing acceleration in terms of x.

v = 0_________ a is the amplitude 0 − n2 x2 n2a 2 = + C ____∴ C = 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 v −n a na 2 + = 2 2 v2 = − n2 x 2 + n2a 2 = n 2 (a 2 − x 2 ) dx v = ± n a 2 − x2 dt v2 dt dx t = 1 n a 2 − x2 1 1 = ∫ 2 n a − x2 x 1 = n cos −1 (a ) + C x At x = a.cjb.net 5 .Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World SHM – Simple Harmonic Motion Definition:___ && = − n 2 x x v 2 = n 2 (a 2 − x 2 ) T = 2π 1 = n F n a T F Period Amplitude Period Frequency Proof x = Acos nt & x = − An sin nt && = − An 2 cos nt x = − n 2 A cos nt = − n2 x && = x d dx (v) 1 2 2 1 2 = − n2 x − n2 x 2 = +C 2 At x = a . t = 1 cos −1 (a ) + C _______∴ C = 0 2 nt = cos −1 ( x ) a cos nt ∴x x = a = a cos nt http://fatmuscle.

v the velocity of the particle can be given the equation v = & MAX HEIGHT__ y = 0 0 = − gt + V sin θ gt = V sin θ V sin θ __Time of Max Height t = g MAX RANGE.net 6 . TIME OF FLIGHT y = 0 gt 2 + V sin θ t 0 =− 2 2 gt = V sin θ t 2 2V sin θ _Time of Flight (Max Range) t = g Sub into x equation 2V sin θ x = V cosθ g x x = = V 2 sin 2θ ** g V2 _____only at 45° g Max Angle___(using double angles) sin 2θ = 1 2θ = π 2 θ = π = 45 ° 4 Sub into y equation y y y − g V sin θ = 2 g V sin θ + V sin θ g 2 2 2 2 V sin θ V sin θ =− + g 2g = V 2 sin 2 θ 2g 2 ** http://fatmuscle.cjb.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Projectile Motion V V & y = V sin θ θ θ & x = V cosθ && x & x x =0 = Vcosθ = Vcosθt && y & y y = −g = − gt + Vsinθ =− gt 2 + Vsinθt 2 & & x2 + y2 At any time t.

net 7 .cjb. Trajectory − gt 2 y= + V sin θ t 2 Sub into y equation −g x x + V sin θ 2 V cosθ V cosθ 2 V sin θx y = − gx + 2 2 2V cos θ V cosθ 2 2 y = − g sec θx + tan θx 2V 2 2 2 y = − gx (1 + tan θ ) + tan θx 2V 2 This is a quadratic in x and tan θ y = 2 http://fatmuscle.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World x = V cosθ t t= x V cosθ Cartesian Equation.

Spheres dy dy dx = ⋅ dt dx dt ! Sometimes with spheres.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Rates of Change Problems Summary Prisms. use 2 “dummy variables” ! ! Use similar triangles ! V = 1 Ah 3 ! Try to eliminate unused variables ! Solve with Pythagoras Theorem ! Implicit differentiate with respect to time ! Sub in values Pyramids Ladder Problem type y x Boy Chase Girl type ! Solve with Cos or Sin rules A1 A2 D B1 B2 Shadow Problem type ! Solve with similar triangles ____ratios of length ! Implicit differentiate with respect to time H1 H2 y x http://fatmuscle.cjb.net 8 .

dy dy dx = × dt dx dt Example 1 The Surface Area of a sphere increases at 6cms-1 Find a) The rate of change of radius when r = 5 b) The rate of change of volume when r = 5 A) SA = 4πr2 dr dr dA Find : = × dt dA dt ________= 6 × ________= 1 8πr dA =6 dt dA = 8πr dr dr 1 = dA 8πr 3 4πr 3 cms-1 ________= 20π B) V = 4 πr 3 3 dV dV dr Find: = × dt dr dt 3 × 4πr 2 4πr ________= 3r ________= 15cm3s-1 ________= dr 3 = dt 4πr dV = 4πr 2 dr http://fatmuscle.cjb.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Rates of Change is the derivatives of functions with respect to time t.net 9 .

0387 C) N = 40000 -40000 = 125 + 25525e0.≈ 11. the growth rate in population is given by dN = k ( N − 125) dt a) Show N = 125 + Aekt is a solution of the differential equation b) If the population is initially 25650.2 _____--k = 5 _-_____.2 = ln e k 5 ln 1.6 ____. find the population after 8 years c) When will the population be 40000? A) N = 125 + Aekt dN = Ake kt dt ___-= k(Aekt) ___-= k(125 + Aekt – 125) ___-= k(N – 125) B) t = 0.net 10 . N = 31100 __31100 = 125 + 25525ek5 30975 -= ek 5 25525 __.5 http://fatmuscle.0587t ___1.6 = e0.ln1.cjb. after 5 years it is 31100.0387t ln 1. P are constants dt N = P + Aekt_______-A is constant Example 1 In a certain town.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Exponential Growth and Decay Further Rates of Change dN = k (N − P ) _____k.0387 _____.≈ 0. N = 25650 ---25650 = 125 + Aekt __---_-A = 25525 t = 5.t = 0.

P is the room temperature Finding k 60 – 25 = 75Aek10 35 __-= e10 k 75 7 _.ln (15 ) = 10k 7 1 _____ k = 10 ln (15 ) ln (1 ) 3 k _____--= 14min 28sec _____ t = http://fatmuscle.cjb.net 11 . is 100° 25° 60° a) What is the temperature of the coffee in 15 minutes? b) What time will it reach 50°? A) dT = k (T − P) dt T – P = Aek0 100 – 25 = Aek0 A = 75 So in 15 minutes time T = 25 + 17ek15 T = 48. the temp.1 = e kt 3 __ ln (1 ) = kt 3 In this case.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Example 2 Newton’s Law of Cooling The rate of cooling is proportional to the excess of the temperature of the body over the surrounding medium of the room Temperature of coffee Room Temperature In 10 mins.9° B) T = 50 50 – 25 = 75ekt ____.

75 --.cjb. b) Find also. 6400km = radius of Earth 2 x a) If the rocket is moving at 4km-1 when it is 600km above the Earth’s surface.v = 3. x = 7000km 91000 1 2 v =− 2 x2 91000 ___. A) v = 4kms-1.1 v 2 = +C 2 x d dx Finding v_______x = 8000km 91000 1 2 v = −5 2 7000 _ v 2 = 12.75 B) v = 0 so v2 = 0 91000 −5 x2 5x = 91000 x = 18200 18200 – 6400 = 1182km away form earth 0 = ( ) 7000 __--8 = 13 + C ___C = –5 1 2 (4)2 = 91000 + C http://fatmuscle. has a retardation of 91000 kms − 2 . when out of the Earth’s atmosphere.net 12 . find it’s speed after a further 1000km.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Motion in 2D a = && = x d dx (v) 1 2 2 Example 1 A rocket is projected from Earth. the total distance traveled before first coming to rest. where x km is the distance from the centre.

Find the velocity.= 6 3 The interval at which it moves -4 0 4 http://fatmuscle. 3 2 -.= −32 x ____is SHM B) 2 = 4 sin 3t 1 = sin 3t 2 3t = π 6 π t = 18 π & x = 12 cos 3(18 ) -.= −9(4 sin 3t ) -.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Simple Harmonic Motion && = − n 2 x x v 2 = n 2 (a 2 − x 2 ) x = A sin nt + A cos nt Amplitude = a Period 2π = n Frequency 1 n = = T 2π Example 1 A particle moves along the x-axis according to the law x = 4sin3t a) Show it is SHM.= 12 cos π 6 C) & x = 12 cos 3t & x is greatest when cos3t = 1 So the greatest velocity is 12cms-1 At x = 0.cjb.= 12. A) x = 4 sin 3t & x = 12 cos 3t && = −36 sin 3t x -. v = 12 v2 _122 _144 a2 a = n 2 (a 2 − x 2 ) = 32 (a 2 − 0 2 ) = 9a2 = 16_ = ±4 -. b) Find when the particle is first at 2cm from positive 0.net 13 . c) Find the greatest speed of the particle and the interval at which it moves.

No y http://fatmuscle.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Projectile Motion && x & x x =0 = V cosθ = V cosθ t && y & y y = −g = − gt + V sin θ − gt = + V sin θ t 2 v= & & x2 + y2 Time of Flight MAX Height MAX Range Cartesian Equation V 2 sin 2 θ = g = = 2V sin 2 θ 2g V 2 sin 2θ g − g (1 + tan 2 θ ) 2 = x + tan θx 2V 2 Types of projectile Questions: 1) 2) 3) 4) Level Ground 2 Angles Different Ground Levels & & No x .cjb.net 14 .

4 Take 9 = 10ms-2. Air resistance is neglected.5secs d) Velocity and direction when it is 10m above the ground e) Find the trajectory of the projectile 25ms-1 25ms-1 (5) 15ms-1 (3) θ θ && x & x x =0 = 20 = 20t && y & y y = –10 = –10t + 15 = –5t2 + 15t 20ms-1 (4) & A) Max height when y = 0 0 = –10 t + 15 10 t = 15 t = 1.cjb.5) = 11. Find: a) Maximum height b) Time of flight and range c) Velocity and direction after 0.5)2 + 15(1.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Level Ground Question A ball is thrown with initial velocity 25ms-1 at angle tan −1 (3 ) .5 secs & x = 20 & y = –10(0.5 into y y = –5(1.25m C) Velocity and Direction after 0.net 15 .5) + 15 = 10 Sub into v = v x2 + y2 B) Time of flight and range when y = 0 0 = –5t2 + 15t = –5t(t – 3) t = 0 or 3______T = 3 Sub t = 3 into x x = 20(3) = 60 10 5 ms-1 10ms-1 = 202 + 10 2 = 10 5 tan −1 (10 ) = θ 20 θ = 26° 34’ θ 20ms-1 http://fatmuscle.5 secs Sub t = 1.

cjb. 2 & x = 20 & y = –10(1) + 15 =5 & x & y = 20 = –10(2) + 15 = –5 20 θ -5 5 θ 20 V = 5 17 ___14° 2’ E) Trajectory of projectile x = 20t x t = 20 Sub into y y = –5t2 + 15t x2 x = − 5 400 + 15 20 =− x 2 3x + 80 4 x = (60 − x) 80 V = 5 17 ___-14° 2’ http://fatmuscle.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World D) Velocity and Direction of projectile when it is 10m above the ground 10 = –5t2 + 15t 2 = –t2 + 3t 0 = t2 – 3t + 2 = (t – 1)(t – 2) Projectile is 10m above the ground at t = 1.net 16 .

projectiles with the same initial velocity may be projected at 2 different angles to reach a particular point x distance away.secθ = –5(1 + tan2 θ) + 16tanθ = –5 – 5tan2 θ + 16tanθ 0 = 5tan2 θ – 16tanθ + 9 B) 0 = 5tan2 θ – 16tanθ + 9 tan θ 16 ± 16 2 − 4(5)(9) = 2(5) 16 ± 256 − 180 10 16 ± 2 19 = 10 = = 8 ± 19 5 θ = 67° 58’ and 36° 4’ http://fatmuscle. a) Show the angle is 5tan2θ – 16tanθ + 9 = 0 b) Find the two angles the ball may be kicked. Except at 45° . The ball just passes over a wall 4m high when s/he is 16m away.cjb. && x & x x 4m 16m =0 = 16cosθ = 16cosθt && y & y y = –10 = –10t + 16sinθ = –5t2 + 16sinθt A) 16 = 16cosθt 1 = cosθt t = secθ Sub t = secθ and y = 4 into y 4 = –5sec2θ + 16sinθ.net 17 . V1 V2 Projectiles can be assumed as parabolic A footballer kicks a ball at 16ms-1.the maximum angle.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World 2 Angles Question On level ground.

-1 & B) Max height above sea level y = 0 0 = –10t + 20 t =2 Sub t = 2 in y y = –5(2)2 + 20(2) = –20 + 40 = 20 20 + 25 = 45m above sea level Sub t = 5 in x x = 20 5 (5) = 100 5 from cliff base http://fatmuscle. x = 20 5 . Find: a) The distance away from the base of the cliff when it hits the sea b) Maximum height above sea level V 20 25m θ 20 5 && x & x =0 = 20 5 = 20 5 t x && y & y y = –10 = –10t + 20 = –5t2 + 20t A) Where it hits the sea y = –25 –25 = –5t2 + 20t 0 = t2 – 4t – 5 = (t – 5)(t + 1) t = 5.net 18 .Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World Different Ground Levels Question & & A stone is thrown from the top of a 25m cliff. y = 20.cjb.

net 19 .cjb.Maths Extension 1 – Applications of Calculus to the Physical World & & No x . No y A stone is thrown horizontally from the top of a 25m cliff with initial velocity of 40ms-1 Find: a) Equation of motion b) Where the stone hits the sea c) The velocity of impact d) If another stone is dropped from the same place. both will take 5 secs to reach the sea. v 40 2 + − 10 5 ( ) 2 = 10 21 θ = 150° 48’ in the positive direction http://fatmuscle. will it reach the sea at the same time? 40ms -1 && x & x x =0 = 40 = 40t && y & y y = –10 = –10t = –5t2 25m A) x t = 40t x = 40 x 40 B) –25 = –5t2 5 = t2 t =± 5 Sub t = 5 in x _ x = 40 5 Sub t = y in y 2 x = − 5 40 − x2 = 320 = 40 = − 10 5 = C) & x & y D) Yes.

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd