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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Mechanics of material is a study of relationship between external loads applied to a

deformable body and the intensity of internal forces acting within the body. For the body to be in

equilibrium force and moment must be balanced. These condition can be express by two vector

equations which is ∑ 𝐹 = 0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∑ 𝑀𝑂 = 0 . Normal force, N is acts perpendicular to the area.

Shear force, V lies in plane of area. Bending moment, M is cause by the external loads that tend

to bend the body about an axis lying within the plane of area. The stress is define as the intensity

of internal force on a specific plane (area) passing through a while the definition of strain is the

elongation or contraction of a line segment per unit length.

𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑣𝑒 (𝑉)

Shear force, 𝜏 = 𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝐴)

𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 (𝑃)

Normal stress, 𝜎 = , 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡: 𝑁𝑚−2

𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝐴)

𝐸𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (∆𝐿) 𝛿

Normal strain, 𝜀 = ,𝜀 =

𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ (𝐿𝑜 ) 𝐿

The Universal Testing Machine is an equipment used to subject a specimen to tension,

compression and bending. The brittle material have low tensile stress value but high in

compressive stress. Shear stress is a force acting parallel or tangential to a section taken through

𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒,𝑉

a material. The formula of average shear stress is 𝜏𝑎𝑣𝑒 = .

𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠−𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎,𝐴

The shear strain is the change in angle that occurs between two line segments that were

𝑋

originally perpendicular to one another. The formula shear strain is 𝛾 = 𝐿 (unit: degrees,

radians). Bearing stress is a normal stress produced by the compression of one surface against

𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒,𝑃 𝑀/𝐴

another. Bearing stress, 𝜎𝑏 = = . Thermal stress can be define as the expansion or

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎,𝐴 (ℎ/2)𝐿

contraction of material that occurred due to the temperature change. Thermal stress, 𝛿𝑇 = 𝛼∆𝑇𝐿

where α is thermal expansion coefficient.

𝜎𝑓𝑎𝑖𝑙 𝜏𝑓𝑎𝑖𝑙

Factor of safety, FS = =

𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤

𝜎𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝜏𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑

Allowable stress, 𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 = 𝑜𝑟 𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 =

𝐹𝑆 𝐹𝑆

failure. Strength of material can only be determined by tension and compression test. This test is

used to determine relationship between the average normal stress and average normal strain.

Saint-Venant’s Principle said loads transmitted through rigid plates result in uniform distribution

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

of stress and strain. Stress and strain distributions become uniform at a relatively short distance

from the load application points.

OBJECTIVES

At the end of the topic, students would be able to:

I. Explain some of the important principles of statics.

II. Use the principles to determine internal resultant loadings in a body.

III. Explain the concept of normal, shear, bearing and thermal stress.

IV. Used the concept of normal and shear stress in the applications of analysis and design of

members subjected to an axial laod and direct shear.

V. Define the concept of normal and shear strain.

VI. Determine normal and shear strain in engineering applications.

VII. Show the relationship of stress and strain using experiment of tensile and compression

test.

1. To study an engineering problem and propose appropriate solutions based on the

knowledge of solid mechanics (C3, LO1).

2. To demonstrate good understanding and commitment within a group in solving the given

problem (A3, LO5).

3. To write a technical report related to solid mechanics’ project (C3, LO11).

SCOPES

I. Students are required to work in group, to discuss with teammate to construct a beam that

is able to support a transverse load, P, of a least 10N.

II. Student are required to built a beam using the selected materials, i.e., ice-cream sticks and

length L of the beam is fixed to the length of the ice-cream stick.

III. Students are required to utilize the knowledge gain to build a beam using ice-cream

sticks.

IV. Students are required to understanding a concept and formula in chapter 1 until chapter 5.

V. This experiment will enable students to know about free-body diagrams, shear and

moment diagrams, maximum internal moments, maximum compressive and tensile

stress, moment of inertia and procedure of test.

VI. This project will let students to apply their knowledge of solid mechanics in construct a

beam.

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

CHAPTER2

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT

Description of the beam

There are a number of properties of a beam that an Engineer should be aware of as they dictate

beam behavior when subject to a load and ultimately represent possible areas or mechanisms for

failure. The main ones being;

1. Second moment of area (also referred to as the second moment of inertia): this depends on the

cross section profile of the beam and is a measure of the resistance of the shape of the beam to

bending.

2. Bending moment: usually illustrated on a bending moment diagram, and often related the

deflection of the beam, can be used to calculate regions subject to maximum bending forces and

consequently most likely to yield.

3. Beam deflection: beam deflection tends to be undesirable and correlates to the bending moment.

After make a group discussion, we decided to make three design which is inverted T, double T

beam and rectangular beam. The detail design which we have decided is shown below.

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

Cost of material

The material used in testing the propose design beam are ice cream sticks and hot glue gun. We

using ice cream sticks as the base of material for testing it and make an analysis regarding the

structural design on shape beam. The materials are shown below including the cost involved in

material selection.

The total cost for constructing the model of the beam are shown in table below:

packet

RM48.50

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

CHAPTER 3

THEORETICAL CALCULATION

Calculation:

For Rectangular beam

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SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

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For Support Reaction,

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

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CHAPTER 4

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Results

Stress distribution

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

DISCUSSION

Tensile tests are used to determine how materials will behave under tension load. In a

simple tensile test, a sample is typically pulled to its breaking point to determine the ultimate

tensile strength of the material. The amount of force (P) applied to the sample and the elongation

(∆L) of the sample are measured throughout the test. Material properties are often expressed in

terms of stress (force per unit area, σ) and strain (percent change in length, ε). To obtain stress,

the force measurements are divided by the sample’s cross sectional area . Strain measurements

are obtained by dividing the change in length by the initial length of the sample. These values are

then presented on an XY plot called a stress-strain curve. Testing and measuring procedures vary

based on the material being tested and its intended application.

Tensile tests help characterize the strength, stiffness, and plasticity of a polymer. By obtaining

the stress-strain curve of a work piece the yield strength, necking point, nonlinear elastic

deformation, linear elastic deformation, plastic deformation, and tensile strength can be

identified.Selection of material is performed by matching its mechanical properties to the

required service conditions. Once the required properties are known, the material selection can

be made. Obtaining the physical properties through an experiment reflective of the application is

one of the key steps that must be done before a selection can be made, since properties from

idealized tests do not necessarily reflect the application environment of the material.

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

Experimental procedure

In order to obtain uniform and accurate results, it is important that all tests have to be conducted

under standard conditions. The American standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has set up

standard, which should be followed. The standard method of mechanical testing is specified by

ASTM E-8M for metals. Identify the materials of each specimen used.

3. Adjust the support for the required distance and clamp to the lower table.

4. Fix the transverse test pan at the lower side of the lower cross head.

5. Fix it on the rollers of the transverse test brackets such that the load comes at the center and

measure the length of the span of the beam between the supports for central loading.

6. Adjust the load pointer to zero by lifting the lower table. While applying the load, the deflection

corresponding to each load is found out from the vernier scale on the UTM.

7. The data was recorded electronically in text files shown in Appendix A and the load-deflection

curve was shown on the computer screen as a visual representation

SOLID MECHANICS REPORT

Chapter 5

Conclusion

From this experiment, we have learned about how to use the principles to determine internal

resultant loadings in a body. Besides that ,we have learned how to calculate and understand the

concept of shear force, bending moment, moment of inertia of the beam’ s, cross- sectional area

and maximum stress . The bending moment diagram indicates the bending moment resisted

by the beam section along the length of the beam. So ,we can easily determined the

deflection from curvature lines that display an affinity to the bending moment. Last but not least

, we also learn how to build the beam in the right way and from the result ,we can identify the

maximum load that required to broke the beam.

For our recommendation , we can increases the stiffness of the beam .For a beam stiffness also

depends on its moment of Inertia (I) and length. To increase stiffness to reduce deformation

under load it is most effective to make the larger high since increasing depth rapidly increases

the moment of inertia for a rectangular shape. Beside , we can also add some improvement which

is we add some material like rubber between the joint of the beam and also can support the beam.

Its can provide absorbing shock mechanism through the beam .We can reduce the severe damage

occur to the beam as we knew that rubber has high elasticity.

REFERENCE

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tensile_testing

2. Beer, F.P, Johnston, E. R. and Deworlf, J.T., 2009. “Mechanics of Materials”, 5th Edition,

Mc Graw Hill

3. https://www.mtu.edu/materials/k12/experiments/tensile/

4. Hibbeler, R.C., 2008. “Mechanics of Materials”, 7th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall.

5. https://www.admet.com/testing-applications/test-types/tension-testing/

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