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GOST R IEC 60079-25-2012. Explosive


environments. Part 25. Intrinsically safe systems

GOST R IEC 60079-25-2012

Group E02

NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

EXPLOSIVE ENVIRONMENTS

Part 25

Intrinsically safe systems

Explosive atmospheres. Part 25. Intrinsically safe systems

OKS 29.260.20
OKSTU 3402

Introduction Date 2013-07-01

Foreword

The goals and principles of standardization in the Russian Federation are established by Federal Law of
December 27, 2002 N 184-ФЗ “On Technical Regulation” , and the rules for applying national standards of the
Russian Federation are GOST 1.0-2004 * “Standardization in the Russian Federation. Basic Provisions”
________________
* The document is not valid on the territory of the Russian Federation. Valid by GOST R 1.0-2012 . - Note the
manufacturer of the database.
Standard Information

1 PREPARED BY the autonomous non-profit national organization “Ex-standard” (ANNO “Ex-standard”) on


the basis of its own authentic Russian translation of the international standard indicated in clause 4

2 INTRODUCED by Technical Committee for Standardization TC 403 "Equipment for explosive atmospheres
(Ex-equipment)"

3 APPROVED AND INTRODUCED BY Order of the Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology
of September 17, 2012 N 316 article

4 This standard is identical to the international standard IEC 60079-25: 2010 * "Explosive atmospheres. Part 25.
Intrinsically safe electrical systems" (IEC 60079-25: 2010 "Explosive atmospheres - Part 25: Intrinsically safe
electrical systems").
________________
* Access to international and foreign documents mentioned in the text can be obtained by contacting Customer
Support . - Note the manufacturer of the database.

The name of this standard has been changed relative to the name of the specified international standard in order
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to comply with GOST R 1.5-2004 * (clause 3.5).


________________
* The document is not valid on the territory of the Russian Federation. Effective GOST R 1.5-2012 . - Note the
manufacturer of the database.
When applying this standard, it is recommended to use, instead of reference international standards, the
corresponding national standards of the Russian Federation, details of which are given in Supplementary Appendix
YES

5 VZAMEN GOST R IEC 60079-25-2008


Information on changes to this standard is published in the annually published information index
“National Standards”, and the text of changes and amendments is published in the monthly published
information index “National Standards”. In the case of revision (replacement) or cancellation of this
standard, the corresponding notification will be published in the monthly published information index
"National Standards". Relevant information, notification and texts are also posted in the public information
system - on the official website of the Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology on the Internet

1 area of use

This standard establishes special requirements for the design and evaluation of intrinsically safe electrical systems
with the type of protection "intrinsically safe electrical circuit" i "", designed to be used fully or partially in explosive
gas environments as equipment of group I or II or in environments containing combustible dust, as equipment group
III.
Note 1 - The standard is intended for a system developer who may be a manufacturer, a specialist consultant or
a full-time employee of the end user.
This standard supplements and modifies the general requirements of IEC 60079-0 and the requirements for an
intrinsically safe "i" circuit of IEC 60079-11. In the event of a conflict between the requirements of this standard and
IEC 60079-0 or IEC 60079-11, the requirements of this standard take precedence.
This standard complements IEC 60079-11, the requirements of which relate to electrical devices used in
intrinsically safe electrical systems.
The installation requirements for a Group II or III system designed in accordance with this standard are defined
in IEC 60079-14.
Note 2 - Installation requirements for a Group I system are not currently defined in IEC 60079-14.

2 Normative references
The following standards * are mandatory for the application of this standard. For standards with a publication
date, only specified editions apply. In cases where the publication date is not specified, the latest edition of the
standard cited applies (including all amendments).
____________
* Table of compliance with international standards of international, see the link. - Note the manufacturer of the
database.
IEC 60060-1 High Voltage Test Methods - Part 1: General Definitions and Test Requirements (IEC 60060-1,
High-voltage test techniques - Part 1: General definitions and test requirements)
IEC 60079-0 Explosive Atmospheres - Part 0: Equipment. General requirements (IEC 60079-0, Explosive
atmospheres - Part 0: Equipment - General requirements)
IEC 60079-11: 2006 Explosive atmospheres - Part 11: Intrinsically safe "i" electrical circuit (IEC 60079-11:
2006, Explosive atmospheres - Part 11: Equipment protection by intrinsic safety "i")
IEC 60079-14: 2007 Hazardous environments - Part 14: Design, selection and installation of electrical
installations (IEC 60079-14: 2007, Explosive atmospheres - Part 14: Electrical installations design, selection and
erection)
IEC 60079-15 Electrical equipment for explosive gas environments. Part 15. Construction, testing and marking
of electrical equipment with protection type "n" (IEC 60079-15, Electrical apparatus for exploitation of gas
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atmospheres - Part 15: Construction, test apparatus


IEC 60079-27 Explosive atmospheres. Part 27. Intrinsically safe fieldbus system (FISCO) concept (IEC
60079-27: 2008, Explosive atmospheres - Part 27: Fieldbus intrinsically safe concept (FISCO))
IEC 61158-2 Network for the transmission of production data. Fieldbus specifications. Part 2: Physical layer
specification and service definition (IEC 61158-2, Industrial communication networks - Fieldbus specifications - Part
2: Physical layer specification)
IEC 61241-0 Electrical equipment used in areas dangerous for the ignition of combustible dust. Part 0. General
Requirements (IEC 61241-0, Electrical Appliances - Part 0: General requirements)
IEC 61241-11 Electrical equipment used in areas hazardous to the ignition of combustible dust. Part 11.
Intrinsically safe equipment "iD" (IEC 61241-11, Electrical apparatus - Part 11: Protection by intrinsic safety 'iD')

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations


3.1 Terms and Definitions

The following terms are used in this standard with the appropriate definitions for intrinsically safe electrical
systems. They supplement the definitions given in IEC 60079-0 and IEC 60079-11.

3.1.1 intrinsically safe electrical system (intrinsically safe electrical system): The group of interconnected
electrical devices forming the electrical system in which the chains or chain parts intended for use in an explosive
environment, are intrinsically safe.

3.1.2 certified intrinsically safe electrical system (certified intrinsically safe electrical system): An intrinsically
safe electrical system in accordance with 3.1.1, for which an IEC 60079-25 certificate of conformity is issued.

3.1.3 uncertified intrinsically safe electrical system: (uncertified intrinsically safe electrical system): an
intrinsically safe electrical system in accordance with 3.1.1, the electrical parameters of which, as well as the electrical
and physical parameters of its internal wiring, correspond to the parameters of a certified intrinsically safe, connected,
simple electrical equipment that allows to conclude that the intrinsic safety of such a system is preserved.

3.1.4 technical description of the system (descriptive system document): A document that lists the electrical
devices included in the system, and given their electrical parameters and internal wiring.

3.1.5 system designer ( system designer): The person responsible for the technical description of the system are
qualified to perform the tasks and empowered senior management to assume the obligations assigned to him.

3.1.6 maximum cable capacitance ( ) (maximum cable capacitance): The maximum capacitance value of the
connecting cable that can be connected to an intrinsically safe circuit without intrinsic safety.

3.1.7 maximum cable inductance ( ) (maximum cable inductance): The maximum inductance value of the
connecting cable that can be connected to an intrinsically safe circuit without compromising intrinsic safety.

3.1.8 maximum ratio of cable inductance to its resistance ( ) (maximum cable inductance to
resistance ratio): The maximum value of the ratio of inductance ( ) to resistance ( ) of the connecting cable,
which can be connected to the intrinsically safe circuit without compromising intrinsic safety.

3.1.9 linear power supply (linear power supply): A power source whose output current value is set by a
resistor. The output voltage decreases linearly with increasing output current.

3.1.10 nonlinear power supply (non-linear power supply): The power supply whose output voltage and current
associated nonlinear dependence.
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Example - A power supply with a constant output voltage to a certain level of stabilized current
regulated by semiconductors.

3.2 Abbreviations

FISCO - Intrinsically Safe Fieldbus System Concept.


FNICO - The concept of a non-flammable fieldbus system.

4 Technical description of the system


Technical description of the system is for all intrinsically safe electrical systems. The technical description should
contain an appropriate analysis of the system security level
NOTE Annex E provides examples of typical diagrams that illustrate the requirements for a system specification.
The technical description should contain at least the following:

a) a block diagram of the system listing all the equipment included in the system, including simple equipment and
connecting wire. An example of such a scheme is shown in Figure E.1;

b) group designation (for groups II and III), the level of the intrinsically safe electrical system, the temperature
class and the ambient temperature range in accordance with sections 5, 6 and 7;

c) requirements and permissible parameters for the connecting wire in accordance with section 8;

d) detailed information about the grounding points and system connections in accordance with section 11. If
overvoltage protection devices are used, an analysis should be made in accordance with section 12;

e) if necessary, justify the assessment of equipment as “simple electrical equipment” in accordance with IEC
60079-11;

f) if an intrinsically safe circuit consists of several units of intrinsically safe electrical equipment, an analysis of their
parameters must be attached, which will include all simple and certified intrinsically safe electrical equipment;

g) the technical description of the system must have a unique identification;

h) the system developer must sign the document and set the date.
NOTE A technical drawing of the system description is not a control drawing as defined in IEC 60079-11.

5 Group and temperature class of intrinsically safe electrical system


Intrinsically safe electrical systems should be assigned to Group I, II or III in accordance with IEC 60079-
0. Intrinsically safe electrical systems of groups II and III as a whole or their parts should be assigned to the
appropriate subgroups.
The equipment in an intrinsically safe electrical system of Group II and III intended for use in explosive gas or
dust environments must be assigned a temperature class or the maximum surface temperature must be specified in
accordance with IEC 60079-0, IEC 60079-11, IEC 61241- 0 and IEC 61241-11.
Notes

1 In intrinsically safe electrical systems of groups II and III or their parts, subgroups IIA, IIB, IIC may differ from
the subgroups of a specific intrinsically safe electrical equipment and associated electrical equipment in the system.

2 Different parts of the same intrinsically safe electrical system may belong to different subgroups (IIA, IIB,
IIC). Electrical equipment used may belong to different temperature classes and have different ambient temperature
ranges.
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6 Level of intrinsically safe electrical system


6.1 General requirements

Each part of an intrinsically safe electrical system intended for use in an explosive atmosphere must be assigned
to the level “ia”, “ib” or “ic” in accordance with IEC 60079-11. The entire system does not necessarily have to
belong to the same level.
Notes

1 For example, if the device originally belonged to the “ib” level, but it is intended to connect the “ia” level sensor,
for example, a pH meter with a probe connected to it, part of the system to the device refers to the “ib” level, and the
sensor and its connections refer to the "ia" level.

2 A field device with a level "ia", fed through the associated equipment with a level "ib", is considered as a system
with a level "ib".

3 The system may be level “ib” in normal operation with an external power source, but if the power is turned off
under certain safety conditions (ventilation damage), the system may become “ia” with battery backup. The level of
protection is clearly defined for forecasted circumstances.
Section 13 details the required assessment of an intrinsically safe electrical system.

6.2 Level "ia"

If the requirements for electrical equipment of level “ia” (see IEC 60079-11) are met by an intrinsically safe
electrical system or part of a system that is considered as a single unit, then this system or part of the system should
be assigned to level “ia”.

6.3 Level "ib"

If the requirements for an “ib” level electrical equipment (see IEC 60079-11) are met by an intrinsically safe
electrical system or part of a system that is considered as a single unit, then this system or part of the system should
be assigned to level “ib”.

6.4 Level "ic"

If the requirements for an "ic" level electrical equipment (see IEC 60079-11) are met by an intrinsically safe
electrical system or part of a system that is considered as a single unit, then this system or part of the system should
be assigned to the "ic" level.

7 ambient temperature
If a part of an intrinsically safe electrical system or a complete system is defined as suitable for operation at a
temperature outside the normal operating temperature range from minus 20 ° C to plus 40 ° C, this should be
reflected in the technical description of the system.

8 connecting wires / cables used in an intrinsically safe electrical


system
The electrical parameters of the connecting wire, on which intrinsic safety depends, as well as the derivatives of
these parameters must be defined in the technical description of the system. Alternatively, the documentation must
define a specific type of cable and justify its use. External wiring cables must comply with Section 9.
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If necessary, the permissible types of stranded cable in accordance with clause 9, which can be used in each
specific circuit, must also be defined in the technical description of the system. In the event that short circuits between
separate circuits are not taken into account, a note should be added to the system block diagram from the technical
specification to read as follows: "If the part of the connecting cable uses a part of a multicore cable containing other
intrinsically safe circuits, it is necessary that this multicore cable meets the requirements to type A or B multi-
conductor cable as defined in IEC 60079-25 (clause 9).
A multi-core cable containing circuits * of level "ia", "ib" or "ic" must not contain any spark-proof electrical
circuits.
_______________
* The text of the document corresponds to the original. - Note the manufacturer of the database.
Multiconductor cables of level "ic" may contain more than one intrinsically safe circuit of level "ia", "ib" or "ic"
depending on the damage taken into account in accordance with section 13.
Note - It is allowed to use multicore cables that do not comply with type A or B, if a specific combination of
circuits was evaluated for compliance with the requirements of IEC 60079-11.
Intrinsically safe circuits of level "ic" may be placed together with intrinsically safe circuits of levels "ia" and "ib"
only in a multicore cable of type A or B in accordance with 9.5.

9 Cable and Stranded Cable Requirements


9.1 General requirements

The diameter of individual conductors or strands of stranded conductors in the hazardous area must be at least
0.1 mm.
In intrinsically safe circuits, it is allowed to use only insulated cables that are able to withstand the test of the
dielectric strength of an insulation of at least 500 V AC or 750 V DC.
NOTE These requirements do not exclude the use of uninsulated conductors in a signal system, in which they
should be considered as simple electrical equipment, and not as a connecting wire.

9.2 Multicore cables

The radial thickness of the conductor insulation must match the diameter of the conductor and the insulation
material with a minimum value of 0.2 mm.
Multi-conductor cables must be able to withstand the dielectric strength test:

a) an effective voltage value of not less than 500 V AC or 750 V DC applied between the armor and / or the
screen (s) connected together and all the conductors connected together;

b) an effective voltage value of not less than 1000 V AC or 1500 V DC applied between a beam constituting one
half of the current-carrying cores of the cable connected together and a beam constituting the other half of the wires
connected together. This test does not apply to multicore cables with shielded conductors of each of the circuits.
Voltage testing must be carried out according to the method established in the appropriate cable standard or in
accordance with IEC 60079-11.

9.3 Electrical parameters of cables

For all cables used in an intrinsically safe system, their electrical parameters and or and should
be determined in accordance with a), b) or c):

a) the most unfavorable electrical parameters specified by the cable manufacturer;

b) electrical parameters determined by measurements taken on a sample by the method of determining the
relevant parameters given in Appendix G;
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c) 200 pF / m and 1 µH / m or the value of the ratio of inductance to resistance ( ), obtained by dividing 1
µH by the manufacturer’s indicated resistance of the circuit by 1 m length, when 2 or 3 wires of a common cable are
used in the connection (with a screen or without). Alternatively, for currents up to 3 A, a ratio of 30 μH
/ Ohm is allowed .
When using a FISCO or FNICO system, the requirements for cable parameters must be in accordance with
Annex I.

9.4 Conductive Screens

Where conductive screens protect individual intrinsically safe circuits to prevent them from being accidentally
connected to each other, such screens should cover at least 60% of the outer surface of the cable.

9.5 Types of multicore cables

9.5.1 General requirements


Stranded cables must be Type A, B, or C. Damage that must be taken into account in stranded cables used in
intrinsically safe electrical systems depends on the type of cable used. Cable types are listed in 9.5.2, 9.5.3 and
9.5.4.
Do not use multicore cables that do not meet the requirements for type A, B or C.

9.5.2 Type A Cable


A cable that meets the requirements of 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3 and has conductive screens that provide individual
protection for each intrinsically safe circuit in accordance with 9.4.

9.5.3 Type B Cable


A fixed cable, which is reliably protected from damage, meets the requirements of 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3 and,
moreover, the maximum voltage of none of the cable circuits exceeds 60 V.

9.5.4 Type C Cable


Cable that meets the requirements of 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3.

10 Cable terminations for intrinsically safe electrical circuits


Intrinsically safe systems that use junction boxes or cabinets for terminating intrinsically safe circuits must comply
with the requirements for terminals of connecting devices for connecting external circuits in accordance with IEC
60079-11.

11 Grounding and interconnecting intrinsically safe systems


As a rule, the intrinsically safe circuit must be completely isolated or earthed at one point, preferably outside the
hazardous area. The required insulation level (except for one point) must be calculated so as to withstand the test of
insulation resistance with a voltage of 500 V in accordance with the requirements for dielectric strength of the
insulation in accordance with IEC 60079-11. If this requirement is not met, the circuit should be considered as
grounded at this point. More than one ground is allowed in the circuit if it is galvanically divided into subchains, each
of which has only one grounding point.
Shields should be grounded or connected to non-live parts of the structure in accordance with the requirements
of IEC 60079-14. If the system is intended for use in an installation in which a significant potential difference (over 10
V) between the design and the circuit is possible, it is preferable to use a circuit galvanically isolated from external
influences, such as changes in the zero potential at some distance from the structure. Special care is required if a part

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of the system is intended for use in a class 0 zone or a class 20 zone or if the system has a very high level of
protection in order to comply with the requirements for the explosion protection of equipment Ma.
The technical description of the system should indicate which point or points of the system are intended for
earthing of intrinsically safe circuits, as well as special requirements for such a connection. This can be accomplished
by adding references to IEC 60079-14 in the technical description of the system.
NOTE The requirements of IEC 60079-14 do not apply to electrical installations in mines where mine gas is
likely to occur.

12 Protection against lightning and other surges.


If the risk analysis indicates that the installation is highly sensitive to lightning discharges or other overvoltages,
precautions should be taken to eliminate potential hazards.
If a part of an intrinsically safe circuit is installed in a class 0 zone so that there is a risk of dangerous or damaging
potential differences in a class 0 zone, an overvoltage protection device must be installed. Overvoltage protection is
required between each core cable, including the shield, and the design, if the core is not connected to the
structure. An overvoltage protection device should be installed on the outside, but as close as possible to the border
of a class 0 zone, preferably at a distance of no more than 1 m.
Overvoltage protection for equipment installed in class 1 and 2 zones should be an integral part of the system
design for places with high overvoltage hazards.
An overvoltage protection device must be capable of diverting a minimum peak discharge current of 10 kA
(8/20 μs pulse in accordance with IEC 60060-1 for 10 operations). The minimum cross-sectional area of the
connection between the protective device and the local structure should be 4 mm copper. A cable between
intrinsically safe equipment in a class 0 zone and an overvoltage protection device must be installed in such a way that
it is protected from lightning. Any surge protection device connected to an intrinsically safe circuit must have
explosion protection appropriate for the intended application site.
It is believed that the use of surge suppressors, which provide the connection of the circuit and the design using
non-linear devices such as gas discharge lamps and semiconductors, does not violate the intrinsic safety of the circuit
if during normal operation the current flowing through this limiter is less than 10 μA.
Note - If the insulation resistance test at a voltage of 500 V is conducted under fully controlled conditions, it may
be necessary to disconnect the surge suppressors so that they do not distort the measurement result.
The application of surge suppression methods in intrinsically safe systems must be based on a documented
analysis of the effect of indirect multiple grounding, taking into account the criteria defined above. When evaluating an
intrinsically safe system, the capacitance and inductance of surge suppressors must be taken into account.
See Appendix F for some types of surge protection designs for an intrinsically safe system.

13 Evaluation of an intrinsically safe system


13.1 General requirements

If the system includes equipment that does not meet the requirements of IEC 60079-11, the system should be
evaluated as a whole, as if it were a device. The “ia” level system is evaluated according to the “ia” level criteria set
out in IEC 60079-11. The “ib” level system is evaluated according to the “ib” level criteria set out in IEC 60079-
11. The “ic” level system is evaluated according to the “ic” level criteria set out in IEC 60079-11. In addition to the
internal damage to the device, you must also consider the damage to the external wiring listed in 13.4.
Note - Obviously, accounting for damage in the system as a whole is less rigid than accounting for damage to
each piece of equipment; nevertheless, it is believed that such accounting provides an acceptable level of security.
When all necessary information is available, damage accounting for the system as a whole is allowed, even if
equipment is used that meets the requirements of IEC 60079-11. Such a solution is an alternative to the more
frequently used simple comparison of input and output characteristics of separately evaluated or tested equipment. If
the system includes only separately evaluated or tested equipment that complies with the requirements of IEC
60079-11, it is necessary to show the compatibility of all the equipment included in the system. Since the internal
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equipment malfunctions have already been taken into account, there is no need to take them into account again. If the
system contains a single power source, the output parameters of the source take into account possible rupture,
shorting and grounding of the external connecting cable and therefore no additional damage is required. Appendix A
provides detailed information on the evaluation of simple intrinsically safe systems.
If the system contains more than one linear power source, then it is necessary to evaluate the combined effect of
the power sources. Appendix B shows which assessment should be carried out for the most common combinations
of sources.
If an intrinsically safe system contains several power sources and one or more of these sources are non-linear,
the estimation method given in Appendix B cannot be applied. Appendix C explains how to evaluate the system for
this type of intrinsically safe system when the combination of sources includes one non-linear power supply.
Figure 1 shows a system evaluation chart.

Figure 1 - System Evaluation Scheme

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Figure 1 - System Evaluation Scheme

13.2 Simple electrical equipment

Switches, clips, junction boxes and plug connectors that meet the requirements of IEC 60079-11 can be added
to the system without changing the result of the safety assessment. It is necessary to take into account possible
thermal effects on simple equipment. When other simple electrical equipment consisting of components that
accumulate energy, such as capacitors or chokes in accordance with IEC 60079-11, is added to the system, their
electrical parameters must be taken into account in the safety assessment. A typical system in which simple electrical
equipment is applied is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 - Typical system using simple electrical equipment

1 - certified intrinsically safe equipment; 2 - certified associated intrinsically safe equipment; 3 - cable; 4 - simple
electrical equipment

Figure 2 - Typical system using simple electrical equipment

If simple equipment can consist of several separate intrinsically safe circuits, such as internal connecting devices,
plug sockets, or a resistive thermometer with separate resistance windings, then the requirements for IEC 60079-11
should be applied. If they do not meet the requirements, the connecting circuits must be evaluated as a separate
intrinsically safe circuit.

13.3 Evaluation of inductive circuits

If the inductance and resistance of the equipment are unambiguously determined on the basis of technical
documentation or design, then the safety of the inductive aspects making up the system must be confirmed in the
manner described in Appendix D.

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13.4 Damage to Stranded Cables

13.4.1 Type of stranded cables


Damage that must be considered for stranded cables used in intrinsically safe electrical systems depends on the
type of cable used. The following subsections provide detailed information on cable damage that must be considered
for each type of cable.

13.4.2 Type A Cable


No damage between the circuits is taken into account if the cable complies with 9.5.2.

13.4.3 Type B Cable


No damage between the circuits is taken into account if the cable complies with 9.5.3.

13.4.4 Type C Cable


A combination of damage consisting of two short circuits between conductors and simultaneously an open circuit
to four conductors, creating the most unfavorable conditions if the cable complies with 9.5.4.
All circuits in a multi-conductor cable that are subject to damage must have the lowest circuit level.

13.5 Type Testing and Testing

If tests and / or type tests are required to establish whether the system is sufficiently safe, it is necessary to apply
the methods defined in IEC 60079-11.

14 Marking
All devices in the system should be easily identifiable. The minimum requirement is that the relevant technical
description of the system is easy to follow. One of the acceptable methods is to specify the number of the contour of
the measuring device, which allows to identify the documentation relating to this contour, which, in turn, contains the
technical description of the system.
If the system is evaluated in accordance with IEC 60079-11, each piece of equipment must be labeled in
accordance with this standard.

15 Predefined Systems
The system and all its individual components can be predetermined and evaluated in such a way that the
connection of the individual components and cables is well known and the evaluation requirements of this standard
are simplified. One of these predefined systems is the FISCO system. Evaluation of the FISCO system is given in
Appendix I.

Appendix A (reference). Simple intrinsically safe system evaluation


Appendix A
(reference)

Most intrinsically safe systems are simple systems that contain a single power source in connected electrical
equipment connected to one device installed at the site of operation. This standard uses a combination of a
temperature sensor and an intrinsically safe interface in Appendix E. to clarify the evaluation method.
The initial requirement is to establish the safety data of two devices in the circuit. It is better to take this data from
a copy of the certificate, instructions or control drawing, which should be available to the system designer. In
particular, when designing a system, any special application conditions should be taken into account. The information
that needs to be transferred to the system drawing is determined by the need for a clear justification of the system
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assessment and should be relatively simple to create a drawing of a specific installation from this reference drawing.
The compatibility of the two devices is established by comparing the data for each device.
The order of such an assessment is as follows:

a) Compare equipment groups. If they are different, then the group of the system is determined by the least
sensitive subgroup. For example, if one device belongs to subgroup IIC, and the other to subgroup IIB, then the
whole system belongs to subgroup IIB. Typically, a power source, certified as an IIC, has acceptable output
parameters ( , , and ) for IIA and IIB subgroups. If these higher values are used, the parameters used
determine the group of the system by gas mixture.

b) Compare levels. If they are different, the system assumes the lowest level of explosion protection for these two
devices. Therefore, if one device belongs to the level "ia" and the other to the level "ib", then the whole system
belongs to the level "ib". A power source certified as "ib" will have parameters that are valid for use in circuits of level
"ic". If the design of the system using these higher values, the system is referred to the level of "ic".

c) Determine the temperature class of the equipment installed in the hazardous area. The temperature class of the
device may be different for different conditions of use (usually for different ambient temperatures or , and ),
and it is necessary to select and record the appropriate class. It should be remembered that the temperature class has
the equipment, not the system.

d) Record the permissible ambient temperature range of each device.

e) Compare the output parameters of the power source - voltage ( ), current ( ) and power ( ) with the
input parameters of the device ( , and ). Output parameters must not exceed the corresponding input
parameters. Sometimes device security is fully defined by only one of these parameters. In this case, the unspecified
parameters do not matter.

f) Determine acceptable cable parameters.


The permissible cable capacity ( ) is the permissible capacity of the power source ( ) minus the effective
input capacity of the device ( ), that is .
The permissible cable inductance value ( ) is the allowable value of the power supply inductance ( ) minus
the device effective inductance value ( ), that is .
The allowable ratio for cable ( ) is easy to determine, provided that the input inductance of the
device is negligible ( less than 1% ). Then the value is taken equal to the value of the power
source. If the inductance of the device is significant, it is allowed to apply the equation in Appendix D to calculate the
allowable value if necessary. This requirement is rare.
The interaction of inductance and system capacitance can increase the risk of arcing that can cause ignition. This
applies to constant inductance and capacitance, and not distributed cable parameters. Consequently, in those rare
cases when concentrated inductance (the sum of the source and device) and concentrated capacitance (the sum
of the power supply and devices) simultaneously constitute more than 1% of the corresponding output power
source parameters and the values of permissible output parameters should be divided by two. However, the
maximum value of external capacity , obtained by applying this simple rule, should be limited to a maximum value
of 1 μF for group IIB and 600 nF for group IIC. Such a reduction in output parameters is used in rare cases, since it
is extremely rare for input parameters of inductance and capacitance of devices to be simultaneously significantly
large. Often, the values and power sources are not indicated in the technical documents, and in such cases it is
allowed to consider them as negligible. There is no need to check the safety documentation on existing installations in
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accordance with this latest requirement. However, new assessments should be made with this in mind.
It is necessary to check that the value of the concentrated capacitance or inductance is less than 1% of the
corresponding output parameters. If so, the initial calculation is correct. If both parameters simultaneously constitute
more than 1% of the output parameters and , then the system should be reduced by a factor of two.
If the power source is certified as "ia" or "ib", then the valid output parameters , and determined
using a safety factor of 1.5. If such a power source is used in the "ic" circuit, then the permissible output parameters
are determined using a safety factor of 1. This leads to a significant change, which usually eliminates the need for
detailed consideration of the cable parameters. The exact values can be set using methods and tables from the
standard for electrical equipment. An acceptable safe method is to multiply the output by 2.

g) Ensure that the degree of insulation from earth is acceptable, or the system grounding requirements are met.
If all these criteria are met, the compatibility of the two devices is established. A convenient way to record the
results of an assessment is to create a table. In the following example (see Table A.1), the values from the typical
system drawing (see Figure E.1) are used and the intrinsically safe interface and temperature sensor are compared.
Table A.1 - Simple System Evaluation

Evaluation Parameter Interface temperature sensor System


stage
but) Equipment group Iic Iic Iic
b) Circuit level ia ia ia
with) Temperature classification Not applicable T4
d) Ambient temperature From minus 20 ° С to From minus 40 ° С to
plus 60 ° С plus 80 ° С
e) Comparison of parameters
Voltage
: 28 B : 30 V
Current : 120 mA
: 93 mA
Power 1W
: 650 mW
f) Cable parameters
Capacity : 3 nF
: 83 nF : 80 nF
Inductance
: 4.2 mH : 10 μH : 4.2 mH
Attitude : 54 µH / Om : 54 µH /
Om
g) Insulation Is isolated Is isolated Isolated

Appendix B (mandatory). Assessment of circuits containing at least


two power sources
Appendix B
(mandatory)

Such an estimate is applicable only if the considered power sources have a linear output with a resistive current
limit. The rating does not apply to power supplies using other forms of current limiting.
IEC 60079-14 describes a simplified procedure for determining the maximum values of system voltage and
current in intrinsically safe circuits with more than one connected equipment with linear current and voltage
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characteristics, producing results with an overestimation of errors that guarantee a safe installation, which can be used
as an alternative to the method considered in this annex.
If two or more power supplies are used and the connections are made under controlled conditions to ensure
adequate separation and mechanical stability in accordance with IEC 60079-11, then such connection malfunctions
are considered in which the circuit is open or short-circuited, but not the polarity reversal or transition from serial
connection to parallel or from parallel connection to serial. Connections made inside a rack or panel installed in a
room with the necessary quality control and testing facilities are an example of the required degree of integrity.
Figure B.1 shows the standard serial connection. With this connection, the open circuit voltage is equal ,
but the possibility that the voltage can be equal is not considered. When the system safety assessment
considers three voltage values , and , and the corresponding values of current and and total
current

Figure B.1 - Power supplies connected in series

Figure B.1 - Power supplies connected in series

The safety of each of the three equivalent circuits is assessed using a table showing the permissible short-circuit
current as a function of voltage and equipment group IEC 60079-11. Values are either by choice and
must be set for each circuit, and the value that creates the most unfavorable conditions must be used for the
corresponding circuit.
For chains of level "ia" and "ib", in order to determine these values in any conditions, it is necessary to use a
safety factor of 1.5. For circuits of level "ic", it is sufficient to use a safety factor of 1.0.
Note - When adding the voltages of two chains, the capacity is determined by the combined circuit. However,
the inductance and, if applicable, the ratio can be determined by one of the individual circuits, considered
separately. The minimum inductance does not always correspond to the maximum current in the circuit, and the
minimum ratio , if used, does not always correspond to the minimum inductance.

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It is necessary to determine the matched power from each equivalent circuit. The combined power of the
combined circuit is the total value of the power of all the circuits only provided that the sources used have the same
output current.
If the power sources are connected in parallel as shown in Figure B.2, then all the three values of the current
strength , and should be read in conjunction with the respective voltage values , and

Figure B.2 - Power supplies connected in parallel

Figure B.2 - Power supplies connected in parallel

The safety of each of the three equivalent circuits must be assessed using a table showing the permissible short-
circuit current as a function of voltage and the IEC 60079-11 equipment group. Values , or by choice ,
must be established for each circuit, and the value that creates the most adverse conditions must be used for the
corresponding equivalent circuit. It is also necessary to determine the matched power from each of the three
equivalent circuits. The combined power of the combined circuit is the total value of the power of all the circuits,
provided that the sources have the same output voltage.
If two power sources are connected to the same intrinsically safe circuit and their connection is not defined, as
shown in Figure B.3, then it is possible to connect these power sources both in series and in parallel. In these
circumstances, all possible equivalent circuits should be evaluated using both procedures. The most unfavorable
output parameters and equivalent circuits are used to determine the integrity of an intrinsically safe system.

Figure B.3 - Randomly connected power supplies

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1 - power supply 1; 2 - power source 2

Figure B.3 - Randomly connected power sources

Equipment intended for use in hazardous areas is allowed to include a power source, with the result that the
output parameters of the equipment, such as internal batteries, will be significant. In this case, the evaluation of the
system should include an evaluation of the combination of this power source with any power source in the associated
equipment, as well as a change (reversal) of the connection due to possible damage to external wiring.
After determining the representative equivalent circuits, it is allowed to use them as having one power source and
use the procedure, which is discussed in Appendix A, to establish whether the security of the system is generally
acceptable.
If two or more power supplies with different output voltages are connected, the total equalizing current may
cause additional dissipation in control circuits. If traditional resistive current limiting is used in the circuits, it is
considered that additional dispersion does not violate intrinsic safety.

Appendix C (reference). Connection of linear and non-linear


intrinsically safe circuits

Appendix C
(reference)

C.1 General requirements


This problem remains a subject of study for a long time. This annex, reflecting the opinion of the leading testing
laboratory, has undergone a thorough review. It reflects the current state of knowledge in this area, and its application
will expand the existing practical experience.
Designing and using non-linear power supplies requires special knowledge and access to appropriate test
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facilities. If the system designer has determined that this power source is sufficiently safe, then it is allowed to design
the system in accordance with this standard. All special conditions relating to such a system must be clearly defined in
the accompanying documentation.
If the safety assessment of a combination of power supplies using non-linear outputs is carried out, it must be
borne in mind that the interaction of the two circuits can cause a significant increase in dispersion in the components
of the control circuit. It is recommended to use only one power source containing stabilizing semiconductors and
sources with linear and / or trapezoidal output characteristics.
The electrical installation rules defined in IEC 60079-14 allow the operator, who controls the hazardous area, to
combine several intrinsically safe circuits by connecting them. This also applies to the use of several connected
electrical devices (active in normal operation or only in fault conditions) (see IEC 60079-14). If the intrinsic safety
check of the connection is performed by calculation or testing, there is no need to contact the testing laboratory or an
authorized specialist.
Practical testing by testing should be performed using a standard spark-forming mechanism in accordance with
IEC 60079-11, taking into account the safety factor of the combined electrical equipment. In this case, some
malfunction conditions that create the most unfavorable ignition conditions must be taken into account - the method of
the most unfavorable option is often difficult to implement in practice and is usually used by testing laboratories.
Compound evaluation can be easily performed by calculating at least for resistive circuits if the electrical sources
in question have an internal linear resistance, as shown in Figure C.1a. In this case, the ignition limit curves defined in
IEC 60079-11 are used and the method described in IEC 60079-14 or in Figures C.7 and C.8 of this standard is
allowed.

Figure C.1 - Characteristics of equivalent circuits and outputs of resistive circuits

Figure C.1a - Linear Characteristic

Figure C.1b - Trapezoidal characteristic

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Figure C.1c - Rectangular characteristic

Figure C.1 - Characteristics of equivalent circuits and outputs of resistive circuits

The first stage involves the assessment of new maximum values of voltage and current as a result of combining the
associated equipment. If the associated equipment is combined, as shown in Figure C.2a, this is a serial
connection. The maximum values of the no-load voltage of individual subassemblies are added and the maximum
short-circuit current value is taken into account . In the device shown in Figure C.2c, the connection is
parallel. The values of short-circuit currents add and take into account the highest value of the open circuit voltage.

Figure C.2 - Addition of current and / or voltage values for connections

Figure C.2a - Series Connection with Voltage Addition

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Figure C.2b - Series connection with addition of voltage values and possible addition of current values

Figure C.2c - Parallel connection with addition of current values

Figure C.2d - Parallel connection with addition of current values and, possibly, voltage

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Figure C.2e - Series or parallel connection with addition of current and voltage values

Figure C.2 - Addition of current and / or voltage values for connections

If the polarity is not clearly defined in the electrical equipment device (as in Figure C.2e), a serial or parallel
connection is possible depending on the fault condition in question. In this case, it is necessary to assume the addition
of the values of voltage and current for the two types of connections separately. The basis should be the most
unfavorable values.
After determining the new maximum values of current and voltage, it is necessary to check the intrinsic safety of
the combined circuit using the flammable limit curves given in IEC 60079-11, taking into account the safety factor for
the resistive circuit, and to determine the new maximum permissible values of external inductance and
capacitance . However, there is a weakness in the methodology introduced in IEC 60079-14 (Appendix A), for
the following reasons:
- the values of the maximum permissible inductance are valid only for a maximum voltage of 24 V;
- the existence of inductance and capacitance is not taken into account.
If we proceed only from the no-load voltages and short-circuit currents, the resulting safety factor is reduced
from the desired value of 1.5 to approximately 1.0 in the voltage range above 20 V. This seems acceptable since the
connection in accordance with IEC 60079-14 can be classified only to the “ib” level, even if all the equipment
separately meets the requirements of the “ia” level. However, for low voltages, it is possible to reduce the safety
factor well below 1.0. Thus, this method is not effective from a security point of view.
If one or several active sources in one circuit have non-linear characteristics, estimates made only on the basis of
no-load voltages and short-circuit currents do not allow to achieve the original goal.
In practice, sources with trapezoidal output characteristics (see Figure C.1b) are used, and rectangular output
characteristics (see Figure C.1c) are often obtained using electronic current-limiting devices. For such circuits it is not
possible to use the flammability limit curves of IEC 60079-11. Thus, this standard describes a method that allows to
evaluate the security of a combination of networks, including non-linear sources, using diagrams. The new computer
model of spark ignition allows to achieve the desired safety factor for non-linear sources, and for the coincidence of
inductance and capacitance in the circuit.
The methodology presented here can be applied to a class 1 zone and to subgroups IIC and IIB. It must be
emphasized that this technique suggests a connection mechanism; its use to determine the intrinsic safety parameters
of individual circuits or equipment makes sense only in the case of simple rectangular or linear circuits.

C.2 Basic types of non-linear circuits

C.2.1 Parameters
To assess the intrinsic safety of active circuits, it is necessary to know the internal resistance and voltage of the
source. In the simplest case, the source can be characterized by two (constant) electrical values - either voltage
and internal resistance , or short-circuit current (see Figure C.1a). often determined by zener diodes.
and - the maximum values that can be obtained under the fault conditions specified in IEC 60079-11. In the
case illustrated in Figure C.1a, the characteristic is linear. Unfortunately, in practice, only some chains can be
represented in such a simple way.
For example, a battery equipped with an external current-limiting resistor does not have an internal constant
resistance, and the source voltage varies with the degree of charge. To study the behavior of these actual chains, they
are represented by simpler equivalent chains, which should be able to cause ignition to the same degree as real
chains. In the above case with a battery, the maximum value for an open circuit is equal and the external
resistance is equal , as shown in Figure C.1a. This equivalent circuit has a linear characteristic.
Nonlinear circuits can also be reduced to two main types, shown in Figures C.1b and C.1c. A source with a
trapezoidal characteristic (Figure C.1b) consists of a voltage source, resistance and additional elements that limit the

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voltage (for example, zener diodes) at the output terminals. The source current with a rectangular characteristic,
shown in Figure C.1c, is limited by an electronic current regulator.
If we consider the output power values of various networks, it becomes obvious that different ignition limit values
should be applied, since the igniting spark is also a “charge” and its correspondence to the source that feeds it must
be taken into account. The maximum power from the source shown in Figure C.1a is as follows:

and for a source with a trapezoidal characteristic (Figure C.1b):

(for ) or

(for ).

The trapezoidal characteristic in Figure C.1b becomes a rectangular characteristic in Figure C.1c, as it tends
to infinity.
In this case

A complete description of the source requires two parameters related to linear and rectangular characteristics,
and three parameters related to trapezoidal characteristics (see Table C.1).
Table C.1 - Parameters required to describe the output characteristic

Characteristic Required parameters


Linear, Figure C.1a
, or ,
Trapezoidal Figure C.1b
, , Or , , , and , ,
Rectangular, drawing C.1c
,

C.2.2 Information contained in certificates, instructions or control drawings


The first stage of any safety assessment should include the determination of the type of characteristic and the
corresponding electrical parameters of the individual circuits. Since the user or operator is usually not familiar with the
device arrangement and the internal structure of the equipment, he will have to trust the electrical data given in the
certificate, instructions or control drawing.
The certificate, instructions or control drawing, as a rule, contains the following values: no-load voltage ,
short-circuit current and maximum attainable power . Often, based on these values, we can conclude about the
type of characteristic.
Example (maximum values):
12.5 V,
0.1 A,

313 mW.
Since the value is equal to one-fourth the product of the open circuit voltage and short circuit current, it can
be concluded that this is an example of a linear characteristic (Figure C.1a).
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Example (maximum values):


20.5 V,

35 mA,

718 mW,
where is the product of the no-load voltage and short-circuit current, that is, it is an example of a rectangular
characteristic (Figure C.1c).
In some cases, the values of power, current and voltage do not correspond to those indicated above, because
the power value is indicated for steady conditions (the action of heating components connected in series), and the
values of current and voltage are given for dynamic conditions (spark ignition). When in doubt, it is necessary to
check which characteristic should be taken as the basis of the connection in terms of spark ignition.
In the case of a trapezoidal characteristic, the information in the test certificate is not enough to determine the
characteristic. The third parameter is missing (see Table C.1) - or .
Specifying a value as an additional parameter helps to make intrinsically safe connections correctly. Therefore,
the value is usually given in the test certificate. Then the parameter (Figure C.1b) can be derived by the
formula

In most cases, the test certificate also indicates the form of the characteristic of any non-linear circuit.
An example might look like this:
Maximum values (trapezoidal characteristic):
13.7 volts

105 mA,

438 ohms

1010 mW.
This characteristic is presented in Figure C.3a; Figure C.3b shows a safe, equivalent circuit.
Perform the following calculation:

46 V and

1010 mW.

Figure C.3 - Output characteristic and equivalent source circuit with trapezoidal characteristic

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Figure C.3a - Output Characteristics Figure C.3b - Equivalent Circuit

Figure C.3 - Output characteristic and equivalent source circuit with trapezoidal characteristic

Thus, the data required for the connection can be obtained on the basis of the information provided in the
certificate. If such data is not in the previously issued certificates, they should be provided by the equipment
manufacturer.
When designing intrinsically safe circuits, it is necessary to strive to ensure that the number of connections and
combined subassemblies is minimal. This goal is not always achievable in practice, since it is necessary to take into
account the fault conditions. This means that some equipment that is not a source of voltage in normal operating
conditions should be considered in the event of a malfunction as a voltage source.
Passive inputs of devices, such as measuring sensors, plotters, etc., can act as sources of ignition from a safety
point of view. Therefore, it is necessary to refer to the maximum values indicated in the certificates. As a result, circuit
performance may deviate significantly from safe performance. The values of the no-load voltage and short-circuit
current indicated in the evidence for this circuit in some cases are applicable only for the conditions of the transient
process. On the other hand, the power value applies to steady-state conditions that should be considered in terms of
heating the connected components.

C.3 Connection of intrinsically safe circuits with at least two sources

C.3.1 Determination of the resulting output characteristic


It is assumed that the output characteristics of the circuits in the combination of circuits, which should be
considered as voltage sources, are known (see C.2). Now, based on the type of connection, it is necessary to
determine whether it is necessary to take into account the total voltage, the total current, or simultaneously the total
voltage and current in normal operation and in fault conditions.
If the combined voltage sources are connected in series and not connected, for example, to ground (Figure
C.2a), then regardless of the polarity of the sources, only voltage addition is possible. The resulting output
characteristic is easy to find by graphical summation. The voltages of the individual sources for each current value are
added. The dashed curve in Figure C.2 shows the resulting characteristics in different cases.
In the serial circuit shown in Figure C.2b, with the connection of two voltage sources at the load level, the
addition of current values can be excluded only if the polarity of two sources in the specified direction is fixed for
safety (for example, for some safety barriers). For voltage sources that may change polarity during operation or
under fault conditions, it is necessary to consider the addition of current and voltage values (see Figure C.2e).
With a parallel connection, shown in Figure C.2c, current addition is possible only if a two-pole source with two
poles is used. The addition of voltage in this case is impossible, and the resulting characteristic is created by
graphically summing up the individual current values.
If only one pole of each source is connected to the pole of another source (Figure C.2d), voltage addition can be
eliminated if the polarity of the sources, as shown, is fixed in all cases (for example, using safety barriers). Otherwise,
the addition of current and voltage values should be considered (see Figure C.2e).
If several circuits are connected to a circuit in which arbitrary connections should be assumed (Figure C.2e), then
depending on the fault conditions considered, a serial or parallel connection can be specified, that is, current addition
and voltage addition should be considered. Since these two variants cannot exist simultaneously, the resulting
characteristics of the addition of current and voltage values should be constructed separately. This procedure is also
used in all cases of doubt regarding the circuits shown in Figures C.2b and C.2d, as well as for circuits with more
than two conductors. The result will always provide security.

C.3.2 Assessment of the safety of the connection and the determination of the maximum allowable
values of capacitance and inductance
If the resulting characteristic of the combined circuit is determined in accordance with C.3.1, the next stage is the
assessment of intrinsic safety. For this purpose, use the diagrams shown in Figures C.7 and C.8. They show the
curve of the maximum allowable values for linear characteristics of sources (dashed limit curve) and for rectangular
characteristics (continuous limit curve) for a given inductance and new maximum values of current and voltage in the
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combined circuit. In addition, curves are given to determine the highest permissible external capacitance in both
cases. The distribution of diagrams by equipment and inductance is given in Table C.2.
Table C.2 - Distribution of diagrams by equipment and inductance groups

Picture Group
Admissible inductance , mH
C.7a Iic 0.15
P.7b 0.5
C.7s one
C.7d 2
S.7e five
C.8a IIB 0.15
P.8b 0.5
C.8c one
C.8d 2
S.8e five

To assess intrinsic safety, you must first select a group of equipment, and then the total inductance required for
the combination. If small values of inductance are considered (that is, in the absence of a concentrated inductance,
only short cable lengths), the diagram with the lowest inductance should be chosen (Figure C.7a for Group IIC and
Figure C.8a for Group IIB).
The resulting output characteristic is in the diagram under consideration. If, in accordance with C.3.1, the
addition of current and voltage values is considered, then both resulting characteristics should be drawn.
Now you can directly determine whether the combination of sources with inductance is intrinsically safe for the
given diagram and the selected equipment group. The resulting summary characteristic should not cross the limit
curve for a source with a rectangular characteristic at any point in the diagram. In addition, the point on the diagram,
defined as the maximum value of the voltage or the maximum value of the current of the total characteristic, must lie
below the curve for the linear source.
The maximum allowable capacitance of the resulting circuit is defined as the lowest value of the two series of limit
curves , which is the highest value , not intersecting the resulting output characteristic for the linear limit and for
the rectangular limit. If this application requires a higher value of permissible capacity It can be obtained using
primarily a diagram for a lower inductance. The same method can be applied when the resulting output characteristic
intersects the limit inductance curve for a source with a linear and rectangular characteristic. If, even with the lowest
inductance in the diagrams (0.15 mH), the curves of the corresponding limits in the IIC diagram are exceeded, it is
recommended to use the IIB diagrams. If these limits are also exceeded, then the combination is not intrinsically safe
also for group IIB.

C.3.3 Additional comments on the method of application of the output characteristics


The method for assessing the safety of intrinsically safe circuits, described in C.3.1 and C.3.2, is based on basic
research and model design. The calculation method gives results that differ from those in the previous report.
Higher capacitance values are permissible in the low voltage range. For higher voltage values, the difference can
reach a factor of 3. Unlike the diagrams in the previous report, the limit curve for a purely resistive circuit is not
shown in Figures C.7 and C.8, but it is essentially determined by the allowable inductance value. In addition, there
are limit curves for linear sources. Except for this, the graphical method as a whole remains the same.
The graphical method is based on reducing the real characteristics of the source in an abstract linear source and a
source with a rectangular output characteristic and comparison with the corresponding limit curves. Only if the actual
source characteristic is linear or rectangular, the safety factor with a guaranteed value of 1.5 can be displayed on the
diagram. For some more complex sources, it may be necessary to construct an envelope of a linear or rectangular
characteristic, which will preserve the safety factor. The real safety factor may be slightly lower (but always above 1)

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if both limit criteria are used. This is the result of converting the actual conditions in the circuit used in a simple
graphical method. According to the general opinion of experts, this is acceptable,
When using the diagrams shown in Figures C.7 and C.8, the interaction of inductance and capacitance (mixed
circuit) is always taken into account. This technique should also be used to combine purely linear circuits (output
characteristic in accordance with Figure C.1a). This method does not distinguish between concentrated inductance or
capacitance derived from distributed cable parameters. If cables with a transmission time of up to 10 µs are used, this
is not necessary according to current opinion. The calculation based on lumped elements is based on safety, and,
unlike the previously used calculation methods, does not have a serious limitation in practice.
The advantage of this technique is that all data related to security can be taken from a single diagram. However, it
is necessary to conduct an additional comparison of the maximum value of the no-load voltage and the maximum
value of the capacitance in accordance with the permissible capacitance depending on the voltage and the equipment
group IEC 60079-11, since in some cases a higher value of the admissible capacitance is obtained using the method
described here. Then the values should be taken from IEC 60079-11.
The values obtained for the maximum allowable external inductance and capacitance are those applicable to the
entire combination, that is, the values of inductance and capacitance of all individual devices acting on external
contacts must be taken into account.
The calculation method used in the diagrams shows the absence of significant systematic deviations from the
results obtained in the ignition tests during the execution of research projects. It is known that the error of many
measurement results is in the range of up to 10%. The reason lies in the test method and the spark-forming
mechanism itself. It is believed that the method presented here gives small deviations.

C.4. Illustration of the methodology for applying output characteristics using an example.
In the example shown in Figure C.4, the analyzer with amplifier (IV) is installed in a hazardous area and receives
power from an intrinsically safe power source (I). The output signal of an intrinsically safe amplifier (from 0 to 20
mA) is fed to the indicator (II) and the plotter (III).

Figure C.4 - Connection Example

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Add current / voltage values


Ex ib IIB Circuit Connected
1.9 W, 28.7 V, 264 mA
0.5 mH, 400 nF
Designations

1 - control room; 2 - switching room; 3 - site (hazardous area); 4 - maximum operating-passive values on the
indicator: linear characteristics 12 V, 133 mA, 0.4 W; 5 - maximum operational-passive values on the recorder: linear
characteristic 1 V, 31 mA, 10 mW; 6 - maximum values for power supply: Ex ib IIB 15.7 V, 100 mA; 1.57 W,
1 mH, 650 nF - rectangular characteristics of current regulation of electronics; 7 - analyzer with amplifier
(intrinsically safe equipment)

I - intrinsically safe power supply; II - indicator; III - plotter; IV - amplifier

Figure C.4 - Connection Example

The analyzer is intrinsically safe equipment; power supply, indicator and plotter - related equipment in the
meaning adopted in IEC 60079-11. In normal operation, only the mains supply is the active source, and the indicator
and plotter are passive sources. However, for the safety assessment, the highest possible values from the certificates
relating to all three devices under fault conditions are taken as basic.
The following information is provided:

I power supply
Exit with Ex ib IIB protection
Maximum values:
15.7 V;

100 mA;
1.57 watts;

1 mH;

650 nF.
Rectangular output characteristic (Figure C.1c).

II Indicator
Entrance with protection type Ex ib IIС
Maximum values:

12 V;

133 mA;
0.4 W;
1.8 mH;
1.4 uF.
Linear output characteristic (Figure C.1a).
III Plotter

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Entrance with Ex ib IIC protection


Maximum values:

1 V;

31 mA;

10 mW;

36 mH;

200 uF.
Linear output characteristic (Figure C.1a).
When the circuit is set up, as shown in Figure C.4 and depending on the fault conditions in the analyzer, the
values of voltages and currents can be added, as shown in Figure C.2e. Individual characteristics and two summary
characteristics for adding voltage and current are shown in Figure C.5.

Figure C.5 - Summary characteristics of the circuit presented in Figure C.4

I - intrinsically safe power supply; II - indicator; III - plotter

Figure C.5 - Summary characteristics of the circuit presented in Figure C.4

To test the intrinsic safety, Figure C.8b presents summary characteristics related to the addition of voltage and
current values (subgroup IIB, 0.5 mH) (Figures C.6a and C.6b).
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Figure C.6 - Addition of current or voltage values for the example shown in Figure C.4

1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

Figure C.6a - Addition of current values

1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

Figure C.6b - Addition of voltage values

Figure C.6 - Addition of current or voltage values for the example shown in Figure C.4

The corner point at 18.7 V and 100 mA on the voltage addition curve is obviously the critical point — it is
closest to the permissible inductance of a source with a rectangular characteristic, but does not reach it. At this point,
the theoretically highest power is reached, equal to 1.9 W.

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Since both of the resulting combination characteristics do not intersect the permissible inductance curves for
sources with linear and rectangular output characteristics in Figures C.6a and C.6b, the safety test result is
positive. For the maximum voltage value (28.7 V) of the resulting characteristic in this example, the maximum
allowable capacitance of a combination of a series of curves in Figure C.6b can be set at 400 nF. If the value of 28.7
V for subgroup IIB is checked according to the table of permissible capacitance depending on voltage and the group
of equipment of IEC 60079-11, the admissible value of capacitance will be 618 nF - that is, it will be higher than the
set value of 400 nF.
The resulting values for the combination are as follows:
Subgroup IIB
Maximum values:
28.7 V;

264 mA;
1.9 W;
0.5 m;

400 nF.
Since in this example the intrinsically safe inputs and outputs of the connected equipment (power supply, indicator
and plotter) do not have effective values of inductance or capacitance, maximum values of capacitance or inductance
can be used for intrinsically safe equipment (analyzer) and for connecting cables.

C.5 Summary
When designing and installing measuring and technological installations in the chemical and petrochemical
industries, it is often necessary to combine several certified pieces of equipment with intrinsically safe circuits.
The installation rules described in IEC 60079-14 allow the designer, installer and operator of an electrical
installation in a hazardous area to make such combinations on their own responsibility if they are checked by
calculating or measuring the safety of the connection. Since the operator usually does not have the capacity to verify
by measurement (does not have the necessary equipment), he can apply the appropriate calculation method. IEC
60079-14 presents a technique that can only be applied to sources with a purely linear internal resistance, but even
this does not allow for safe configuration in all cases. However, in practice, sources with nonlinear characteristics are
often found and, up to now, a combination of such sources has been possible to make up only with the help of a
testing laboratory.
In connection with this, a method was developed which makes it possible to evaluate with the help of diagrams
the safety of a combination of networks comprising linear and nonlinear circuits. The technique described here is
applicable to equipment of subgroups IIB and IIC for a hazardous area of class 1.
The main part of the methodology is a graphical summation of the values of the output characteristics of the
intrinsically safe sources used. The resulting characteristics are then plotted on the appropriate diagram, from which
resistive, inductive, capacitive and combined circuits can be evaluated (that is, with simultaneous inductive and
capacitive loads). A significant advantage of this technique is that all information and marginal conditions related to
safety data can be taken from a single diagram. The required safety factor of 1.5 is already provided in the diagrams.

C.6 Charts
The diagram in Figure C.9 can be copied onto a transparent base. You can draw self-calculated diagrams for the
sum of voltage and current values and superimpose them on different limit diagrams (on a normal scale) for
evaluation. Below are the marginal diagrams in accordance with Table C.2 in general and in an optimized scale.

Figure C.7 - Diagram with limit curves for the characteristic of a universal source - subgroup IIС

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic.

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Figure C.7a - Diagram for a value of 0.15 mH

1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic.

Figure C.7a - Diagram for a value of 0.15 mH (cont.)

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

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Figure C.7b - Diagram for a value of 0.5 mH

1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

Figure C.7b - Diagram for a value of 0.5 mH (continued)

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic.

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Figure C.7s - Diagram for the value of 1 mH

1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic.

Figure C.7s - Diagram for the value of 1 mH (continued)

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

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Figure C.7d - Diagram for a value of 2 mH

1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

Figure C.7d - Diagram for a value of 2 mH (continued)

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic.

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Figure C.7e - Diagram for a value of 5 mH

1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic.

Figure C.7e - Diagram for a value of 5 mH (cont.)

Figure C.7 - Diagram with limit curves for the characteristic of a universal source - subgroup IIС

Figure C.8 - Diagram with limit curves for the characteristic of a universal source - subgroup IIB

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic.

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Figure C.8a - Diagram for a value of 0.15 mH

1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic.

Figure C.8a - Diagram for a value of 0.15 mH (cont.)

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

Figure C.8b - Diagram for a value of 0.5 mH

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

Figure C.8b - Diagram for a value of 0.5 mH (continued)

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

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Figure С.8с - Diagram for the value of 1 mH

1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

Figure С.8с - Diagram for the value of 1 mH (continued)

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

Figure C.8d - Diagram for a value of 2 mH

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic

Figure C.8d - Diagram for a value of 2 mH (continued)

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic.

Figure C.8e - Diagram for a value of 5 mH

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1 - maximum inductance for a source with a rectangular characteristic; 2 - maximum inductance for a source with a
linear characteristic.

Figure C.8e - Diagram for the value of 5 mH (cont.)

Figure C.8 - Diagram with limit curves for the characteristic of a universal source - subgroup IIB

Figure C.9 - Copy template for universal source diagrams

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Appendix D (mandatory). Check inductance parameters

Appendix D
(Mandatory)

Figure D.1 shows the system being analyzed.

Figure D.1 - Typical Inductive Circuit

1 - associated equipment; 2 - inductance parameters

Figure D.1 - Typical inductive circuit

- own resistance of the inductor. If the resistance of the inductor is supplemented with a resistor, then this
resistor must meet the requirements for a fault-free resistor.
- the output impedance of the linear power source, that is .
If the value is less , then the difference between these two values can be taken as the acceptable cable
inductance, and the system will be acceptable.
If the value is less than the allowable value for the power supply, the system is acceptable and the
acceptable ratio for the cable remains .
Note 1 - If the power supply uses a current limiting resistor of the smallest nominal allowable according to the
table of permissible values of short circuit current depending on voltage and equipment group from IEC 60079-11
standard, the permissible cable inductance must be calculated, taking into account the cable resistance and assuming
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zero.
If inductive equipment does not meet any of these two requirements, it is necessary to conduct a deeper analysis
as follows:
determine the value of the current that flows through the inductor. In the example chain, it is .
Multiply this current value by 1.5, and using the inductance curves given in IEC 60079-11 corresponding to this
equipment group, determine the maximum allowable inductance value .
If the value is lower than the value of the inductance of the coil , then the circuit is unacceptable.
If the value is higher than , then the valid cable inductance is equal to the smaller of the two values (
) or .
If necessary, the maximum ratio of inductance and cable resistance, which can be connected to the system (
), can be calculated using the formula below. This formula takes into account the safety factor of 1.5 over
current, and it should not be used if the output terminals of the equipment exceeds 1% .

µH / Ohm

where is the minimum ignition energy of the spark-forming mechanism, (J), for
- Group I equipment: 525 µJ;
- equipment of subgroup IIA: 320 mJ;
- Equipment of Group IIB: 160 mJ;
- Equipment of subgroup IIC: 40 mJ;
- total circuit resistance ( ), Ohm;
- maximum open circuit voltage, V;
- total inductance of the circuit ( + internal inductance of the power source), H.
The valid ratio value for the system cable is the smaller of the two values of the calculated value and the
value of the power supply ratio .
NOTE 2 When determining the temperature class of such an inductor, it is assumed that the resistance of the coil
drops to a value that provides maximum power transfer.

Appendix E (reference). Possible format of schemes in the technical


description of the system and installation drawings
Appendix E
(reference)

The purpose of this annex is to clarify information that is considered to be desirable when preparing technical
system description diagrams, as shown in Figure E.1, and installation drawings, as shown in Figure E.2. Its purpose is
not to promote a special format for these schemes and drawings or an indication that other methods of storing
information are less effective. The example was chosen specifically because of its complexity and illustrates almost all
aspects of system design. In most cases, the conditions of use are much simpler than indicated and include a single
sensor and interface.

Figure E.1 - Typical block diagram of a technical description of an intrinsically safe system

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Figure E.1 - Typical block diagram of a technical description of an intrinsically safe system

Figure E.2 - Typical wiring diagram of an intrinsically safe system

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Figure E.2 - Typical wiring diagram of an intrinsically safe system

The block diagram contains all the information necessary to confirm the system status and the assessment
described in Appendices A and B. A note on a resistance thermometer confirms that it is simple electrical equipment
and its temperature class is determined by the local process temperature. An unsatisfactory test result of an insulation
resistance of 500 V indicates a connection to earth at this point, and therefore it depends on galvanic separation
inside the sensor whether the grounding requirements are met only at one point.
The sensor is a certified device with the specified security parameters defined for the input connections of the
resistance thermometer and the outputs from 4 to 20 mA. The input capacitance only slightly changes the permissible
cable capacitance, the permissible temperature range allows the sensor to be mounted on different parts of the
installation.
The galvanically separated interface has clearly defined output parameters that are used to determine the
permissible cable parameters. The limiting parameter of the cable - cable capacity 80 nF - is distinguished in a note
under the document number. An alternative parameter is given for group IIB, since it may be more suitable for a
special application.
The installation drawing is intended to bring the descriptive scheme of the system in accordance with the
requirements of a particular installation. It is assumed that the installer needs to provide properly designed information
for the installation. The installer will need a descriptive diagram of the system only if he has doubts about the
installation’s requirements. The installation drawing additionally shows the junction box and identifies the specific
cables and glands to be used. In this case, they comply with the agreed standards of the enterprise that meet the
relevant requirements. The temperature class of the resistance thermometer is indicated and special instructions are
given for connecting cable screens. The level of information in the drawing should be sufficient for subsequent
inspections.
This annex shows only one method of presenting information. The main requirement is that the technical
description of the system contains all the information that allows you to collect a fairly secure system. The installation
document must contain the necessary information to ensure the safe installation of a specific version of this system in a
particular location.

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Appendix F (reference). Surge suppression in intrinsically safe


circuit
Appendix F
(reference)

F.1 General requirements


This annex explains a possible form of protection of an intrinsically safe circuit from overvoltage caused by a
nearby lightning discharge. This type of protection is applied only if an assessment of the degree of probability of a
lightning discharge and the consequences of such an event shows that protection is necessary. An example illustrates
the performance of an assessment; this is not the only possible solution.

F.2 Protected installation


Figure F.1 shows a typical installation in which a neutral is directly connected to a ground plate. Other grounding
methods are allowed. The temperature sensor enters the Faraday cage in a reservoir containing a flammable
substance. The resistance of the sensing element is converted into a current from 4 to 20 mA by a transducer with
internal insulation. This current is then fed into the network with computer input through a galvanic disconnector. The
combination of the disconnector, transducer and sensing element should be evaluated as an intrinsically safe system,
and it is this system that is evaluated in Appendix E.

Figure F.1 - Requirements for overvoltage protection in the circuit of the device

1 - converter; 2 - surge suppressor; 3 - grounding jumper; 4 - power supply; 5 - galvanic isolator; 6 - equipotential
bonding; 7 - signal suppressor; 8 - data transmission channel; 9 - network filter suppressor; 10 - tank lining; 11 - the
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device case

Figure F.1 - Requirements for overvoltage protection in the device circuit

F.3 Voltage surges caused by lightning discharge


One of the possible scenarios is as follows: a thunderstorm discharge enters the reservoir at a point and the
resulting current spreads through the reservoir base and equipotential connection of the installation. A transient
voltage (typically 60 kV) appears between the top of the tank and the computer's ground terminal "0" volts
. Transient voltage will cause a breakdown in the galvanic isolation and isolation of the converter and may create a
side flash in the vapor space of the tank with a high probability of explosion.

F.4 Preventive measures


An overvoltage limiter can be installed on the tank in order to protect the insulation of the sensor and thus
prevent potential differences inside the tank. The surge suppressor is connected to the reservoir to protect the
Faraday cage. A multi-element overvoltage limiter limits the change in voltage (60 V) to a level that can be easily
absorbed by the insulation of the sensor.
A second surge arrester for protection against atmospheric overvoltages is necessary to prevent damage to the
galvanic isolation and the input circuits of the computer. This arrester is usually installed in an explosion-proof area
and connected as indicated. Overvoltage of the general view on the disconnector will not cause isolation overload in
the galvanic isolation.
The system is not intrinsically safe at transient voltage, high values of current and voltage are absent in the most
dangerous places inside the tank and are present in a relatively safe location of connecting cables.
The system is not directly grounded at two points, and during a transient process the surge current can cause
ignition. However, under normal operating conditions, indirect earthing is not conductive, and a sufficiently high
voltage (120 V) is required between the earthing connections of the overvoltage protection networks for a significant
current to occur. Such a voltage should not exist for an extended period of time, so the networks are reasonably
secure.

F.5 Supporting documentation


It is necessary to make changes to the technical description of the system so that it includes the existing network
overvoltage limiting. Their action under normal operating conditions must be analyzed with regard to their respective
characteristics, which may include small values of capacitance and inductance.
It is necessary to record and evaluate indirect grounding at two points and present an acceptance parameter.

F.6 Additional Protection


Where lightning discharges are considered a significant problem, the possibility of installing an overvoltage
suppressor on a network power source of the instrumentation system should be considered. Surge voltages can
disrupt electrical isolation of a power source or control signal circuit. Some degree of protection is inherent in the
requirements for compliance with standards for electromagnetic compatibility, but this is not enough for most
overvoltage cases caused by lightning discharges.
Similarly, overvoltage protection must be supplied to other possible paths of lightning discharges into the system.

Appendix G (mandatory). Cable Electrical Test


Appendix G
(Mandatory)

G.1 General requirements


This annex presents a method for testing electrical parameters of cables, including stranded, intended for use in
intrinsically safe electrical systems.

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G.2 Measurement
Inductance and cable capacitance should be measured using instruments with a frequency of (1 ± 0.1) kHz and
an accuracy of ± 1%. Cable resistance should be measured with DC devices with an accuracy of ± 1%. The results
obtained for a representative cable sample with a minimum length of 10 m are acceptable. Measurements should be
carried out at an ambient temperature of 20 ° C to 30 ° C.
NOTE Instruments for measuring inductance must be able to perform a measurement of low inductance normally
with considerable resistance.
When this is practically feasible, it is necessary to measure all possible combinations of wires that may arise as a
result of opening or shorting the ends of the cables. The maximum measured capacitance, inductance and ratio
values should be used as cable parameters. In the presence of a large number of cores, measurements should
be performed only on a representative sample of a core combination that will create the highest values of inductance
and capacitance.
The maximum cable capacity should be determined when the remote end of the cable is opened and the
capacitance measurement of combinations of conductors and shields that give maximum capacity is measured. For
example, if measurements are made in a shielded two-core cable, the highest value is likely to be determined
between the conductor connected to the shield and the other conductor. The fact that this is the highest value of the
capacitance should be confirmed by measuring another combination of cores and the screen.
Maximum inductance should be determined by connecting together the remote ends of two veins separated by
the greatest distance. The DC resistance of this circuit is the resistance used to calculate the cable relationship .
If the cable is loose, a minimum of tenfold bending and twisting of the cable should not cause changes in cable
parameters by more than 2%.
When performing these measurements, the combination of faults should not be taken into account, as a result of
which individual conductors can be connected in series, significantly increasing the length of the cables. When
measuring capacitance, any screens or unused conductors must be connected together and connected to one side of
the circuit on which measurements are made.

G.3 Multicore Cables

G.3.1 General requirements


If the conductors of this intrinsically safe or energy-limited circuit are clearly identified in the stranded cable, only
the cable parameters associated with these conductors should be considered.

G.3.2 Type A Stranded Cables


If all conductors in a circuit are protected by a single shield, only connections between shield-protected
conductors and this shield should be considered. If the conductors are protected by multiple screens, measurement
should be carried out using all appropriate conductors under the appropriate shield.

G.3.3 Type B Stranded Cables


If the conductors in a particular circuit can be clearly identified, measurement should be carried out only on these
conductors. If a clear identification of the conductors is not possible, all possible combinations of conductors in the
intrinsically safe circuit should be considered.

G.3.4 Type C Stranded Cables


Measurements should be made on all conductors and shields related to intrinsically safe systems that, when
connected, can cause two short circuits.
If the respective conductors are not clearly identified, the test must be carried out additionally on possible
combinations of all conductors and shields connected to the three connected circuits.

Appendix H (reference). Use of simple electrical equipment in


systems

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Appendix H
(reference)

H.1 General Requirements


The standard for intrinsically safe electrical equipment (IEC 60079-11) distinguishes between complex electrical
equipment for which certification is required and simple electrical equipment for which no certification of intrinsic
safety is required. The goal is to allow the use of electrical equipment that does not have a significant impact on the
intrinsic safety of the system, without the need for certification by a third party. It is possible to prove that simple
electrical equipment is clearly safe, without resorting to the other requirements of the standard. For example, if
electrical equipment requires current or voltage limiting elements, it is not considered simple. In practice, it is relatively
easy to determine which elements are simple electrical equipment at the system design stage. If it's not easy to
determine
Note - Although certification of simple electrical equipment by a third party is not necessary, quite often simple
electrical equipment used in large quantities is certified. In these cases, the electrical equipment is marked in
accordance with the requirements of the standard for electrical equipment, but it should be used in the same way as
other simple electrical equipment.
The standard for electrical equipment imposes restrictions (1.5 V; 100 mA and 25 mW) on the electrical
parameters generated by simple electrical equipment. It is accepted that simple electrical equipment can be added to
an intrinsically safe system without reassessing the safety of the system. From this it follows that any restrictions on
simple electrical equipment relate to the combination of all simple electrical equipment in the system. For example, it
is allowed to use one or two thermocouples in the system, but a combination of a large number of them in one
medium temperature circuit may not meet the requirements.
This standard also allows for the use of capacitive and inductive elements in simple electrical equipment,
provided that these elements are taken into account when evaluating the system. Large-sized chokes or capacitors
are used infrequently, but the principle of simple electrical equipment does not allow the use of small radio frequency
decoupling elements without subsequent evaluation of the system. A useful practical method is to ensure that the total
capacitance and inductance added to the system is less than 1% of the corresponding output parameters of the
power supply, and then their action is allowed to be ignored. If the added capacitance and inductance, together with
any other concentrated capacitance of the circuit, constitute more than 1% of the indicated output parameters of the
power source,
It is also necessary to determine the temperature class of simple electrical equipment, if it is intended for use in an
explosive zone. The standard for electrical equipment allows temperature class T6 for switches, sockets, plugs and
clamps when used in an intrinsically safe circuit within its rated characteristics and at a maximum ambient temperature
of 40 ° C. In practice, it is not easy to design a system for use in a gaseous environment requiring the use of electrical
equipment of temperature class T6 (85 ° C), and usually reach a level T4 (135 ° C). The only gas listed in the
operational documents requiring the use of electrical equipment of temperature class T6 is carbon disulfide (
). Therefore, the temperature class T4 usually meets the requirements. Simple electrical equipment of temperature
class T4 (with a surface area of at least 20 mm ) usually corresponds to an input power of not more than 1.3 W at
a maximum ambient temperature of 40 ° C. The power values at a higher ambient temperature are 1.2 W at 60 ° C
and 1 W at 80 ° C. If this rule does not apply, then the possible maximum surface temperature should be measured
or assessed. If for any reason it is not obvious that the maximum surface temperature is significantly below 135 ° C
(for example, 100 ° C), then electrical equipment is probably not simple.
Usually, simple electrical equipment is isolated from the ground and causes no problems. It must withstand the
voltage test of an isolation of 500 V in accordance with the standard for electrical equipment. If this isolation level is
not provided, then simple electrical equipment adds ground to the system, and this must be considered when
designing the system.

H.2. Use of equipment with input parameters of simple electrical equipment.


Another objective of the section on the use of simple electrical equipment is to allow the addition of certified
electrical equipment to the intrinsically safe circuit with the input parameters of simple electrical equipment when
making minor changes to the documentation. Most often this method is applied to test equipment, indicators or
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amplifiers of tripping coils.


If several units of electrical equipment with output characteristics of simple electrical equipment are included in
the circuit, it is necessary to take measures so that the permissible parameters of simple electrical equipment are not
exceeded. Sometimes it is possible to take advantage of the fact that the output voltage appears only under fault
conditions, and it is allowed to take into account the damage for the system as a whole. For example, if several
simple electrical equipment is used in a circuit, then it can be argued that only one electrical unit will be damaged at
any time, and therefore only the most unfavorable set of output parameters should be taken into account. Such an
assertion is acceptable for systems "ib", but must be documented. In order for such an assertion to be valid for "ia"
systems, it is necessary to know how the output parameters are obtained. This information is not easily accessible, so
this method is usually not applied to intrinsically safe "ia" systems. If it is known that the contact clips of electrical
equipment in normal operation (which often takes place) are exclusively resistive, then any number of these devices
may be included in the "ic" system.

Appendix I (mandatory). FISCO systems


Annex I
(mandatory)

I.1 General requirements


This appendix provides detailed information on the design of systems using the Intrinsically Safe Fieldbus System
(FISCO), based on the principles of Manchester-coded and bus-powered systems in accordance with IEC 61158-
2, the physical layer standard for fieldbus installations.
The requirements for FISCO systems are established by this standard, except when they are modified in this
annex.
Notes

1 Some electrical equipment certified prior to the publication of this standard, but not necessarily conforming to
the electrical parameters of this standard, may be labeled “Suitable for FISCO systems”. It may be used in electrical
FISCO system if the comparison of the electrical parameters , , a , , shows compatibility with the
rest of the system, and all the other requirements of the standard are satisfied.

2 A typical system is presented in Figure I.1.

Figure I.1 - Typical system

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1 - terminal device; 2 - power supply; 3 - data; 4 - handheld terminal; 5 - field devices; 6 - trunk cable; 7 - drop
cable

Figure I.1 - Typical system

3 Usually FISCO systems of level “ic” are intended for use in class 2 zones. FISCO systems of level “ia” and “ib”
are mainly intended for use in a zone of class 1. A FISCO system of level “ia” is allowed to be used in a zone of
class 0 if this is specifically stated in the technical documents.

I.2 System Requirements

I.2.1 General Provisions


The system usually has the form as shown in Figure I.1.
Parameters of the cable used in the system:
- resistance - from 15 to 150 Ohm / km;
- inductance - from 0.4 to 1 mH / km;
- capacity - from 45 to 200 nF / km;
- the maximum length of each drop cable is 60 m for electrical equipment of all groups;
- the maximum length of each trunk cable, including the length of all branch cables, is 1 km for electrical
equipment of the IIC group and 5 km for electrical equipment of the I, IIB and IIC groups.
If a cable is used that corresponds to this application, there is no need to consider the other cable parameters.
Note 1 - If stranded cables are used, they should be type A or B.
If the system includes
- one power supply,
- any number of field devices - up to 32 in total
- and two terminal matching devices,
fully complying with the requirements of this standard, in combination with a cable complying with the above
specification, this system should be considered sufficiently safe.
All electrical equipment used in the FISCO system must be of one group I, II or III in accordance with the
purpose of the systems.

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The system should be assigned to the level of "ia", "ib" and "ic" at the lowest level of electrical equipment used in
the system. The safety documentation must state the level set.
Subsystems in the system can relate to different levels, if it is justified by the assessment and recorded in the
technical documentation. For example, it is allowed to create a branch of level "ia" from the trunk cable of level "ib"
using a certified interface.
The terminal device (s) should (s) be located at the end (s) of the trunk cable. The power source must be no
more than 60 m from one end of the trunk cable. If the power source is connected via a tapping cable, then the
length of this cable should be no more than 60 m.
NOTE 2 The number of field devices that can be connected to the drop cable is determined by the operational
requirements and the requirement of this annex, which limits the number of field devices in the system to a maximum
of 32.
Connectors and / or switches may be added to the system without changing the safety rating. Other types of
simple electrical equipment corresponding to IEC 60079-11 are allowed to be connected to the FISCO system,
provided that the total inductance and capacity of each simple electrical equipment is not more than 10 μH and 5 nF,
respectively, and the total number of units of simple electrical equipment and field devices is not more than 32.
The minimum amount of technical documentation should include a list of explosion-proof electrical equipment and
technical documentation for all explosion-proof electrical equipment. The documentation should clearly define the
level of each part of the system.
For systems of group II, the power supply technical group determines the technical group of the system.
The temperature class or maximum surface temperature (as appropriate) of each device must be determined and
recorded in the documentation. It is also necessary to confirm that the maximum permissible ambient temperature of
each piece of equipment corresponds to its intended location.

I.3 Additional requirements for FISCO system level "ic"


Electrical equipment designed and certified in accordance with the FISCO requirements for the first edition of
IEC 60079-27 is allowed to be used in the FISCO system of level "ic".
Field devices, terminals and other additional devices that comply with the requirements of intrinsic safety, but are
not electrical equipment of FISCO, may be used with the FISCO power source in the FISCO system of level "ic",
provided that their input parameters are at least 17.5 V and parameters and not more than 20 μH and 5 nF,
respectively.
Electrical equipment not certified as FISCO electrical equipment, but designed in accordance with the
requirements of IEC 60079-15 (electrical equipment with limited energy - " "), having input parameters of at
least 17.5 V and internal parameters and no more than 20 µH and 5 nF, respectively It is allowed to use in the
FISCO system of the "ic" level.
If FNICO, intrinsically safe or energy-limited electrical equipment is used in the FISCO system of level "ic", this
should be indicated at the place of installation of this electrical equipment. To fulfill this requirement, it is permissible
to include the inscription "FISCO system level" ic "in the marking of the installation.

Appendix YES (reference). Information about the compliance of


reference international standards with the national standards of the
Russian Federation
Appendix YES
(reference)

Table YES.1

Reference international Degree of Designation and name of the relevant national standard
standard compliance

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IEC 60050 (426) IDT GOST R IEC 60050-426-2011 "International Electrotechnical


Dictionary. Part 426. Equipment for explosive atmospheres"
IEC 60060-1 *
IEC 60079-0 MOD GOST R IEC 60079-0-2011 "Explosive Atmospheres . Part 0.
Equipment. General Requirements"
IEC 60079-11 IDT GOST R IEC 60079-11-2010 "Explosive atmospheres. Part 11.
Intrinsically safe electrical circuit i"
IEC 60079-14 IDT GOST IEC 60079-14-2011 "Explosive Atmospheres. Part 14.
Design, selection and installation of electrical installations"
IEC 60079-15 IDT GOST R IEC 60079-15-2010 "Explosive Atmospheres. Part 15.
Equipment with explosion protection type" n "
IEC 60079-27 IDT GOST R IEC 60079-27-2012 "Explosive atmospheres. Part 27.
The concept of an intrinsically safe fieldbus system (FISCO)"
IEC 61158-2 - *
IEC 61241-0 IDT GOST IEC 61241-0-2011 "Electrical equipment used in areas
hazardous to ignition of combustible dust. Part 0. General
requirements"
IEC 61241-11 IDT GOST IEC 61241-11-2011 "Electrical equipment used in areas
dangerous for ignition of combustible dust. Part 11. Intrinsically safe
equipment" iD "
* There is no corresponding national standard. Prior to its approval, it is recommended to use the Russian
translation of this international standard. The translation of this international standard is in the Federal Information
Fund of technical regulations and standards.

Note - In this table, the following symbols of the degree of compliance of standards are used:

- IDT - identical standards;

- MOD - modified standards.

Bibliography

[1] IEC 60529 Enclosures (IP Code)

Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP code)

The electronic text of the document


prepared by JSC "Code" and verified by:
official publication
M .: Standardinform, 2013

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