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Life Cycle for Time Table

Our project entitle “Timetable Generation and Management System” is meant to
generating Timetable scheduling process in colleges or in any other institutions which
could minimize the human work and maximize the Efficiency and the Timetable was
stored in a centralized server which could be easy to access everywhere.

1.2 Problem Definition:

Since in olden days, for all educational institutions, the timetables are set
manually. In this system also the time tables are set manually, but by using the
application. This system mainly focusing on two modules class and faculty time tables.
This system automatically detects the collisions occurred during the time table
generation. The class time table module mainly focusing on the fields like year, branch,
semester and section. By selecting the above fields, it will display the appropriate class
time tables. The faculty time tables focusing on the fields like faculty id and faculty
name. By selecting the above fields it will display the particular faculty time tables.


The main theme of this project is to generate the Timetable by taking the faculty
list, Department list, Subjects list & Time schedule as input and generates the Timetable
by satisfying all the constraints.
The Admin was given with special privileges to add/modify the faculty details of
the department, subject details, Period scheduling. Add / View / Delete a Timetable. The
Admin can login to the website and make changes according to his wish.
Similarly the faculty does have their own credentials to enter into the site and
watch the class wise Timetable.

The basic structure of the system:-

Purpose of the system

The main purpose of the system is to implement an effective intelligent system to
generate and maintain the Timetables. A website and a proper UI was provided to Admin
and Faculty to login with their credentials and do their respective duties.
Scope of the System
The scope of the system includes Generation of Timetable, Access the available
Timetable(s), Modify/Delete an existing Timetable. Add/ Modify Faculty details of a
department. Add/ Modify Semester wise subjects details. Add/Modify time scheduling
and period allocation process.
Objectives and Success Criteria of the Project
The main objective of the system is to develop an efficient and intelligent
Timetable Generation and maintenance system with powerful algorithms which can
generate the Timetable by considering all the constraints and limitations which were pre-
defined at beginning. On satisfying all these constraints the Algorithm will generates the
best possible Timetable and can make universally accessible to Faculty and students from
anywhere by just log in into the website.

System Analysis is the detailed study of the various operations performed by the
system and their relationships within and outside the system. Analysis is the process of
breaking something into its parts so that the whole may be understood. System analysis is
concerned with becoming aware of the problem, identifying the relevant and most
decisional variables, analyzing and synthesizing the various factors and determining an
optional or at least a satisfactory solution. During this a problem is identified, alternate
system solutions are studied and recommendations are made about committing the
resources used to the system.

The main intentions of the proposed and designed system automate the communication
and to computerize the Technical Forum Event Management.
Our main goal is divided into three intermediate modules.
• Database Management

• Timetable generation

• A website to access all the services

Database Management:
Database has to be maintained by the system to store information about Students ,
Faculty, Department and semester wise syllabus, Period scheduling, etc. The various
updations must be saved and stored in the database of the system. Therefore MySQL,
relational database that can handle large amount of data on relatively cheap hardware has
been used.
 MySQL:

MySQL is the world’s most used open source relational database management
system (RDBMS) that runs as a server providing multi user access to a number of
databases. The SQL phrase stands for Structured Query Language. Universities, internet
service providers and nonprofit organizations are the main users of MySQL, mainly
because of its price. Free software open source projects that require a full-featured
database management system often use MySQL. For commercial use, several paid
editions are available, and offer additional functionality.

 Timetable Generation

The Timetable Generation process can access the database and takes the details
from the database and generates the Timetable by satisfying all the Hard and Soft

 User Interface

The site will provide the user interface to students, faculty and Administrator. The
Administrator can generate ,Modify/Delete the Timetable using this interface. The
Students/Faculty can access the existing Timetable that present on the site.

The system is proposed to have the following modules:
 Head of the Department.
 Staff Module.

2.3.1 Functions of Head of the department

Head of the department can creates time tables and update time tables. The Head
of the department will finalize the time table for respective classes. He will make
sure that how many period will be there in a day, what subjects are to be covered
in a day, how many periods should be there for a particular subjects in a week.

2.3.3. Faculty Functions

The Faculty are log into the website by providing their respective login
credentials (user name & password). On submitting them they are re-directed to the
Faculty home page. The Faculty member(s) were given rights to view the existing pre
generated Timetable and they don’t have privileges to Generate/Modify/Delete the
Timetable. The Faculty were allowed to change their password and account details.

2.4.1 Functional Requirements

The major functional requirements of the system are as follows.
1. To classify the data on a single site
2. To implement an User interface on the system
3. User friendly front end design using Cascading Style Sheets.
4. Strong authentication while performing various operations
5. Java script validations and alerts where ever needed.

2.4.2 Non Functional Requirements

The major non functional Requirements of the system are as follows
1. Secure access of confidential data (user’s details). SSL can be used.
2. Better component design to get better performance at peak time
3. Flexible service based architecture will be highly desirable for future extension.

2.4.3. Constraints
Constraints are limitations that are outside the control of the project team and
need to be managed around. They are not necessarily problems. However, the project
manager should be aware of constraints because they represent limitations that the project
must execute within. Date constraints, for instance, imply that certain events (perhaps the
end of the project) must occur by certain dates. Resources are almost always a constraint,
since they are not available in an unlimited supply. Hard Constraints:

. A timetable which breaks a hard constraint is not a feasible solution, and must be
repaired or rejected by the timetabling algorithm. Hard constraints include “First Order
1. A lecturer cannot teach more than one class at the same time.
2. To Generate the Timetable based on the no of periods and time schedule. Soft Constraints:

Soft constraints are less important than hard constraints, and it is usually
impossible to avoid breaking at least some of them. Whichever timetabling method is
applied, timetables are usually rated by a penalty function, which calculates the extent to
which a timetable has violated its soft constraints. Some soft constraints are more
important than others, and this is often specified with a priority value.
1. If possible, the lecture hours for a course should be scheduled consecutively.
2. A lunch break must be scheduled.

3. Lecturers’ daily lecture hours should be restricted to be within the allowed


Pentium IV processor architecture with

1. 512 MB RAM.


• Operating System : Windows 7/XP/2003 or Linux
• User Interface : HTML, Bootstrap3
• Client-side Scripting : JavaScript
• Server-side Scripting : PHP
• Database : MySQL
• Web Server : Apache Tomcat 6.0

Design is the first step in the development of the any engineering system. It may
be defined as “the process of the applying various techniques and principles for the
purpose of defining a device, a process or system insufficient details to permit its
physical realization”. The system design is the process of planning a new system to
replace existing system or compliment an existing system. It is an interactive process
through which requirement are translated into the software. During this stage the analyst
works with user to develop a physical model of the system .In the design step, element of
the analysis model gets converted into a design, an architectural design, an interface
design and a procedural design.



UML is a general-purpose visual modeling language that is used to specify,

visualize, construct and document the artifacts of the software system. A diagram is the
graphical presentation of a set of elements, most often Rendered as a connected graph of
vertices (things) and arcs (relationships).

3.1.1 Class Diagram:

A Class Diagram is a type of static structure diagram that describes the structure
of a system by showing the system's classes, their attributes, and the relationships
between the classes.
Facult y HOD St udent
+ Username + Username + User Name
+ Password + Password + Password
+ view Time Table() + create Time Table() + view Time Table()
+ Change Account Settings() + modify Time Tabe() + change Account Settings()
+ view Time Table()
+ change Account Settings()

Tim e Table Gener at or

+ Period
Tim e Table View er
+ Day
+ Department + Year
+ Section + Branch
+ Year + Section
+ Branch + Sem
+ create() + view Time Table()
+ modify()
+ delete()

Figure 3.1.1: Class Diagram for Timetable Generation and Management System.

The above diagram represents the Class Diagram for the ‘Timetable Generation &
Management System’, here Student, Faculty, Timetable Generator were depends on the
Administrator because the administrator can be able to modify the details of student,
Faculty, Syllabus and Timetable .So Dependency relationship is exists between the
Students and Administrator, Faculty and Administrator. This Dependency is also exists
between the Timetable Generator and Timetable Viewer. Since, because as we can view
the Timetable only after it’s generation.
3.1.2 UseCase Diagram:
A Usecase diagram shows a set of usecases and actors and their relationships.
Usecase diagrams address the static Usecase view of a system. Usecase diagram consists
of Usecase, actors, and the relationships between them.

Cr eat e Tim e Table

Modify Tim e Table

St udent

View Tim e Table

Delet e Tim e Table

St aff

Figure 3.1.2: Usecase Diagram for Timetable Generation & Management System.

3.1.3 Sequence Diagram:

Sequence Diagram expresses the interactions of instances. It is a direct expression
of the Interaction Instance Set, which is a set of the stimuli exchanged between the
instances within a Collaboration Instance Set. While Sequence Role Diagram is a
Classifier Role-oriented expression, Sequence Diagram is an Instance-oriented
HOD Faculty Time Table

1 : Add/Modify Faculty()

2 : Create Time Table()

3 : View Time Table()

4 : View Time Table()

5 : View Time Table()

Figure 3.1.3 Sequence Diagram for Timetable Generation & Management System.

3.1.4 Activity Diagram:

• Activity diagrams are graphical representations of workflows of stepwise
activities and actions.
• Activity diagrams can be used to describe the business and operational step-by
step workflows of components in a system
• An activity diagram shows the overall flow of control.
Figure 3.2.4: Activity Diagram for Administrator
Figure 3.2.5: Activity Diagram for Student
Figure 3.2.6: Activity Diagram for Faculty
List of Abbreviations
TGMS Timetable Generation and Management System.
DBMS Data Base Management Systems.
DML Data Manipulation Language.
HTML Hyper Text Markup Language.
JDBC Java Data Base Connectivity.
ODBC Open Data Base Connectivity.
SQL Structured Query Language.
UML Unified Modeling Language.
DDL Data Definition Language.
CSS Cascading Style Sheets.