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UNIVERSE AND THE SOLAR extremely hot dense condition of the matter.

SYSTEM Seconds after the explosion, matter began


to clump together. Eventually, stars were
A. ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE formed, and then the galaxies.
Earth Science? A simple way of illustrating this is to
inflate the balloon with small bumps. As you
field of study concerned with the planet
inflate the balloon continuously, its surface
Earth or one or more of its parts.
reaches a point of flatness where the small
BIG BANG THEORY mumps could not be recognizing anymore.
This similar idea accounts for the
Astronomers based their new finding on approximate flatness (lack of curvature) look
the beginning of the universe through in the space-time universe.
cosmic microwave background (CMB).
STEADY STATE THEORY
It is the thermal radiation used in
observational cosmology because it is States that the universe is always
considered as the oldest light in the expanding. It also states that new matter
universe. constantly formed as the universe continues
to expand. The older bodies eventually
CMB can be detected as a glow which is became out of sight as a consequence of
believed to be the remnant of the from the their increasing distance and rate of
early stage of the development of the recession. This theory further claim that the
universe. Scientist speculate through the universe has no beginning or end in time,
CMB evidence that when the universe was and even tough it is expanding, its
young, before the stars and planets even appearance remains the same over time.
existed, the universe was denser and hotter.
Then the space expanded and cooled
because of the expansion. The CMB was STAR SYSTEM
believed to have the been released 380 000
♥ Is also called stellar system ♥ a small
years after the Big Bang. Recent
number of stars that orbit each other.
measurement of the age of the universe
shows that it is actually older at 13.82 billion
years, rather than 13.7 billion years as
previously thought. Theories that explain the ORIGIN of the
STAR SYSTEM:
Nebular Hypothesis o It was developed by
COSMIC INFLATION THEORY Immanuel Kant an Pierre-Simon Laplace in
the 18th century
The early universe went under rapid
expansion in space-time. The theory
states that the early universe was a rapidly
expanding bubble of pure vacuum energy. • It presupposes that around 4.6 billion
years ago, a star systems was formed from
It did not have any matter or radiation. a rotating Cloud of gas–or nebular-of
After the expansion and cooling due to extremely hot gas. When the gas cooled,
inflation, the potential energy was converted the nebula began to shrink, and as it
into kinetic energy of matter and radiation. became smaller, it rotated faster, casting off
Then the big bang occurred because of the rings of gas and forming a disk-like shape.
• The centrifugal force from the nebula’s These are the basic building blocks of
rotation and the gravitational force from the rocks.
mass of the nebula formed the rings of the
gas outside. As the nebula continued to 5 CRITERIA TO BE CONSIDERED AS
shrink, these rings condensed into various A MINERAL
densities of the planet and their satellites.
The remaining part of the nebula, which has 1. Naturally Occurring - It is a mineral if
the most mass, formed the sun. it has been formed by geologic
processes without any human
PlanetesimalTheory intervention.
Proposed by Victor Safronov and was 2. Inorganic -does not contain any
developed later by T.C. Chamberlin and
organic compounds. However, minerals
F.R. Moulton.
like calcite and other shell-forming
• Describe the formation of the planets as materials are formed through organic
asserted in the nebular hypothesis. processes but are still considered as
PlanetesimalTheory minerals if they become part of a rock.

• The theory states that in the early period 3. Solid -A mineral should exhibit
of the solar system, planets were formed stability at room temperature, which can
from the accretion of small space bodies. only be attained if it is solid.
The gravity due to the accretion which also
increased the size of the planetesimals. 4. Crystalline structure - minerals look
like crystals since the arrangement of
TidalTheory their atoms is ordered and repetitive.
Developed by James Jeans and Sir Harold 5. Can be presented by a chemical
Jeffreys in 1917. formula -most minerals are chemical
A star passed close to the sun where the compounds and can therefore e
tidal force or the secondary effect of presented using a fixed or variable
gravitational pull between the passing star chemical formula. Eg. Quartz (SiO2)
and the sun drew large amount of matter Olivine (Mg2SiO4) or (Fe2SiO4)
out of the sun the passing star. Some of the
drawn out matter quickly cooled to become OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF
solid bodies called planetesimals. Other MINERALS:
grew in size because of colliding and
sticking together with passing object in 1. LUSTER - quality of light being
space, eventually forming large clumps and reflected by the surface of a mineral. a.
gathering more and more matter. Metallic Luster - (minerals that look like
metals and are shiny)
MINERALS AND ROCKS
b. Submetallic Luster- (minerals that
Minerals develop a dull coating and are not as
naturally occurring, inorganic solid that shiny)
exhibits a crystalline structure and can c. Nonmetallic Luster- (minerals that are
be represented by a chemical formula. • described as glassy, earthy, pearly, or
greasy).
2. COLOR • Usually the property used 3. Cleavage
to identify minerals easily.
• It is the property of some minerals to
• It is a result of the way minerals absorb break along parallel repetitive planes of
light. weakness to form smooth, flat surfaces.
• Considered to be the least reliable
means in identifying minerals.
4. Fracture
• Breaks in a direction where there is no
3. Streak • The color of mineral in cleavages but exhibit broken surfaces
powder form. that are irregular and non-planar.

MINERAL STRENGTH - determines 5. Specific Gravity


how easy the minerals breaks or
• Measure the density of a mineral. •
deforms when exposed to stress.
Determines how heavy the minerals is
4. Tenacity • Level of the resistance or by its weight to water
action or minerals to stress such as
COMMON ROCKFORMING MINERALS
crushing, bending, breaking or tearing.
WHAT ARE ROCKS?
• It can tell if a mineral is brittle,
malleable, elastic, etc. • Is any solid that is naturally found on
earth. • Are natural substances
5. Hardness • it is a measure of the
consisting of aggregate minerals
resistance of a mineral (not specifically
clumped together with other Earth
surface) to abrasion.
materials through natural processes.
• To measure the relative hardness of
the minerals, Mohs scale is used.
3 types of Rocks
Mohs Scale • Developed by a German
mineralogist named Frederick Mohs. Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic
• It grades 10 fairly common minerals on Igneous Rocks
scale from 1 being the softest to 10
being the hardest. • Derived from the Latin word ignis
meaning “FIRE”. • Are crystallized from
Cleavage and Fracture magma or molten or partially molten
volcanic materials that came from within
• Used to describe how minerals break
Earth.
into pieces
What is the difference between magma
and lava?
• Magma is a molten rock material
beneath the surface of the earth. • Lava
is molten rock material extruded to the Organic
surface of the earth through a central
• Biological Matter
vent (volcano) or as fissure eruption.
• Some types of sedimentary rocks are
2 Types of Igneous Rocks
gypsum, conglomerate, shale,
1. Extrusive (Volcanic)- cool quickly and sandstone, and limestone.
as a result this rocks are fine grained or
Metamorphic Rocks • Meta means
has lack of crystal growth
“change”
2. Intrusive (Plutonic)- formed from
• formed below the surface of the earth
magma that cools slowly and as a result
through the process of metamorphism
these are coarse-grinded.
with the recrystallization of minerals in
• Some examples of igneous rocks are rocks due to changes in pressure and
obsidian, pumice, scoria, and granite temperature conditions
Sedimentary Rocks • From the root Types of Metamorphism
word sediments which means
1. Contact Metamorphism
“remaining particles” • Rocks that have
formed from the deposition of the 2. Regional Metamorphism
different materials on Earth’s surface.
Contact Metamorphism • Happens when
Types of Sedimentary Rocks magma intrudes a cooler rock, hence
exposing the rocks to a high
1. Clastic
temperatures but not a higher pressure.
2.Non-Clastic/(crystalline/organic) • Occurs when rocks are contact with
Evaporites Precipitates Biological magma.
Matter
• creates non-foliated metamorphic
Clastic • describes rock that is rocks • Eg. Hornfels
composed of fragments of other rocks
Regional Metamorphism • it is during
• Classified by size
mountain building
• occurs on large masses of rocks is
exposed to differential stress.
• The main metamorphic agent is
pressure. • Eg. schist, gneiss
• Some other examples of metamorphic
rocks are schist and gneiss.

Non-Clastic Major Rock Groups

Crystalline • Sedimentary –Formed at the Earth’s


surface
• Evaporites • Precipitate
–Clastic (Mineral Fragments or grains, 1. Frost wedging
clays)
2. Thermal expansion and contraction
–Non-Clastic •Crystalline (chemical
3. Mechanical exfoliation
precipitates and evaporites)
4. Plant growth
•Bioclastic (formed organically from
shells or plants) 1. Frost Wedging
• Igneous –Formed from magma (molten cracking of rock mass by the expansion
rock) of water as it freezes in crevasses and
cracks Expansion and contraction of
–Plutonic (intrusive):slow cooling,
rocks eventually breaking them apart.
coarse/very coarse crystals
2. Thermal expansion and contraction
–Volcanic (extrusive): quick cooling at
(Temperature) –repeated heating and
the surface, glassy/fine crystals •
cooling of materials cause rigid
Metamorphic –Changed by heat and
substances to crack and separate.
pressure
3. Mechanical Exfoliation –Due to
EXOGENIC PROCESSES OF THE
unloading, the sudden release from
EARTH
pressure causes the formation of
EXOGENIC PROCESSES fractures on rocks. –Outer rocks
1.Weathering generate onion-like layers called sheet.
a.Physical Weathering b.Chemical 4. Plant Growth • As plants such as
Weathering trees send out root systems, the fine
roots find their way into cracks in the
2. Erosion
rocks. As the roots increase in size,
3. Mass Wasting they force the rock sections apart,
increasing the separation and
a. Fall b. Slide c. Avalanches d. Flow weathering.
Weathering: It is the disintegration of Chemical Weathering Is the process by
rocks, soil, and minerals together with which rocks break down by chemical
other materials through contact with reactions.
Earth’s subsystems.
AGENTS OF CHEMICAL
Physical weathering is the breakdown of WEATHERING
rocks by mechanical forces
concentrated along rock fractures. 1. Oxidation – Oxygen combines with
minerals to form oxides. (iron + oxygen
PROCESSES AND AGENTS OF = Rust)
PHYSICAL WEATHERING
Oxidation weakens the bedrock making
These are actions or things that break it softer.
down Earth materials
- Oxidation of pyrite to limonite
- 2. HYDROLYSIS • minerals EROSION
absorb water and chemically
• It is the process by which earth’s
change the composition of the
surface is worn away by wind, water, or
material • these are generally not
ice. • Moves rock debris or soil from one
as hard as the original material.
place to another
Hydrolysis of Feldspar to a clay called
• Erosion by different agents: winds
Kaolinite.
carry smaller particles through saltation
and bigger particles by creeping.
CARBONATION-When pollutants like ENDOGENIC PROCESSES OF THE
Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen & Sulfuric EARTH
Oxides mix with rain water creating acid
Endogenic Processes: Cause by forces
rain, which can dissolve limestone and
from within or in the interior of the Earth.
harm the living environment.
2 categories of Heat in Earth’s Interior
Mass Wasting • This refers to the
1.Primordial heat
movement of large masses of materials
down slope or a steep-sided hill or 2.Radioactive heat
mountain due to the pull of gravity.
Heat in Earth’s Interior
MASS WASTING a. Fall
1. Primordial heat : Heat generated
b. Slide c. Avalanche d. Flow during Earth’s formation
a. Falls •Occur when materials located o Sources:
in a steep slope move downward
o Accretion energy
without contact with the ground until
they reach the foot of the slope. o Adiabatic compression
b. Slides • Move the materials as one o Core formation energy
following a near straight line down the
slope. o Decay of short-lived radio isotopes

Slumps • Is a slow movement of soil Accretion energy


along a curved surface. • In time, the • Heat released from collision of
area would look curved because of the planetary objects during the early
depression formed by the sinking land formation of planets. Adiabatic
c. Avalanches • Are the most rapid compression
moving type of mass wasting where • Heat generated as materials are
loose materials move incoherently or in compressed.
chaotic fashion.
2.Radioactive heat :Heat generated by
d. Flows •Are the movement of materials long-term radioactive decay
when they become saturated with water
thus moving like a liquid.
o Source s: o K40 o Th232 o U235 o 1.Mid-oceanic ridges
U238
2.Mantle plumes
How the earth’s internal heat
3.Subduction zones
redistributed?
Mid-oceanic ridges • The rising magma
Consider convection and conduction.
in mantle convection cell brings heat to
Convection - This is the process by the surface, transferring heat to the
which material circulates through a overlying rocks.
region that is unevenly heated.
• The transfer of heat due to the
• Convection occurs in the mantle but convection is accompanied by a
not between the core and mantle or decrease in pressure or decompression
asthenosphere and lithosphere (except associated with the spreading of the
at sea-floor spreading zones). Thus, at lithospheric plates.
these transitions, heat must travel by
Mantle plumes (hot spots) • The transfer
conduction alone.
of heat and the compression result to
How do magmas form? magma generation. • The source of heat
for mantle plumes is much deeper.
Melting due to decrease in pressure
(decompression melting) Subduction zones • Oceanic crustal
rocks are formed along spreading
• The decrease in pressure affecting a
centers, typically beneath several
hot mantle rock at a constant
kilometers of seawater.
temperature permits melting forming
magma. Endogenous processes that played a
role in the evolution of the landforms on
Melting as a result of the addition of
the Earth are: 1.Magmatism
volatiles (flux melting)
2.Volcanism or Plutonism
• When volatiles mix with hot, dry rock, 3.Metamorphism
the volatile decreases the rock’s melting
Magmatism
point and they help break the chemical
bonds in the rock to allow melting. • Is originated material that make up
igneous rock
Melting resulting from heat transfer from
rising magma (heat transfer melting) • Happens when magma generated and
develops into igneous rocks the process
• A rising magma from the mantle brings
can take place either under the
heat with it that can melt the
weathering
surrounding rocks at the shallower
depths. VOLCANISM or PLUTONISM
Where does magma form? • Usually happens after magma is
formed • Magma comes out with
Tectonic setting where magma is
extreme heat and pressure and may
formed:
cause destructive explosion
•He called this massive land mass
Pangaea •surrounded by an ocean
METAMORPHISM
mass called Panthalassa
• Processes of changing materials that
2 giant continents
make up the rock.
1. Laurasia - comprised the northern
• The chemical components and
continents of today’s times.
geologic characteristics of the rock
change due to heat, fluids, and pressure 2. Gondwanaland - comprised the
that is increasing and decreasing. continents in the present southern
hemisphere.
TYPES OF STRESS INFLUENCING
ROCK BEHAVIOR Eduard Suess (1831-1914)
1.Compression • Recognized the existence of
Gondwanaland • Known to have
2.Tension
proposed the existence of Tethys Sea,
3.Shearing the only recognized body of water
during those ancient times.
4.Confining
Evidence to Continental Drift theory:
Compression • Rocks push or squeeze
against one another where the stress 1. Similarity of fossils found across
produced is directed toward the center. continents.

Tension • Rocks pulled apart • Rocks a.Glossopteris


may separate in opposite direction
• A Late Paleozoic plant found in rocks
Shearing • Some of the portion of a on all five continents.
plate at the edge may break away in
b.Mesosaurus
different directions of plate. • eventually
making the plate smaller inside • A freshwater carnivorous reptile; •
Fossils found in Permian-aged rocks in
Confining • The crust become compact,
Brazil and Africa
thus making it look smaller.
c.Lystrosaurus
DEFORMATION OF THE CRUST
• Early Triassic terrestrial mammal-like
Deformation – the breaking, tilting, and
reptile • About 1 meter long with two
folding of crustal rock due to crustal
long teeth protruding from the upper jaw
movement
• Fossils found in Africa, India, and
Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Antarctica

• He claimed that Earth used to have d.Cynognathus


only one supergiant and land mass
• Early Triassic terrestrial mammal-like
where all continents came from.
reptile • About 1 meter in length • Fossils
found in Brazil and Africa
2. Presence of tillites on places whose Arthur Holmes (1890-1965)
present climate do not suggest glacial
• Suggested the idea of thermal
formation
convection as the driving force for the
Tillites ♥are glacial deposits from rock movement of the continents.
strata in areas that were once covered
• Suggested that the thermal convection
with snow.
works like a “conveyor belt” where the
These deposits found in South America, pressure that goes up could break apart
Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, India, a continent.
Antarctica and Australia.
• While the basis for the movement of
3. Presence of coal seams in polar continents progresses, geologists
regions started to use a more precise term to
refer the moving piece of crust as “plate”
COAL ♥Is a fossil fuel that originated
because it is believed that continents
from the chemically altered remains of
are not the only ones moving.
prehistoric vegetation.
7 major plates
COAL ♥Usually found in tropical areas
because the climate is warm and ideal 1. Pacific Plate
for propagation of organism.
2. Eurasian Plate
♥Glossopteris proliferated in certain
3. North American Plate
areas of each continent. ♥North Pole
and Antarctica 4. South American Plate
4. Continuity of rock layers found in 5. Indo-Australian Plate
different continents
6. Antarctic Plate
♥The similarity of rock layers found in
7. African Plate
mountains that are on the opposite
sides of the Atlantic Ocean. 3 Major Types of Plate Boundaries:
♥The Appalachian Mountains, Scandes a.Divergent Plate Boundaries
Mountains of Norway and Caledonian b.Convergent Plate Boundaries
Mountains of Scotland were thought to c.Transform Plate Boundaries
be one mountain rage in Pangaea.
CRUSTAL DEFORMATION
5. Similarity of rock types in different
continents. Tectonic movement of the crust

The rock types found in Brazil, India, Folding/faulting of the Earth’s crust
South Africa and Antarctica seem to A. FOLDING
have similar layers and sequence
♥Glossopteris fossils were found in the Is a type of earth movement resulting
rock of each continent. from the compression of rock strata
(rock layers).
PLATE TECTONICS THEORY
A. FOLDING SEAFLOOR SPREADING
Bending, curving, crumpling, or buckling Harold Hess (1895-1982) and Robert
of rocks into folds is usually visible on Dietz (1914-1995)
rock strata.
They coined the term “seafloor
B. FAULTING spreading”
Type of earth movement that forms Seafloor Spreading Is a continuous
cracks or fractures on the rocks. process where tensional forces on both
sides of the plates cause them to
B. FAULTING The movements is
constantly move apart. Happens along
caused by low temperatures that make
Mid-oceanic ridges.
rocks brittle. Instead of folding, rocks
break into large chunks. HISTORY OF THE EARTH
PARTS OF FAULT Stratification of Rocks
Hanging Wall Which is a block of rock Stratification
above the fault line or above the crack
• Crustal movement, displacement of
of the rock.
soils, and distortion of terrains lead to
Footwall Which is the block of rock layering of rocks • Sedimentary rocks
below the fault line. form as sediments are deposited on the
bottom of a body of water
TYPES OF FAULT
Nicholas Steno (1638-1686) • In late
NORMAL FAULT REVERSE FAULT or
17th century, he introduced the principle
THRUST FAULT STRIKE SLIP FAULT
of geologic timescale • Each layer of the
1. Normal Fault – fault caused by rock could represent a “slice” of time.
tension stress that moves the hanging
How do geologists determine how old
wall down relative to the foot wall.
rocks are?
2. Reverse Fault – fault caused by
Dating Methods
compression forces where the hanging
wall will move up relative to the foot Relative Dating
wall.
Absolute Dating
Thrust Fault – is formed when
Relative dating • This method does not
compression causes the hanging wall to
provide actual numerical dates for the
slide over the foot wall. (almost
rocks but all are just estimates based on
horizontal movement)
the profile of the strata
3. Strike-slip Fault - the two blocks move
PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVE DATING
either to the left or to the right relative to
one another. Strike-slip faults are Principle of Superposition • Rock layer
associated with crustal shear. above is younger than the ones below it.
(Oldest on bottom, youngest on top)
C14 method to date charcoal, shells,
other organic materials carbon
Principle of Original Horizontality •
Sedimentary layers are deposited in The Age of the Earth
approximately horizontal sheets. • If
The earth’s 4.6 billion year history is
layers are folded, episode of
divided into major units of time:
deformation must have occurred after
rocks formed. Age of folding is younger Cenozoic Era
than youngest deformed rock unit.
Mesozoic Era
Paleozoic Era
Principle of Crosscutting Relationships
Precambrian Eon Phanerozoic Eon
• Any feature (e.g. fault or intrusion) that
cuts across rocks is younger than the Precambrian Eon • 4.6 billion years
youngest rock that is cut. before present to 544 million years
before present
Absolute dating • use radiometric dating
techniques to determine how long ago • Longest era with a sparse fossil record
the rock formed in the exact number of • Origin of earth’s crust, first
years atmosphere, and first seas

• Uses radioactive decay and the Half- Precambrian Eon • Earliest fossils of
life of certain elements • Half-life - time it cyanobacteria use photosynthesis to
takes for onehalf of the radioactive produce oxygen
material to decay • Ozone layer in the atmosphere is
formed from oxygen
• Half-Life: the time it takes for 50% (1/2)
of the nuclei in a radioactive sample to Phanerozoic Eon
decay to its stable isotope • Multiply the
number of half-lives by the half-life time Paleozoic era (The Era of Old Life)
to get the age of a fossil Paleozoic era • 544 million years before
Radiometric dating Radioactive present to 245 million years before
elements (isotopes) used for dating: • present • Marine communities flourish •
Carbon (C14) - Halflive: 5730 years Early fishes develop

• Potassium (K40) - Halflive: 1.25 billion Paleozoic era • Origin of amphibians,


years insects & reptiles • Recurring ice ages/
Appalachians mountains form • Spore-
• Uranium (U235) - Halflive: 0.71 billion bearing plants dominate
years
Paleozoic era (continued)… • 286 - 248
• Thorium (Th 232) - Halflive: 14.1 billion million years before present:
years Supercontinent of Pangaea forms • 248
• Mainly igneous and metamorphic rocks million years before present: MASS
contain Potassium, Uranium, Thorium •
EXTINCTION-90 % of all known families 1. Hydro Meteorogical Hazards 2.
lost! Geological Hazards
3. Astronomical Hazards
Mesozoic Era (The age of reptile)
a. Earthquake - An earthquake is a
Mesozoic Era • 245 million years before
shaking of the ground caused by
present - 65 million years before present
sudden slippage of rock masses bel ow
• The age of the dinosaurs! •
or at the surface of the earth. - It is a
Gymnosperms dominate land plant/
wave-like movement o f the earth’s
origin of angiosperms - flowering plants
surface.
Mesozoic Era • Origin of mammals &
TSUNAMI - Tsunamis are giant sea w
birds • 145 million years before present -
aves generated by under-the s ea
asteroid impact? MASS EXTINCTION •
earthquakes and volcanic er uptions.
Pangaea begins to separate/ Rocky
Not all submarine earthquakes ,
mountains form
however, can cause the occurrenc e of
65 million years before present…. • tsunamis.
ASTEROID IMPACT! • Mass extinction
c. Landslide
of ALL dinosaurs and many marine
organisms • End of the Mesozoic era San Francisco, S. San Francisco, S.
Leyte Leyte, ,
Cenozoic Era
Dec.15 Dec.15-23, 2003 23, 2003
• 65 million years before present -today •
207 dead 207 dead – –54 injured 54
Present era we live in • Continued
injured – –1 missing 1 missing P508.4M
evolution and adaptations of flowering
P508.4M -cost of damage cost of
plants, insects, birds, mammals
damage
Cenozoic Era (The age of mammals)
•A landslide is a massive outwa rd and
“Era of recent life”
downward movement of slope-forming
Cenozoic Era • Mammals dominant • materials.
Major crustal movements & mountain
•The term landslide is restricted to
building (Alps & Himalayan mountains
movements of rocks and soil masses.
form)
These masses may ra nge in sized from
NATURAL HAZARDS (GEOLOGICAL) card to entire mountainsides.

Natural Hazard •Their movements may vary in v


elocities
Natural hazards are potenti ally
damaging natural phenom ena that may •Landslide as a geological haza rd is
occur within spe cific period of time in a caused by earthquake or v olcanic
given area that may cause danger to eruption.
people, structures or economi c assets
•This initiated when a section of a hill
and which may lead t o a disaster.
slope or sloping section of a sea bed is
KINDS OF NATURAL HAZAR DS
rendered weak to s upport its own
weight
d. Volcanic Eruption Volcanic Eruption is
a process wher ein volcanic materials
such as molten o r hot fragmented rocks
or gaseous mat erials are ejected from a
volcano. Hazards from volcanoes may
be of different nature. These hazards
include flowing of fast-moving molten
rocks and other e jected.
Three Phases of Strategy
1. Preparedness and Mitigation ( what to
do before)
2. Response (what to do during)
3. Rehabilitation (what to do afte r)
HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL
HAZARDS