0 views

Uploaded by SUNIL

surface tension

- Fluid Bio Mechanics Slide Show
- Fluid Mechanics
- E206: Archimedes' Principle
- E206.docx
- Grade 8 Science
- Fuel Gas NGL (C3+) Recovery by Twister JTX Process
- Fluid Statics
- Fg 9 Gravitaion
- Ppt Archimedes
- Intracellular Water Exchange for Measuring the Dry Mass, Water Mass and Changes in Chemical Composition of Living Cells - Supplementary File
- Sspc Chart
- Hawk Roosting1
- 08 - Solids and Fluids
- Detached Growth: Unfolding Four Decades Growth Mystery into Vertical Directional Solidification Technique on Earth
- Boat Design - Stability Fundementals
- How Do Risers Work
- A Pore-Scale Simulation on Thermal-Hydromechanical Coupling Mechanism of Rock
- IFE10
- IAMI Science a and B Syllabus
- 8-matter-3 3 and 3 4 complete

You are on page 1of 55

Index Lecture 9

In this lecture:

• surface energy is defined,

• the effects of temperature and contaminants on the surface is discussed,

• methods of measuring surface energy in solids and surface tension in liquids

are given,

• the angle of contact between liquids and solids is defined,

• capillary action is seen as a surface tension effect,

• the size of bubbles is seen as a balance between excess pressure and surface

tension, and

• Laplace's law, for cylinders of fluid.

Surface Energy

Surfaces have energy associated with them because work is needed to form

them.

Surface energy is the work per unit area done by the force that creates the

new surface.

KCl 0.11

Zn 0.11

LiF 0.34

CaF2 0.45

NaCl 0.50

Pb 0.76

MgO 1.15

Si 1.24

Glass 4.4

Limestone 24.

SiC 32.

C (Diamond) 5.24

C (Graphite) 68.

Granite 200.

From the table, the surface energy is very large for Cast Iron, which is a brittle

material that shatters without much warning. Since brittle fracture creates new

surfaces, the surface energy varies inversely with the tendency to brittle failure.

Ionic solids < 1 J.m-2

Metals ~ 1 J.m-2.

Covalent solids >1 J.m-2

Example T1

At high temperatures there is a tendency for glasses to change shape into a

sphere. The surface energy of a glass at 650°C is 0.3 J.m-2. If the glass

changes, from a cylinder of length 100 mm and diameter 20μm, into a sphere,

find the energy released.

Answer T1

First find the radius of a sphere with the same volume as the cylinder.

Note: Thanks to Dongfang-Liu for picking up a problem with the above image. 1

Feb 2017.

The sphere has a smaller area so surface energy is released.

cohesive forces between the atoms tend to balance.

there is a net inward cohesive force. This creates a

force on the surface that tries to minimise its area.

When considered as a force rather than an energy,

the force is called "surface tension".

As temperature increases, the atoms in a solid vibrate more, and reduce the

cohesive force binding the atoms.

The surface energy depends on the net inward cohesive force and so surface

energy decreases with increasing temperature.

The surface energy for many metals (e.g. Ag, Au, and Cu) goes down by about

0.5 mJ.m2.K-1 with increasing temperature.

Water goes down by about 160 mJ.m2.K-1.

Contaminant molecules adhere to the surface ("like"

cohere and "unlike" adhere).

of forces and reduce the net inward force. Since the

net inward force is related to the surface energy,

the surface energy is reduced by contaminants.

• Fracture method:

apart.

A "double cantilever" forms. The work done by the

applied force is equal to the potential energy of the

"leaf springs" and the surface energy. Solving for

the surface energy (eventually) gives:

lengths x, y and d, will give T. /td>

• Indentation method:

With small specimens an indentation method is

used.

microcracks appear at the sharp edges.

surface energy is given by:

force, F, will give the surface energy.

Example T2

A razor blade inserted into the edge of a thin sheet of mica in high

vacuum drives a crack to an equilibrium length along the central cleavage plane

parallel to the sheet faces. The surface energy is measured as 5.0 J.m-2. When

air is let in, then the crack length increases 1.9 times. Find the surface energy

of mica in air.

Answer T2

From the fracture method:

Air molecules have adhered to the new surfaces and reduced the net inward

force thus reducing the surface energy.

Surface Tension

In dealing with liquids, it is more usual to use the idea of Surface Tension rather

than Surface energy, even though they refer to the same dimensional quantity.

This is shown in the following dimensional analysis.

The net inward force on the surface of a liquid makes the surface act as if it was

an elastic skin that constantly tries to decrease its area.

the surface.

To measure surface tension, the "wire

frame" method is often used. A

rectangular wire frame is suspended into a

liquid and pulled upwards with force, F, to

balance the downward force of surface

tension, T.

force, from the two surfaces

clinging to the top of the frame.

66.2 mN.m-1 60

72.8 mN.m-1 20

75.6 mN.m-1 0

Copper 1.1 N.m-1 1130

Angle of contact

between the liquid and the solid will curve the liquid

surface to form a meniscus (Greek word for

"crescent").

the liquid.

gas.

FSL is the downward force between the solid and the

liquid.

FLG is the inclined force between the liquid and the

gas.

the force between solid and gas, FSG is much smaller

than the other two forces:

• cosα is positive i.e. α is less than 90°

• the liquid "wets" the surface.

When FSL and FLG are in the opposite direction:

• cosα is negative i.e. α is greater than 90°

• the liquid does not "wet" the surface.

mercury - copper 0°

Capillary Action

As a result of surface tension acting around

the inner circumference of a small-bore

tube (or capillary), that is partially

immersed in a liquid, there will be a raised

or depressed column of liquid inside it.

the right.

tension force will balance the weight of the

liquid column.

calculated.

The same maths applies if α is greater than 90° but there is a depressed

column.

Example T3

A capillary tube with an inside diameter of 250 μm can support a 100mm

column of liquid that has a density of 930 kg.m-3. The observed contact angle is

15°. Find the surface tension of the liquid.

Answer T3

Pressure difference for a gas bubble in a liquid

forces that determine its size.

gas pressure, and the inward force from

surface tension trying to reduce the

surface area.

(force)×(distance) = (pressure)×(volume)

due to the difference between the bubble

filled with gas and the bubble filled with

liquid.

How the volume and surface area change

with radius is now calculated.

difference between the inner gas and the

outer liquid is directly proportional to the

surface tension and inversely proportional

to the radius of the bubble.

What happens as a bubble rises and the outer liquid pressure decreases?

such as a blood vessel, the wall supplies

an inward force and the liquid supplies an

outward pressure.

cylinder are given by:

This gives:

There is a greater pressure difference for a smaller radius than a larger one.

This inverse relationship is called Laplace's law. Note that if the outside

pressure decreases, the inside pressure also decreases so the radius increases

as expected.

Example T4

A bubble of air has a diameter of 1mm when it is 0.5m under the surface of

water (surface tension 73 mN.m-1). Find the gauge pressure inside the bubble.

Answer T4

Example T5

A soap bubble in air (two surfaces) has surface tension 0.03 N.m-1. Find the

gauge pressure inside a bubble of diameter 30mm.

Answer T5

Summarising:

Surface energy is the work per unit area done by the force that creates the new

surface.

Roughly, surface energy varies inversely with the tendency to brittle failure.

The surface energy decreases with increasing temperature.

Contaminants on the surface reduce the net inward force and decrease surface

energy.

techniques.

The surface tension in liquids can be measured by using wire frames.

The angle of contact is the angle through the liquid to the solid.

Capillary action can support a column of liquid to a height (or depth) given

by: .

The size of bubbles is a balance between excess pressure and surface tension.

page Lecture 9

email me a note if you found this useful

Copyright Peter & BJ Eyland. 2007 - 2017 All Rights Reserved. Website designed and

……………………………………………………………………….

Surface Tension

A molecule I in the

interior of a liquid is

under attractive forces

in all directions and the

vector sum of these

forces is zero. But a

molecule S at the

surface of a liquid is

acted by a net inward

cohesive force that is

perpendicular to the

surface. Hence it

requires work to move

molecules to the

surface against this opposing force, and surface molecules have

more energy than interior ones.

done to bring enough molecules from inside the liquid to the

surface to form one new unit area of that surface (J/m2 = N/m).

Historically surface tensions have been reported in handbooks in

dynes per centimeter (1 dyn/cm = 0.001 N/m).

like a stretched elastic membrane. There is a natural tendency for

liquids to minimize their surface area. For this reason, drops of

liquid tend to take a spherical shape in order to minimize surface

area. For such a small droplet, surface tension will cause an

increase of internal pressure p in order to balance the surface

force.

by which the pressure inside a liquid

droplet of radius r, exceeds the pressure of

the surrounding vapor/air by making force

balances on a hemispherical drop. Observe

that the internal pressure p is trying to

blow apart the two hemispheres, whereas

the surface tension is trying to pull them

together. Therefore, p r2 = 2r

i.e. p = 2/r

cylindrical liquid jet.

p 2r= 2

i.e. p = /r

made for a soap bubble

which is having two free

surfaces. p r = 2 x 2r

2

i.e. p = 4/r

involving either free surfaces (liquid/gas or

liquid/solid boundaries) or interfaces (liquid/liquid

boundaries); in the latter case, it is usually called the interfacial

tension.

contact either with air or their vapor (there is usually little

difference between the two), are given in Table.

Surface Tension

Liquid

dyne/cm

Benzene 23.70

Benzene 28.85

Ethanol 22.75

Glycerol 63.40

Mercury 435.50

Methanol 22.61

n-Octane 21.78

Water 72.75

……………………………………………………………………

Surface tension

Continuum mechanics

Laws

Conservations

Energy

Mass

Momentum

Inequalities

Clausius–Duhem (entropy)

Solid mechanics

Stress

Deformation

Compatibility

Finite strain

Infinitesimal strain

Elasticity (linear)

Plasticity

Bending

Hooke's law

Fracture mechanics

Fluid mechanics

Fluids

Statics · Dynamics

Archimedes' principle · Bernoulli's principle

Navier–Stokes equations

Poiseuille equation · Pascal's law

Viscosity (Newtonian · non-Newtonian)

Buoyancy · Mixing · Pressure

Liquids

Surface tension

Capillary action

Gases

Atmosphere

Boyle's law

Charles's law

Gay-Lussac's law

Plasma

Rheology

Viscoelasticity

Rheometry

Rheometer

Smart fluids

Magnetorheological

Electrorheological

Ferrofluids

Scientists

Bernoulli

Boyle

Cauchy

Charles

Euler

Gay-Lussac

Hooke

Pascal

Newton

Navier

Stokes

v

t

e

Surface tension is an effect where the surface of a liquid is strong. The surface can

hold up a weight, and the surface of a water droplet holds the droplet together, in a ball

shape. Some small things can float on a surface because of surface tension, even

though they normally could not float. Some insects (e.g. water striders) can run on the

surface of water because of this. This property is caused by the molecules in the liquid

being attracted to each other (cohesion), and is responsible for many of the behaviors of

liquids.

Surface tension has the dimension of force per unit length, or of energy per unit area.

The two are equivalent—but when referring to energy per unit of area, people use the

term surface energy—which is a more general term in the sense that it applies also

to solids and not just liquids.

In materials science, surface tension is used for either surface stressor surface free

energy.

Causes

The cohesive forces among the liquid molecules cause surface tension. In the bulk of

the liquid, each molecule is pulled equally in every direction by neighboring liquid

molecules, resulting in a net force of zero. The molecules at the surface do not have

other molecules on all sides of them and therefore are pulled inwards. This creates

some internal pressure and forces liquid surfaces to contract to the minimal area.

Surface tension is responsible for the shape of liquid droplets. Although easily

deformed, droplets of water tend to be pulled into a spherical shape by the cohesive

forces of the surface layer. In the absence of other forces, including gravity, drops of

virtually all liquids would be perfectly spherical. The spherical shape minimizes the

necessary "wall tension" of the surface layer according to Laplace's law.

a lower state of energy than if it were alone (not in contact with a neighbor). The interior

molecules have as many neighbors as they can possibly have, but the boundary

molecules are missing neighbors (compared to interior molecules). So, the boundary

molecules have a higher energy. For the liquid to minimize its energy state, the number

of higher energy boundary molecules must be minimized. The minimized quantity of

boundary molecules results in a minimized surface area.[1]

As a result of surface area minimization, a surface will assume the smoothest shape it

can.[note 1] Any curvature in the surface shape results in greater area and a higher energy.

So, the surface will push back against any curvature in much the same way as a ball

pushed uphill will push back to minimize its gravitational potential energy.

Water

A. Rain water forms beads on the surface of a waxy surface, such as a leaf. Water

adheres weakly to wax and strongly to itself, so water clusters into drops. Surface

tension gives them their near-spherical shape, because a sphere has the smallest

possible surface area to volume ratio.

B. Formation of drops occurs when a mass of liquid is stretched. The animation shows

water adhering to the faucet gaining mass until it is stretched to a point where the

surface tension can no longer bind it to the faucet. It then separates and surface tension

forms the drop into a sphere. If a stream of water were running from the faucet, the

stream would break up into drops during its fall. Gravity stretches the stream, then

surface tension pinches it into spheres.[2]

C. Objects denser than water still float when the object is nonwettable and its weight is

small enough to be borne by the forces arising from surface tension.[1] For

example, water striders use surface tension to walk on the surface of a pond. The

surface of the water behaves like an elastic film: the insect's feet cause indentations in

the water's surface, increasing its surface area.[3]

D. Separation of oil and water (in this case, water and liquid wax) is caused by a tension

in the surface between dissimilar liquids. This type of surface tension is called "interface

tension", but its physics are the same.

E. Tears of wine is the formation of drops and rivulets on the side of a glass containing

an alcoholic beverage. Its cause is a complex interaction between the differing surface

tensions of water and ethanol. It is induced by a combination of surface tension

modification of water by ethanol together with ethanol evaporating faster than water.

D. Lava lamp with interaction between dissimilar liquids; water and liquid wax

Surfactants

Surface tension is visible in other common phenomena, especially when surfactants are

used to decrease it:

Soap bubbles have very large surface areas with very little mass. Bubbles in pure water are

unstable. The addition of surfactants, however, can have a stabilizing effect on the bubbles

(see Marangoni effect). Notice that surfactants actually reduce the surface tension of water by a

factor of three or more.

Emulsions are a type of solution in which surface tension plays a role. Tiny fragments of oil

suspended in pure water will spontaneously assemble themselves into much larger masses. But

the presence of a surfactant provides a decrease in surface tension, which permits stability of

minute droplets of oil in the bulk of water (or vice versa).

Basic physics

Two definitions

Diagram shows, in cross-section, a needle floating on the surface of water. Its

weight, Fw, depresses the surface, and is balanced by the surface tension

forces on either side, Fs, which are each parallel to the water's surface at the

points where it contacts the needle. Notice that the horizontal components of

the two Fsarrows point in opposite directions, so they cancel each other, but

the vertical components point in the same direction and therefore add up[1] to

balance Fw.

Surface tension, represented by the symbol γ is defined as the force along a line of unit

length, where the force is parallel to the surface but perpendicular to the line. One way

to picture this is to imagine a flat soap film bounded on one side by a taut thread of

length, L. The thread will be pulled toward the interior of the film by a force equal to 2

L (the factor of 2 is because the soap film has two sides, hence two

surfaces).[4] Surface tension is therefore measured in forces per unit length. Its SI unit

is newtonper meter but the cgs unit of dyne per cm is also used.[5]One dyn/cm

corresponds to 0.001 N/m.

An equivalent definition, one that is useful in thermodynamics, is work done per unit

area. As such, in order to increase the surface area of a mass of liquid by an

amount, δA, a quantity of work, δA, is needed.[4] This work is stored as potential

energy. Consequently surface tension can be also measured in SI system as joules per

square meter and in the cgs system as ergs per cm2. Since mechanical systems try to

find a state of minimum potential energy, a free droplet of liquid naturally assumes a

spherical shape, which has the minimum surface area for a given volume.

The equivalence of measurement of energy per unit area to force per unit length can be

proven by dimensional analysis.[4]

………………………………………………………………………………….

Surface Tension

Table of Content

How do Detergents Clean Dirty Clothes?

o Properties of Surface Tension

o Surface Energy

Simulation for Size of Bubble as a Comparison With Depth

o Force Approach

Angle of Contact

o Case I: When q < 90o

o Case II: When q > 90o

o Capillarity

Rise of Liquid in a tube of Insufficient Length

Energy Required to Raise a Liquid in a Capillary tube

Stokes' Law and Terminal Velocity

Related Resources

which its free surface behaves like a stretched membrane and supports,

comparatively heavier objects placed over it”. It is measured in terms of force of

surface tension.

The free surface of a liquid contracts so that its exposed surface area is a minimum, i.e., it

behaves as if it were under tension, somewhat like a stretched elastic membrane. This

property is known as surface tension. The surface tension of a liquid varies with

temperature as well as dissolved impurities, etc. When soap is mixed with water, the

surface tension of water decreases. Also, the surface tension decreases with increase in

temperature.

How do Detergents Clean Dirty

Clothes?

Consider a wire frame (see the adjacent figure) equipped with a sliding wire AB. It is dipped

in a soapy water. A film of liquid is formed on it. A force F has to be applied to hold the wire

in place. Since the soap film has two surfaces attached to the wire, the total length of the

film in contact with the wire is 2L.

Surface tension of a liquid is measured by the normal force acting per unit length. On either

side of an imaginary line drawn on the free surface of a liquid, the direction of this force is

perpendicular to the line and tangential to the free surface of liquid.

Properties of Surface Tension

Scalar quantity.

Temperature sensitive.

Impurity sensitive.

Depends only n the nature of the liquid.

Unit of surface tension, N/m.

Dimension of surface tension, ML0T-2.

Surface Energy

If the area of the liquid surface has to be increased, work has to be done against the force

of surface tension. The work done to from a film is stored as potential energy in the surface

and the amount of this energy per unit area of this surface under isothermal condition is the

"intrinsic surface energy" or free surface energy density.

Work done in small displacement dx

dW = F × dx = 2TL dx

= 2TLx = TA

As A = 2Lx (area of both sides),

W/A = T (intrinsic surface energy)

Question:-

What is the surface energy of a soap bubble of radius r?

Answer:-

E = TA = T × 4Πr2 × 2 (as it has two surfaces)

= 8Πr2 T.

_________________________________________________________________________

____________________

Question:-

What is the surface energy of an air bubble inside a soap solution?

Answer:-

E = T × A = 4Πr2T, as it has only one surface

Excess Pressure

The pressure inside a soap bubble and that outside it are not identical due to surface

tension of the soap bubble. To calculate this pressure difference, let's first consider an air

bubble inside a liquid. If the pressure difference is Δp, then the work done to increase the

radius of the bubble from r to

(r + Δr) is given by:

W = FΔr = 4Πr2 Δp Δr

Change in area

ΔS = 4Π (r + Δr)2 - 4Πr2 = 8ΠrΔr.

From the definition of surface tension

T = W/ΔS = (4Πr2 Δp Δr)/(8ΠrΔr) or Δp = 2T/r

For a soap bubble in air, there are two surfaces.

So, Δp = 2 × 2T/r = 4T/r

Simulation for Size of Bubble as a

Comparison With Depth

Bubble bubble boil and trouble. This animaition is used to show size as a comparison with

depth. The user move the bubble around while making observations of size versus depth.

Then the student can make inferences as to why they get this behavior.

Force Approach

Consider the equilibrium of a hemispherical portion of a liquid bubble of radius R and

surface tension T as shown in the figure. For the equilibrium of the liquid bubble.

Fi = force due to the inside pressure

FT = force due to the surface tension

P0ΠR2 - PiΠR2 + 2(2ΠRT) = 0

=> Pi - P0 = 4T/R

where R is the radius of the bubble.

Two soap bubbles of different radii (r, R: r < R) are connected by means of a tube. What will

happen to the larger bubble?

Angle of Contact

1. Angle of contact, for a solid and a liquid, is defined as the angle between tangent to the

liquid surface drawn at the point of contact and the solid surface inside the liquid.

2. The angle of contact of a liquid surface on a solid surface depends on the nature of the

liquid and the solid.

Case I: When q < 90o

The liquid surface curves up towards the solid. This happens when the force of cohesion

between two liquid molecules is less than force of adhesion between the liquid and the

solid. If such a liquid is poured into a solid tube, it will have a concave meniscus. For

example, a glass rod dipped in water or water inside a glass tube.

Case II: When q > 90o

The liquid surfaces get curved downward in contact with a solid. In this case, the force of

cohesion is greater than the force of adhesion. In such cases, solids do not get "wet". When

such liquids are put into a solid tube, a convex meniscus is obtained.

For example, a glass rod dipped in mercury or mercury within a solid glass tube.

Capillarity

When a piece of chalk is dipped into water, it is observed that water rises through the pores

of the chalk and wets it.

Consider a glass capillary of radius R dipped in water as shown in the figure. The pressure

below the meniscus will be (p0 - 2T/r). To compensate for this pressure difference, water in

the capillary rises so that

2T/r = rgh or h = 2T/rgρ

where r in the radius of meniscus,

r = R/cos θ

where q is the angle of contact.

Thus,

If q < 90o, the meniscus will be concave, for illustration: at a water-glass interface.

If q < 90o, the meniscus will be convex, for illustration: at a mercury-glass interface.

Rise of Liquid in a tube of

Insufficient Length

We have seen, how a liquid rises up into a capillary tube, dipped into it, until the weight of

the liquid in the tube is just balanced by the force due to its surface tension. If q be the

angle of contact between the liquid and the tube, and R, the radius of liquid meniscus in the

tube, we have r = R cos q, where r is the radius of the tube; so that above relation now

becomes,

where h is the height of the liquid column in the tube

Here, clearly

R.h = 2T/ρg, a constant

Now with the tube sufficiently longer than h, it is the value of h alone that changes to satisfy

the above relation for T. But if the tube be smaller than the calculated value of h, the only

variable in the above relation is R, because now h = l, the length of the tube (a constant)

and so is q a constant for the given liquid and the tube. The liquid thus just spreads over the

walls of the tube at the top and its meniscus acquires a new radius of curvature R', such

that R'l = 2T/ρg, or that R'l = R.h = a constant. And since l is smaller than R' > R, i.e., the

meniscus becomes less curved.

Energy Required to Raise a Liquid in

a Capillary tube

We have seen above how when a capillary tube is dipped vertically into a liquid which wets

the walls of the tube, there is rise of the liquid inside the tube. Due to the rise, the liquid,

gains in potential energy. The question, therefore arises as to where does it get this

increase in its potential energy from. The explanation is, however, simple.

We have three surface of separation to consider when a capillary tube is immersed in a

liquid viz., (i) an air-liquid surface (ii) an air-glass surface and (iii) a glass-liquid surface each

having its own surface tension, difference from the others, and equal to its free surface

energy per unit area.

Now, as the plane liquid surface in the tube acquires a curvature, (i.e. become concave),

the air-liquid surface increases and, as the liquid rises in the tube, the glass-liquid surface

increases, the air-glass surface decreasing by an equal amount. Thus, the surface energy

of the air-liquid and the

glass-liquid surface increases while that of the air-glass surface decreases by the same

amount. In other words, the energy required to raise the liquid in the capillary tube is

obtained from the surface energy of the air-glass surface.

On the other hand, a liquid, which does not wet the walls of the tube, get depressed inside

it, below its level outside the tube. In this case, obviously the glass-liquid surface decreases,

whereas the air-glass surface increases by an equal amount, resulting in a net increase in

the surface energy of the whole system. This energy is derived from the depression of the

liquid inside the tube, whose gravitational potential energy is thus decreased by an equal

amount.

Refer this video for better understanding about

surface tension:-

Problem 1 :-

A meniscus drop of radius 1 cm is sprayed into 106 droplets of equal size. Calculate the

energy expended if surface tension of mercury is 435 × 10-3 N/m.

Solution:-

Energy expended will be the work done against the increase in surface area, i.e.

n(4Πr2) -4ΠR2

E = W = T DS

= T.4Π (nr2 - R2)

But the total volume remains constant

i.e. 4/3 ΠR3 = n 4/3 Πr3 or r = R/(n)1/3

=> E = 4 ΠR T (n - 1) = 4 × 3.14 × (1 × 10-2)2 × 435 × 10-3(102- 1)

2 1/3

= 54.1 × 10-3 J.

Problem 2 :-

If a number of little droplets of water, all of the same radius, coalesce to form a single drop

of radius R, show that the rise in temperature of water will be given by θ = 3T/J (1/r - 1/R) ×

10-3 where T is the surface tension of water and J, the mechanical equivalent of heat. (in

Joule per calorie)

Solution:-

Le the number of little droplets be n and the radius of each droplet r. Then the surface area

of all the droplets = n4Πr2 and surface area of the single drop formed by their coalescing

together = 4ΠR2.

And therefore, decrease in surface area = n4Πr2 - 4ΠR2 and

=> decrease in surface energy = (n.4Πr2 - 4ΠR2)

Hence, heat produced = (n.4Πr2 - 4ΠR2) T/J

This heat is obviously taken up by the single drop formed of volume 4/3 ΠR3 and hence of

mass 4/3 ΠR3 × 1 taking density of water to be 1000 kg/m3

If therefore, θoC be the rise in temperature, we have

(4/3 ΠR3 × 1) × 1000 × θ = (n.4Πr2 - 4ΠR2)T/J

or, θ = 3T/J (nr3/R3 -1/R) × 10-3

Now, volume of the single drop = volume of n droplets

i.e., 4/3 ΠR3 = n.4/3 r3, where R3 = nr3

so that, θ = 3T/J (1/r - 1/R) × 10-3 [substituting the value of R3]

Viscosity:-

When a fluid such that a velocity gradient is set up within it, forces act within the fluid so as

to prevent the velocity gradient from existing. This force is due to a property called viscosity.

Suppose that a glass plate in contact with a water column of height h is moved with

constant velocity v. Forces of viscosity appear between the solid surface and the layer in

contact.

i.e. F = ηA dv/dx.

where h is a constant called co-efficient of viscosity. The CGS unit of coefficient of viscosity

y is poise, its dimension is ML-1T-1. The SI units of viscosity equal 10 poise.

Problem 3 :-

A metal plate 0.04 m2 in area is lying on a liquid layer of thickness

10-3 m and co-efficient of viscosity 140 poise. Calculate the horizontal force needed to move

the plate with a speed of 0.040 m/s.

Solution:-

Area of the plate, A = 0.04 m2

Thickness,Δx = 10-3 m

Δx is the distance of the free surface with respect to the fixed surface

Velocity gradient, Δv/Δx = 22.4 N

Problem 4(JEE Main) :-

A small air bubble of radius r in water is at a depth h below the water surface. If P is

atmospheric pressure, d and T are density and surface tension of water respectively, the

pressure inside the bubble will be,

(a) P+hdg – (4T/r) (b) P+hdg+(2T/r)

(c) P+hdg – (2T/r) (d) P+hdg+(4T/r)

Solution:-

Pin – Pout = 2T/r

So, Pin = Pout + (2T/r)

= (P+hdg)+(2T/r)

From the above observation we conclude that, option (b) is correct.

Stokes' Law and Terminal Velocity

When a smooth sphere of radius r moves with a velocity v through a fluid of viscosity η , the

viscous force opposing the motion of the sphere is

F = 6Πηrv

If, for a sphere, viscous force becomes equal to the net weight acting downward, the

velocity of the body becomes constant and is known as termination velocity.

6ΠηrvT = 4/3 Πr3 (ρ - σ)g

So,

Surface tension is the name of a property of liquid while force of surface tension is different from it.

For a solid-liquid pair having acute (<90º) angle of contact,

(a) the liquid wets the solids.

(b) shape of meniscus is concave upwards.

(c) liquid rises up into a capillary tube made of that solid.

For a solid-liquid pair having obtuse (>90º) angle of contact,

(a) the liquid does not wet the solids.

(b) shape of meniscus is convex upwards.

(c) the liquid is depressed in a capillary tube made of that solid.

The radii of the two columns is U-tube are r1 and r2. When a liquid of density ρ (angle of

contact is 0º) is filled in it, the level difference of liquid in two arms is h. Find out the surface

tension of liquid.

Solution:-

We know that, h = 2T/rρg

So, h1 = 2T/r1ρg

h2 = 2T/r2ρg

h1- h2 = h = 2T/ρg(1/r1 – 1/r2)

Thus, T = hρgr1r2/2(r2 - r1)

Problem 6 (JEE Main):-

A metal ball A (density 3.2 g/cc) is dropped in water, while another metal ball B (density 6.0

g/cc) is dropped in a liquid of density 1.6 g/cc. If both the balls have the same diameter and

attain the same terminal velocity, find out the ratio of viscosity of water to that of the liquid.

Solution:-

Terminal velocity is given by,

vT = 2/9 [r2(ρ1 - ρ2)/η]g

(vT)A = 2/9 [r2(32 - 1)/ηw]g

(vT)B = 2/9 [r2(6.0 - 1.6)/ηl]g

Given, (vT)A = (vT)B

Equating these two we get, ηw/ηl = 0.5

Question 1 :-

Two molecules are separated an appreciable distance apart. What is the nature of the force

between them:

(a) attractive (b) repulsive

(c) both attractive and repulsive (d) none of them

Question 2 :-

The force of surface tension acts in such a direction that the curvature of the surface

should:

(a) increase (b) decrease

(c) remain the same (d) none of these

Question 3 :-

When the temperature is increased, the angle of contact of a liquid:

(a) first increases and then decreases (b) decreases

(c) remains the same (d) increases

Question 4:-

When a capillary tube is dipped in a liquid, the level of the liquid inside the tube rises

because of:

(a) viscosity (b) surface tension

(c) osmosis (d) diffusion

Q Q Q Q

. . . .

1 2 3 4

a a d b

Related Resources

You might like to refer Solved Examples on Fluid Mechanics.

For getting an idea of the type of questions asked, refer the Previous Year Question

Papers.

Click here to refer the most Useful Books of Physics.

To get answer to any question related to surface tension click here.

…………………………

………………………………………………

……………………………………………………

……………

Solved Examples on Fluid

Mechanics

Problem 1:-

The tension in a string holding a solid block below the surface of a liquid (of density greater

than the solid) is T0 when the containing vessel (see below figure) is at rest. Show that the

tension T, when the vessel has an upward vertical acceleration a, is given by T0 (1+a/g).

Concept:-

The various forces acting on the block when it is inside the water are the weight, the

buoyant force and the tension in the string. When the vessel is at rest, there is no net force

acting on the block. The sum of the three forces is equal to zero when the vessel is at rest.

When the vessel moves upward with an acceleration, the buoyant force and the tension in

the string will be differ. There is a net force acting vessel. Thus, the sum of the three forces

is equal to the net force acting on the block.

Solution:-

The weight of the block having mass m which is acting downward is

W = mg

Here,

Acceleration due to gravity at the point of observation is g.

The magnitude of the buoyant which acts upwards is

Fb = Vρg

Here,

Volume of the water displaced by the block is V

Density of the water is ρ.

The various forces acting on the block which is placed inside the vessel is shown below:

As the vessel is rest, the three forces are in equilibrium. Thus, the sum of the three forces is

equal to zero.

Thus,

ΣF = 0

This makes

W – Fb – T0 = 0

Here,

Tension in the string when the vessel is at rest is T0.

Insert the values of the various terms involved in the above equation gives

Fb – W – T0 = 0

Vρg – mg – T0 = 0

So, T0 = Vρg – mg

This represents the tension in the string when the vessel is at rest.

When the vessel is moving with an upward vertical acceleration a, there is net forces acting

on the block. So, there is change in the buoyant force and the tension in the string.

The figure which shows the forces acting on the block when the vessel is accelerating

upward is

Fb,a = Vρ (g+a)

Thus, the net forces is given as

ΣF = ma

It is equal to the sum of the buoyant force, the weight of the block and tension (T).

Thus,

Fb,a – W -T = Ma

Substitute the values of Fb,a and W in the above equation gives

Fb,a – W – T = ma

Vρ (g+a) – mg – T = ma

So, T = Vρa +Vρg – mg – ma

To obtain the tension in the string, substitute T0 = Vρg – mg in the above equation

T = Vρg – mg + Vρa – ma = T0 + a (Vρ – m)

Dividing both numerator and denominator in the second part in the right hand side of the

equation by g gives

T = T0 + [a/g (Vρg – mg)]

= T0 +[(a/g) T0] = T0 (1+a/g)

This represents the tension in the string when the vessel is accelerating upward.

_________________________________________________________________________

______________________________

Problem 2:-

suspended by a wire in an open tank of liquid of density ρ = 944 kg/m3, as shown in below

figure.

(a) Find the total downward force exerted by the liquid and the atmosphere on the top of the

object. (b) Find the total upward force on the bottom of the object. (c) Find the tension in

the wire. (d) Calculate the buoyant force on the object using Archimedes principle. What

relation exists among all these quantities?

Concept:-

The pressure acting on the top of the object is

pT = p0 +ρg (L/2)

Here, atmospheric pressure is p0, density of the liquid is ρ, acceleration due to gravity is

g and length of the side of the object is L.

The total downward force exerted by the liquid and the atmosphere on the top of the object

is equal to pressure times the surface area of the object.

Thus,

FT = pTL2 = [p0 + ρg (L/2)] L2

The pressure acting on the bottom of the object is

pB = p0 +ρg (3L/2)

The total upward force acting on the object is

FB = pB L2 = [p0 +ρg (3L/2)]L2

According to Archimedes’ principle the buoyant force acting on the object is

FBuoyant = L3ρg

The tension in the wire is

T = W – FT + FB

Here, weight of the object is W.

Solution:-

(a) One atmospheric pressure is equal to 1.01×105 Pa

To obtain the force acting on the bottom of the object, substitute 1.01×105 Pa for p0, 944

kg/m3 for ρ , 9.81 m/s2 for g and 0.608 m for L in the equation FT = [p0 + ρg (L/2)]L2,

FT = [p0 + ρg (L/2)]L2

= [1.01×105 Pa + (944 kg/m3) ( 9.81 m/s2) (0.608 m/2)] (0.608 m)2

= (3.8376×104 kg.m/s2) [1 N/(1 kg.m/s2)] = 3.8376×104 N

Rounding off to three significant figures, the total downward force exerted by the liquid on

the object is 3.8376×104 N.

(b) To obtain the total downward force exerted by the liquid, substitute 1.01×105 Pa for

p0, 944 kg/m3 for ρ, 9.81 m/s2 for g , and 0.608 m for L in the equation FB = [p0 +ρg (3L/2)]L2,

FB = [p0 +ρg (3L/2)]L2

= [1.01×105 Pa + (944 kg/m3) ( 9.81 m/s2) (3(0.608 m)/2)] (0.608 m)2

= (4.0455×104 kg.m/s2) [1 N/(1 kg.m/s2)] = 4.0455×104 N

Rounding off to three significant figures, the total downward force exerted by the liquid on

the object is 4.0455×104 N.

(c) To obtain the buoyant force acting on the object, substitute 0.608 m for L, 944

kg/m3 for ρ, 9.81 m/s2 for g in the equation FBuoyant = L3ρg,

FBuoyant = L3ρg

= (0.608 m)3 (944 kg/m3) (9.81 m/s2)

= (2.0793×103 kg.m/s2) [1 N/(1 kg.m/s2)] = 2.0793×103 N

Rounding off to three significant figures, the buoyant force acting on the object due to the

liquid is 2.08×103 N .

(d) The various force acting on the object in the liquid is shown below:

To obtain the tension in the wire, substitute 4450 N for W, 3.84×104 N for FT and

4.05×104 N for FB in the equation T = W – FT + FB,

T = W – FT + FB

= 4450 N – 3.84×104 N + 4.05×104 N = 2350 N

Rounding off to three significant figures, the tension in the wire is 2350 N.

_________________________________________________________________________

______________________________

Problem 3:-

A cylindrical barrel has a narrow tube fixed to the top, as shown with dimensions in below

figure. The vessel is filled with water to the top of the tube. Calculate the ratio of the

hydrostatic force exerted on the bottom of the barrel to the weight of the water contained

inside. Why is the ratio not equal to one? (Ignore the presence of the atmosphere.)

Concept:-

The pressure at the bottom of the cylindrical barrel is

p = ρgh

Here, density of the liquid is ρ, acceleration due to gravity is g and height of the cylindrical

barrel is h.

The hydrostatic force acting at the bottom of the barrel is

F = PA

Here, surface area of the barrel at the bottom is A.

The weight of the liquid is

W = ρgV

Here, total volume of the cylindrical barrel is V.

Solution:-

Now, the total height of the cylindrical barrel is

h = 1.8 m + 1.8 m

From above figure, substitute 3.6 m for h in the equation p = ρgh gives,

p = ρgh = ρg (3.6 m)

This gives the pressure at the bottom of the barrel.

The volume of the thin barrel at the top is

V1 = (4.6 cm2) (1.8 m)

= (4.6 cm2) (10-2 m/1 cm)2 (1.8 m) = 8.24×10-4 m3

The radius of the barrel at the lower part is

r = 1.2 m/2 = 0.6 m

The volume of the barrel at the lower part is

V2 = πr2 (1.8 m)

= (3.14) (0.6 m)2 (1.8 m) = 2.03472 m3

Now, the total volume of the cylindrical barrel is

V = V1 + V2

= 8.24×10-4 m3 + 2.03472 m3 = 2.035548 m3

The surface area of the barrel at the bottom is

A = πr2 = (3.14) (0.6 m)2 = 1.1304 m2

To obtain the hydrostatic force exerted by the liquid at the bottom, substitute ρg (3.6 m) for

p and 1.1304 m2 for A in the equation F = pA gives,

F = pA

= ρg (3.6 m) (1.1304 m2) = ρg (4.06944 m3)

To obtain the weight of the liquid in the cylindrical barrel, substitute 2.035548 m3 for V in the

equation W = ρgV gives,

W = ρgV = ρg ( 2.035548 m3)

Now, the ratio of the hydrostatic force to the weight of the liquid is

F/W = [ρg (4.06944 m3)]/[ρg ( 2.035548 m3)] = 1.9992

Rounding off to two significant figures, the ratio of the hydrostatic force to the weight of the

liquid is 2.0.

The hydrostatic pressure is depending on the height of the liquid column. So, the same

amount of liquid when taken in different volume of containers having different heights will

not be the same. Weight is the volume times the density of the liquid. Therefore, the ratio is

not equal to one.

_________________________________________________________________________

______________________________

Problem 4:-

The Goodyear blimp Columbia as shown in below figure is cruising slowly at low altitude,

filled as usual with helium gas. Its maximum useful payload, including crew and cargo, is

1280 kg. How much more payload could the Columbia carry if you replaced the helium with

hydrogen? Why not do it? The volume of the helium-filled interior space is 5000 m3. The

density of helium gas is 0.160 kg/m3 and the density of hydrogen is 0.0810 kg/m3.

Concept:-

The mass of the object having density ρ and volume V is given by relation as;

m = ρV

The volume of the hydrogen and helium will be equal to the volume of the interior space.

The denser body will have larger mass.

Solution:-

The mass of the hydrogen gas that should filled in the interior space is

mH = ρHV

To obtain the required mass, substitute 0.0810 kg/m3 for the density of the hydrogen ρH,

V = 5000 m3 for volume of the interior

V in the given equation mH = ρHV ,

mH = ρHV

= (0.0810 kg/m3) (5000 m3) = 405 kg

The amount of the hydrogen required is 405 kg.

The mass of the helium gas that should filled in the interior space is

mHe = ρHeV

To obtain the required mass, substitute 0.160 kg/m3 for the density of the helium ρHe ,V =

5000 m3 for volume of the interior V in the given equation mHe = ρHeV,

mHe = ρHeV

= ( 0.160 kg/m3) (5000 m3) = 800 kg

The amount of the hydrogen gas required is 800 kg.

It is found that the mass of the helium gas is greater than the mass of the helium gas.

The difference in the mass of the gases will give the amount of payload that could be

carrying the payload.

To obtain the mass of the hydrogen required, the equation required is

?m = mHe – mH

Substitute 800 kg for mHe and 405 kg for mH in the above equation, the mass of the

hydrogen required is

?m =mHe – mH

= 800 kg – 405 kg = 395 kg

Therefore, the amount of payload that the Columbia could carry is 395 kg.

_________________________________________________________________________

__________

Problem 5:-

In 1654 Otto von Guericke, Burgermeister of Magdeburg and inventor of the air pump, gave

a demonstration before the Imperial Diet in which two teams of horses could not pull apart

two evacuated brass hemispheres. (a) Show that the force F required to pull apart the

hemispheres is F = πR2 ?p, where R is the (outside) radius of the hemispheres and ?p is the

difference in pressure outside and inside the sphere as shown in the below figure. (b)

Taking R equal to 0.305 m and the inside pressure as 0.100 atm, what force would the team

of horses have had to exert to pull apart the hemispheres? (c) Why were two teams of

horse used? Would not one team prove the point just as well?

Concept:-

The two brass hemispheres with an open flat can be replaced with two hemispheres with a

closed flat end.

The force required to pull apart the hemispheres is equal to pressure times the surface

area.

Solution:-

(a) It is given that the pressure difference between outside and inside the sphere is ?p . The

radius of the circle formed by the half hemispheres which face each other is R.

Now, the surface area of the hemisphere is

A = πR2

The force required to pull the apart the brass hemisphere is

F = ?pA

= ?p (πR2) = πR2 ?p

Therefore, the force required to pull apart the two hemispheres is πR2 ?p.

(b) It is given that the inside pressure is 0.11 atm.

Thus, the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the hemispheres is

?p = 1.00 atm – 0.11 atm = 0.89 atm

Substitute 0.305 m for R and 0.89 atm for ?p in the equation F = πR2?p

F = πR2?p

= (3.14) (0.305 m)2 (0.89 atm) (1.01×105 Pa/1 atm) [(1 kg/m.s2)/1 Pa]

= (2.5997×104 kg.m/s2) [1 N/(1 kg.m/s2)] = 2.5997×104 N

Rounding off to three significant figures, the force required to pull apart the two

hemispheres by the team of horses is 2.5997×104.

(c) The two teams of horses were used so as to pull apart the brass hemispheres. They

could not do so as the pressure difference is too high. For such pressure difference, large

amount of force is required.

_________________________________________________________________________

______________________________

Problem 6:-

The below figure displays the phase diagram of carbon, showing the ranges of temperature

and pressure in which carbon will crystallize either as diamond or graphite. What is the

minimum depth at which diamonds can form if the local temperature is 100ºC and the

subsurface rocks have density 3.1 g/cm3. Assume that, as in a fluid, the pressure is due to

the weight of material lying above.

Concept:-

The gauge pressure of the carbon lysing at a depth h from the surface of the Earth is

p = ρgh

Here, density of the subsurface rocks is ρ and acceleration due to gravity is g.

Solution:-

The corresponding phase diagram of carbon is represented as

From the graph, the point A gives the corresponding gauge pressure at the temperature of

1000ºC. It is found to be 4 GPa.

From the equation p = ρgh, the minimum depth at which diamonds can form at the

temperature of 1000ºC is

h = p/ρg

Substitute 4 GPa for p, 3.1 g/cm3 for ρ and 9.8 m/s2 for g in the equation h = p/ρg gives

h = p/ρg

= (4 GPa) (109 Pa/1 GPa) [(1 kg/m.s2)/1 Pa] / (3.1 g/cm3) (10-3 kg/1 g) (102 cm/1 m)3 (9.8

m/s2)

= 1.3167×105 m

Rounding off to two significant figures, the minimum depth at which diamond can form from

the carbon depth below the Earth is 1.3167×105 m.

_________________________________________________________________________

__________

Problem 7:-

In analyzing certain geological features of the Earth, it is often appropriate to assume that

the pressure at some horizontal level of compensation, deep in the Earth, is the same over

a large region and is equal to the exerted by the weight of the overlying material. That is,

the pressure on the level of compensation is given by the hydrostatic (fluid) pressure

formula. This requires, for example, that mountains have low-density roots; as shown in

below figure. Consider a mountain 6.00 km high. The continental rocks have a density of

2.90 g/cm3; beneath the continent is the mantle, with a density of 3.30 g/cm3. Calculate the

depth D of the root. (Hint: Set the pressure at points a and b equal; the depth y of the level

of compensation will cancel out.)

Concept:-

The gauge pressure at a depth h from the surface of the Earth is

p = ρgh

Here, acceleration due to gravity is g and density of the material inside the Earth is ρ .

Solution:-

Referring the figure 15-25 given in the problem, the pressure at the point a should be

considered from the top of the mountain.

So, the corresponding pressure is

pa = ρcg (6.0 km + 32 km + D) + ρMg (y – D)

Here, density of the material of the continent is ρc, density of the material of the mantle

is ρM and depth of the mantle is y.

pb = ρcghc + ρMg y

Referring the figure 15-25 given in the problem, the pressure at the point b is

Here, depth of the continent is hC.

The hydrostatic pressures at the points a and b is equal.

Thus,

pa = pb

ρcghc + ρMgy = ρcg (6.0 km + 32 km + D) + ρMg (y – D)

ρchc + ρMy = ρc (6.0 km + 32 km + D) + ρMy –ρMD

D = (ρc / ρM – ρc) [(6.0 km + 32 km) – hC]

Substitute 2.9 g/cm3 for ρc, 3.3 g/cm3 for ρM and 32 km for hC in the above equation gives

D = (ρc / ρM – ρc) [(6.0 km + 32 km) – hC]

= {[2.9 g/cm3] / [3.3 g/cm3 – 2.9 g/cm3]} [(6.0 km + 32 km) – 32 km]

= (7.25) 6.0 km) (103 m/1 km) = 43.5×103 m

Therefore, the depth D of the root is 43.5×103 m.

……………………………………………………

………………………….

We can surface tension definition can be stated as the phenomenon that occurs when the surface

of a liquid is in contact with another phase (it can be a liquid as well). It is the tendency of

liquids to acquire the least surface area possible. The surface of the liquid behaves like an

elastic sheet.

The surface tension of water at 100∘C has a surface tension value of 0.059 N/m

The surface tension of mercury is 0.47 N/m.

If there is a small leaf or a paper clip placed on the surface of a glass of water, what causes it to

float over it? The downward force of the body is balanced by the surface tension.

Surface tension formula can be mathematically expressed as:

T=F/L

Where,

F is the force per unit length

L is the length in which force act

T is the surface tension of the liquid

The SI unit of Surface Tension is N/m. Check other units in the table provided below.

SI Unit N/m

Water strider which are small insects can walk on the water as their weight is considerably less

to penetrate the water surface. Like this, there are various examples of surface tension which are

found in nature. Some examples are provided below

Floating a needle on the surface of the water.

Rainproof tent materials where the surface tension of water will bridge the pores in the tent

material

Clinical test for jaundice

Surface tension disinfectants (disinfectants are solutions of low surface tension).

Cleaning of clothes by soaps and detergents which lowers the surface tension of the water

Washing with cold water

Round bubbles where the surface tension of water provides the wall tension for the formation

of water bubbles.

This phenomenon is also responsible for the shape of liquid droplets.

How to calculate Surface Tension?

Here is an example to calculate surface tension using the formula.

Question: Compute the surface tension of a given liquid whose dragging force is 7N and length

in which the force acts is 2m?

Solution:

Given,

F = 7N

L = 2m

According to the formula,

T=F/L ⇒T=7/2⇒T=3.5N/m

Methods of measurement

Some methods of measurement of surface tension is given in the points below.

Pendant drop method

Du Noüy–Padday method

Du Noüy ring method

Wilhelmy plate method

Pendant drop method

Stalagmometric method

Capillary rise method

Bubble pressure method

Resonant oscillations of a spherical and hemispherical liquid drop

Vibrational frequency of levitated drops

Sessile drop method

Stay tuned with Byju’s to learn more about surface tension, surface energy and more physics

related articles. Dont forget to read the related links mensioned below. Examine your expertise

by ansering the Surface Tension important questions listed below.

Physics Related Links:

Relation Between Viscosity And

Derivation – Explanation and

Density

Applications

Fluid Dynamics

Fluid Pressure Formula, Problem.

Q1. State Boyle’s law.

Ans: Boyle’s law states that the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume.

Q2. Why is raindrop spherical in shape?

Ans: Because of surface tension.

Q3. Give examples of capillary action.

Ans: Following are the examples of capillary action:

Absorption of ink in a blotting paper

Q4. What happens when a soap bubble is charged?

Ans: It expands.

Q5. What is the dimensional formula of surface tension?

Ans: Dimensional formula of surface tension is: [ML0T-2].

Q6. What is the surface tension of water at its boiling point?

Ans: It will be the same as that of the room temperature.

Q7. Why there is a more liquid rise in a thin tube?

Ans: Because of the smaller value of radius.

Q8. Which are the forces behind the origin of surface tension?

Ans: The forces behind the origin of surface tension are a cohesive force and adhesive force.

Q9. What is the unit of surface tension in the CGS system?

Ans: Dynes.cm-1.

Q10. Name the apparatus used for the determination of surface tension.

Ans: Stalagmometer.

Q11. What happens to the kinetic energy of liquid molecules with an increase in temperature?

Ans: It increases.

Stay tuned with BYJU’S for more such interesting articles. Also, register to “BYJU’S-The

Learning App” for loads of interactive, engaging physics related videos and an unlimited

academic assist.

Which graph represents the variation of surface tension with temperature over small

temperature ranges for water

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

- Fluid Bio Mechanics Slide ShowUploaded byOnwaree Ing
- Fluid MechanicsUploaded byVishal Nellikwar
- E206: Archimedes' PrincipleUploaded byPJ Bundalian
- E206.docxUploaded byLevi Pogi
- Grade 8 ScienceUploaded byapplesxcinnamon123
- Fuel Gas NGL (C3+) Recovery by Twister JTX ProcessUploaded byotis-a6866
- Fluid StaticsUploaded byAbdullah Hammas
- Fg 9 GravitaionUploaded bycpverma2811
- Ppt ArchimedesUploaded bysharfex
- Intracellular Water Exchange for Measuring the Dry Mass, Water Mass and Changes in Chemical Composition of Living Cells - Supplementary FileUploaded byFrancisco
- Sspc ChartUploaded byriskaanf23
- Hawk Roosting1Uploaded byBiswadeep Basu
- 08 - Solids and FluidsUploaded byAñîkët Kãmãl
- Detached Growth: Unfolding Four Decades Growth Mystery into Vertical Directional Solidification Technique on EarthUploaded byIJSRP ORG
- Boat Design - Stability FundementalsUploaded bykjourf388
- How Do Risers WorkUploaded byrajasekharbo
- A Pore-Scale Simulation on Thermal-Hydromechanical Coupling Mechanism of RockUploaded bySam
- IFE10Uploaded byPRadeep Jain
- IAMI Science a and B SyllabusUploaded byKarthikManikandan
- 8-matter-3 3 and 3 4 completeUploaded byapi-272679113
- fg 9 gravitaionUploaded byapi-242301401
- des PrincipleUploaded bySum Chee Yee
- Arc%5b1%5dUploaded byVicente Armones IV
- George Bridgman Constructive AnatomyUploaded byJishin
- Chapter 3 P2 IntensiveUploaded byyuskazaitie
- JApplPhys_86_2920Uploaded byRizki Adwitiyo 'Dito'
- Lesson_2Uploaded bySandeep Baheshwar
- Jurnal 1 Probing the Critical Behavior of Colloidal Interfaces by GravityUploaded byMario Moore
- Dispersions 04Uploaded byyoussef CHAFAI
- conversion de viscosidad cinemática a saybolt.pdfUploaded byMARIA CAMILA LOZANO VIVAS

- Chapter 14Uploaded bySUNIL
- Numerical Problems Based on Vernier CallipersUploaded bySUNIL
- TUYORIAL Units and Measwurements 1Uploaded bySUNIL
- Tutorial 3 GigglesUploaded bySUNIL
- Vernier Screw Worksheet 2Uploaded bySUNIL
- Vernier and MicrometerUploaded byLeo Dev Wins
- Mesurement Part 2Uploaded bySUNIL
- ExerciseUploaded bySUNIL
- Introduction to TelecomUploaded bySUNIL
- Distress CommunicationUploaded bySUNIL
- Distress CommunicationUploaded bySUNIL
- Air Trn 2016Uploaded bySUNIL
- -Aircraft Ramp ManagementUploaded bySUNIL
- Airport Ops Exam PaperUploaded bySUNIL
- Trig ReviewUploaded bySUNIL
- Common Math Formulas Tcm6-33520Uploaded bySasi Kiran S
- Trigonometry_Short_Course_Tutorial_Lauren_Johnson.pdfUploaded byRaghunandan
- Trig_Review.pdfUploaded byKunwar Achint Singh
- Maths Formula Class10Uploaded byDr. Amit Agrawal
- 0625_y14_sq_191114Uploaded bymydadawalfn
- Basic-Fundamental-Concepts-of-Physics-GG.docxUploaded bySUNIL
- Doc1Uploaded bySUNIL
- Phy Short NoteUploaded bySUNIL
- Document 1Uploaded bySUNIL
- fluidsproperties-QnsUploaded bySUNIL
- BubbleUploaded byArturo Ramirez
- Equilibrium AAUploaded bySUNIL
- Basic Fundamental Concepts of Physics GGUploaded bySUNIL

- Bhasma StandardizationUploaded bygaurav gupte
- Turbomachine CourseUploaded byC Lukas
- Applications of Electrolysis in Chemical Industry.Uploaded byRichard.nl
- flow assurance homeworkUploaded byLívia Costa Mello
- Chemistry IUploaded byfaisal58650
- Apostila de Operações UnitáriasUploaded byRoberto Jr Jr.
- Gases - DensitiesUploaded byXavier Ydia
- Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of Isopropyl Esters From Palm Fatty Acid DistillateUploaded byDayana Arias
- Extraction in Chemical Technology PrincipleUploaded byFatima' Zahara' Tuan Mohamood
- Physical Chemistry_ a Molecular Approach_ Donald a. McQuarrie, John D. Simon_ 9780935702996_ Amazon.com_ BooksUploaded byJose Vf
- Validasi Zat Aktif Amlodipine BesilateUploaded byadams
- physical science thematic unitUploaded byapi-210569514
- index.pdfUploaded byMbarouk Shaame Mbarouk
- IPTFAUploaded bytechkasamba
- Biochem LabUploaded byAlfie16
- JMSC-D-17-04800Uploaded byJessicaGiacchi
- 1-s2.0-S1386142513010743-mainUploaded byLeo Hdz
- Optimal control strategy for minimization of exergy destruction in boiler superheater.pdfUploaded byStephanie Chan
- Steam Power Systems ClassificationsUploaded byCholil Abdilla
- Uniheat_transfer Thermal Unitst II Convective Heat Transfer Thermal UnitsUploaded byaerosanth
- Benfield HiPure Process StudyUploaded byganeshan
- Air Density UncertaintyUploaded byjrlr65
- Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensorUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- Assignment FinalUploaded byAnshuman Tagore
- Chemistry Ordinary Level Paper 2Uploaded byআবু বকর সিদ্দিক
- Ion ExchangeUploaded byMariusCapra
- Chemistry 120a f2011 Ps1 Key(2)Uploaded byphutons
- BME21 FinalUploaded bysreeshps
- chemical kinetics- the iodine clockUploaded byapi-341114993
- Intro to Statistical Physics (Carl-olof Almbladh)Uploaded byShield