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Question 10
Evaluate the water and cement contents of the grouted cavity

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Jet Grouting

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Consider grouted cavity as a
control volume

Water
120 l/min
Slurry
(120kg/min)
210 l/min
Grout
90 l/min
In-situ Soil Soil Solid = ?
Water = ?
Cement = ?
Cement = ?
Water = ?
Soil Solid = ?
Water = ?

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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In every 1 minute of operation,

 Volume of water = 120 l

 Volume of grout = 90 l

 Total flow rate in = 210 l

 Volume flow rate out = volume flow rate in


= 210 l

 Volume flow rate of wet soil cut out

= 1.0/5 x π x 0.82/4 x 1000 l/m3

= 100 l/min

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Consider Grout

Volume Weight

Water e eγw

Cement 1 Gcγw

Recall that γ = W/V and Gc = γc/γw


So, W = Vγ = eγw for water
= (1) Gcγw for cement
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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Consider grout (2)

Recall:
γ = W/V
= (Ww + Wc) /(1+e)
= γw(e + Gc)/(1+e)
= γw(2 Gc+ Gc)/(1+ 2 Gc)
= 3γwGc/(1+ 2 Gc)

 eγw /Gcγw = 2/1

 e = 2 Gc

 Unit weight of grout = γw(e + Gc)/(1+e)

γg= 3γwGc/(1+ 2 Gc)


Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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Consider grout (3)

 Gc= 3.15

 γg= 3γwGc/(1+ 2 Gc)


= 3 x 10 x (3.15)/ (1 + 2 x 3.15)
= 12.95 kN/m3
= 1.295 kg/l

 Mass flow rate of grout = 90 x 1.295 = 116.6 kg/min

 Mass flow rate of water in grout = 2/3 x 116.6 = 77.7 kg/min

 Mass flow rate of cement in grout = 1/3 x 116.6 = 38.9 kg/min

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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What we have found out so far…

Water
120 l/min
Slurry
(120kg/min)
210 l/min
Grout
90 l/min
In-situ Soil Soil Solid = ?
Water = ?
Cement = ?
Cement = 38.9 kg/min
Water = 77.7 kg/min
Soil Solid = ?
Water = ?

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Consider Slurry
Recall:
ew = Vw/Vs
e = Vv/Vs
ec = Vc/Vs
Consider water and cement separately
Volume Weight

Water ew ewγw

Cement ec ecGcγw

Soil Solid 1 Gsγw

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


From the question:
+ w = 150% = 1.5
Consider slurry (2) Wcement/Wsoil = 15% = 0.15

 Water content = ewγw /Gsγw


= 1.5

 ew = 1.5 Gs = 1.5 (2.65) = 3.975

 Dry weight of cement/dry weight of soil = 0.15 / 1


ec = 0.15 Gs /Gc
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015) ecGcγw /Gsγw = 0.15
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Consider slurry (3)

 Unit weight of slurry:

 γ = W/V
= (Ww + Wc +Ws)/(Vw +Vc +Vs) Recall:
= (ewγw +ecGcγw + Gsγw)/ (1+ec+ew) • ew = 1.5 Gs
= γw(ew+ecGc + Gs)/ (1+ec+ew) • ec = 0.15 Gs /Gc
= γw(1.5Gs+0.15Gs + Gs)/ (1+0.15 Gs /Gc + 1.5 Gs )
= 10 (1.5*2.65+0.15*2.65 + 2.65)/
(1+0.15*2.65 /3.15 + 1.5*2.65)
= 13.77 kN/m3
= 1.377 kg/l

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Consider slurry (4)

Recall: unit weight of slurry = 1.377 kg/l

 Mass flow rate of slurry = 210 x 1.377 = 289.17 kg/min

 Mass flow rate of water in slurry = 1.5/2.65 x 289.17 = 163.68 kg/min

 Mass flow rate of soil solid in slurry = 1/2.65 x 289.17 = 109.12 kg/min

 Mass flow rate of cement in slurry = 0.15/2.65 x 289.17 = 16.37 kg/min


Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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What we have found out so far…

Water
120 l/min
Slurry
(120kg/min)
210 l/min
Grout
90 l/min
In-situ Soil Soil Solid = 109.12 kg/min
Water = 163.68 kg/min
Cement = 16.37 kg/min
Cement = 38.9 kg/min
Water = 77.7 kg/min
Soil Solid = ?
Water = ?

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Consider in-situ soil

Volume Weight *In situ


water
content
Air is 50%

Water wGsγw 0.5

Soil 1 Gsγw 1
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
1.5
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Consider in-situ soil (2)

Recall:
γ = W/V
= γw(wGS+ Gs)/(1+ e)
= γwGs(1 + w)/(1+ wGs)

 Unit weight of soil, γs = γwGs(1 + w)/(1+ wGs)


= 10(2.65)(1 + 0.5)/(1 + 0.5*2.65)
= 17.1 kN/m3
= 1.71 kg/l

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Consider in-situ soil (3)

Recall: unit weight of soil = 1.71 kg/l

 Mass of wet soil cut out = 100 x 1.71 = 171 kg/min

 Mass of soil solid cut out = 1/1.5 x 171 = 114 kg/min

 Mass of water in soil= 0.5/1.5 x 171 = 57 kg/min

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Finally…
Water
120 l/min
(120kg/min) Slurry
210 l/min
Grout
90 l/min
In-situ Soil Soil Solid = 109.12 kg/min
Water = 163.68 kg/min
Cement = 38.9 kg/min Cement = 16.37 kg/min
Water = 77.7 kg/min
Soil Solid = 114 kg/min
Water = 57kg/min
Rate of accumulation in cut cavity (= input – output)

 Mass of soil solid = 114 – 109.12 = 4.88 kg/min

 Mass of water= 120 + 77.7 + 57 – 163.68 = 91 kg/min

 Mass of cement = 38.9 – 16.37 = 22.53 kg/min

 Mass of cement: water: soil = 4.62 : 18.6 : 1


Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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AY2013/2014 – Phase relations

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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AY2011/2012 – Phase relations

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


+ Soil
Classification
Summary

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Casagrande’s Extended
Classification System
 Two letters: 1 prefix, 1 suffix
 Prefix dependent on predominant size
 Suffix relates to engineering properties.

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Prefixes – Coarse grained soils

 For granular materials:


 > 2 mm  gravel. Prefix G
 < 2 mm  sand. Prefix S

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Suffixes – Coarse grained soils

 Coefficient of Uniformity:

where:

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Suffixes

 W = well-graded material, Cu > 5


 Smaller particles will pack space between larger particles. Highly interlocked 
high shear strength, low compressibility.

 U = uniform material, 1 < Cu < 5


 Cannot be tightly compacted. Shear strength generally low.

 P = poorly graded. Gap in the grading.

 C = well-graded material with some clay


 Ideal fill material especially for earth dams. Can be closely compacted. Small
proportion of clay about 15% - 30% acts as a binder and filler. Tough dense material
with high shear strength and low compressibility. Low permeability as clay fraction
blocks pores.

 F = well-graded material with excess of fines (> 30%)


 Fines more than sufficient to fill spaces between the larger particles. Larger particles
no longer in contact but embedded in a matrix of fines which control soil properties.

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Grading of Sand

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Classification of fine-grained soils

 Use Plastic Limit (PL) and Liquid Limit (LL)

 Plasticity Index (PI) = LL - PL

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Question 4
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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Q4: Particle Size Analysis
Sample mass = 311g

Sieve Size Mass Retained Mass Passing Percentage Passing


(mm) (g) (g) (%)
50 0 311 100.00
37.5 15.5 295.5 95.02
20 17 278.5 89.55
12.5 10 268.5 86.33
10 11 257.5 82.80
6 33 224.5 72.19
3 114.5 110 35.37
1 49 61 19.61
0.6 32.5 28.5 9.16
0.15 17 11.5 3.70
0.075 10.5 1 0.32
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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Q4: Particle Size Distribution
120

100

80

Percentage Passing
60
(%)

40

20

0
0.01 0.1 D10 1 D60 10 100
Particle Size (mm)

D10 = 0.6mm Hence, classification is GW


D60 = 4.5mm Characteristics are high shear
Cu = 4.5/0.6 = 7.5 > 5 strength and low
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015) compressibility
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Question 5

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Q5:

 Plastic Limit = 30%

 Liquid Limit = 70%

 Plasticity Index (PI)


= LL – PL
= 70 – 30
= 40 %

 Classification: CH

 Inorganic clay of high plasticity

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


+ Q5:
Classification: CH
Inorganic clay of high plasticity
 Likely to be :

1. Highly Compressible

2. High Dry Strength

3. Highly Impermeable

4. Shear Strength at in-situ water content should be fairly low


at about 10kN/m2

5. Softer than plasticine

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Exam AY 2013/2014

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Exam AY 2012/2013

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)


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Exam AY 2011/2012

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)