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Question 10
Evaluate the water and cement contents of the grouted cavity

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Jet Grouting

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Consider grouted cavity as a
control volume

Water
120 l/min
Slurry
(120kg/min)
210 l/min
Grout
90 l/min
In-situ Soil Soil Solid = ?
Water = ?
Cement = ?
Cement = ?
Water = ?
Soil Solid = ?
Water = ?

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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In every 1 minute of operation,

##  Volume of water = 120 l

 Volume of grout = 90 l

= 210 l

= 100 l/min

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Consider Grout

Volume Weight

Water e eγw

Cement 1 Gcγw

## Recall that γ = W/V and Gc = γc/γw

So, W = Vγ = eγw for water
= (1) Gcγw for cement
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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Consider grout (2)

Recall:
γ = W/V
= (Ww + Wc) /(1+e)
= γw(e + Gc)/(1+e)
= γw(2 Gc+ Gc)/(1+ 2 Gc)
= 3γwGc/(1+ 2 Gc)

 e = 2 Gc

## γg= 3γwGc/(1+ 2 Gc)

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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Consider grout (3)

 Gc= 3.15

##  γg= 3γwGc/(1+ 2 Gc)

= 3 x 10 x (3.15)/ (1 + 2 x 3.15)
= 12.95 kN/m3
= 1.295 kg/l

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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What we have found out so far…

Water
120 l/min
Slurry
(120kg/min)
210 l/min
Grout
90 l/min
In-situ Soil Soil Solid = ?
Water = ?
Cement = ?
Cement = 38.9 kg/min
Water = 77.7 kg/min
Soil Solid = ?
Water = ?

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Consider Slurry
Recall:
ew = Vw/Vs
e = Vv/Vs
ec = Vc/Vs
Consider water and cement separately
Volume Weight

Water ew ewγw

Cement ec ecGcγw

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

From the question:
+ w = 150% = 1.5
Consider slurry (2) Wcement/Wsoil = 15% = 0.15

= 1.5

##  Dry weight of cement/dry weight of soil = 0.15 / 1

ec = 0.15 Gs /Gc
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015) ecGcγw /Gsγw = 0.15
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Consider slurry (3)

##  Unit weight of slurry:

 γ = W/V
= (Ww + Wc +Ws)/(Vw +Vc +Vs) Recall:
= (ewγw +ecGcγw + Gsγw)/ (1+ec+ew) • ew = 1.5 Gs
= γw(ew+ecGc + Gs)/ (1+ec+ew) • ec = 0.15 Gs /Gc
= γw(1.5Gs+0.15Gs + Gs)/ (1+0.15 Gs /Gc + 1.5 Gs )
= 10 (1.5*2.65+0.15*2.65 + 2.65)/
(1+0.15*2.65 /3.15 + 1.5*2.65)
= 13.77 kN/m3
= 1.377 kg/l

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Consider slurry (4)

##  Mass flow rate of water in slurry = 1.5/2.65 x 289.17 = 163.68 kg/min

 Mass flow rate of soil solid in slurry = 1/2.65 x 289.17 = 109.12 kg/min

##  Mass flow rate of cement in slurry = 0.15/2.65 x 289.17 = 16.37 kg/min

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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What we have found out so far…

Water
120 l/min
Slurry
(120kg/min)
210 l/min
Grout
90 l/min
In-situ Soil Soil Solid = 109.12 kg/min
Water = 163.68 kg/min
Cement = 16.37 kg/min
Cement = 38.9 kg/min
Water = 77.7 kg/min
Soil Solid = ?
Water = ?

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Consider in-situ soil

water
content
Air is 50%

## Water wGsγw 0.5

Soil 1 Gsγw 1
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
1.5
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Consider in-situ soil (2)

Recall:
γ = W/V
= γw(wGS+ Gs)/(1+ e)
= γwGs(1 + w)/(1+ wGs)

##  Unit weight of soil, γs = γwGs(1 + w)/(1+ wGs)

= 10(2.65)(1 + 0.5)/(1 + 0.5*2.65)
= 17.1 kN/m3
= 1.71 kg/l

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Consider in-situ soil (3)

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Finally…
Water
120 l/min
(120kg/min) Slurry
210 l/min
Grout
90 l/min
In-situ Soil Soil Solid = 109.12 kg/min
Water = 163.68 kg/min
Cement = 38.9 kg/min Cement = 16.37 kg/min
Water = 77.7 kg/min
Soil Solid = 114 kg/min
Water = 57kg/min
Rate of accumulation in cut cavity (= input – output)

##  Mass of cement: water: soil = 4.62 : 18.6 : 1

Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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AY2013/2014 – Phase relations

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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AY2011/2012 – Phase relations

+ Soil
Classification
Summary

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Casagrande’s Extended
Classification System
 Two letters: 1 prefix, 1 suffix
 Prefix dependent on predominant size
 Suffix relates to engineering properties.

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Prefixes – Coarse grained soils

##  For granular materials:

 > 2 mm  gravel. Prefix G
 < 2 mm  sand. Prefix S

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Suffixes – Coarse grained soils

 Coefficient of Uniformity:

where:

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Suffixes

##  W = well-graded material, Cu > 5

 Smaller particles will pack space between larger particles. Highly interlocked 
high shear strength, low compressibility.

##  U = uniform material, 1 < Cu < 5

 Cannot be tightly compacted. Shear strength generally low.

##  C = well-graded material with some clay

 Ideal fill material especially for earth dams. Can be closely compacted. Small
proportion of clay about 15% - 30% acts as a binder and filler. Tough dense material
with high shear strength and low compressibility. Low permeability as clay fraction
blocks pores.

##  F = well-graded material with excess of fines (> 30%)

 Fines more than sufficient to fill spaces between the larger particles. Larger particles
no longer in contact but embedded in a matrix of fines which control soil properties.

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Grading of Sand

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Classification of fine-grained soils

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Question 4
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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Q4: Particle Size Analysis
Sample mass = 311g

## Sieve Size Mass Retained Mass Passing Percentage Passing

(mm) (g) (g) (%)
50 0 311 100.00
37.5 15.5 295.5 95.02
20 17 278.5 89.55
12.5 10 268.5 86.33
10 11 257.5 82.80
6 33 224.5 72.19
3 114.5 110 35.37
1 49 61 19.61
0.6 32.5 28.5 9.16
0.15 17 11.5 3.70
0.075 10.5 1 0.32
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)
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Q4: Particle Size Distribution
120

100

80

Percentage Passing
60
(%)

40

20

0
0.01 0.1 D10 1 D60 10 100
Particle Size (mm)

## D10 = 0.6mm Hence, classification is GW

D60 = 4.5mm Characteristics are high shear
Cu = 4.5/0.6 = 7.5 > 5 strength and low
Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015) compressibility
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Question 5

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Q5:

##  Plasticity Index (PI)

= LL – PL
= 70 – 30
= 40 %

 Classification: CH

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

+ Q5:
Classification: CH
Inorganic clay of high plasticity
 Likely to be :

1. Highly Compressible

## 2. High Dry Strength

3. Highly Impermeable

at about 10kN/m2

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Exam AY 2013/2014

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Exam AY 2012/2013

## Slides prepared by Teo Hui Juen (2015)

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Exam AY 2011/2012