Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-3 | Issue-3 , April 2019,
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Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-3 | Issue-3 , April 2019,
URL: https://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd23121.pdf
Paper URL: https://www.ijtsrd.com/mathemetics/arithmetic/23121/application-of-fundamental-mathematical-structure-using-a-self-game-for-cognitive-development-in-children/k-suneetha-devi

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Volume: 3 | Issue: 3 | Mar-Apr 2019 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 - 6470

using a Self Game for Cognitive Development in Children

K. Suneetha Devi

PG Mathematics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

Devi "Application of Fundamental Education plays a great role in everyone’s life. The whole education has been

Mathematical Structure using a Self divided into - Primary, Secondary, & Higher Education divisions. All the three

Game for Cognitive Development in parts of education have their own importance and benefits. The primary

Children" Published in International education consists of wonderful subjects which can be taught to better the life of

Journal of Trend in Scientific Research child and lays foundation. Mathematics is one of the core subjects in Educational

and Development System. This Paper presents how to develop an understanding of the basic

(ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456- mathematics concepts specifically for children in Primary education division.

6470, Volume-3 | This paper contains a “Snake & Ladder play way method” which is an ancient

Issue-3 , April 2019, Indian Board Game and enables the child to learn playfully and willingly and is a

pp.843-846, URL: great tool for self-learning. Cognitive development is a concept derived from

https://www.ijtsrd.c Piaget’s theory and the basic concept of mathematics is derived from Number

om/papers/ijtsrd23 IJTSRD23121 theory. It is also called as THE QUEEN OF MATHEMATICS. Combination of these

121.pdf two concepts helps the child to “play & learn” and in the process build an

understanding of stable fundamental mathematical concepts aiding in gaining

Copyright © 2019 by author(s) and knowledge. Therefore, this innovative self-play game can be used as excellent

International Journal of Trend in teaching learning material for people of all ages, specifically for children as this

Scientific Research and Development focuses on the cognitive development of students irrespective of those facing

Journal. This is an Open Access article learning difficulties in mathematics.

distributed under

the terms of the

Creative Commons KEYWORDS: Number Theory, Basic four fundamentals of mathematics, Cognitive

Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) development of children, Snake & ladder game, Play way method

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/

by/4.0)

I. INTRODUCTION

In ancient days games played for fun consisted application of dice are small objects meant to be rolled (usually played

mathematical concepts which turned out to be their primary with 1 cubes), that can rest in multiple positions, used for

source of learning at a tender age. (No wonder, Indians generating random numbers from 1 to 6 through

contributed to Mathematics by recording the distances combination. The set of positive whole numbers are written

between the heavenly objects/ discovering, zero ages before ranging from 1-100 numbers. The Game starts at the bottom

the rest of the world) left circle and finishes at the top left triangle, helped or

hindered by ladder and snakes. The four basic mathematical

The Set of positive whole Numbers 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and so on fundamental (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division),

which are usually called the set of natural numbers; are indicated in rectangle shapes. With this “Snake & Ladder”

relationships between different sorts of numbers with basic self-game method we explain children about twenty

four fundamental (addition, subtraction, multiplication, fundamental concepts in core Mathematics right in primary

division) structures are explained in this play way method. education system.

operational stage of cognitive development is directly

applied in this self-play game method.

&learning skills, better control over attention, memory

&thinking, problem solving skills, logical thinking, letting

children assess their own ability to reason out task and find

out solution. These skills progress from Piaget’s theory of

3rd stage concrete thinking.

II. PROCEDURE

The object of the “Snake & Ladder play way method” is to

navigate the game piece, according to the roll of the dice. The Figure 1

@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD23121 | Volume – 3 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2019 Page: 843

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470

Concept: 1 Concept: 6

Single, Double & Triple digits: Children can identify & Greater than: In typical mathematical usage, the greater-

learn single- & Double-digits numbers. than sign is typically placed between the two values being

Ex: 1, 2, 22, 33, 44, 666, 759, etc. compared and signals that the first number is greater than

the second number.

Concept: 2 Ex: 76>75

Even Numbers: Identify the even numbers that are

exactly divisible by 2. We can teach up to 50 even Concept: 7

numbers. All even numbers are located at red/white Less than: When one value is smaller than another, we use a

triangle. “less than” sign. Ex: 65<66

Ex: 2,4,8,12

Concept: 8

Before, after & between Numbers: Counting before, after

and between numbers up to 100 improves the child’s

counting skills. Number counting is a basic math skill that

Figure 2 will help children to recognize the order of the numbers.

Concept: 3

Odd Numbers: Odd numbers which are no exactly divisible

by 2. An easy way to tell whether a number is odd is to look

at its final digit. If the number ends with an odd digit, then

the number as a whole is an odd one. We can teach up to 50

odd numbers. It is easy to identity all odd number located in Figure 6

red circles.

Ex:1,3,5,7,9 Concept: 9

The smallest one-digit number is 1 (one) and greatest one-

digit number is 9.

There are 90 numbers of two digits. The smallest two-digit

Figure 3 number is 10 and greatest two-digit number is 99.

Concept: 4 Concept: 10

Ascending Order: Children can learn ascending order when Estimation of a number: Estimation of a number is to find

numbers are arranged from the smallest to the largest the nearest whole number means looking at the digit to the

numbers. right of the original digit considered. Ex: Which number is

Ex: 1, 12, 25, 39, 50 etc. near to the 50?

46 or 51?a) 51

Concept: 11

Multiplication: Mathematical operation performed on a pair

of numbers in order to derive a third number called a

product. For positive integers, multiplication consists of

adding a number (the multiplicant) to itself - specified

number of times. From Snake Ladder Game we can explain a

child all 1-9 multiplication tables.

Ex: Multiplies of 2 or 2, 4, 6, 8, 10

Figure 4

Concept: 5

Descending Order: Children can learn descending order

when numbers are arranged from the largest to the smallest

number.

Ex: 60, 32, 21, 10, 2 etc.

Figure 5 Figure 7

@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID - IJTSRD23121 | Volume – 3 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2019 Page: 844

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470

Concept: 12 Concept: 15

Children can calculate the: How many times? Concept. If a player rolls the dice and reached position 25, as the

Ex: 2 times of 2 is 4. result of the action supposed to be taken is multiplication,

4 times of 2 is 8. 25*2=50, he can move his piece to the position 50.

Ex: 25X2=50

Figure 8

Concept: 13

When the student rolls the dice if the number 2 is on the Figure 11

Dice, child moves his/her piece to the position 2, if the

next roll of dice shows 3 then the student adds up 3 to the Concept: 16

current position on the board and moves the piece to be If the player reached position 45, as the division action is

placed at the number 5. Addition concept is thus repeated expected to be taken as per the board, 45/9, then the student

throughout. immediately goes to position 5.

Ex: 55+5=60. Ex: 45÷9=5

Figure 9

Concept: 14

If a player rolls the dice that has an outcome of number 3,

and if the action to be taken in the position 3 on the board Figure 12

game is -1 then, in 3-1 applying the basic subtraction, the

player needs to move his piece to position 2. Ex: 3-1=2 Concept: 17

Multiplication is the repeated addition i.e from this Snake &

Ladder self-play game, student can prove the multiplication

is repeated addition.

Ex: a) 2 1*2=2

b) 2+2=4 2*2=4

c) 2+2+2=6 3*2=6

d) 2+2+2+2=8 4*2=8

Concept: 18

Similarly, division is the repeated subtraction.

Ex: a) 12/3=4 12-3=9

9-3=6

6-3=3

3-3=0

(Subtraction repeated 4 times to get “0”)

Figure 10

@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID - IJTSRD23121 | Volume – 3 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2019 Page: 845

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470

Concept: 19 intelligence quotient. It also helps the teacher impart the

The concept of Prime numbers exactly 2 factors,1 & itself. So concepts effortlessly into the young minds making it a

we can identify in this game. pleasure for both parties involved. Coming up with similar

ideas and making them part of curriculum has the power to

Ex:2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19,23,29,31,37,41,43,47,53,5 revolutionize the current education system, helping shape

9,61,67,71,73,79,83,87,89,97. the minds of the future generations hassle-free and super-

innovative.

Concept: 20

Students get acquainted with geometrical Shapes through References:

this game. [1] Coppel, W. A. Number Theory An Introduction to

Mathematics.

CONCLUSION

[2] SK Mangal by Educational psychology.

Enabling children to learn principal yet tricky subject like

Mathematics through similar innovative games eliminates in [3] MFISZ by Number Theory

them, the fear to excel academically and gradually develops

[4] Elementary Number Theory By David M. burton.

cognitive awareness regardless of their individual

@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID - IJTSRD23121 | Volume – 3 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2019 Page: 846

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