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kf6L{n] kf6L{ / g]tT[ jk|lt l;nl;n]af/ ;k| ] i f0f ug{ ' n ] ;dfrf/ agfpg] lgGbgLo ePsf] g]skfn] hgfPsf] 5 . qmflGtsf/L kf6L{ / p;sf g]tf a' w af/ lj1lKt hf/L u/L u' 7 L
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;+rf/sdL{n] hgtf;fd' hjfkm lbg'kg]{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf s]Gb|Lo sf7df8f}+, nlntk'/, eQmk'/, wflbª,
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lg:sf;g u/]sf] lyof] . kf6L{sf] cfly{s rnv]n ug]{ / kf6L{leq /x]/ o:tf if8\oGqsf/L xs{t ug]{ nfO{ kf6L{ kf6L{sf] a9\bf] k|efj / ;fvaf6 cft+lst lj1lKtdfkm{ t cfˆgf g] t f tyf To;sf] hudf c8]sf] c;dfg /
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r]tfjgL lbPsf] 5 . lgof]lht ¿kdf ;fdflhs bnfn ;/sf/ ag]kl5 PdPn8LkL_n] ;/sf/n] g] k fn k|ltaGwn] PdPn8LkL Jofs'n/ lrlGtt sfdsf af/]df klg pko'Qm cfnf]rgfx¿
kf6L{ / g]t[Tjaf/] em'7f / e|fds To;nfO{ cem tLj| kfl/Psf] atfP . sDo' l g:6 kf6L{ d fly nufPsf] ePsf] 5 .Ú kqdf cufl8 n]lvPsf] klg /x]sf 5g\ t/ jfdkGyL zlQmx¿sf
;dfrf/x¿ k|sfzg, k|;f/0f x'g o;}sf/0f ut ebf}df k|sf08 lu/ˆtf/ k| l taGwsf] lj/fw u/] s f] 5 . 5, …xfdLn] ;‹Lo u0ftflGqs hd{gLdf aLrdf hlxn] klg ax;nfO{ cfnf]rgf
yfn]kl5 g]=s=kf=n] To:tf sfo{df x' g f;fy 3' ; k} l 7of, zÍf:kb / PdPn8LkLn] g]kfndf s]kL jnL s]kL8L -hd{gL sDo'lg:6 kf6L{_ dflysf] / cfTdfnf]rgfsf] k|lqmofdf ul/g' kb{5 .
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atfPsf] xf] . g]=s=kf=sf kf]ln6Ao'/f] ef8fdf n]Vg]–n]vfpg] qmd tLj| ePsf] tTsfn km' s ' j f ug{ / k| l taGw P8] g pc/ ;/sf/åf/f sDo' l g:6 / ;dfhjfbL ljZjsfnflu ul/Psf]
;b:o clgn zdf{ …lj/xLÚsf] kf6L{ klg kLjLPd lj/xLn] k|:6\ofPsf 5g\ . nufpg'sf] sf/0f k|:6 kfg{ r]tfjgLk"0f{ ljrf/wf/fsf] k|efjlj?4 lgb]l{ zt lyof] ;‹if{nfO{ sdhf]/ agfpF5 .Ú kqsf]
d'vkqdf k|sflzt n]vdf kf6L{sf la/xLn] kf6L{ k|jQfsf] e"ldsfsf] kq k|l] ift u/]sf] 5 . df]lgsf uf6{g/] — g lshf] g]kfnsf] h:t} dfS;{jfbL— cGTodf elgPsf] 5, …oxL r]tgfdf, xfdL
k| j Qmf k| s f08sf] lu/ˆtf/Lkl5 ljifonfO{ lnP/ sf/jfxL ul/Psf] eGg] PGh]n-;L;Lsf gfdaf6 !# h'gdf k|fKt n]lggjfbL jfdkIfsf] ;/sf/åf/f ljKnjn] g]tT[ j u/]sf] g]kfn sDo'lg:6
sflGtk' / nufotsf s] x L /fli6« o sflGtk'/ b}lgssf] ;dfrf/nfO{ g]skf kqdf k|wfgdGqL s]kL jnLnfO{ ;Daf]wg yf]kl/Psf] lyof] .Ú kf6L{dfly nufOPsf] k|ltaGwsf] lj/f]w
;Grf/dfWodn] lgof]lht ¿kdf 5g\– …cfˆgf] JolQmut k|lti7f dfq :yfoL ;ldltn] gfËf] em"6, lgof]lht ub}{ n]lvPsf] 5, …lk|o k|wfgdGqL s]kL jnLnfO{ ;Daf]wg u/]/ n]lvPsf] ub{5f}F . ;fy} tkfO{n
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eGb} To:tf] e|ddf gkg{ ;a} g]tf, cfk"mnfO{ aaf{b ug{x' bF' g} . cj;/jfb ck/fwsd{ ePsf] hgfpFb} kl/kq g} klqsfx¿af6 g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f ¿kdf, g]kfnsf sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ / xfdLnfO{ yk cf}lrTo pknAw u/fOlbg
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sf]dfdf bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yf g]skfsf] gfddf wDsfpg] lu/f]x ;lqmo Û


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sf7df8f}+ . g]kfn sDo'lg:6
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lgsfn]sf 5g\ ls s]lk cf]nL / 5Fb}5 . 8fS6x¿sf] cfGbf]ngnfO{ df/af6 p7\g} g;Sg] u/L 8fldPsf /fli6«otf b'j} l;l4G5 lsgls of]
k'iksdn bfxfnsf] u7aGwg ;/sf/n] bafO{Psf] 5 . lzIfs, sd{rf/L, 5g\ . hyfefjL s/sf] 808f a;f{P/ ;/sf/;Fu n8\g] jf r'gf}lt lbg] zlQm
nf]stGqnfO{ klg ;dfKt kfb}{ 5 . Ol~hlgo/ ;a} c;Gt' i 6 5g\ . ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfnfO{ cfs'n Jofs'n ljKnjsf] kf6L{df dfq 5 / pgL;Fu
nf]stGq eg]sf] s]jn ;Qfwf/L jf kl5Nnf] ;do nf]s;]jf cfof]usf] agfPsf] 5 . ;/sf/n] hgtfsf n8\gsf nflu dfq jt{dfg ;/sf/n]
;/sf/ ;dy{snfO{ dfq xf] eGg] lj1fkgsf] ljifonfO{ lnP/ kIf / df}lns clwsf/ jf dfgjclwsf/nfO{ nf]stGqsf] gf6s u/L/x]sf] 5 .
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c>'UofF;, kfgLsf kmf]xf]/f / uf]nL k|wfgdGqL s]lk cf]nLn] eg]sf 5g\– cy{ 5}g\, ;'Gof]–;'lg ;Sg' 5}g .
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s] j n bnfn jf ;Qfsf ug]{ OR5f lyof] .Æ dflkmofsf] d'ns ' df …ljKnj’ ghlGdP/
ehgd08nLnfO{ dfq xf] eg] ToxfF 7"nf] nf] s tGqdflysf] ;/sf/L xdnf …a'4’ hlGdG5g\ <Æ
kmf;Ljfbsf] cEof; x'bF } 5 eg]/ a'em\g' Pshgf gful/s cu'jfn] eg]sf n' 6 tGqdf ktg
k5{ . kl5Nnf] k6s ;/sf/n] lyP ls, jt{dfg ;/sf/k|lt ;dy{g jt{ d fg ;Qfn] n' 6 tGqnfO{
NofPsf] u'7L;DaGwL ljw]ossf] lj/f]w ug'{sf] d'Vo sf/0f of] ;/sf/n] k|fT] ;flxt / ;+:yfut ug'd{ f g} cfkm\gf]
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eP . x'g klg ;/sf/n] NofPsf cfh cfP/ k'li6 eof] ls of] ;/sf/ sfnf]ahf/Lof, t:s/L, dflkmoftGq glag O+uln; :s'ndf g]skfsf g/x] s f] eGb} v08g u/] s f] 5 .
clwsf+z ljw]osx¿n] ;/f]sf/jfnf nf]stGqsf] /Ifs xf]Og, eIfs eP/ cfhsf] ;Qfsf d'Vo ljz]iftf ag]sf dxf;lrj ljKnasf] gfddf ef}lts cg]/f:jlao' -qmflGtsf/L_ ;+u7g
jf ;DalGwt kIf ;a}nfO{ cfqmf]lzt lgl:sof] . ca l56f] eGbf l56f] of] 5g\ . clxn]sf] ;/sf/ anfTsf/L, sf/afxL ug] { va/bf/L krf{ x ? eQmk'/sf ;lrj dfgaxfb'/ 8fFuLn]
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ab\gfd eO;s]sf 5g\ . pgsf] af]nLnfO{ lnP/ slj, a'‰bfv]/L s'g} lglZrt s8L;Dd 1fg ;don] lbPsf] lj1fgsf] ltvf{ < /fhgLltn] < kqsfl/tfn] < u/L cl3 a9\g'kg]{ b]lvG5 . gq
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elgG5 x/]s lrh ;do;+u} abNg'
df]lgsf u'?ª
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em:sfOlbPsf] 5 . h;sf] clxn] ;fdflhs ;~hfnnufot
ablnPsf] 5, t/ lgolt pxL, tLg
s/f]8 g]kfnL hgtfsf] dfemaf6 Ps
cfkm';u+ ePsf]
ljleGg ;~rf/ dfWodf lj/f]wsf :j/ u'l~h/x]sf 5g\ . hgf o'jfsf] hLagsf] 5f]6f] c+znfO{

k|mfG;df /x]sf cf]nLn] b]zdf jf:tljs u0ftGq rflxG5


pbfx/0f agfO x]g{] xf] eg] klg b]zsf]
l:yltsf] cf+sng ug{ ;lsG5 . k9]/}
v'aL cg';f/sf]
eGb} zflGtk"0f{¿kdf ;+3if{ ub}{ cfPsf] kf6L{ / p;sf g]tfnfO{
l;Wofpg] pb\3f]if u/]kl5 cf]nLlj?4 cfd;r]t gful/sn]
dfq} lhag lhTg ;lsG5, ;ayf]s
kfpg ;lsG5, ;a} ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg
u5{ k9fO{n] eGg] ;+:sf/ kfP/ x'ss {] f]
/f]huf/L gkfpFbf /
lrGtf k|s6 u/]sf 5g\ . cf]nLn] g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ Tof] o'jfn] ;f]r]sf] lyPg xf]nf ls
c/asf] udL{df a]Nrf xfG5' eg]/, bIftf cg';f/sf]
l;Wofpg] / p;sf g]tfnfO{ uf]~hfnf] agfpg] pb\3f]if u/]kl5 sf]l/ofdf ;'u'/ kfN5' eg]/, lab]zL
clxn] cfdax;sf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 . Pp6f qmflGtsf/L e"lddf k/]8 v]N5' eg]/ . p;n]
;f]rs] f] lyPg xf]nf p;n] cfkm' eGbf
sfd ug{ gkfp+bf
kf6L{ / p;sf g]tfnfO{ uf]~hfnf] agfpF5' eGg] cf]nLsf] sd k9fO{ ePsf] g]tfsf] kLP ag]/
cleJolQmn] rf}tkmL{ lj/f]w eO/x]sf] 5, /fli6«otf / p;sf cl3 kl5 Ho' xh'/ u5{' eg]/
p;n] g;f]rs ] f] klg x'g\ ;S5 ls
b]zsf] nflu 7'nf]
hghLljsf w/fkdf k/]sf] 5 . t/, ;/sf/ gh/cGbfh u/]/
a;]sf] 5 . /fi6«lxt / hglxt ljk/Lt a]nufd bf}l8/x]sf]
s8f d]xgt u/L cfdL{ k'ln;df ;]jf
lbG5' eg]/ oxfF hf] h] ag]sf 5g\ lg
;a} xfntn] agfOlbPsf d'lt{x¿ x'g\
of]ubfg ug{ ;Sg]
;/sf/nfO{ cf}Fnf 78\ofpg] g]skf / p;sf g]tf ljKnjnfO{
uf]~hfnf] agfpg] cleJolQmn] k|wfgdGqL cf]nL b]zdf
ca t\ ;–;fgf] aRrfx¿nfO{ …afa'
ltld 7'nf] ePkl5 s] aGg]Ú eg]/ ;f]4f lzlIft o'jf zlQm oqtq cj;/sf] vf]hLdf
p;n] klg …x]/d t]lta]nf s] x'G5Ú
lg/+sz ' tf nfb\g tTk/ 5g\ eGg] k'li6 x'G5 . ;/sf/n] gf/fdf eGg] xf]lzof/Lk'a{s hjfkm lbg
yfn]sf] 5 . x}g eg] of] eGbf klxn]
ef}t+ fl//x]sf 5g\ . pgLx¿sf] bIftf, cg'ej /
dfq 7"nf7"nf s'/f u/]/ x'Fb}g Jojxf/df nfu" ug'{k5{ . olb ;a} …8fS6/ kfOn6 g;{ aG5'Ú eGy] .
;fFRr} ;/sf/n] /fi6«lxt / hglxtsf] sfo{ u/]sf] 5 eg] xf] p;sf] of] hjfkm p;n] x}g
clxn]sf] lj1fgn] lbPsf] xf] .
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g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf g]tfh:tf] hgtfdfem uP/ b]vfpg' Ps lzlIft\ o' j f h;nfO{
;TotYo cfkm}F k'li6 x'G5 . aGb'ssf] 3]/fleq a;]/ aGb's lj1fgn] /fd| } ; + u lrg] s f] 5,
zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s ¿kn] anjfg
gLtL lgdf{0f u/L cl3 a9\gk' g]{ b]lvG5 . gq
b]vfP/ t;f{P/ ul/Psf] /fhgLlt cfhsf ;r]t g]kfnL
gful/snfO{ kfRo x'g] ljifo xf]Og . ;/sf/ / ;Qf;Lg
5 . rfx]df h] klg ug{ ;Sg] ;don]
p;nfO{ klv{/x]sf] 5 lt/ p;n] lzlIft / bIf hgzlQm ljb]z knfog x'g
cfˆgf] hLagnfO{ k'/} lg/fzf, lk8f,
bnn] /fd|/L a'em] x'G5 . /fi6« / hgtfsf] kIfdf /fi6« / hgtfs}
dfemdf a;]/ ;+3if{/t kf6L{ / p;sf g]tfnfO{ uf]~hfnf]
tgfj cfTdfUnfgL ckm;f] r
kZrftfk clg ljt[i0ffdf r'n{Dd afWo x'g5] g . ctM o;tkm{ ;DalGwt
8'a]sf] 5 . sf/0f olx xf] ls p;n]
agfpg] k|wfgdGqLsf] ;kgf ;kgfd} ;Lldt x'G5 . lsgls cfˆgf] ?rL cg';f/sf] sfd ug{
kfPsf] x'Fb}g . ha ls k9]kl5 gfd,
;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] a]nd} f Wofg hfg' kg]{
/fi6« / hgtfsf] kIfdf n8\g] kf6L{ / g]tfsf] ktg ePsf] bfd / sfd pRr:t/Lo x'g' k5{
Oltxf; st} 5}g a? /fi6«lxt / hglxtsf kIfdf Hofg eGg] dfgl;stf af]ss ] f] of] ;dfhdf
p;n] cfkm'nfO{ sxfF e]§fof] t eGbf
b]lvG5 .
xTs]nfdf lnP/ n8\g] / ;+3if{ ug]{ g]tf / kf6L{lj?4 hfFbf …xf] t]xL lg/fzf / lat[i0ffdfÚ h;n]
s}of}F ;/sf/ / ;Qf;Lg kf6L{ Wj:t ePsf 5g\ . To;}n] c/fhs / ck/flws dgl:yltsf] nflu p;n] b':v ul/ sdfP/, jf rflxPsf] 5 . cfkm';+u ePsf] v'aL o;tkm{ ;DalGwt ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf]
hGd x' G 5 / pm ;bfsf nflu e|i6rf/ u/]/ ePklg ;kgfsf] n•' cg';f/sf] /f]huf/L gkfpFbf / bIftf a]n}df Wofg hfg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
Pp6f qmflGtsf/L kf6L{ / p;sf g]tflj?4 lbPsf] cleJolQm c:tfp5 . kmf]5{ / p;n] cfkm'n] clxn];Dd cg';f/sf] sfd ug{ gkfp+bf b]zsf]
k|wfgdGqL :jod\ / ;Qf;Lg kf6L{sf nflu cfTd3ftL
7xg{ ;S5 . b]z / hgtfsf] kIfdf nl8/x]sf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6
kf6L{ / p;sf g]tflj?4sf] cleJolQm g]kfnL hgtfnfO{
s'g} xfntdf ;}Xo x'bF g} . o:tf cleJolQm ;/sf/ / ;Qf;Lg
nf]s;]jf cfof]usf] k|lta4tf
kf6L{nfO{ dxFuf] kg{ ;S5, r]tgf eof .
g]=s=kf=åf/f Onfd lhNnf OGrfh{ of]Uotf, :jR5tf / lgikIftf .
bgf{n;lxt rf/ hgfsf] ;b:otf vf/]h
sf7df8f}+ . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 ;dfhjfbL qmflGt lg/Gt/ cufl8
kf6L{n] Onfd lhNnf OGrfh{ ljho al9/x]sf] 5 eGb} lj1lKtdfkm{t
bgf{n, Pl/of ;b:o u0f]zs'df/ qmflGtsf] sl7g t/ dxfg\ k|lqmofdf
ljZjsdf{, km'jf{ z]df{ / ljb'/ z]kf{nfO{ l6Sg g;s]sf s}of}+ sr/fx? knfog
kf6L{sf] ;fwf/0f ;b:o;d]t g/xg] ePsf] atfOPsf] 5 .
u/L sf/jfxL u/]sf] 5 . ;f] kf6L{sf] kf6L{sf] gLlt / sfo{qmdsf] lj?4
d]rL–sf]zL Jo'/f] OGrfh{ lzzfn] uPkl5 Onfd lhNnf OGrfh{ ljho
a'waf/ k|; ] lj1lKt hf/L u/L Onfd bgf{n, Pl/of ;b:o u0f]zs'df/
lhNnf OGrfh{ ljho bgf{n, Pl/of ljZjsdf{, km'jf{ z]df{ / ljb'/ z]kf{nfO{
;b:o u0f]zs'df/ ljZjsdf{, km'jf{ cfhs} ldltaf6 kf6L{ ;fwf/0f
z]df{ / ljb'/ z]kf{n] kf6L{ gLlt ;b:o;d] t g/xg] u /L lgisfzg g] k fn ;/sf/
ljk/Lt sfo{ u/]sf] eGb} sf/jfxL ul/Psf] ;f] lj1lKtdf hgfOPsf] 5 .
ul/Psf] hgfOPsf] . …g]kfnsf ;j{xf/f
ju{ , >lds tyf pTkLl8t
;fy} ;f]xL lj1lKtdfdfkm{t kf6L{af6
knfog eP/, sf/jfxLdf k/] /
;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno
;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu
hg;d' b fosf] cu| b :tf xfd| f ] ;fdflhs bnfn k'FhLklt ;/sf/sf]
uf}/jzfnL kf6L{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 dltof/ ag]sf tTjx?sf] e|ddf gkg{
kf6L{sf] g]t[Tjdf /fli6«otf, hgtGq tyf ;r]t /xg ;Dk"0f{ hg;d'bfodf
/ hghLljsfsf] kIfdf j}1flgs cg'/f]w klg ul/Psf] 5 .
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e"m7 /=====
u/]sf] atfP . k|jQmfsf] lu/ˆtf/kl5 ltj| ¿kdf k|ltlqmofjfbLx¿n] cg]sf}F
/ËLlj/ËL ljiffn' k|rf/;d]t u/]/ kf6L{leq / aflx/ e|d kfg]{ v]n;d]t v]n] .
pgn] eg]s 5g\– …g]skfsf s]Gb|Lo ;b:ox¿nfO{;d]t kf6L{ :yfoL ;ldlt;Fu
cfh;Dd x'bF } cfPsf kl/jt{gsf p7fO{ o sf ul/Psf cfGbf] n g / cfh o;} ljifodf s]xL n]Vg] sf]l;; la:tf/ u/]/ / cf+ts ;[hgf u/]/ kx'Fr ;xh 5}g eg] sf7df8f}Fsf] uNnL / u[x dGqfnosf 9f]sf rxfg]{ slyt
y' k | } 36gfqmdnfO{ x] g ] { xf] eg] qmflGtx¿ lyP . oL cfGbf]ngx¿sf] ul//x]sf] 5' . ;dfh ljsf;nfO{ cl:y/ /fVg] / lau xfp;sf kmG6';x¿n] To;k|sf/sf] bfaL ug{' slt xf:of:kb 5, ;xh}
kl/jt{gsf nflu ;+3if{, qmflGt / kljq p2]Zo eP klg kl/jt{g kl5 o' 4 s] xf] < To;af6 cfˆgf] :jfy{ l;4 ug]{ vfnsf] a'‰g ;lsG5 .Æ
o'4x¿ eP/ g} 7'n7'nf kl/jt{gx¿ ;Qf ;+rfngsf] lhDd]jf/L af]s]sf :jefljs lx;fan] o' 4 b' O { x'G5 To;sf] p2]Zo hgtf /fi6« / kl5Nnf] ;do sf/jfxL k/]/ klg kf6L{sf] gfd a]r/] cfly{s wGbfdf nfUg]
ePsf 5g . y'k|} b]zx¿ lasf; x'g' zf;sx¿ o;sf] dd{ / efjgf lakl/t lsl;dsf x'g] u5{g Gofok'0f{ o'4 / ju{;Fu hf]l8b}gg\ / kmut cf+ts / tyf kf6L{ / g]tT[ jdfly ulDe/ k|xf/ ug]{ sfo{ hf/L /x]kl5 k6s k6s
k'j{ qmflGtx¿ x'g] u/]sf 5g o'4, uPsf] x'gfn] oL cfGbf]ng qmflGtx¿ cGoofok' 0 f{ o' 4 op6f qmflGt, eosf] nflu k|fof]lht x'G5 tL o'4 g]skfn] ;r]t ;d]t u/fpb}{ cfPsf] 5 . g]skf u'6x¿sf] ;+o'Qm df]rf{
qmflGtsf] ;dodf s]xL cl:y/tf eP kl5 cfdl;s ¿kfGt/0f kl/jt{g kl/jt{gnfO{ s]Gb{ ljGb'df /fv]/ ul/g] cfˆgf] ;fd|fHo lj:tf/ ug]{ vfnsf] gePsf] :ki6 kfb}{ g]tf lj/xLn] kf6L{leq dxf;lrj ljKnjn] g} ;a} s'/fsf]
h:tf] b]lvPtf klg /fHosf y'k|} ePsf] eP klg ;du| ¿kdf b]z / o'4 xf] h;n] b]z / hgtfsf] lxt x'G5 o:tf] vfnsf] cGofok'0f{ vfnsf] clGtd lg0f{o ug]{ atfPsf 5g\ . g]tf lj/xLn] kf6L{sf] hgjlu{o ;+u7gx¿df
ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿ dfyL ef}lts If]lt hgtfn] k|Tofe't ug]{ ul/ kl/jt{g dfu{ b z{ g u/] / Gofok' 0 f{ o' 4 sf] o'4n] cfˆgf] :jfy{sf] nflu dfgljo sf/afxLdf k/]sfx¿ d"ntM kqsf/ ;Ë7g / :jf:Yodf /x]sf] / To;df klg
3';k}l7of / zÍf:kb JolQmx¿, u[xdGqfnoaf6 /sd a'‰g]x¿ / c/fhs /
Iflt x'g] vfnsf aa{/ vfnsf o'4
/fhs'df/ If]qL yf]kg]{ sfd ub{5 . of] ljleGg /fkdf
x'nd'ndf km;]sfx¿nfO{ dfq} sf/jfxL u/]sf] atfPsf 5g\ . cg'zf;gdf
ga:g] / efjgfdf el8\sPsf t/ Odfgbf/ sd/]8x¿nfO{ ¿kfGt/0f u/]/
b]vfkg]{ ub{5 clxn] ljZj kl/j]zdf sfddf kmsf{pg] k|of; klg kf6L{n] ul//x]sf] 5 . la/xLn] n]vdfkm{t j}B
ljKnj, aGb's k|wfg bnfn kFh ' Ljfbsf] ¿kdf b]vfkl//x]sf]
5 . o;n] lgudkF'hLnfO{ lj:je/
g]t[Tjsf] g]skf–dfcf]jfbLsf] tfD;flnª clwj]zg, w'lnv]ndf rNb} ubf{ /ftL
!@ ah] ;"o{ ;'jb] L …klysÚn] zÍf:kb eGb} xf]6n ] af6 nv]6s
] f / zlQm
xf] qmflGt aGb'saf6 kl/rfng u/]/ ljZjsf] cy{tGqnfO{ a:g]taf6 k};f vfP/ kf6L{ / qmflGtsf la?4 k|rf/df plqPsf] klg pNn]v
cfˆgf] d'¶L leq s}b u/]/ laZjnfO{ u/]sf 5g\ .
dfq ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] cfˆgf] lgoGq0fdf /fVg vf]lh/x]sf] o; laifodf kf6L{sf] d'vkqdf …sflGtk'/sf] kLt–kqsfl/tfÚ zLif{sdf
5 . To;}sf] ¿k g]kfndf u0ftGqfTs g]tf la/xLn] n]v]sf] n]v o:tf] 5– æu[xdGqfnosf] eQf yfk]/ ef8fsf] snd
dfGotf /fVb}gg pgL /fHo Joj:yfsf] ¿kdf b]lvG5 eg] rnfpg] rng g]kfndf k~rfotLsfndf emflËPsf] xf] . Tof] rng clxn] klg
rln/x]s} 5 . ;fdflhs bnfn ;/sf/ ag]kl5 To;nfO{ cem tLj| kfl/Psf]
rfxG5g ju{ 5ße] ; df cyjf ;f/df bnfn
k'h
F LjfbL ;+;lbo Joj:yfsf] cEof; 5 . ut ebf}df k|sf08 lu/ˆtf/ x'gf;fy 3';k}l7of, zÍf:kb / sf/afxLdf
k/]sf JolQmx¿ / ;+jfbbftfx¿sf] bf¿kf6L rnfpg] / ef8fdf n]Vg]–n]vfpg]
cGt/lj/f]wx¿sf] xn e} /fv]sf] 5 . o;sf] g]tT[ j ;+:yfut qmd tLj| ePsf] 5 . sflGtk'/ b}lgssf] k6sk6ssf] ;dfrf/ ljZn]if0fdf
lx;fan] slty sDo'lgi6sf] ;/sf/ e"ldsfsf] ljifonfO{ lnP/ sf/afxL u/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . Tof] o:tf] gfËf] em"6,
ljgf an k|of]usf] / kfq / k|j[ltut lx;fan] s]kL lgof]lht if8\oGq / qmflGtsf/L zlQmsf lj?4 ck/fwsd{ xf] ls ;f] bfaLnfO{
k|r08x¿ b]vfkl//x]sf 5g\ . g]skf :yfoL ;ldltåf/f @)&% sflQs !* df hf/L kl/kq a'Fbf g+= @ df
dfWodaf6 klg ug{ qmflGt s] xf] < elgPsf] 5 . ……bdgsf lj?4 kf6L{n] u/]sf] ;‹if{, sd/]8 k|jQmfsf] g]t[Tjdf
;lsG5 / xfdL u5f}{ qmflGt eg]sf] d]/f] larf/df aGbL sd/]8x¿n] lx/f;tleq u/]sf] ;‹if{ / g]kfnL hgtfsf] ;dy{gn] of]
kl/jt{g, ¿kfGq0f xf] o;n] ;dfhdf n8fOFdf ;fdflhs kmfl;jfbsf] xf/ / xfd|f] kf6L{sf] lht eof] . …:yfoL ;ldlt
eg]/ g} cfˆgf] ePsf] cGofk'0f{, lae]bk'0f{, 9+uaf6 a}7sdf dxf;lrj sd/]8 ljKnjn] l/xfx'g'ePsf sd/]8 k|sf08nfO{ a}7sdf
:jfut ug{ k|:tfj ug{'eof] / a}7sn] d'¶L p7fP/ :jfut u¥of] .Ú To;sf/0f
/fHo ;Qfn] lyrf]ldrf]df /fv]sf]
qmflGtsf] dfu{bzs juL{o ;dfhn] ef]Ug'k/]sf y'k}| k|sf/sf ePsf] xf]Og ls pgLx¿n] To:tf] ck]Iff u5{g\ . pgLx¿sf] xs{tnfO{ cyf{t\
c;dfgtfx¿sf] cGTo u/]/ b]zsf] k|rf/o'4 / kmf}hL o'4nfO{ cf7f}F k"0f{ a}7s -@)&% ;fpg_df kfl/t /fhgLlts
l;4fGt g} PsLs[t hgqmflGt eg]/ /fv]sf 5g . pgL o'4 k|d] L /fli6«o :jflwGtf cv08tfdfly cfpg] k|:tfjsf] k[i7 ! df elgPsf] 5, …lu/ˆtf/kl5 k|ltlqmofjfbLx¿n] cg]sf}F
/ËLlj/ËL ljiffn' k|rf/;d]t u/]/ kf6L{leq / aflx/ e|d kfg]{ v]n;d]t v]n] .Ú
e}lbPsf] eP PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] gfddf hgo'4 @ jf c? s'g} vt/fx¿af6 d'Qm ug{sf] nflu p7fg k|jQmf lu/ˆtf/ x'gf;fy To;nfO{ tLj| kfl/of] . ljifd /fhgLlts kl/l:ylt /
ul/g] lab|fx] g} qmflGt xf] o;n] aGb's s]xL 6fg}{ g;lsg] Jo:ttfsfsf/0f s]xL lbg k|jQmfsf] gfdaf6 lj1lKt
o'4nfO{ bzf{pg] vfnsf] gfd klg /fVg ;Sy] xf]nf t/ To;f] xf]Og{ lagf klg b]z, hgtf / ;dfhnfO{ gcfpFbf;fy …dgsf] n•' £o";FuÚ vfg yflnof]– k|sf08 sf/afxLdf . Tof] t
¿kfGt/0f ug{ ;S5 / /fli6«otfnfO{ g]skfdf ljifocg';f/ dxf;lrj, k|jQmf, sfof{no ;lrj cyjf ;Ë7g k|dv ' n]
pgn] ug{ vf]hs ] f] qmflGt laWjf+;Tds xf]Og{ kl/jt{gsf nflu xf] alnof] agfP/ b]zsf] :jfledfgnfO{ cfk;L ;/;Nnfxdf lj1lKt lbg] rng 5 . k|jQmfsf] lj1lKt b]Vgf;fy csf]{
7f8f] agfpg] ub{5 . o;n] aGb'snfO{ syf ;'? u/]–k|sf08sf] k'g/fudg . sltko ;+jfbbftfx¿n] cfˆgf] ;dfrf/sf]
qmflGt rfxG5g cfd'n kl/jt{g rfxG5g / ;Dj[4 / clwsf/ k|fKt ;fWo dfGb}g t/ qmflGtnfO{ k'0f{tf ;|f]t g]skfsf] :yfoL ;ldlt atfpFb} lxF8]sf 5g\ . g]skfsf s]Gb|Lo
lbgsf] nflu ;fwgsf] sfd ug{ ;Sb5 ;b:ox¿nfO{;d]t kf6L{ :yfoL ;ldlt;Fu kx'Fr ;xh 5}g eg] sf7df8f}Fsf]
g]kfnLsf] eljZo rfxG5g . a? hgtf / b]zsf] gfddf /fhgLlt eGg] dfGotf /fVb5 . uNnL / u[x dGqfnosf 9f]sf rxfg]{ slyt lau xfp;sf kmG6';x¿n]
u/]/ ;Qfsf] afu8f]/ ;DxfNg k'us ] f slty bnfn e|i6x¿ g} ca s'/f /xG5 ljKnjn] ug{ To;k|sf/sf] bfaL ug{' slt xf:of:kb 5, ;xh} a'‰g ;lsG5 .
vf]h]sf] s] xf] ? t/ d]/f] larf/df g]skf u'6x¿sf] ;+o'Qm df]rf{ xf]Og . dxf;lrj ljKnjn] g} ;a} s'/fsf]
u0ftGqsf] a'O{ r9]/ b]zsf ;Dk'0f{ ;Dkltx¿df a|Xdn'6 drfO{ ljKnj, aGb's k|wfg xf] qmflGt clGtd lg0f{o u5{g\ . sf/afxLdf k/]sfx¿ d"ntM kqsf/ ;Ë7g / :jf:Yodf
xf] . pgLx¿ tLg k|sf/sf lyP–
aGb'saf6 dfq ug{ ;lsG5 eGg]
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g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{nfO{ k|ltjGw nufP/ o'4df ws]Nb}5g cfhsf] cGt/lj/f]wx¿sf] xn ljgf an -u_ c/fhs / x'nd'ndf km;]sfx¿
k|of]usf] dfWodaf6 klg ug{ ;lsG5 cg'zf;gdf ga:g] / efjgfdf el8\sPsf t/ Odfgbf/ sd/]8x¿nfO{
ldlt;Dd cfO{ k'Ubf s'g If]q c5't 5 lolgx¿ gd'l5Psf] ;a} ;a} / xfdL u5f}{ eg]/ g} cfˆgf] qmflGtsf] ¿kfGt/0f u/]/ sfddf kmsf{pg] k|of; eO/x]sf] 5 . j}B g]t[Tjsf] g]skf–
dfu{ b zs l;4fGt g} PsLs[ t dfcf]jfbLsf] tfD;flnª clwj]zg, w'lnv]ndf rNb} ubf{ /ftL !@ ah] ;"o{
7fpFdf sld;g vfg], e|i6frf/ ug],{ b]zsf glbgfnfx¿ ef/tnfO{ hgqmflGt eg]/ /fv]sf 5g . pgL ;'jb] L …klysÚn] zÍf:kb eGb} xf]6n ] af6 nv]6s
] f / zlQm a:g]taf6 k};f
o' 4 k| ] d L e} l bPsf] eP PsLs[ t vfP/ qmflGtsf/L cfGbf]ngsflj?4 em"7 / ck/fwdf ;+nUgx¿sf] lx;falstfa
;'lDkg], lab]zL x:tIf]knfO{ a9fjf lbg], lab]zL gful/sx¿nfO{ hgqmflGtsf] gfddf hgo'4 @ jf ;dodf km};nf x'G5 g} . ;a} g]tf, sfo{stf{ / Odfgbf/ klÍ\t :ki6 x'gk' b{5 .
c? s'g} o'4nfO{ bzf{pg] vfnsf] gfd nf]nf]kf]tf], cj;/jfb w]/} l6Sb}g . …Ps kfOnf cufl8, b'O{ kfOnf k5fl8Ú
gful/stf lbg] h:tf /fi6«3ft oL bnfn ;+;lbo kf6L{x¿af6 klg /fVg ;Sy] xf]nf t/ To;f] xf]O{g gfdsf] cfˆgf] rlr{t /rgfdf n]lgg eGg'x'G5, …ltdL sf];Fu ;Ët ub{5f}F
egclg ltdL sf] /x]5f} eGg] s'/f d ltdLnfO{ atfpFnf . ltd|fkIfdf s;n]
e}/fv]sg 5g\ o;sf] la/f]w ubf{ lolgx¿n] cfˆgf] n'6sf] :ju{ pgn] ug{ vf]hs ] f] qmflGt laWjf+;Tds
dt k|bfg ub{5 eg, clg ltd|f] /fhgLlts cg'xf/ s:tf] /x]5 eGg] s'/f d
xf]O{g kl/jt{gsf nflu xf] qmflGt ltdLnfO{ atfpFnf .Ú To;sf/0f cfˆgf] JolQmut k|lti7fdfq Vofn ug]{n]
arfO{ /fVg laKnjn] ug{ vf]hs ] f] qmflGtnfO{ o'4sf] ;+1f lbg] / rfxG5g cfd'n kl/jt{g rfxG5g x'Nn8afhx¿sf] nx}nx}df cfk"mnfO{ aaf{b ug{'x'Fb}g . cj;/jfb hlt;'s}
/ ;Dj[4 / clwsf/ k|fKt g]kfnLsf] n'sfpg vf]h] klg n'Sb}g . To;sf] s'g} eljio klg x'Fb}g . cj;/jfbsf]
bdg ug]{ hf] ;kgf b]lv/x]sf 5g\ of] sbflk k"/f x'g ;Sb}g hgtfn] eljZo rfxG5g . a? hgtf / ;Gbe{df n]lgg eGg'xG' 5, …cj;/jfbL JolQmsf] :jefj g} s:tf] x'G5 eg]
b]zsf] gfddf /fhgLlt u/]/ ;Qfsf]
;lx / unt 5'6o\ fpg' k5{ 5'6o\ fp5g / /fi6«jfbL zlQmnfO{ afu8f]/ ;DxfNg k'us ] f slty bnfn
o;n] s'g} klg k|ZgnfO{ slxNo} lglZrt tyf 7f8f] ¿kn] k|:t't ug{ vf]Hb}g .
p;n] ;w}F s'g} aLrsf] af6f] e]§fpg] bfp vf]h]/ a;]sf] x'G5 . b'O{ k/:k/
qmflGtsf/L zlQmnfO{ ;fy lbg]5g / PsLs[t hgqmflGtnfO{ lahodf e|i6x¿ g} u0ftGqsf] a'O{ r9]/ lj/f]wL b[li6sf]0fx¿sfaLrdf ;k{h:tf] ;NanfO/x]sf] x'G5 / b'j} b[li6sf]0fl;t
…;xdt x'g]Ú k|of; ub{5 . ;'Gb/tf / s'¿ktf, ;To / c;Tosf aLrsf]
b]zsf ;Dk'0f{ ;Dkltx¿df a|Xdn'6
k'¥ofpg] 5g\ . drfO{ /fv]sf 5g To;sf] 9fs5f]k ;‹if{df aLrsf] s'g} af6f] x'Fb}g .
ug{nfO{ hj/h:t ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] bnfn ;Qfsf dltof/x¿n] kbd /fO{nfO{ af]s]/ n8\g vf]h]sf 5g\ . t/
ePsf] h:tf] ljsf; lgdf{0f ;d[4L / x'g gl;/x]sf] jt{dfg kl/j]zdf kl/sNkgf u/]sf] x'G5 oyfl:yltsf g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{nfO{ k|ltjGw e'Q] xltof/ af]s]/ n8fOF lhltGg . ;tLb]jLsf] nf; af]s]/ lxF8\g] kfun
ljsf;df k'0f{ la/fd nfu]sf] h:tf] ljKnjn] kl/sNkgf u/]sf] PsLs[t la?4 cGofo, lje]b, ;fdflhs s' nufP/ o'4df ws]Nb}5g cfhsf] dxfb]jsf] xfnt sflGtk'/ b}lgssf] x'g' b'Mvb\ ljifo xf] . kbd /fO{ s''g}
/x:odo syfn] xf]Og, pgL kf6L{sf] 3f]lift / cfwf/e"t gLltlj?4 ;fj{hlgs
b] l vP klg Tof] /fHo / ;dfh hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzf g]kfn / g]kfnL ;+:sf/ / s'l/ltsf la?4 / juL{o ldlt;Dd cfO{ k'Ubf s'g If]q c5't ¿kdf uPkl5 ;fj{hlgs ¿kdf g} sf/afxLdf k/]sf x'g\ . pgL ut df3b]lv
kl/jt{gsf] j]nf b]zn] v]Kg' k/]sf] hgtfsf] ljrdf k|If]kg e}/x]sf] 5 . kIfw/tfnfO{ cfTd;fy u/]sf] x'G5 5 lolgx¿ gd'l5Psf] ;a} ;a} lhDd]jf/Ldf lyPgg\ . ;/sf/n] kf6L{nfO{ k|ltaGw nufPkl5 u[x;lrj;Fu
k|zj kL8f xf] Tof]f kL8f g]kfnsf] g]= s= kf= dxf;lra ljKnjn] hgo'4n] ;'Gb/ b]z / ;d[4 hgtfsf] rfxfgf 7fpFdf sld;g vfg], e|i6frf/ ug]{, ;Dks{df a:g] / kf6L{sflj?4 af]Ng yfn]kl5 sf/afxLdf k/]sf x'g\ . sd/]8
kl/jt{g;+u hf]l8g cfosf sof} :yflkt u/]sf d"No dfGotf, cfbz{ ;lxt o'4sf] kl/sNkgf u/]sf] x'G5 . b] z sf glbgfnfx¿ ef/tnfO{ k|sf08 / jftf{sf] rrf{;uF pgsf] s'g} ;fOgf] 5}g . sflGtk'/sf] bnfn r:dfn]
36gfqmd ;+u} xfd|} b]zsf] O{ltxf;nfO{ / g]kfn / g]kfnL hgtfsf] kl/jt{gsf] Tof] o'4 /fHo;Qfn] bjfpg lg:t]h ;'lDkg], lab]zL x:tIf]knfO{ a9fjf x]bf{ kbd /fO{ Odfgbf/ xf]nfG, ;j{xf/f tyf qmflGtsf/L r:dfn] x]bf{ pgL
s]nfP/ x]g]{ xf] eg] klg ;dfh cfsf+IffnfO{ slyt ;+;bjfbL kf6L{ / kfg{ / cfˆgf] /fHoJoj:yf sfod lbg] , lab] z L gful/sx¿nfO{ sfo/, nf]eLkfkL tyf :jfledfg gePsf nf; x'g\ . …;k{sf] aRrfdf ljif /
¿kfGt/0f / kl/jt{ g sf nflu hgo'4sf] kxnstf{ k|r08x¿sf] /fVgsf] nflu ljb|fx] L zlQmnfO{ lg:t]h gful/stf lbg] h:tf /fi6«3ft oL dfG5]sf] aRrfdf OvÚ ePgeg] d/]t'No x'G5 eG5g\ . h;sfaf/]df kf6L{n]
hxflgof /fgf zf;gsf la?4sf] ldlneutdf wf]sf, a]O{dflg, u4f/L kfg{ x/]sf sf]l;; ug]{ ub{5 eg] bnfn ;+;lbo kf6L{x¿af6 e}/fv]sg cfˆgf] wf/0ff :ki6 kfl/;s]sf] 5 . g]skfsf ljifodf sflGtk'/df cfPsf
cfGbf]ng xf];\ of k|hftGqsf nflu u/] / 5f] 8 L ;s] kl5 To;sf] lab|f]xL zlQmn] cfˆgf] k|efj la:tf/ 5g\ o;sf] la/f]w ubf{ lolgx¿n] ;dfrf/x¿ u[xdGqfno / euf}8f tyf 3';k}l7ofx¿n] agfPsf] / sflGtk'/sf]
ul/Psf cfGbf]ng xf];\ @))& ;fn lg/Gt/tfdf g]kfnL df}lnstfnfO{ ug{ /fHo ;QfnfO{ sdhf]/ agfpg cfˆgf] n'6sf] :ju{ arfO{ /fVg cd"s JolQmsfgfddf k|sflzt u/]sf] ;xh} a'lemG5 . lsgls kqsf/sf]
)#^ ;fn $^/$& ;fn, jf dfcf]jfbL hf]8]/ ;dfh, ju{, b]zsf] jt{dfg /fHosf sdhf]/ c+ux¿df k|xf/ ub}{ laKnjn] ug{ vf]h]sf] qmflGtnfO{ efiff, z}nL / u'Ktr/sf] efiff, z}nL cfwf/e"t ¿kdf g} km/s x'G5. efskf -
kf6L{n] ;+rfng u/]sf] )%@ ;fnsf] kl/j]z, qmflGts} ¿kdf lasf; ePsf] hfg] / cGtdf /fHo ;Qf cfˆgf] o'4sf] ;+1f lbg] / bdg ug]{ hf] dfcf]jfbL_ lj?4 vlgg', k};f vfP/ km]s Go'h k|;f/0f ug{' / ;g;gLk"0f{
;dfrf/ a]r]/ vr{kr{ wfGg' ef/tLo ;~rf/sf] d"n k|j[lQ b]lvG5 . sflGtk'/
z;:q !) jlif{o hgo'4 xf];\ jf k|lawLnfO{ PsLs[t u/]/ g]kfndf xftdf lng] p2]Zo ;lxt 3f]if0ff ;kgf b]lv/x]sf 5g\ of] sbflk k"/f b}lgs ToxL wGbfdf 5 lsgls bnfn ;/sf/ / lbNnLsf] rfs/L gu/L p;n]
hgo'4sf] huaf6 p7]sf] ^@/^# sf] j} 1 flgs ;dfhjfbL Joj:yfsf] ul/Psf] o'4 x'G5 . Tof] Gofok'0f{ o'4 x'g ;Sb}g hgtfn] ;lx / unt gh/fgf / lj1fkg¿kL tna kfpFbg} . g]skfn] c?0f–#, lj/f6gu/l:yt
hgcfGbf]ng xf];\ lo ;a} cfGbf]ng kl/sNkgf u/]/ hgtfdf uO{/x]sf] xf] o;n] cfjZostfdf lx+;fnfO{ klg 5'6\ofpg' k5{ 5'6o\ fp5g / /fi6«jfbL ef/tLo lzlj/ / dflyNnf] s0ff{nLdf k|xf/ u/]kl5 sflGtk'/ b}lgs cem a9L
qmflGt jf o'4 h] gfdn] kl/eflift ;Gbe{df g]= s= kf= jf ljKnjn] ug{ k|of]udf Nofpg] ub{5 eg] csf]{ o'4 zlQmnfO{ qmflGtsf/L zlQmnfO{ ;fy g]skfsflj?4 vlgPsf] 5 . l;+xb/af/ / lbNnL b/af/sf sfl/Gbfx¿cfˆgf]
u/] klg oL ;dfh ¿kfGt/0f / :jtGq vf]h]sf] qmflGt xf] jf o'4 s] xf] eGg] eg]sf] cfˆgf lglZrt nIf, p2]Zox¿ lbg]5g / PsLs[t hgqmflGtnfO{ ;dfrf/sf] k'li6 ug{ cfjZos 7fGb}gg\ . t/ oL gf}/ËL bnfnx¿ hgtfsf]
:jflwg, ;d[ 4 g] k fnsf nflu ax; / rf;f]sf] laifo kSs} klg 5 k'/f ug]{ cfˆgf] k|efj ljZje/L lahodf k'¥ofpg] 5g\ . lgu/fgL / lx;falstfaeGbf aflx/ 5}gg\ .æ
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a9\bf] /fhgLlts c/fhstf


pk] G b| emf g} sQ{Jo 7fg] . kmntM /fhg}lts cfdfa'jf gePsf 5f]/fx¿ klg hjfg zf;g ug{ kfO{G5 ls eg]/ zlQm
dxfg\ a}1flgs M ;/ cfOHofs Go'6g
;/ cfOHofs Go'6gsf] hGd ;g\ !^$@ l8;]Da/ @% sf lbg Oª\Nof08sf]
pN;yf]k{ eGg] 7fpFdf ePsf] lyof] . Go'6g ljZj ljVoft j}1flgs x'gx' G' 5 .
pxfF cfˆgf] j}1flgsTjn] ljZje/L rrL{t x'ge ' Psf] 5 . Go'6g Kf|sl[ t k]d
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/f0ffsfnLg lg/+s'z elgPsf c/fhstf JofKt eof] / hgtf b'a} x'G5g\ . 6'x'/f jRrfx¿ h:t} oxfFsf cEof; ug'{ k6 d'vt{ fafx]s c¿ s]xL
zf;g k|0ffnL d'v} sfg"gsf] cfwf/df zlQmaf6 6fl9b} u¥of] . /fhgLlts pBf]uwGwfx¿ b]lvPsf 5g\ . b]z x'Fb}g . cyjf åGånfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug{ cToGt} ltI0f a'l4sf j}1flgs lyP . Go'6gsf] :ofpsf] syf cg';f/ :ofpsf]
!)$ jif{ l6s]sf] lyof] . ;+;f/el/ cl:y/tf slt;Dd a9\of] ls )%@ hh{/ cj:yfdf cfª 9fSg ;ls /x]sf] lgotjz ul/Psf sfo{x¿ x'g\ ls, af]6d'gL al;/x]sf] a]nfdf :ofp Go'6gsf] 6fpsf]df v:of] / To;}nfO{ cfwf/
k|hftflGqs Joj:yfsf] ;'vb 5fofdf ;fndf Psflt/ dfcf]jfbL åGå v8f 5}g g]tfx¿ 6fO{sf]6df ;';lHht eO{ /fhgLlts j[tdf z+sf pAh]sf] 5 .
/dfO{ /x]sf hgtfsf] d'v d08nsf] eof] eg] csf]{lt/ )%* h]7 !( s/f]8f}s+ f] ufl8 r95g\ . Jofkf/ 3f6f ;/sf/n] ;+;bdf NofPsf] dLl8of
v'lzofnL b]v]/ g]kfnL hgtfn] klg ut] b/jf/ xTofsf08 eof] . !) va{df k'Ubf bnx¿ Jofkf/Lx¿af6 sfplG;n ljw]ossf] lj¿4 b]zel/
@))& ;fndf k|hftflGqs elgPsf To;kl5 ;/sf/sf] sfo{sf/L clwsf/ !) ca{sf b/n] rGbf lnG5g\ . ljb]zL eO{ /x]sf] kqsf/x¿sf] cfGbf]ngn]
cfGbf]ng yfn] / /f0ff zf;gsf] 1fg]Gb| cfˆgf] xftdf lnof] . cfkm}n] ;+:yfx¿n] g]kfnsf] cfly{s ;j]{If0f cGttM ;+zf]wgsf] cfZjf;g kfPsf]
PstGqL zf;g k|0ffnLnfO{ kmfn] . ;[ h gf u/] s f] /fhgLlts ul/ ;/sf/sf] ;a} lgsfo e|i6frf/df 5 . t/klg cfGbf]ng /f]lsPsf] 5}g .
k|hftGqsf] :yfkgf eof] . k|hftflGqs c/fhstfsf sf/0f g]kfnL sfFu|]; lnKt /x]sf] b]vfpFbf klg ldYofs xf] ;+3Lotfsf] vf/]hL / lxGb" /fi6«sf]
;/sf/ ( dlxgfdf 9Nof] . @)!& / Pdfn] ;/sf/af6 lj:yflkt x'g eg]/ nfh dfGb}gg\ . k/lge{/tfsf] :yfkgf cfGbf]ngsf d'Vo ljifo x'g\ .
;fndf /fhfn] cfˆgf] xftdf lnPsf] afWo eof] . g]kfnL sfFu;]| / Pdfn]sf] kl/wLleq 56k6fO{ /x]sf] g]kfnL oL ljrf/sf zlQmx¿ ;+ l jwfg
k+rfotL zf;g k|0ffnL #) jif{ rNof] . JolQmut :jfy{ s f] c:j:y hgtfnfO{ oxfFsf l6=jL=n] sfe|]df ;efsfndf lj/f]wdf lyP eg] clxn]
PstGqL zf;g Joj:yfsf] lj¿4 k|lt:kwf{df /fHo;Qf /fhfsf] xftdf cb'jfaf6 ls;fgn] !) nfv sdfPsf klg lj/f]wsf :j/ 3GsfpFb} 5g\ .
k|hftGq k'g:yf{kgf u/fpg ;+3if{x¿ u¥of] / dfcf]jfbL åGå klg lzv/df 5g\ . wgs' § fdf d' n faf6 dgUo} dw]znfO{ r'gf}tL lb+b} cfˆgf] dgf]gs
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rNb} /Xof] eg] ;+3if{nfO{ lg:t]h kfg{ k'Uof] . ;/sf/af6 lj:yflkt ePsf cfdbfgL ls;fgn] u/]sf 5g\ cflb & k| b ] z sf] ;+ 3 Lo nf] s tflGqs
/fHo;Qfn] klg leGg leGg bfjk]r + sf] b'a} bnx¿n] ;8s cfGbf]ng ubf{ ;dfrf/ b]vfP/ cfˆgf] lgsDdfkgnfO{ u0ftGqsf] ;+ljwfg hf/L ubf{ clt
cEof; ub}{ cfˆgf] ;QfnfO{ l6sfpg hgtfn] kTofPg . logsf] Joyfsyf 9fs5f]k ug{ k6Ss} nfh dfGb}gg\ . /dfPsf bnx¿ clxn] 3lGs /x]sf]
e/ dUb'/ k|oTgx¿ ub}{ /Xof] . ;'Gg hgtf ;8sdf cfpg} 5f8\of] . )^% ;fndf cfGbf]ngaf6 :yflkt lj/f]wsf :j/x¿df df}g :jLs[lt lbO{
cGttM ;+3if{sf wSsfx¿ em]Nb} /fhf /fhf 1fg] G b| s f] k| T oIf ;+ljwfg;efn] hgtfsf] ;+ljwfg agfP/ /x]sf 5g\ . cgfjZos sfo{df zlQm
g]t[Tjsf] k+rfotL Joj:yf @)$^ zf;gsfndf clxn] g]kfnL sfFu; ]| df hgkIfLo ;/sf/ Nofpnf eGg] vr{ ul/ /x]sf] ;/sf/ hg;/f]sf/sf
;fnsf] hg cfGbf]ngdf 9Nof] eg] ;efklt kbdf cf;Lg z]/axfb'/ ljZjf; hgtfn] lnPsf lyP . t/ laifonfO{ cf]em]ndf kfg{ vf]lh /x]sf]
/fhfnfO{ j}wflgs /fhtGqsf] ;Ddfg b]pjf klg /fhfnfO{ ;dy{g u/]/ ;Qfdf b]lvPsf # bfz{lgs bnx¿n] 5 . !% dlxgf lalt ;Sbf klg hg
lbP/ /flvof] . hflu/ vfg k'u] . j}rfl/s ljrng, ;+ljwfgnfO{ k|To'Tkfbs dfq agfPg ck]Iff k"/f x'g] cfzdf /x]sf g]kfn
j} w flgs /fhtGq;lxtsf] l;4fGtk| l tsf] c8fg gePsf, b]zdf ;fDk|bflos ljefhg /]vf klg hgtfsf] of] ;/sf/k|ltsf] cf:yf agfP/ pxfFn] u'?Tjfsif{0fsf] lgod kQf nufpg\' eof] . pxfFn] !^*^ df
k|hftflGqs ;/sf/sf] k'gM cEof; kbnf] n ' k , :jfy{ d f 8' a ] s f, lv+Rof] . ;a}sf] xs clwsf/ ;+ljwfgdf 36\g yfn]sf] 5 . k|z:t cg's"ntf u'?Tjfsif{0fsf] lgod kQf nufpg' ePsf] lyof] eg] !^*& df rfnsf]
z'¿ eof] . /fhgLlts k|lt:kwf{df nf]stflGqs zlQmsf] cu'jfO{ ug]x{ ¿ ;' / lIft ug] { gfddf /fHo;Qfsf] kfPsf] of] P]ltxfl;s ;/sf/k|lt lgodx¿ k|ltkfbg ug{' ePsf] lyof] . Go"6gsf] rfn ;DaGwL lgodnfO{ tn
b'O{ bn g]kfnL sfFu|]; ax'dtsf] lbUe|ldt x'g yfNbf /fhgLlts j[tdf kf/Dkl/s rl/qnfO{ oyfjt\ /fvL hgcf:yf 36\g' lgZro klg z'e pNNf]v ul/Psf] 5 .
;/sf/ agfof] / Pdfn] k|ltkIfdf c/fhstf cfpg' :jfefljs lyof] . cfˆgf] bnLo jr{:j s;/L sfod ug]{ ;+st] xf]Og{ . rfnsf] klxnf] lgod M rfnsf] klxnf] lgod cg';f/ k|To]s lk08dfly
a:of] . #) jif{ nfdf] ;+3if{df cfly{s sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngdf pNn]vgLo eGg] sfo{ l ;l4lt/ nfu] . zflGt zlQmsf] pGdfbdf elgPsf olb s'g} k|sf/sf] aflx/L ansf] k|of]u ePg eg] olb Tof] a:t' l:y/
¿kdf hh{/ eO;s]sf] oL kf6L{x¿ Tofu u/]sf Pdfn]sf zLif{:y g]tf :yfkgfsf] gfddf k| d ' v ;'wf/sf sfo{x¿ pN6f] k'N6f] tl/sfn] cj:yfdf 5 eg] l:y/ cj:yfdf / rfndf 5 eg] Pp6f ;/n /]vfdf ;dfg
;Qf glhs k'uk] l5 pRr dxTjfsf+Iff /fwfs[ i 0f d} g fnL klg kf6L{ / cGtlj{/f]wx¿nfO{ uf}8+ /fvL ank"js { k|:t't x'Fbf x'g hfg] c;Gt'ngn] rfndf g/f]sLsg rln/xG5 .
af]s]sf lyP . g]kfnL sfFu|];n] :ki6 hgtfk|ltsf] bfloTj la;]{/ /fhfsf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] ;+ljwfgsf] Jofks lj/f]w NofPsf] åGåsf] eflubf/ sf] x'g] < rfnsf] bf];|]f lgod M rfnsf] bf];|f] lgod cg';f/ k|j]u an;Fu
ax' d t kfPkl5 ;/sf/ agfpg] z/0fdf cf>o lng k'u] . /fhfn] eof] . clxn] ;fxL ;+ljwfgk|lt oL # b'O{ dxfzlQm;Fu s"6gLlts ;DaGwsf] k|fk] f];gn x'G5 eg] k|ju] lk08;Fu OGe;{nL k|fk] f];gn x'G5 .
lhDd] j f/L kfof] . /fHo;Qfdf k|wfgdGqLsf] nflu b/vf:t cfXjfg bfz{lgs bnx¿ leqaf6 c;Gt'i6 ;Gt'ng sfod ug{ g;Sg'n] g]kfnsf] rfnsf] t];|f] lgod M rfnsf] t];|f] lgod cg';f/ Kf|To]s lqmofdf
cfPkl5 ;a} cfly{s ;'b[9Ls/0fdf ubf{ dfwj g]kfnn] klg lgj]bg b]lvPsf 5g\ . /fhgLlts j[taf6 /fhgLlts If]qdf cfpg] e"OFrfnf]sf] hlxn]klg a/fa/ t/ ljk/Lt k|ltqmof x'G5 .
nfu] k l5 ;+ 3 if{ d f wghg ;d] t xfn]sf lyP . kmflnPsf] /fhfnfO{ k'gZr u'xfg]{ lhDd] j f/L s;n] lng] < b] z df dxfg j}1flgs ;/ cfOHofs Go'6g ;fg} b]lv xfjfldn, 38L tyf
u'dfpg k'us ] f g]kfnL hgtfn] klg cfˆgf] :jfy{ d flng ePsf, cfjfhx¿ 3lGsg nfu] s f 5g\ . cTolws ¿kdf a9\b} uO/x]sf] cfly{s v]nf}gf nufotsf /fd|f lrqx¿ agfO/xGy] . pgn] ;g\ !^^%df SoflDj|h
;/sf/af6 cfˆg} x}l;otsf] cj;/ wgnfesf nflu /fHo;Qfdf k'Ug] Wo]o c¿n]eGbf /fhfsf] cf}lrTonfO{ g]kfnL clgoldttfaf6 cfsfGt g]kfnL ljZjljBfnsf] l6«g6L sn]haf6 l8Knf]df pQL0f{ u/]sf lyP . pgn] ;g\
k|fKt ug]{ cfsf+Iff kfn]sf lyP . lnPsf ljleGg vfn] bz{ g sf] sfFu|]; / ;Qf¿9 g]skfn] g} k'li6 ;dfhsf] vl:sb} uPsf] hLjg z}nLsf] !^&& b]vL cfkm'n] k9]sf] sn]hdf k|f]km];/sf] ¿kdf sfo{ u/]sf lyP . To;
JolQmut :jfy{ k"lt{sf] lbzfdf a9]sf] asfnt ub}{ hgtfnfO{ lbUe|ldt ul/ ug{ yfn]sf] 5 . ;+3Lotfk|lt cg'bf/ bfloTj s;n] lng] < k/lge{/tfsf] ;dodf klg pgn] ul0ft / e}flts lj1fgdf w]/} g} kl/If0fx¿ ul/g} /xGy]
;/sf/sf] sbdn] cfˆg} kf6L{leq cfPsf g}lts ktg ePsf g]tf /x]sf bnx¿n] ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs bnbnaf6 g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ lgsfNg] To;}sf] k|ltkmn :j¿k k|sfzdf ;ft/+u x'G5 eGg] s'/f lk|Hdaf6 cfjt{g
hGdfof] . kmntM g]kfnL sfFu|]; egfpF b fx¿af6 b] z df zflGt, u0ftGqsf] 3f]if0ff ubf{ klg o;k|lt k|lta4tf k]z u/L zlQmzfnL ;/sf/ u/L k|dfl0ft ul/lbP .
;/sf/sf] bfloTjaf6 al~rt x'g ljsf;, ;d[ l 4sf] s] cfz ug{ pbf/ b]lvPsf 5}gg\ . k|To]s !) agfpg ;kmn g]tfn] /fhgLlts Go6gsf] u'?Tjfsif{0fsf] lgodsf] ;fy} pxfFsf] ;Dk"0f{ j}1flgs pknlAw /
k'Uof] . cfˆgf] bfj s'/]/ a;]sf] ;lsG5 . k|hftflGqs zlQmsf] ¿kdf jif{df åGå v8f ug]{ logLx¿n] g} c;kmntf Jof]xf]bf{ sn+s af]Sg] ls cNj6{ cfOG:6fOg nufot w]/}h;f] a}1flgsx¿sf] ljrf/nfO{ dgg ubf{
k|ltkIfsf] c;xof]u t 5Fb} lyof], k|lti7f xfl;n u/]sf oL kf6L{x¿sf] a;fn]sf] rng cg';f/ k'gZr åGå gaf]Sg] < ofjt\ cg'Ql/t k|Zg clxn] Go'6gsf] j}1flgs dfgl;stfsf] ljifo :ki6 x'G5 . j}1flgs dfgl;stfsf]
cfˆgf] kf6L{n] klg ;xof]u ug{ lqmofsnfkn] kf6L{ abgfd x'g], v8f u/L ;+3LotfnfO{ kmNg ;lsG5 ;/sf/ ;dIf pkl:yt 5g\ . d'Vo cfwf/ ;Gb]x xf], ljZjf; xf]Og .
5f8\of] . lul/hf k|;fb sf]O{/fnf sn+ l st x' g ] cflb s' / fx¿af6 ls eGg] cfzosf] dfxf}n tof/ kfg{ ljutsf ;/sf/n] kl/l:yltjz h;n] cfFv
F f lrDn]/ ljZjf; ub{5, Tof] slxNo} klg j}1flgs x'g ;Sb}g .
g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/sf] lj¿4 g]kfnL lsl~rt klg g8/fpg] s'/f jL/tf /fhgLlts ultxLgtf NofO{Psf] efg cfPsf cj/f]wsf sf/0f tyf k"0f{ p;n] j}1flgsTj k|fKt ug{ c;dy{ x'G5 . Go'6' gn] k'/gf dfGotfx¿nfO{
sfFu|]; s} #^ ;] u'6n] l;+xb/jf/ k|bz{g xf]Og, lgn{Hhtfsf] k/fsfi7f x'g yfn]sf] 5 . sfo{sfn sfd ug{ glbP/ ljsf;sf x'ax' :jLsf/ ug'e { Psf] eP g t pxfFdf a}1flglsTj x'GYof], g t u'?Tjfsif{0fsf]
cufl8 cfˆg} kf6L{sf] ;/sf/sf] xf] . lg/+s"z hxflgof zf;gaf6 cfk" m nfO{ s§/ qmflGtsf/L / sfo{df afwf k/]sf] bf]if b]vfP/ cfˆgf] lgod, rfn ;DaGwL lgod / cGo j}1flgs dfGotfx¿ kl/sNkgf ug{]
/fhLgfdf dfUg lbgx'F h'n'; lgsfNg d'lQm kfPsf] of] b]z ^* jif{sf] kl/jt{gsf/L ¿kdf lrgfpg] g]skf :jfy{nfesf] s'/fnfO{ 9fs5f]k u/L ;fdy{ pxfFdf x'GYof] . t;y{ k'/gf dfGotfx¿nfO{ r'gf}tL lbg;Sg] Go'6g
yfn] . b]zdf /fhgLlts c/fhstf cjlwdf ljsf;sf] km8sf] dfg{ dfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf k|r08 Pdfn]sf] cfPsf h:t} of] zlQmzfnL ;/sf/ cfhklg dxfg j}1flgs dflgg' x'G5 .
al9 /x]sf] a]nf g]kfnL sfFu|];sf] g;s]sf]af6 /fhfjfbL, g]kfnL sfFu; ]| pb/:y eO{ cfˆgf] cl:tTj hf]ufP . klg ToxL rng cg';f/ rNg] xf] ls dxfg j}1flgs ;/cfOHofs Go'6g ;g\ !^*( df ljZjljBfnosf]
ax'dt ;/sf/ sfo{sfnsf] dWodf g} / Pdfn] cflb zlQmsf] Wo]o ;Qfdf dg gk/fpg] sf]xL ;z:q åGålt/ nfu] eGg] z+sf JofKt 5 . ;/sf/sf] k|ltlglwsf] ¿kdf kfln{ofd]06sf] ;b:o ePsf lyP . To;}u/L pgL ;g\
9Nof] . To;kl5 Pdfn]sf] ;/sf/sf] k'uL wgnfe ug]{ dfq b]lvof] . eg] sf]xL zflGtk"0f{ cfGbf]ngsf/L zlQmzfnL :j¿k b]v/] klg o;n] !&)# df /f]on ;f];fo6L, n08gsf] cWoIf eO cfhLjg cQm kbdf /xL
ToxL xljut eof] . gjf]lbt zlQmsf] ¿kdf pbfPsf ag] . dw]zsf b'O{ bnx¿ klg ;Qf¿9 ;'zf;g Nofpnf / hgtfsf] hLjg sfd u/] . ;g\ !&@& sf] dfr{ @) df n08gdf pgsf] d[To' x'g k'Uof] .
k|ltkIfsf] ;j{dfGo bfloTjaf6 dfcf]jfbL, dw]zsf zlQmx¿ klg g] s kfsf u' n fd ag] . ;a} z}nLdf ;'wf/ xf]nf eGg] s'/fdf jt{dfgdf ;/ cfOHofs Go'6g xfd|f] dfem x'gx' G' g t/ klg pxfFn] k|fKt
al~rt /x\g] rng Pdfn] g} a;fn]sf] cu|hx¿ s} cg'ofoL ag] . kl/jt{gsf/L zlQmnfO{ lgNb} b'Ol{ txfO{ cy{ l jb\ , /fhgLlts ljZn] i fs, ug'{ ePsf] j}1flgs ;kmntf xfd|f] nflu dfu{bz{s l;4fGt ag]sf] 5 . pxfFn]
lyof] / o;sf] lzsf/ Pdfn] klg t/ hgtfdf efif0f ug{ cfpg] ax'dt lnP/ ag]sf] zlQmzfnL g]skf a'l4lhjL dfq xf]Og ;Qf¿9 kf6L{sf lbg' ePsf] rfn ;DalGw lgod, u'?Tjfsif{0f ;DalGw lgod / k|sfzdf ;ft
eof] . k| h ftflGqs ;/sf/ hf]sf]lx klg Pscsf{sf] bf]if b]vfpFb} ;/sf/df bDe cfpg' :jfefljs xf] . zLif{ ;d"x klg cfZj:t x'g ;s]sf] /Ë x'G5 eGg] j}1flgs dfGotf xfd|f] nflu ;w}F ;w}s F f] nflu cWoogsf] ljifo
egfpFbfx¿n] /fi6«kl| tsf] sQ{Jo la;]/{ cfk' m n] dfq ug{ ;Sg] bfjf hgtfsf] ;/f] s f/ /x] s f 5}g . o;n] klg b]zsf] ;'wf/ ug{ ag]sf] 5 . pxfFn] w]/} g} 7"nf7"nf j}1flgs dfGotfx¿ 5f]8]/ xfdLaf6
/fhgLlts j[tdf cfˆgf] cl:tTjnfO{ b] v fpF 5 g\ . b] z sf] ljsf;df sfo{qmdx¿nfO{ ultzLn agfpg'sf] ;s]g eg] b]z lgdf{0fsf] 7]Ssf ca ;bf;j{bfsf] nflu ljbf x'g' ePsf] 5 t;y{ klg xfdL Go'6gnfO{ dxfg
;w}+sf nflu sfod /fVg wg cfh{g pNn]vgLo of]ubfg s;}n] ug{ ;s]g . ;§f c¿ zlQmzfnL eO{ /f0ffx¿ h:t} s;sf] < -dw]z bk{0f lkmr/ ;]jf_ j}1flgs eg]/ ;w}F ;Ddfg ug{] ub{5f} / k'Hg] ub{5f}F . dxfg j}1flgs ;/
cfOHofs Go'6g ljZj j}1flgs ;+;f/df ;bf;j{bf cd/ x'g' x'g5 ] / pxfFsf]
j}1flgs l;4fGtn] ljZj j}1flgs ;+;f/df ;w}F nflu dfu{ bz{gsf] sfo{ ug]{

lnR5jLsfnLg ;+/rgfsf eUgfjz]if e]l6of]


sf7df8f}+ . kfFrvfn gu/kflnsf– k'/fg} cj:yfdf NofPsf 5f}F .Ú Ol~hlgo/nufot ^ hgfsf] 6f]nLn] k|f/lDes cWoogsf qmddf e]l6Psf]
eGbf cTo'lQm gxf]nf . ldng cfkmGt

cb\et' snf M vf]nfsf] 9'u+ fnfO{ hgfj/sf] cfs[lt


sf7df8f}+ . k]zfn] kz' lj1fgsf ljBfyL{ ;/f]h lh/]n;Fu cgf}7f] lsl;dsf]
& l:yt >L/fdkf6Ldf lnR5jLsfnLg k'/fgf] b/af/ If]q /x]sf] elgPsf] pQm If]qsf] pTvgg u/]sf] xf] . l;Ssfsf Ps kf6fdf …ef] l ugLÚ snf 5 . bf]nvf lh/L gu/kflnsf–$ lgjf;L lh/]n ljleGg kz'k+lIfnfO{
;+/rgfsf] eUgfjz]if tyf ;fdu|L :yfgdf @$ O~rsf] 9'Ëfsf] uf/f] sf]7f :yfgLo a"9fkfsfn] kfFrvfn If]qdf n]lvPsf] 5 eg] csf]{ kf6fdf l;+xsf] 9'+ufdf cfˆgf] snfaf6 lrq dfkm{t ptfg{ kf]Vt 5g\ . pgn] vf]nfsf]
e]l6Psf] 5 . k'/ftTj ljefusf] Ps tyf aflx/L efudf kvf{n /x]sf] dfgb] j sf] b/af/, /fgLkf] v /L, lrq /x]sf] 5 . lj1 cfrfo{sf cg';f/
6f]nLn] s/La b'O{ ;ftf pQm :yfgsf] ;+/rgf e]l6Psf] jl/i7 k'/ftTjljb\ /fgLkfgLsf] s'jf, 9'Ëw] f/f / /fgLkf]v/L ef]lugL kfnL efiff xf] . cfrfo{sf
;Dkbf cWoog Pj+ pTvggsf qmddf p4j cfrfo{n] atfP . pgsf cg';f/ If]q sl/a !@ /f]kgLdf km}lnPsf] cg' ; f/ k| f /lDes cg' ; Gwfgdf
lnR5jLsfnLg ;+/rgfsf] eUgfjz]if s/La b'O{ ;ftfsf] cjlwdf ul/Psf] h:tf ljifo eGb} cfPsf lyP . xfn e] l 6Psf ;a} ;fdu| L klg
tyf ;fdu|L km]nf kf/]sf] xf] . 6f]nLn] pTvgg–k/LIf0fsf qmddf df6f]sf :yfgLo k|sfz 9sfnsf] v]tsf u/fdf lnR5jLsfnLg x'g\ . pgsf cg';f/
oxL h]7 !% ut]b]lv >L/fdkf6Ldf efF8fsf 6'qmf, d;nf lkFWg] 9'Ëfsf] vn, v08–v08df sf]7f /x]sf] 3/sf] uf/f] e]l6Psf k|df0f lnR5jLsfnLg kfFrf},F
:yfgLoåf/f P]ltxfl;s b/af/ If]q lzjlnË, 9'Ëw] f/f, /fgLkf]v/L elgPsf] tyf kvf{n e]l6Psf] xf] . 5}6f}F, ;ftf}F / cf7f}F ztfAbLsf x'g\ .
/x]sf] elgPsf] :yfgaf6 pTvgg sfo{ :yfgdf hdLgd'lg kfsf] df6f]sf] :yfgLon] v]taf/L vghf]t ug]{ /fgLkf]v/L /x]sf] efu k'l/Pkl5
z'? u/]sf] lyof] . ljefusf k'/ftTj 8'8F af6 kfgL Nofpg agfOPsf] kfOk qmddf ;of}F jif{ k'/fgf s]xL OF6f / :yfgLon] ;f]xL :yfgdf v]tLkftL ub}{
clws[t lji0f'k;| fb kf7sn] cfOtaf/ tyf s]xL rf}8f cfsf/sf OF6f e]l6Psf] l;Ssf -dfgfÍ_, 3/sf] hu, efF8fsf cfPsf 5g\ eg] To; If]qdf Ps OF6f
6f]nLn] cfˆgf] pTvgg sfo{ ;s]sf] 5 . cfrfo{n] eg], …e]l6Psf] ;+/rgf 6'qmf km]nf kf/]kl5 k'/ftTj ljefu;Fu pBf]u ;~rflnt 5 . :yfgLo gj/fh
atfP . pgn] eg], …pTvggdf e]l6Psf / ;fdu|L lnR5jLsfnLg x'g\ .Ú ;Dkbf ;+/If0fsf] dfu ub}{ cfPsf 9sfnn] klg xfn}dfq cfˆgf] v]t 9'+ufx¿ a6'n]/ lt 9'+ufx¿df ljleGg hgjf/sf] cfs[lt agfpg ;S5g .
;fdu|L k/LIf0fsf nflu ljefu nfG5f},F kf7ssf] g]tT[ jsf] 6f]nLdf jl/i7 lyP . k'/ftTj lj1 cfrfo{;lxtsf] vghf]t ubf{ df6f]sf] 3}6F f]df s]xL l;Ssf pgn] lt 9'+ufx¿df af3, la/fnf], v/fof], d[u, nf]vs]{, s's'/ la/fnf] clg
pTvgg ul/Psf] :yfg ;'/lIft u/L k' / ftTj lj1 cfrfo{ tyf 6f]nLåf/f ut ;fn r}tdf ul/Psf] e]l6Psf] atfP . /fhs'df/ k/fh'nL, dfG5] nufotsf] cfs[lt b'?:t} sf]/]sf 5g\ .
@)&^ ;fn c;f/ ! ut] cfOtaf/ 5

lty{/fhsf] alnbfgn] lbPsf] abnfefj / /utsf] d"No Û


x'Fb}g laxfg b'O{ rf/ tf/f em/]/ hgtfsf] cfvfFdf cfFz' em/]sf] lyof] ?bf cfFvfsf cfFz' klg ;'ls ;s] k'us] f 5g\, g]kfnL hgtfn] To;sf] lx;fa
udL{ df};dsf] nfuL
pkof]uL vfg]s'/fx¿
guP Û aGb}g b]z b'O{ rf/ ;k"t qmflGtsf/L ljrf/ ks8\b} d'QmL xf]nfg, ls;fgn] cfˆgf] 5f]/f hgo'4df lstfa kSs} ug]{ g} 5g\, Tof] af6f] eg]sf]
d/]/ guP ÛÛ /fi6«slj e"lkz]/rgsf] cfGbf]ngdf Hofg cfx'tL lbg] ;k"t k7fof] ;lxb eof] cfh s]xL kfPsf] PsLs[t hgqmfGtL g} xf] qmflGtn] g} sf7df8f}+ . udL{sf] df};ddf x'g] tfkqmdsf] j[4Ln] ubf{ xfd|f] z/L/af6
of] sljtf lgs} cfbz{ dflgG5 g]kfnL slxNo} db}g{ / dfl/b}g ef}lts z/L/ 5}g, j]kQf 5 3fOt] 5 l;Ëf] g]kfnL alnbfgsf] cy{ a'‰b5 / alnbfg w]/} kl;gf cfpg] / z/L/df kfgLsf] sdL x'g], rsf]{ 3fdsf] sf/0fn] ubf{
cfGbf]ngdf . of] sljtfn] d'lQm l;Wofpb}df dfn]dfjbL ljrf/ slxNo} hgtfn] hgo'4nfO{ ;xof]u u¥of] t/ lbg]x¿sf] ;kgf / nIo r'Db5 . ;ft 5fnfsf] ;d:of lgDTofpg], ljleGg k|sf/sf le6fldg / ldg/N;x¿sf]
cfGbf]ngdf k|/] 0ff lbO/x]sf] 5 . x/]s db}{g, alnbfg x'Fb}df qmfGtL klg s]xL kfPg s]jn em'§f e|d / ;f:tL ;fn otf alnbfg lbg] dxfg jL/ sdL x'g] cfbL h:tf ;d:ofx¿ b]vfkg]{ x'G5 . o:tf ;d:ofx¿af6 aRgsf]
zf;sx¿sf lj?4 ljb|f]x ubf{ lj/ slxNo} /f]lsb}g olx ;Totf cfhsf] dfq} kfPsf 5g\ . k| r 08– zlxbx¿sf] ;kgf ;fsf/ x'g5 ] . nfuL xfdLn] udL{df s]xL vfg]s/' fx¿nfO{ vfgfdf ;dfa]; u/fpg ;S5f}+ .
;k'tx¿sf] alnbfg / /ut kf]lvPsf] PsLs[t hgqmflGtdf klg nfu" x'G5 . afj'/fdx¿sf] wf]sfn] alnbfgdfly xfd|f] dxfg tyf uf}/jzfnL kf6L{ udL{sf] nfuL dxTJk"0f{ :j:Yoa4{s vfg]s/' fx¿ –
5 of] wlt{df . /f0fflj/f]wL cfGbf]ng, alnbfg o'usf] cfjZostf klg xf] dhfs / s'7f/f3ft ePsf] 5 . g]skfn] afFsL cw'/f] qmflGtnfO{ k"/f v/a' h f
ug{ PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzf udL{sf] df};ddf z/L/df kfgLsf] dfqf sd ePdf :d/0fzQmL gf; x'g,]
lbg]z ljs dfkm{ t \ j} 1 flgs ;dfhjfb– dgl:ytL :yfoL gx'gfsf] ;fy} cGo y'k}| ;d:ofx¿ b]lvg] x'G5 . v/a'hfdf
;fDojfbdf k'Ug], Gofok'0f{ cfGbf]ng (@ k|lt;t kfgL x'G5 . o;sf] cltl/Qm le6fldg, ldg/N; / 5fnfsf]
ljZjnfO{ lgofNbf klg x/]s / dxfg hgo'4df alnbfg lbg] ;'/Iffsf] nfuL cltg} pkof]uL x'g'sf ;fy} v/a'hfsf] ;]jgn] z/L/nfO{
zlxbx¿sf] ;kgf k"/f ug{ clxn] l;tntf ;d]t k|bfg ub{5 .
qmflGtdf 7'N7'nf alnbfg xfdL qmflGtdf 5f}+, ;fd|fHojfbsf] ds}
ePsf 5g\ cem r] Uj]ef/fsf] uf]6L slyt sDo'lg:6 s]kL–k|r08sf] ds}df /x]sf] gfds pkof]uL /;fogn] 5fnfnfO{ ;'os { f] ls/0faf6 arfpg]
alnbfg;Dd cfpbf ;/sf/n] xfdLdfly k|ltaGw nufPsf] x'Fbf 5fnfdf bfu cfpgaf6 arfpF5 .
5 / kmfl;jfblt/ cu|;/ 5 . xfd|f lr;f] slkm
qmflGtsf/LnfO{ df/]/ qmflGt g]tf– sfo{stf{nfO{ kqmfp ub}{ lx/f;t lr;f] slkmsf] ;]jgn] 5fnfnfO{ ;'os { f] ls/0f / clws tfkqmdaf6 x'g]
l;Wofpg ;lsG5 eGg] lng], uf]ln rnfpg], xTof, cft+s xfgLnfO{ sd ub{5 . o'/f]kLog hg{n ckm SofG;/ k|Le]G;gn] k|sfl;t
;fd|fHojfbLx¿ km]n ePsf dRrfpb} lg/+s'ztf nf8\b} cfPsf] u/]sf] Pp6f n]v cg';f/ (#))) dlxnfx¿df ul/Psf] Ps ;e]{If0fdf
5 . hgtfsf] d'lQm / /f:6«sf] d'lQm Soflkmg ePsf] lr;f] skmL b}lgs ! sk lkpg] AoQmLdf 5fnfsf] SofG;/
5g\ dfl/bf klg r] emg cfGbf] n gsf] g] t [ T j ul//fv] s f] x'g] ;Defjgf !) k|lt;tn] sd x'g] tYo\o k|fKt ePsf] 5 .
ljZj ;j{xf/f ul/j hgtfsf] kf6L{dfly lx6\n/L z}nLdf hgtfnfO{ uf] n e] 8 f
bdg ul//x]sf] 5 ;fdlhs bnfn uf]ne]8fnfO{ /ftf] /ª lbg] /;fog Sof/f]6Lgf]O8\; (carotenoids) n]
9's9'lsdf a:g ;kmn k'h
F LjfbL ;/sf/ . bdg / kmfl;jfbn] ;'oa{ f6 cfpg] xflgsf/s k/a}hgL ls/0fnfO{ 5fnf 89fpgaf6 /f]Sg] ub{5 .
x'ge' of] . zxfbt ePsf] tL; jif{ kl5 r] / cGo 5fkfdf/sf] cl:ykGh/ pTvgg u/]/ slxNo} g t qmfGtL ;lsof], g t ;' G tnf
So'jfdf eJo ;df/f]xsf lar ;nfdL lbOPsf] lyof] nfvf} hgtfsf] cfvfFdf cfFz' em/]sf] /f]lsof], of] t emg Hjf/ef6f em} cl3 ;'Gtnfdf *) k|lt;t kfgL x'gs ' f] ;fy} kf]6fl;od klg kfOg] x'bF f
a9\5, ljZjdf x]bf{ g t lx6n/ l6s], kl;gfaf6 v]/ hfg] kfgL / kf]6f;Lodsf] dfqf k'tL{ ug{sf] nfuL of]
lyof] qmflGtsf/L ljrf/ ks8\b} d'QmL cfGbf]ngdf Hofg cfx'tL lbg] ;k"t slxNo} db}g{ g t hf/, g t RofÍfO{;s ] l6s], g pkof]uL x'g hfG5 .
/ dfl/b}g ef}lts z/L/ l;Wofpb}df dfn]dfjbL ljrf/ slxNo} db}g{ , alnbfg x'bF d} f t d';f]lng g]kfndf /f0ff l6Sof], g ;' k sf] ;fu
t kGrfot, g t /fhf l6Sof], g t ;'ksf] ;fudf le6fldg l;, le6ldg la, kmf]n6] , SoflN;od, kf]6fl;od,
qmfGtL klg slxNo} /f]lsb}g olx ;Totf cfhsf] PsLs[t hgqmflGtdf klg nfu" x'G5 . oL l6Sg] 5g\ . ;dfh ljsf;sf qmddf cfO/g cflb kfOG5 . z/L/df kfgLsf] dfqf sd x'gaf6 /f]Sg'sf] ;fy}
)))) bf;o' u l6Sg vf] H of] cGtt o;df kfOg] pkof]uL tTjn] d[uf}nfsf] sfo{nfO{ ;d]t ;xof]u ub{5 .
h;n] ;kgf afF8], o'4df xf]DofP / To;sf] g]tT[ j u/] pgL cfh lgtfGt qmflGtdf ;fdfGtjfbn] kmflnlbof], ;fdfGtjfb lu| g 6L
l6Sg x/bd k|of; u¥of] k'lhjfbn] lu|g 6Ln] z/L/df kfgLsf] dfqf ;Gt'ng u/L kfgLsf] sdL x'gaf6
alnbfg lbg]x¿sf] nIo / p2]Zo eGbf km/s af6f]df 5g\, nIo / p2]Zoaf6 efUb} vfof], clxn] k'h F Ljfb 5 of] klg x6\g] arfpg'sf] ;fy} SofG;/ / d'6'sf] /f]uaf6 klg z/L/nfO{ arfpF5 .
Hofgsf] les dfUg ;fd|fHojfbL zlQm / s]kLsf] z/0fdf k'us ] f 5g\, g]kfnL hgtfn] 5 ;dfhjfb–;fDojfb cfpg] 5 . ;nfb / uf9f xl/of] /ªsf] ;fu
To;sf] lx;fa lstfa kSs} ug]{ g} 5g\, Tof] af6f] eg]sf] PsLs[t hgqmfGtL g} xf] kmfNg vf]lhbf / l6sfpg vf]lhbf ;nfb / uf9f xl/of] /ªsf] ;fusf] ;]jgn] udL{sf] sf/0fn] kl;gfsf]
7'nf7'nf ljb|f]x / alnbfg gePsf ¿kdf v]/ uPsf] le6fldg / ldg/N;x¿sf] sdL k'tL{ ug{'sf] ;fy} ;'o{sf]
qmflGtn] g} alnbfgsf] cy{ a'‰b5 / alnbfg lbg]x¿sf] ;kgf / nIo r'Db5 . ;ft xf]Ogg\ ljZjf; 5, k'h F Ljfb kmflnG5 ls/0faf6 5fnfnfO{ hf]ufp5 .
;fn otf alnbfg lbg] dxfg jL/ zlxbx¿sf] ;kgf ;fsf/ x'g5 ] . kSsf xf], lg/Gt/tf eg] sDo'lg:6n] gl/jnsf] kfgL
lbg'k5{ . ;dfh lj1fg dfS;{jfbL gl/jnsf] kfgLdf le6fldg la, le6ldg l;, ljleGg ldlg/N;x¿, ;'u/
))))) lgod xf] Û kmfl;jfb / bdgn] qmfGtL / z/L/nfO{ rflxg] Pldgf]Pl;8x¿ kfOG5 . o;sf] kfgLn] ltvf{ d]6fpg'sf]
of] kmfl;jfbL ;/sf/n] ev{/} ef]hk'/df lty{/fhnfO{ uf]ln xfgL sfo/tfk"js { xTof u¥of] / /fHon] slxNo} /f]lsGg eGg] Oltxf; l;4 ;fy} To;df kfOg] tTjx¿n] z/L/df kfgLsf] dfqf klg ;Gt'ng ub{5 .
hjh{:t u[xo'4sf] ;+st] ug{ vf]hs ] f] rf}tkmL{ z+sf x'g yfn]sf] 5 . Ps of]4fn] cfˆgf] hLjg hgtfsf] e};s]sf] s'/f xf] ha bdg x'G5, pv' s f] h' ;
kmfl;jfbL /fHosf] klg cGTosf] lbg pv'sf] h';n] z/L/nfO{ l;tn /fvL lrlgsf] dfqf k'/f ub{5 .
d'QmL cfGbf]ngdf s'jf{gL u/]sf 5g\ . PsLs[t hgqmflGtdf au]sf] /ut / qmflGtn] lng] abnf s:tf];Dd uGtL ;'? x'G5 eGg] a'‰g' kb{5 . sf+ q mf]
x'g ;S5 Û ltdL s]kL k|r08 / afbn h:tf xTof/fn] a'‰g} kb{5 / a'emfOg] 5 . lty{ d/]sf xf]Ogg\ pgL of] kmfl;jfbL ;/sf/n] ev{/} sf+qmf]n] z/L/df kfgLsf] dfqf ;Gt'ng ugf{sf] ;fy} le6ldg / ldg/N;sf]
ef]hk'/df lty{/fhnfO{ uf]ln xfgL k'tL{ u/L k]6 ;d]t :j:Yo /fVb5 .
afFrs] f x'g\ lhpg hfg]sf /x]5g\ . qmflGtsf/L ln8/nfO{ yk lhDd]jf/ / qmflGtnfO{ lg:s;{df k'¥ofpg sfo/tfk"j{s xTof u¥of] / /fHon] bxL
cem} prfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 ltd|f] alnbfgn] . PsLs[t hgqmflGtn] abnf lnP/} 5f8\g5] . /utsf] d"No hjh{:t u[xo'4sf] ;+st] ug{ vf]hs ] f] bxLdf lrNnf]sf] dfqf gx'g] / o;n] k]6 clg k'/f z/L/nfO{ l;tntf
qmfGtLnfO{ lg:s;{df k'of{pg] / cfjZostfdf km]l/ b]z / hgtfsf] nflu /ut aufpg tof/ x'g] g} rf}tkmL{ z+sf x'g yfn]sf] 5 . Ps k|bfg ub{5 .
qmflGtsf/Lsf nflu cfbz{ ag]sf 5f}+ ltdL Û PsLs[t hgqmflGtn] abnf / /utsf] d'NonfO{ lg:s;{df
of]4fn] cfˆgf] hLjg hgtfsf] d'QmL
cfGbf]ngdf s'jf{gL u/]sf 5g\ . kof{Kt g;'Tbf dfgl;s
k'¥ofpg]5 . PsLs[t hgqmflGtdf au]sf] /ut /

kGrfot lj/f]wL cfGbf]ng / lg/Í'; qmflGtsf x/] s sfn v08df alnbfgaf6 k| f Kt l;ldt
qmflGtn] lng] abnf s:tf];Dd x'g
;S5 Û ltdL s]kL k|r08 / afbn
;d:ofsf] vt/f
/fhtGq lj?4sf] b; j;]{ hgo'4df alnbfgnfO{ gsfg{ klg ;lsb}g . t/ pknlAwdfly /hfO{ / ;Qfsf] h:tf xTof/fn] a'‰g} kb{5 / a'emfOg] sf7df8f}+ . lgGb|f k'Ug]u/L kof{Kt g;'Tg] sn]h txsf ljBfyL{x¿sf]
jL/ lj/Ëgfn] cfˆgf] cd'No Ho'Hofg g]kfnL qmflGtdf alnbfgsf] dd{ / ef]urng afx]s c? s]xL klg ePsf] 5 . lty{ d/]sf xf]Ogg\ pgL afFr]sf dfgl;s ljsf;df ;d:of x'g] vt/f /x]sf] Ps cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 .
kl/jt{gsf/L cfGbf]ngdf ;dk{0f u/] cy{nfO{ a'‰g ;s]gg\ . alnbfg s]sf 5}g . alnbfg eg]sf] b'O{ rf/ hgf x'g\ lhpg hfg]sf /x]5g\ . qmflGtsf/L Ps hg{ndf k|sflzt cWoog k|ltj]bgsf] lgZsif{df x/]s /ft kof{Kt ;'Tg
cem ;j} eGbf a9L alnbfg ePs} nflu eof] < s] p2]Zosf nflu alnbfg g]tfnfO{ s';L{ / ;/sf/df k'¥ofpgsf ln8/nfO{ yk lhDd]jf/ / qmflGtnfO{ ;a}nfO{ ;'emfj lbOPsf] 5 .
eg]sf] b; jif{sf] dxfg hgo'4df g} eof] < eGg] ;xh pQ/ sdfG8/ eGg] nflu dfq} xf] eGg] a'emfO{ h:tf] klg lg:s;{df k'¥ofpg cem} prfO{ k|bfg lgb|f k'/f gePsfn] dfgl;s ;d:of b]lvPsfx¿ dWo] @! k|ltztdf
xf] . d'lQm cfGbf]ngdf ;dfh / lxhf]sf nfrf/ g]tfn] lbg ;Sb}gg\ / ;dfhdf b]lvof] g]tfsf] j]OdfgL / u/]sf] 5 ltd|f] alnbfgn] . PsLs[t tgfjsf] ;d:of, @$ k|ltztdf lg/fzfsf] ;d:of, @$ k|ltztdf l/;fpg]
hgtfsf] nflu alnbfg ePsf xfdLn] pQ/ dfUb} lxF8\g] s'/f klg wf]sfsf sf/0f oL k|Zgsf] hjfkm hgqmflGtn] abnf lnP/} 5f8\g]5 . ;d:of, @% k|ltztdf s'G7f, @% k|ltztdf dxTjsf+Iff, @* k|ltztdf
;+3if{x¿ a]nf–k6sdf x'Fb} cfPsf ePg lsgsL alnbfgsf] dd{, cy{ / lbg]x¿ cfh bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf /utsf] d"No qmfGtLnfO{ lg:s;{df sfd ug{ ;d:of / @* k|ltztdf cfTdxTofsf] ;d:of b]lvg ;Sg]
5g\ . cfˆgf ;a} JolQmut OR5f / p2]Zo k"/f ePsf] 5}g / km]l/ klg dltof/ ag]sf 5g\ . h;n] ;kgf k'of{pg] / cfjZostfdf km]l/ b]z / cWoogstf{x¿sf] egfO 5 .
rfxgfnfO{ ltnfGhnL lbFb} b]z / qmfGtL / km]l/ klg alnbfgnfO{ l:jsfb}{ afF8], o'4df xf]DofP / To;sf] g]t[Tj hgtfsf] nflu /ut aufpg tof/ clgGb|s} sf/0f slt w]/} ;d:of ;[hgf x'bF f] /x]5 eGg] s'/f of] cWoogn]
hgtf clg d'lQmnfO{ d'Vo 7fGb} alnbfg lbg] ;k'tx¿sf] ;kgf k"/f u/] pgL cfh lgtfGt qmflGtdf x'g] g} qmflGtsf/Lsf nflu cfbz{ cfZro{ g} kg]{u/L b]vfPsf] pgLx¿sf] egfO 5 . cWoogsf] g]t[Tj ug{'
alnbfg x'Fb} cfP / ef]ln klg x'g] ug{ / g]kfnL hgtf / /fi6«nfO{ alnbfg lbg]x¿sf] nIo / p2]Zo ag]sf 5f}+ ltdL Û PsLs[t hgqmflGtn] ePsf n]vs y] /fD;]on] SofDk;txsf ljBfyL{x¿df o;n] a9L k|efljt
lglZrt 5 ha;Dd ju{ /xG5 j}1flgs ;dfhjfbdf k'¥ofP dfq eGbf km/s af6f]df 5g\, nIo / abnf / /utsf] d'NonfO{ lg:s;{df kf/]sf] atfP . pgsf cg';f/ ;g\ @)!! b]lv @)!$ ;Dd u/]sf] cWoogn]
ta;Dd qmflGt / alnbfg klg alnbfg lbg]sf] ;kgf k"/f x'g] 5 p2]Zoaf6 efUb} Hofgsf] les dfUg k'¥ofpg]5 . jL/ ;lxb–cd/ /x'g Û o:tf] b]vfPsf] xf] . pgn] cWoogdf Ps nfv !) xhf/ $(^ hgf
clgjfo{ ;t{ aGb} hfG5 To;sf] nflu cfhsf] PsLs[ t ;fd|fHojfbL zlQm / s]kLsf] z/0fdf xflb{s >4f~hnL ÛÛ ;xefuL ePsf] hfgsf/L lbP .
qmflGtsf/Lx¿ o;df ;':k:6 x'g} hgqmflGt g} ;lx af6f] x'g hfG5 .

t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+


k5{ . alnbfg ljgfsf] qmflGt sNkgf xfdLn] dxfg b; jif{sf] hgo'4df
ug{ klg ;lsFbg} dfq dfqf a9L of g]kfnL cfdfsf dxfg ;k'tx¿ u'dfof}
sd cyjf ;+of]u dfq x'g5 ] . ljZjnfO{ alnbfgsf] cy{ lyof] sL hgtfsf]
lgofNbf klg x/]s qmflGtdf 7'N7'nf /fHo Joj:yf cfcf]; sf]lx klg
alnbfg ePsf 5g\ cem r] Uj]ef/fsf] gful/s /f]u, ef]s, cefjn] dg{
alnbfg;Dd cfpbf qmflGtsf/LnfO{
df/]/ qmflGt l;Wofpg ;lsG5 eGg]
;fd|fHojfbLx¿ km]n ePsf 5g\
dfl/bf klg r] emg ljZj ;j{xf/f
ul/j hgtfsf] 9's9'lsdf a:g ;kmn
gk/f]; plTk8gdf k/]sf hftL If]q
;a}n] cfˆgf] clwsf/ kfpg, dflg;–
dflg; ;a} Ps} xf] c;dfgtf gxf];
;dfgtf xf];\ eGg] nIo lnP/ g}
cfˆgf] cd'No Ho'Hofg qmflGtsf]
OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+
x'ge' of] . zxfbt ePsf] tL; jif{ kl5
r] / cGo 5fkfdf/sf] cl:ykGh/
d}bfgdf ;dk{0f u/] . dxfg hgo'4df
gf} xhf/ jL/ lj/Ëgfx¿sf] of] g]kfnL
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8
pTvgg u/]/ So'jfdf eJo ;df/f]xsf wtL{df /utsf] cfxn aUof], s}of}+ kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&!
lar ;nfdL lbOPsf] lyof] nfvf} j]kQf / 3fOt] 5g\, cfdfx¿ ?bf–
6 @)&^ ;fn c;f/ ! ut] cfOtaf/

l;:gf] cfo cfh{gsf] /fd|f] ;|ft]


sf7df8f} + . 3/leq l5/fpg
ldNb}g elgg] l;:gf] clxn] l8kf6{d0] 6
x' G 5 To;nfO{ a' e m] / cfjZos
Joj:yfkg ug{ ;s] w] / } x' G 5 .
v'ns] f] 5 . l;:gf] v'jfPsf] a+u/' sf]
tf}n gv'jfPsf] eGbf w]/} ePsf] /
le6fldg P, le6fldg ;L, le6fldg
8L nf}xtTj, kf]6fl;od, Dofuflgh,
‘Ps nfv * xhf/ jif{ s}b e'QmfgL
/ !@ ca{ hl/jfgf c;'Ng af“sL’
sf7df8f}+ . cbfnt, cGofodf k/]sf JolQmsf] Gofo kfpg] clGtd cfzf
:6f]/x¿df ;lhP/ lbgd} xhf/f}+ l;:gf]sf] emf/ d'ns ' sf kxf8L If]qdf df;';d]t :j:Yo /x]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . SoflN;od h:tf kf}li6s kbfy{sf] xf] t/, lg/Gt/sf] l9nf;':tL, emGeml6nf] k|lqmof / d'2f–dfldnfsf nflu x'g]
¿k}ofF a/fa/sf] laqmL x'g yfn]sf] hlx+txL+ kfOG5 . To;}u/L l;:g'nfO{ bfgfsf] ¿kdf sf/0f pQ/L tyf k"jL{ o'/f]kdf o;sf] vr{n] ;s];Dd gful/s cbfntsf] 9f]sf 9s9Sofpg rfxb}gg\ . cem,
5 . l;:gf]sf] pTkfbg, k|zf]wg / ufpF 3 /df kfOg] l;:gf] n fO{ v'jfOPsf] ufO{sf] b"wsf] kl/0ffd / emf]n nfdf] ;dob]lv k|rlnt /x]sf] km};nf sfof{Gjog gx'Fbf …cbfntn] Gofo xf]Og km};nf dfq} lbG5Ú eGg]
laqmL ub}{ cfPsf] ;'g;/Lsf] lxdfnog ufO{j:t'sf] nflu vf]n] jf ul/ax¿n] b"wdf lrNnf] kbfy{sf] dfq;d]t 5 . o;df @%% ;Dd k|f]l6g x'G5 u'gf;f];d]t a9\g yfn]sf] 5 . cem crDd t sfg"g nfu" u/fpg] ;/sf/ /
Pu|f] k|f8] S6n] b]zsf d'Vo zx/x¿df bfn / ;fusf] ¿kdf k|of]u ul//x]sf] pNn]Vo a[l4 x'g] u/]sf] cg';Gwfgn] To;}n] of] zfsfx/Lx¿sf] nflu clt p;sf lgsfo g} km};nf sfof{Gjogdf OdfGbf/ 5}gg\ . cbfntsf] km};nf
l;:gf] kfp8/ k'¥ofO;s]sf] 5 . kfOG5 . vfBfGgsf] cefjdf k|sl[ tn] k|dfl0ft u/]sf] 5 . l;:g' vfFbf pQd ef]hg xf] . l;:gf]sf] k|of]u ug]{ sfof{Gjog gx'g] …/f]uÚn] cfqmfGt 5g\– kLl8t . /, ltg} kLl8tnfO{ ;s];Dd
/fhwfgLdf d'Vo sfof{no /x]sf] ;f] lbPsf] l;:gf]sf] k|of]u ePsf] kfOG5 . xf8hf]gL{nufotsf z/L/sf ljleGg ljlw !) u|fd l;:gf]sf] w'nf]nfO{ @ l56f] Gofo lbnfpg] p2]Zosf nflu …km};nf sfof{Gjog lgb]z { gfnoÚsf] ;+/rgf
sDkgLn] l;:gf] kfp8/ b]zleqdfq} t/ kl5Nnf] ;do l;:gf] cf}iflw ;fljt /f]usf] lgbfg x'g] ljZjf; ul/G5 . ;o ldlnln6/ tftf] kfgLdf ld;fP/ cl:tTjdf klg 5 . t/, pQm lgsfosf] sfd–sf/jfxL ;Gtf]ifhgs ;d]t
geO{ cd]l/sf, a]nfot, hfkfg, ePkl5 o;sf] dfu ljb]zdf lgs} l;:gf]df s]–s] kfOG5 < /fof]sf] /ftel/ lehfP/ 5f]l8lbg] / laxfg 5}g . lgb]{zgfnos} tYof+scg';f/ km};nf sfof{Gjogsf] k|ult @) k|ltzt
xªsª, sf]l/ofnufotsf d'ns ' x¿df dxFu+ f] b/df ePsf] kfOG5 . wgLx¿n] ;fudf # ;o %) cfO{=o"=le6fldg vfnL k]6df vfg] . o;/L lgoldt xf/fxf/L dfq} 5 .
k' ¥ ofO;s] s f] 5 . uf] / vf, o;nfO{ a9L k|of]u ul//x]sf 5g\ . dfq} kfOG5 eg] l;:gf]df !@ ;o ¿kdf k|of]u ubf{ 5f]6f] ;dod} km};nf sfof{Gjogsf] cj:yfM
l;Gw'kfNrf]s, bf]nvfnufot b]zsf l;:gf]nfO{ u'0f:t/Lo cf}ifwLo u'0fnfO{ cfO{= o"= le6fldg P, / le6fldg ;L o;af6 kmfO{bf lng ;lsG5 . hDdf nutM @@ xhf/ $#
ljleGg u|fdL0f d'n'sx¿df /x]sf :jb]zL ahf/ lrgfpgdfq} ;lsof] eg] cTolws ¿kdf kfOG5 . To:t} dflg; :j:y /xgsf nflu klg hDdf km5\of}6{ M !) xhf/ # ;o $$
ljleGg ;xsf/Lx¿n] ;Íng u/]sf] o;sf] pkof] l utf a9] / cfly{ s cfO/g, kmlds Pl;8nufotsf cGo leqL k]6sf] ;kmfO{ clgjfo{ x'G5 o;sf] afFsLM !! xhf/ ( ;o ((
nflu l;:gf] eGbf pQd ljsNk c? s}btkm{ km};nf sfof{Gjogsf] cj:yfM
s]xL x'g ;Sb}g . z/L/sf leqL hDdf nutM ! nfv $% xhf/ $ ;o (^ jif{ ^ dlxgf @( lbg
c+ux¿sf] ;kmfO ug]{ pkfo ;lhnf] km5\of}6{ M #^ xhf/ * ;o $! jif{ @ dlxgf @& lbg
5 . t/ xfdL sltn] yfxf kfP/ klg afFsLM ! nfv * xhf/ ^ ;o %% jif{ $ dlxgf @ lbg
Tof] pkfo k|of]u u/]sf 5}gf}+ . z/L/sf hl/jfgftkm{ km};nf sfof{Gjogsf] cj:yf
aflx/L c+usf] ;kmfOsf nflu kfgL, hDdf nutM !% ca{ ## s/f]8 ^^ nfv @@ xhf/ ! ;o *^
ZofDk' / ;fa'gn] g'xfP h:t} leqL km5\of}{6M # ca{ !& s/f]8 $! nfv @* xhf/ ^ ;o @)
c+usf] ;kmfOsf nflu l;:g' vfg' kg]{ afFsLM !@ ca{ !^ s/f]8 @$ nfv (# xhf/ % ;o ^%
j}1flgsx¿n] atfPsf 5g\ . xfdLn] of] t kmf}hbf/L d'2fdf cbfntn] u/]sf km};nf sfof{Gjogsf] cj:yf
xKtfdf Ps k6s kfgLn] g'xfP h:t} dfq} xf] . csf]{ rfvnfVbf] ljifo t ;/sf/L lgsfon] g} cbfntsf] cfb]z–
u/L lgoldt ¿kdf xKtfdf Psk6s km};nfsf] cj1f ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . cfly{s jif{ @)&!–&@ b]lv xfn;Dd
l;:g' vfg] u¥of}+ eg] z/L/sf leqL ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/sf ljifodf ! xhf/ @ ;o $# km};nf ePsf]df !@^ dfq}
c+u klg ;kmf x'g] g]kfnsf s[lif sfof{Gjog ePsf 5g\ . ! xhf/ ! ;o !& km};nf sfof{Gjo ePsf] 5}g .
j}1flgsx¿n] kQf nufPsf 5g\ . o;n] km};nf sfof{Gjogdf ;/sf/L lgsfon] g} cbfntnfO{ gdfGg] k|a[lQ
xKtfsf] Psk6s l;:g' vfgfn] a9\b} uPsf] b]vfpF5 .
k]6df /x]sf ;a} lasf/ lb;fsf] ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/sf ljifodf km};nf sfof{Gjogsf] cj:yfM
dfWodaf6 aflx/ hfg] tyf lb;fsf] cbfntn] u/]sf] km};nf sfo{Gjogdf dGqfnox¿n] g} a9L cfn6fn
y} n f] ;kmf x' g ] s[ l if la1x¿ u5{g . ljleGg dGqfnosf] ljkIfdf @$^ km};nf ePsf 5g . To;dWo]
l;:gf]nfO{ /fhwfgLdf NofP/ k|zf]wg lqmofsnfk a9\5 . o;sf] ljb]zdf x'g] tTjx¿ klg o;df kfOG5g\ . atfpF5g\ . xKtfdf Psk6s l;:g' xfn;Dd #* km};nfsf] dfq sfof{Gjog ePsf] 5 . /, @)* km};nf cnkq
u/L Kofs]lhª / a|fl08ªdf h'6]sf] dfu adf]lhd lgsf;L ug{ ;Sof} eg] le6fldg kfOg] cGo tTjx¿ eGbf vfg] dfG5];Fu h'g;'s} k|sf/sf 5g . km};nf sfo{Gjog gug]{ dGqfnosf] cu| k+lQmdf u[x dGqfno 5 . hf]
lxdfnog Pu|f] k|f]8S6n] tof/ u/]sf] g] k fnn] clxn] em] N b} cfPsf] l;:gf]df ;aeGbf a9L le6fldg x'G5 . /f]ux¿;Fu n8\g] Ifdtf klg a9L sfg"g sfof{Gjog u/fpg] ;/sf/sf] ;a}eGbf lhDd]jf/ lgsfo xf] . u[xkl5
/fjf gfds a|f08sf] l;:gf] ;'k / Jofkf/3f6faf6 ag]sf] 3fpnfO{ dNxd l;:gf] s f] lgoldt k| o f] u af6 x'G5 . ;fdfGotof o:tf dfG5]nfO{ s'g} km};nf sfof{Gjog gug]d { f k|wfgdGqL tyf dlGqkl/ifb\ sfof{no cfpF5 .
lrof cToGt} nf]slk|o /x]sf] bfaL nufpg ;lsG5 . xfdL sxfF cyfx ls8\gLsf] ;d:of, lk;fa kf]Ng], bd, klg /f]un] 5'Fb}g . ax'u'0f ePsf] of] cbfntaf6 s'g} klg d'2f km};nf eof] t/ sfof{Gjog x'g ;s]g eg]
u5{g\ k|aGw lgb]{zs ljzfn /fO{ . dfqfdf ljleGg kmfO{bfhgs ax'dN" o afy /f]u, 8fO6Aofn]G;nufot /ut l;:gf] xfd|f] kxf8L If]qsf ufFp 3/sf kLl8t kIfn] Gofosf] cg'et" ug{ kfpFbg} g\ eGg] sfg"gL dfGotf 5 . t/,
jflif{s ^) b]lv &) nfvsf] l;:gf] hl8a'6Lsf] ;Defjgf /x]sf] 5 . t/ pTkfbg ug]{, /utdf x]df]Unf]lagsf] jf/Lsf sfGnfdf kfO{g] x'Fbf 3/df clen]v cg';f/ ljqmd ;Djt\ @))) ;fneGbf cl3b]lvs} d'2fsf] km};nf
kfp8/ laqmL ub}{ cfPsf /fO{n] o;s} To;sf] klxrfg x'g g;Sg' clxn]sf] dfqf a9fpg] sfd u5{ . o;sf ;fy} o;nfO{ ;fusf] ¿kdf klg k|of]u ug{ sfof{Gjog ePsf] 5}gg\ . /, o;sf/0f cbfntn] Gofo xf]Og km};nf dfq}
cfGtl/s / afXo ahf/ lj:tf/ lj8dDagfsf] ¿kdf lng'k5{ . ;lhn} l;:gf]sf] d]xGbL agfP/ skfndf ;lsG5 . xfdLn] vfg] ;fux¿ dWo] lbG5 eGg] ;j{;fwf/0fsf] l6Kk0fLnfO{ :jefljs dfGg'kg]{ x'G5 .
ug]{tkm{ nfu]sf] atfpF5g\ . kfOg] b]zsf] h'g;'s} 7fpFdf pTkfbg nufpFbf skfn emg{af6 /f]S5 eg] l;:g' klg Ps pTs[i6 ;fudf k5{ .

ds}MSofG;/sf] vt/f sd ug]b{ l] v /ut a9fpg];Dd


l;:gf] kl5Nnf] ;dodf l;:gf]sf] ug{ ;lsg] l;:gf]nfO{ ljleGg tl/sfaf6 skfnsf] rfofF klg x6fpF 5 .
dxTjnfO{ a'em]/ o;sf] sf/f]af/df k|of]u ug{ ;lsof] eg]dfq} klg o;}af6 dlxgfjf/L clgodLt x'g] Uofl:6«s,
cf]Ol/g] ;‹–;+:yfx¿sf] klg nsf]{ b]zdf lgs} g} wg sdfpg ;lsG5 . :qL/f]u, afy, vfgf g?Rg], dw'd]x,
nfu]sf] 5 . To;df ufpF3/df ljleGg l;:gf] hxfF sxL klg kfOG5 t/ pRr /Qmrfk, ;' u /, hl08;, sf7df8f}F . ds} vfPdf :jf:Yosf ds} d f z/L/sf] kf] i f0fsf nflu kmfObf x'G5 .
cfdf ;d'x, ;xsf/Lx¿n] l;:gf]sf] To;nfO{ clxn]sf] cj:yfdf klg Kof/fnfOl;;, ky/L, Uofli6s, afy, nflu w]/} kmfObf x'G5 . of] ;+;f/df cfjZos ;a} k|sf/sf] ldg/N; ds} d f le6fldg ;L,
k|zf]wgdf h'6]sf 5g\ eg] zx/df ufO{j:t'sf] vf]ns
] f] ¿kdf k|of]u eO{/x]sf] cN;/, slAhot, kfoN;, h'sf, o'l/s ;a} eGbf w]/} If]qkmndf nufO{g] kfOG5 . ds}sf] ;]jgn] z/L/df hd]sf] afof]ˆn]ljgfO8\;, Sof/f]6]gfO8 /
bh{gf}+ ;‹ ;+:yf / sDkgLx¿n] xfdLn] kfPsf 5f} + . cd] l /sf, Pl;8, d' q /f] u L, /QmcNktf, afnLdf k5{ . o;af6 ljleGg kl/sf/, cltl/Qm af];f] cyf{t\ sf]n:] 6«fn
] fO{ sd kmfOa/sf] dfqf w]/} kfOG5 . o;n]
ljleGg a|f08af6 l;:gf]sf] sf/f]af/ a]nfoth:tf b]zdf ;'k, t/sf/L, lrof, gk';s + tf, afemf]kg ePsf la/fdLnfO{ t]n, OGwg, rLgL, /S;L cflb agfpg] ug]{ ;a}eGbf c;/bf/ tl/sf xf] . sf]n:] 6«fn
] nfO{ sd u/]/ wdgLx¿ Ans
ul//x]sf 5g\ . h';, cf}iflw cflb ljleGg ¿kdf l;:g'sf] pkof]uL dflgG5 . ul/G5 . ds} vfbf tf}n 36\g'sf ;fy} cGo x'gaf6 /f]S5 . o;df kfOg] kmfOa/n]
v]tL ug{ / :ofxf/;';f/ ug{ gkg]{ kft tyf h/fsf] k|of]u ub}{ cfOPsf] To;} u /L k' ? ifsf] z' q mls6 of] l;hg ds} kfpg] l;hg xf] . /f]usf] lg/fs/0fsf nflu klg lgs} sf]n]:6«f]nnfO{ lgolGqt ug{ ;xof]u
h+un, eL/ / kfvfdf TolQs} v]/ 5 . o;sf ;fy} l;:gf]sf] k|of]uaf6 cGo pTkfbg, efF l rPsf] / ds] { s f] ub{5 .
uO/x]sf] l;:gf]af6 ag]sf] w'nf] /fd|f] kmfObf klg k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . xf8x¿nfO{ hf]8g, cfFvfnfO{ t]lhnf] cfFvf :j:y /fVgsf nflu ds}
d"Nodf laqmL x'gs ' f ;fy} ljb]z ;d]t l;:gf]sf] gfd ;'Ggf;fy xfdL xl/of] / cg'xf/nfO{ rlDsnf], z/L/nfO{ cjZo vfg';\ . o;df aL6f Sof/f]l6g
lgof{t x'g yfn]kl5 l;:gf] pTkfbg kft ePsf] sfF8] 3fF;nfO{ ;lDemG5f} . km'lt{nf], 5l/tf] / cfsif{s agfpg, / le6fldg P k|r"/ dfqfdf x'G5 /
/ k|zf]wgdf nfu]sfx¿ klg xf}l;g l;:gf];uF kl/lrt ePsfn] t cem} 9fF8 b'Vg], 3'8F f / hf]gL{ b'vs
] f], em:sf] o;n] cfFvfsf ;d:of x6fOlbG5 .
yfn]sf 5g\ . l;:gf]sf] w'nf]nfO{ bfn, o;nfO{ kf]Ng] 3fF;sf ¿kdf lrGb5g\ . k;]sf], ;sf]{ kl; ;f]nf xfGg] h:tf ds}df le6fldg ;L, s]/f]6]gfO8 /
l9+8f], ;'ksf] ¿kdf agfP/ vfg] ul/G5 xfn}sf] Pp6f cg';Gwfgn] ufpF3/df /f]u lgsf] kfg{ l;:gf]sf] kfp8/ k|of]u kmfOa/ x' G 5 / o;n] z/L/df
eg] xl/of] l;:gf]sf] d'G6f t/sf/Lsf] kfOg] l;:g' dfgj :jf:Yosf nflu dfq} x'g] u/]sf] 5 . o;nfO{ emf]n agfP/ sf]n]:6«f]n sd u/]/ /Qmsf]lzsfnfO{
¿kdf vfg]x¿sf] ;+Vof a9\bf] 5 . geO{ hLjhGt'sf] nflu klg ax'pkof]uL vfgf ;Fu} k|of]u ug{ klg ;lsG5 / ;kmf agfpF5 . clg d'6n ' ] /fd|/L sfd
l;:gf] kf]lifnf] x'gs' f ;fy} z/L/sf] /f]u /x]sf] b]vfPsf] 5 . l;:gf]sf] d'G6fnfO{ pdfn]/ vfg ;lsG5 . o;df x'g] /f} ug{ kfpF5 .
k|lt/f]wfTds Ifdtf a[l4 ug]{ ePsfn] bfgfsf ¿kdf v'jfPsf] s'v'/fn] h:tf] em';df x'g] kmld{s cDnn] kf]Ng] z/L/df /utsf] sdL x6fpgsf
klg o;sf] dfu a9]sf] 5 . t'ngfTds ¿kdf w]/} c08f kfg],{ df;' / lx:6fdfOgn] ;'lGgg] ePsf]n] nflu ds} nfebfos x'G5 lsgls
d'n'sdf r'ln+b} uPsf] Jofkf/ :jflbnf] x'g] / c08f;d]t u'0f:t/Lo kL8fbfos x'G5 t/ kfgLdf pdfn]kl5 o;df e/k"/ cfO/g x'G5 . ds}df
3f6fnfO{ sd ug{ / cy{tGqnfO{ dfly x'g] b]lvPsf] 5 . ;fy} l;:gf]af6 tof/ tL tTjx¿ gf; eP/ hfG5g\ . ePsf] PG6LcS;L8]G6 / ˆn]j]gfO8
p7fpg w]/} 7"nf] sfofkn6 ug{k' b}g{ . kf/]sf] bfgf vfPsf] s'v/' fn] ;fwf/0f o;sf] ;f]lx b'u0'{ fsf] sf/0f klxn] u'0fsf sf/0f SofG;/ h:tf] uDeL/
s]an hxfF h] pTkfbg eO/x]sf] 5, bfgf vfPsf] s'v/' fn] eGbf bf]Aa/ a9L klxn] oftgf lbg tyf ;hfo lbg /f]usf] vt/f klg x'g kfpFbg} . ds}df
hxfF h'g :yfgdf h] s'/fsf] ;Defjgf c08f lbg] u/]sf] klg cg';Gwfgaf6 o;sf] k|of]u ul/GYof] . o;df x'g] ePsf] km]?lns Pl;8n] :tg SofG;/
nfUgaf6 arfpF5 .
@)&^ ;fn c;f/ ! ut] cfOtaf/ 7

;fdGtjfbL kvf{n j}wflgs af6f]af6 eTs“bg}


…k'h
F Ljfb cfO;Sof], ca kl/jt{gsf] sld ePsf] 5}g . ¿k abn]/ zf]ifs, dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{ hgo'4sf] 7"nf] wg/fzL ;fdfGtL, hfnL, km6fxf,
‘jfO8a8L’ vl/bdf rf/ ca{
#% s/f]8eGbf a9L e|i6frf/ Û
nflu ank|of]usf] hdfgf 5}g, j}wflgs ;fdGt bnfnx¿n] >dhLjL hgtf c;kmntfsf] sf/0f vf]lh/x]sf 5g\ . zf]ifs, ;fx'dxfhg, 7u cflbsf nflu sf7df8f}F . g]kfn jfo';]jf lgudn] vl/b u/]sf] …jfO8a8LÚ ljdfgdf
af6f]af6 g}+ ;a}yf]s ug{ ;lsG5 .Ú r':g, w'Tg / n'6g sld u/]sf 5}gg\ . lhTbflhTb} klg kl/0ffd z'Go xft nfUof] sl§P/ k'Ug] u/]sf] 5 . o:sf] tTsfn ePsf] clgoldttf 5fglag ug{ gful/s:t/df ul7t gful/s cfof]un]
pgnfO{ lar/f eg]+ d}n + ] / k|Zg ;f]w,+] k'h
F Ljfb s] xf] / bnfn k'hF Ljfb s] eg]/ x}/fg 5g\ . Pdfn] / kmf]/ddf ;dfwfgsf] s'g} j}wflgs ;dfwfg ljdfg vl/bdf rf/ ca{ #% s/f]8 ¿k}ofFeGbf a9L e|i6frf/ ePsf] bfaL
…tkfO{+ hgo'4sf] of]4f, ;dfhdf x'gx' G' Yof], xf] < clxn] of] ;a}n] hfGg / a'‰g lano lsg x'g' k/]sf] xf]nf k'li6 ug{ b]lv+bg} . o;n] k'h F L lgdf0f{df 7"nf] u/]sf] 5 . z'qmaf/ /fhwfgLdf kqsf/ ;Dd]ng u/L ;f] cfof]un] ljdfg
clxn]klg csf]{ tl/sfn] ;dfhd}+ h?/L 5 . ;dfhdf dflg;sf ;a} g;s]/ x}/fg ePsf 5g\ . pgLx¿ clxn] cj/f]w ;[hgf u/]sf] 5 . bnfn k'h F Ljfb vl/b;d]t gu/L ef8fdf NofOPsf] / rrf{ ePsf]eGbf w]/} /sd e|i6frf/
x'gx' G' 5 . h]7L 5f]/Lsf] gfd kf6L{df ;Nnfx Jojxf/x¿ k'FhLdf cfwfl/t eP/ cfkm"nfO{ dfcf]jfbL eGg 5f8]/ sDo'lg:6 o; la?4 5}g, cem eGbf a? k|fT] ;fg ePsf] bfaL;lxtsf] k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] xf] . ljdfg lgdf{tf sDkgL
Pc/a; / g]kfn jfo';]jf lgudnfO{ ljdfg cfk"lt{ ug]{ xfOˆnfO{ PS;
ub}{ /fVg' ePsf] lyof] . clxn] sfG5L ;~rfng x'g yfn]sfn] k'h F Ljfb cfO;Sof], eGg yfn]sf 5g\ . dfcf]jfbL / lbP/ s'k|yfsf] hu]gf{ ug]{ gLlt sDkgLaLrsf] ;Demf}tf km]nf kfg{;s] clgoldttfsf] /sd olsg x'g] klg
5f]/Lsf] gfd s;/L /fVg' eof] <Ú hjfkm k'h
F Lkltx¿ g} zlQmzfnL b]lvg yfn]sf sDo'lg:6df slt km/s 5 eGg] k|Zgsf] cl3;fl//x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{n] /fli6«o k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v 5 . ljdfg vl/b ubf{sf] /sd Pc/a;sf] Ph]G6
lbg pgL nhfP . k'/f]lxt af]nfP/ 5g\, To;}n] k'h
F Ljfb cfO;Sof], ;dfhdf hjfkm vf]Hbfvf]Hb} yfs]/ x}/fg ePsf k'h
F Lsf] lgdf{ x'g klg lbFbg} / hgjfbL hd{gLsf] gf]6h {] /f]h km'n a|fO6 sDkgLsf] vftfdf k7fOPsf] klg k|ltj]bgdf
;+:sf/ / ;+:s[ltsf] ljsf; ug{ klg pNn]v 5 .
ljgf]b bfxfn lbFbg} . o;n] /fli6«otfdf ;d:of ;[hgf
u/]/ bnfnLs/0f a9fO/x]sf] 5 . h'g;'s}
k"j{sfodd'sfo dxfn]vf k/LIfs ;'sb]j e§/fO{sf] ;+of]hsTjdf ul7t
gful/s cfof]un] ;+;bsf] ;fj{hlgs n]vf ;ldltn] ;fj{hlgs u/]sf]
dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{ hgo'4sf] /fhgLlts bn ;/sf/ ;~rfng ug{ k|ltj]bgdf klg ;xdlt hgfPsf] 5 . ljdfg vl/bdf ;fj{hlgs vl/b
k'ug' , d"n rl/q pxL jf p:t} x'G5 P]gn] tf]s]sf] k|lqmof cjnDag gu/]sf], ljdfgsf] l;l6ª / cGo ;fdu|Lsf]
c;kmntfsf] sf/0f vf]lh/x]sf eGg] k|dfl0ft e};s]sf] 5 . s] k|i6 5 u'0f:t/ sd;n /x]sf] kfOPsf] klg k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v 5 . @$@ 6gsf]
5g\ . lhTbflhTb} klg kl/0ffd eg] clxn]sf] /fHo;Qf g} bnfn k'h F LjfbL ljdfg vl/b ug{k' g]d { f @#) 6gsf] ljdfg NofP/ 9fF6s ] f] klg k|ltj]bgdf
5 . :ki6 g} 5, /fhgLlts ;Qf pNn]v 5 .
z'Go xft nfUof] eg]/ x}/fg k|ltlqmofjfbL g} 5 / k'h F Ljfbsf] ljsf; o:t}, ljdfg cfk"lt{ ug]{ xfOˆnfO{ PS; gfds sDkgL;Fu cfly{s sf/f]af/
ubf{ Pn;L gvf]nL cflwsfl/s Uof/]G6Lljgf 6L6L dfWodaf6 /sd k7fPsf]
5g\ . Pdfn] / kmf]/ddf lano ug{ clxn] klg ank|of]usf] lasNk g}+ tyf xfOˆnfO{ / Pc/a; sDkgLaLrsf] ;Demf}tf uf]Ko /flvPsf] klg
5}g .
lsg x'g' k/]sf] xf]nf k'li6 ug{ Psfyl/ sDo' l g:6 elgPsf
k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v 5 . k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs ub}{ k"js { fodd'sfo dxfn]vf
k/LIfs e§/fO{n] /sd e'QmfgL ubf{ ;/sf/n] /fi6« a}s + af6 k|lttkq gvf]nL
g;s]/ x}/fg ePsf 5g\ . kf6L{x¿n] b]vs ] f] s'/f s] 5 eg] oxL /sd lgsf;f u/]sf] t/ /fi6« a}+s;Fu sfuhft dfUbf glbPsf] atfP .
pgLx¿ clxn] cfkm"nfO{ l:yltdf jf k|ltlqmofjfbL ;Qfdf gful/s cfof]udf ;'sb]j e§/fO{, 8f= 7fs'/df]xg >]i7, jl/i7 clwjQmf
j}wflgs tl/sfaf6 ;/sf/ ;+xfNg k'Ug] ;'/G] b| e08f/L / afns[i0f Gof}kfg]nufot /x]sf 5g\ . k|ltj]bgn] ;fj{hlgs
dfcf]jfbL eGg 5f8]/ / ;'wf/fTds tl/sfn] ;dfhjfbdf hfg] n]vf ;ldltn] bf]ifL cf}+NofPsfx¿nfO{ sf/afxL ug{'kg]{ dfu klg u/]sf] 5 .
sDo'lg:6 eGg yfn]sf 5g\ .
dfcf]jfbL / sDo'lg:6df slt
xf] . clxn]sf 8an g]skf, /f]xLt cflb
o; nfOgdf b]lvG5g\ . ablnPsf] ;r{ P08 P/]i6 cleofg g/f]s] s8f k|lt/f]w Û
elgPsf] ;dfhsf] ju{ljZn]if0f ubf{ sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] ;r{ P08 P/]i6 cleofg g/f]s] s8f
km/s 5 eGg] k|Zgsf] hjfkm ;fdGt, bnfn / gf]s/zfxL /fHo eGg], k|lt/f]w ug]{ r]tfjgL lbPsf] 5 . ;f] kf6L{sf l;Gw'nL lhNnf OGrfh{ zlz /fO{
To;df klg bnfn k'h F Ljfbn] g]tT[ j / ;]qm]6/L lbg]z ;f?n] laxLaf/ lj1lKt hf/L ub}{ s]kL–lks] sDkgLn] l;Gw'nLdf
vf]Hbfvf]Hb} yfs]/ x}/fg ePsf 5g\ . sDo'lg:6 elgPsf gofF d'Nnfxfx¿ Pp6f u/]sf] eGg] / of] Joj:yfdf ;dfhjfb ;r{ P08 P/]i6 cleofg rnfO{ hgtfnfO{ ;xg} g;Sg] u/L /fHo cft+s
k|Zgn] a9L x}/fg 5g\ Tof] s] xf] eg] sf+u;]| eGbf s] slt sf/0fn] km/s 5f}+ eg]/ . ;Dej 5 eGg' cjz/jfb l;jfo s]xL dRrfO/fv] To;sf] s8f ¿kdf k|lt/f]w ug]{ r]tfjgL lbPsf x'g\ . OGrfh{ /fO{
x}g . s] :ki6 5 eg] ;+;f/e/ / ;]qm]6/L ;f?åf/f lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5, …g]kfnsf ;j{xf/f ju{, >lds tyf
)))) cj;/jfbn] t ;dfhjfb Nofpg] s'/} pTkLl8t hg;d'bfox¿sf] cu|b:tf xfd|f] uf}/jzfnL kf6L{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6
s] :ki6 5 eg] ;+;f/e/ cj;/jfbn] t ;dfhjfb Nofpg] s'/} x'Gg a? NofPsf] x'Gg a? NofPsf] ;dfhjfb Wj:t kg]{ / kf6L{sf] g]tT[ jdf /fli6«otf, hgtGq / hghLljsfsf] kIfdf j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL
gNofPsf] 7fpFdf klg c;Dej t'NofOlbg] qmflGt lg/Gt/ cufl8 al9/x]sf] 5 . oxL qmddf jt{dfg bnfn kmfl;jfbL
;dfhjfb Wj:t kg]{ / gNofPsf] 7fpFdf klg c;Dej t'NofOlbg] dfq xf] . ju{k|lt dfq xf] . ju{kl| t u2f/L ug]{ cj;/jfbLsf] s]kL–lks] ;/sf/n] xfd|f] kf6L{sf] lgb|fi] f, lgz:q sfo{stf{dfly uf]nL k|xf/ u/L
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sf= lh=;fn
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cf]nL / bfxfnaLr s'rL{sf] n8fO{ u0ftGq kl5 hgtfdf w]/} 7'nf ljw]ossf] clxn] rf}tlkm{ lj/f]w Psl9Ssf /x]sf] 5 . kf6L{sf] lhDd]jf/
ck]Iffx¿ lyP . cem} bO{ sDo'lgi6 eO{/x]sf] 5 . txdf ;Dks{ g} gu/L skf]slNkt 9+un]
klxnf] ;dodf :ki6 ePsf] 5 b'/f;ok"0f{ ;dfrf/ k|;f/0f ug{s' f] k5fl8
kf6L{sf] Pstf clg ;+;bdf ax'dt
ls k|wfgdGqL aGgsf nflu s]kL cf]nL
/ k'iksdn bfxfnaLrsf] n8fO{ k|fKt ePkl5 hgtfn] w]/} clwsf/ c;f/ ^==== s;sf] ;]jf ug]{ p2]Zo 5 < To;af6 k|fKt
;/sf/ / /fdaxfb'/ u[x k|zf;g nfe s] xf] < ;dfrf/sf] Go'gtd\
k]lrnf] aGb} 5 . oL b'O{aLr s;n] kfpg] 5g\ eGg] e|d 5l/Psf] lyof] ag]bl] v g} o;n] xfd|f] ;+u7gdfly
t/ ;/sf/ ag]kl5 b]zdf ljs[lt, ljZjf;lgotf rflxG5 ls rflxb}g < k|Zg
s;nfO{ vfg] xf] eGg ;ls+b}g . s'g lg/Gt/ ¿kdf bdg, lu/ˆtf/L, p7\g :jefljs 5 . t;y{ km]s Go'hsf]
kfqsf /x:odoL cGTo x'g] xf], Tof] lj;+ult / c/fhstf afx]s s]xL x'g em'7fd'2f / /fHo cft+ssf >[vn + fx¿
;s]g . hgtfsf clwsf/ vf]:g] / v]tL gug{, ;g;gLk"0f{ / pQ]lht ;dfrf/
klg eGg ;lsg] cj:yf 5} g . g} rnfO{/x]sf] 5 . cfˆgf] hglj/f]wL k]l:sP/ Jofj;fo wfGg] xf]Og ls tYout
lsgeg] ToxfF zlQms]Gb|x¿sf] n8fO{ ckx/0f ug]{ sfd lgof]lht ¿kdf / s'¿k rl/q 9fs5f]k ug{ o;n]
x'g yfn] . pN6f] hyfefjL s/ / ;dfrf/ agfpg xfdL ;a}
/ n'5fr'F8L 5 . k|r08nfO{ x]usf] qmflGtsf/L ljBfyL{x¿sf] Gofok"0f{ ;~rf/sdL{;uF cg'/f]w ub{5f}+ .Ú cGTodf
cft+s 5 eg] cf]nLnfO{ /fhgLlts dx+uLn] hgtfsf] 9f8 ;]Sg] sfd dfq cfGbf]ngnfO{ h]n, g]n / aGb'ssf]
eof] . anfTsf/, xTof, cft+s, 8s}tL, gSsnL / ablgotk"0f{ k|rf/o'4sf] 86]/
b'3{6gfsf] . jf:tjdf kf6L{ Pstf ;fxf/fn] bafpg] kmfl;jfbL xs{t kb|zg{ ;fdgf ug{;d]t ;a} kf6L{ k+lQm /
6'ËLPs} 5}g t/ lj36gsf] ;'?jft n'6kf6 t cfh ;dfhsf j}wflgs ul//x]sf] 5 .Ú pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .
h:t} x' g yfn] . e| i 6frf/, Gofok"0f{ ;d'bfodf lj1lKtdfkm{t clkn
eO;s]sf] 5 . cfnf]kfnf] k|wfgdGqLsf] cWoIf 9sfnsf] lj1lKtdf u/]sf lyP .
jxzn] ;Qf?9 kf6L{ l5of l5of sfnf] a hf/L, t:s/L, bnfn / cufl8 elgPsf] 5– …o;} ;Gbe{df
ePsf] 5 . cGox¿ cfkm\gf] :jfy{ dflkmoftGq t cfh ;/sf/s} c+u xfd|f] ;+u7gsf ;lrjfno ;b:o tyf g]dkfsf]=====
cg'sn ' lhGbfjfb / d'bf{jfb elg/x]s} h:t} aGof] . To;sf/0f u0ftGqsf] e]/L Ao'/f] ;+of]hs k'ik Gof}kfg], u08s gfddf e]l6Psf krf{x? g]skf kf6L{sf]
5g\ . b'O{ ltxfO{sf] ;Qf elgPsf] 5 oltlj3\g dhfsn] hgtfdf cfqmf]z Ao'/f] ;+of]hs ldng /fO{, s]Gb|Lo ;b:o ab\gfd u/fpg rfxg] ckl/lrt ;d'x
t/ ;/sf/ v's/' Lsf] wf/df 5 . kf6L{ / ljb|f]x dfq ;+:yfut u/]sf] 5 . tyf afFs] lhNnf cWoIf dbg rGb, /x]sf] :ki6 kf/]sf 5g\ . ljKnjsf] l;Wofpg vf]h] kl5, clg cfp5 ;do h:tfnfO{ p:t} .
t vf]HgnfO{ lgjf{rg cfof]udf hfg' /fli6«otf cfh k|wfgdGqL jf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf hfh/sf]6 lhNnf gfpFdf s[t] x:tfIf/ u/L wDSofpg] k|wfgdGqL tyf u[xdGqLHo" Û e'; d'gL nfu]sf] cfuf] h:tf] OG8f]– Kofl;lkms
k5{ . uf]?sf] h'wfO{ jfR5fsf] ldrfO{ ;Qfsf] ;f}bfjfhLsf] ljifo agfO{b} 5 . cWoIf k|d ] zfxL, s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf sfo{k|lt uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f ePsf] ;Demf}tfsf] ulx/fOdf . of] b]znfO{ k]?sf] cdfgljo bdg h:tf] Ú;fd|fHojfbL
h:t} ag]sf] 5 kf6L{ . u'6x¿nfO{ / b]z 6'qmfpg] jf ljv08gsf/L zlQmn] wflbª lhNnf cWoIf c6n kf08], hgfpb}, To:tf JolQmx?sf] tTsfn ;]gf / k};fÚ kl/rfng sf] of]hgf cfO;Sof] . …uf] ofGsL uf] xf]dÚ eGg] uLt
pku' 6 x¿sf] dfWodaf6 kf6L{ /fli6«o cGt/f˜{li6«o If]qaf6 xdnf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf sf:sL lhNnf kQfnufO{ sf/afxL ug]{ ;d]t atfPsf] b]z eQm g]kfnLn] lsg gufpg] < tkfO{+sf] ;/sf/nfO{ oflGshsf] s7\k'tnL
agfOPsf] 5 . g ljlw 5, g k|lqmof . ug{ yfn] . ;'lgb}5, k|wfgdGqL s]kL cWoIf sfhL u'?ª, s}nfnL lhNnf 5 . la1lKtdf elgPsf] 5, …pQm lsg geGg] < tkfO{s + f] ;fem]bf/ OG8f]Kofl;lkms /0fgLlt / ;fd|fHojfbL uf]nL
ljb] z Lx¿ leqleq} cf] n Lsf] cf]nL / dw]zsf ljv08gsf/L g]tf cWoIf aa/h+ul;+x, k[YjLgf/fo0f 36gfdf xfd|f] kf6L{ g]kfn sDo'lgi6 vfgf …eod'Qm eP/ d lsg gpleg] < tkfO{+ eGg';\– v'n]/ b]znfO{ atfpg';\
;/sf/nfO{ 9fNg] lgisif{df k'lu;s]sf l;s] /fptn] ;dfg x}l;otdf Pp6} SofDk; lhNnf cWoIf k|sfz af:tf]nf, kf6L{sf] ;+nUg g/x]sf] pQm laBfno Rofn]Gh km08sf] %^ c/a– k]G6fugn] xfd|f] 5ftLdf xfd|f cfˆg} bfOefOsf]
5g\ eg]/ k|rf/ ul/Psf] 5 . zfob sfo{ q mdnfO{ ;Daf] w g u/] eGg] k;f{ lhNnf cWoIf /fw]Zofd ;fx, tyf :yfgLo hgdf;df hfgsf/L xftaf6 xf]nL xfGg] sf§f]sf] /sd a'em]sf] xf] ls xf]Og < dnfO{ sfo/ eP/
ljb]zL zlQms]Gb|x¿nfO{ l/emfpgsf ;dfrf/ cfPsf] 5 . o;af6 k|i6 af/f lhNnf cWoIf e'ktL ;fx, d'u' u/fpbf 5f} .Ú o;/L gSsnL x:tfIf/ afRg' 5}g, dnfO{ cfˆg} df6f]df n'Sg' klg 5}g . 6'Fl8v]ndf uf]nL xfGg] lbg
nflu jf pgLx¿;Fu cg'go ljgo x'G5 olb b]znfO{ arfpg] xf] eg], lhNnf ;+of]hs g/;'/ a'dL, lkPg ul/ cfd hgdfg;nfO{ cft+lst kfg]{ dGqL kl/ifb\af6 kf; ug{', d cfkm}F cfp5' . k|mfG; k'u]/ dflnssf] rfs8L
ug{sf nflu g} k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nL /fli6«otfnfO{ hf]ufpg] xf] eg] ca of] lhNnf pkfWoIf cf:yf g]kfnLnufot kf6L{nfO{ ab\gfd ug]{ ;+sL0f{ ;f]+r ug{' kb}g{ .
ljb]z e|d0fsf gfddf s'lb/x]sf bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yfnfO{ Wj:t b]z}el/af6 bh{gf}+ sd/]8x¿nfO{ ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ tTsfn kQf nufO{ xfdL a}1flgs ;dfhjfb rfxG5f}, xfdL lks] / l;s] /fptsf] o'/f]k
5g\ . ptf k|r08 klg pkrf/sf agfpg'sf] ljsNk 5}g . hgtfsf /fhg} l ts cf:yfsf] cfwf/df hg;Qfsf] lalw cg';f/ sf/afxL ug]{ ;o/df leofgf ljZjlaBfnodf g]kfn agfpg] ukm lbPsf] h:tf] e2f c7f]6n]
gfddf cf]xf]/ bf]xf/ ul//x]sf 5g\ . clwsf/nfO{ :yflkt ug]{ xf] eg] of] u}xG| ofoLs ¿kdf lu/ˆtf/ u/L em'7f ;d]t ;+u7gn] hgfPsf] 5 . plePsf 5f]/f5f]/L xf]Ogf} . t]x|j6f kfgLhxfh ePsf] afª\nfb]zdf Pp6f
ah] 6 dflysf] n' 6 kf6 ;QfnfO{ d'Ssf xfGg'sf] ljsNk 5}g . d'2fx¿df kmF;fO{ lx/f;t / h]ndf ut a} z fv @ ut] e] l 6Psf] 8]/fdf rf/ kl/jf/ lsg a:g jfWo 5g\, ef/tsf] Tolt 7"nf] /]n lnGsdf lsg
;/sf/n] 5'§fPsf] ah]6sf] s;/L JolQm kl/jt{g u/]/ s]xL x'g]jfnf cdfgjLo tl/sfn] /flvPsf]kl| t xfd|f] ljKnasf] s[t] x:tfIf/ ;lxtsf] dfG5] c;dfgtfsf] sfnf] h'u afRg jfWo 5g\ < s]kL / l;s] kf6{g/;Lkn]
b'¿kof]u ePsf] 5 eGg] ;dfrf/x¿ 5}g\ . Pp6f bnfnsf] 7fpFdf csf]{ ;+u7g 3f]/ eT;{gf / lgGbf ub{5 . vabf/L krf{df o:tf] n]vs ] f] 5 M – kmf]6f] b]vfP/ b]z ¿kfGt/0f x'Fb}g . ;w}+sf] nflu a]as'km agfpg] of] hf]s
lbgx'F cfO{ /xG5g\ . s/f]8f}+ /sddf bnfn cfP/ s]xL /fxt x'g] cj:yf xfdL of] ;fdflhs bnfn kmfl;jfbL …va/bf/ va/bf/ va/bf/ gu/]s} /fd|f] . dnfO{ yfxf 5 of] ;o/sf] d'6d ' f s'g kfgL, s;sf] g'g / s;sf]
k' n aG5g\ t/ aGg gkfpF b } 5}g\ . ctM rf}tkmL{ ¿kdf of] Joj:yf ;/sf/nfO{ r'gf}lt lbg rfxG5f}+ ls cfb/0fLo cleefjs ju{ Ho'x? /ut g;fdf bf}8]sf] 5 < t/ elGbg . xfdL k]G6fugsf jf ;fd|fHojfbLsf
elTsG5g\ . af6f] lkr jf sfnf]kq] c;kmn ePsf] 5 / Pskl5 csf]{ ltd|f] of] cGofok"0f{, hglj/f]wL, o; glag OlË\nz :s'nn] k6s–k6s ;fd' ?g]x¿ xf]Ogf}F jf cfˆgf] cfo' / kbsf] calwsf nflu ;fj{ef}ldstf
ul/G5 . xKtflbg gx' F b } kfgLn] y]Ug} g;Sg] ;+s6df kml;;s]sf] 5 . /fi6«3ftL, e|i6 / kmfl;jfbL /fHo lbPsf] lgb]z { g cj1f u/]sfn] afWo w/f}6L g/fVg] (( k|ltzt g]kfnLsf 5f]/f5f]/L xf}F . xfdL Tolt a'4' klg 5}gf}F
aufpF5 jf 3fF; pld|G5 . ejgx¿ ca hgtfsf] cfqmf]znfO{ ljb|f]xsf] Joj:yfsf h'g;'s} k|sf/sf bdggsf eP/ ef}lts sf/afxL ug{k' /]sf] cj:yf ls xfdLnfO{ laqmL u/]sf] yfxf gxf];\ . tkfO{+ g]kfn kms{g' klxn] g]kfnLsf] dg
agfO{G5 aGg gkfpFb} elTsg z'? ¿kdf ;+ul7t u/]/ lj:kmf]6 agfpg] cufl8 xfdL sbfkL em'Sg] 5}gf}+ . 5 . u'0f:t/xLg lzIff, rsf]{ ;'Ns d'6'df tkfO{+sf] tl:a/ …km'lhdf]/LÚ h:tf] / tkfO{+sf] ;fem]bf/ ;fd|fHojfbLn]
x'G5g\ . k|wfgdGqL /f]huf/ sfo{qmd kxnsbdLsf] cfjZostf 5 . ;a}sf] j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL /fHo Joj:yf / c;'nL, lzIfsnfO{ ;+ul7t x'g glbg', b]Vg] u/L– …oflGsh uf] xf]dÚ sf] uLt u'Ghfodfg x'g]5 . of] ;lhnf] kl/ro /
afFb/ wkfpgsf nflu vr{ ul/G5 . lgisif{ aGb} 5 –æljKnj cfp b]z j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL lzIff k|0ffnL cUnf ljBfno ejg, k7g kf7gsf] d]/f] b]z s;sf] xftdf 5 eGg] JofVof tkfO{+ :Jodn] k|mfG; af6 lbg'ePsf]
x'g klg k|wfgdGqL, dGqL, ;f+;b / arfp .Æ ljKnjsf] g]tT[ j kl/l:yltn] :yfkgfsf] xfd|f] dxfg\ nIo k|flKtsf] plrt jftfj/0f glbg', lk|G;knsf] 5.
g]tfx¿sf] lemgfemD6L sldzgdf vf]h]sf] 5 . hgqmflGtdf xfd|f] ;+u7g cgj/t 9f]u+ L / 3d08L Jojxf/ cflb sf/0fn] d olQ s'/f b]x¥ofpg rfxG5', d's'08f] nfP/ ;fd|fHojfbLsf rfs8L ug]{
s]lGb|t 5 . hgtfaf6 dgk/L s/ ;/sf/===== cufl8 a9\g]5 .Ú ubf{ o; :s'nsf lk|lG;kn /fd k|;fb ;a} sDo'lgi6 g]tfsf] 5f]/f5f]/Ln] lhGbuLdf cfˆgf] afk|lt uj{ ug]{ 5}gg\ /
p7fpg] / g]tfx¿n] n'6g\ ] d'Vo k|jl[ Q ePsf] lj1lKt dfkm{t hgfPsf] 5 . …xfdL ;fdflhs bnfn kmfl;jfbL lg/f}nfnfO{ JolQmut ;fy} :s'nnfO{ eGg] 5g\– a? d]/f] j'jf levf/L eP klg g]kfnL ePsf] eP x'GYof] . km'lhdf]/Lsf]
ag]sf] 5 . ljb]zLx¿;Fu dfUg], k| j Qmf k| s f08n] u' 7 LnfO{ s]kL–lks] ;/sf/ / /fdaxfb'/ u[x h'g;'s} a]nfdf ef}lts sf/afxL ug{ / sxfFsf] lyof]< l;km{ df]x/f lyof] . ;fd|fHojflb gf]s/ ag]/ k]?sf] qmflGt
b]znfO{ vf]qmf] agfpg], hgtfnfO{ C0f cfw'lgsLs/0f / Gofok"0f{ kl/rfng k|zf;gnfO{ b]z}e/Laf6 u}x|GofoLs g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] lg0f{o ePsf]n] bdg uof]{ . t;f{pg] / cfTdf;dk{0f u/fpg] sf]zLif gu/g';\– xfdL lxdfn
yf]kg]{ t/ l;ldt g]tfx¿ wgL aGg] ug{k' g]d{ f kl5Nnf] ;do u'7L Jojl:yt lu/ˆtf/ ul/g' ePsf xfd|f] ;+u7gsf cf–cfˆgf gflg afa'nfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg kxf8 / t/fOsf x/]s lbg Ao'e\mg hfg]sf 5f]/f5f]/L xf} . laKnasf dfG5]
h:tf] /fi6«3ftL ;f]+rn] g]tfx¿nfO{ ug]{ gfddf ;/f]sf/jfnf kIf;Fu ;a} sd/]8x¿nfO{ @$ 306fleq ;Dk"0f{ cleefjsx?nfO{ cfJxfg u/L 36fPsf] l/kf]6{ a'emfP/ tkfO{+sf] cfo' a9fpg] afWotf eP, s]kL / jfbn bfO{,
ufFh]sf] 5 . 5nkmn} gu/L pQm ljjfbf:kb ljgfzt{ l/xf ug{ hf]8bf/ dfu of] ;'rgf k|sflzt ul/Psf] 5 . dnfO{ of] h'lg bf; ag]/ w]/} afRg' 5}g . xflGbPF x'G5, d]/f] /utsf] /ftf]
clwgfosjfbL,lg/+ s ' z / law]os ;bgdf k|:t' ul/Psf] eGb} ub{5f}+ . ;fy} pxfFx¿sf] l/xfO{sf] lglDt sf/afxL ubf{ x'g] wg hgfsf] Ifltk|lt wf/faf6 s] hlGdG5 Tof] tkfO{+ cg'dfg klg ug{ ;Sg' x'Gg . Oltxf; ;fIfL 5,
kmf“ ; LjfbL sbd lj/f]w u/]sf 5g . gful/ssf] lgDg r/0fa4 ;+3if{sf sfo{qmdx¿ :jod\ lk|lG;kn hafkmb]xL x'g5 ] .Æ bnfnsf] /ut, u2f/sf] /ut / of]4fsf] /utaLr w]/} cGt/ 5 . /, dx;lrj
dfs] / Pdfn]sf] u7aGwg clg ;f+:s[lts efjgfsf] sb/ / ;Dk"0f{ h:t} h]7 #) / #! ut]M b]zJofkL :g]xf lrdf}l/of laKnj of]4fx¿sf] cfbz{ xf] .
lgjf{rgsf] kl/0ffdn] of] u7aGwgdf ;'/Iffsf] of]hgf gagfO{ ljw]os lgdf{0f :s"n, SofDk; / ljZjljBfnox¿df
olt w]/} pGdfb cfof] ls p;n] c?nfO{
zlQm g} b]Vb}g . cf]nL / bfxfnsf]
ts{ ;'gs} 5f}+ lg, pgLx¿ eGb}5g\–
/fhtGq 9Nof], u0ftGq cfof], ca
ul/g' unt /x]sf] klg pgn] atfP .
k|jQmf k|sf08åf/f hf/L lj1lKtdf
elgPsf] 5, …u'7LnfO{ cfw'lgsLs/0f
/ Gofok"0f{ kl/rfng ug{'k5{ . t/
lj/f]w sfo{qmd, cGt/lqmof, lj/f]w
Jofg/, krf{ ljt/0f, e08fkmf]/, /fli6«o
dfgjclwsf/ cfof] u df ph' / L,
x:tfIf/ ;+sng / sf]0f;ef . c;f/
kqsf/ dxf;+3 t];f| ] r/0fsf] cfGbf]ngdf
sf7df8f} + . g] k fn kqsf/ cfufdL c;f/ # ut] k|;
] :jtGqtfsf] Wofgfsif{ 0 f ug] { , @) ut] k| ] ;
s] sf nflu lj/f]w < s] sf nflu kl5Nnf] ;do u'7L Jojl:yt ug]{ !, @ / # ut] h'n'; k|bz{g . c;f/ dxf;+3n] t];|f] r/0fsf] cfGbf]ng kIfdf b]zJofkL x:tfIf/ cleofg :jtGqtf;efsf] cfof]hgf ug]{, @%
cfGbf]ng < s] sf nflu ;+3if{ < clg gfddf ;/f]sf/jfnf kIf;Fu 5nkmn} $ ut] M b]zJofkL SofDk;x¿ cufl8 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 . ldl8of sfplG;n rnfpg], ^ ut] ;+slnt x:tfIf/ ut] lbpF;} nflN6g h'nz ' ug]{ / #)
s] sf nflu ljb|f]x < cfh ;/sf/n] gu/L gful/ssf] ;f+:s[lts efjgfsf] ! 306f rSsfhfd -( ah]bl] v !) ljB]os lkmtf{sf] dfu /fVb} cfGbf]ng/t lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf a'emfpg], ut] b]zJofkL l;6L h'n'z / ;ef
k'/fg} efiff z}nLnfO{ sdf / k'0f{lj/fd sb/ / ;Dk"0f{ ;'/Iffsf] of]hgf gagfO{ ah];Dd _ . c;f/ % ut]– b]zJofkL dxf;+3n] kqsf/;Da4 ;+3;+u7g ug]{ sfo{qmd to
klg gla/fO{ bf] x f] ¥ ofpF b } 5 . lsg ljw]os lgdf{0f ul/b}5 .Ú d;fn h'n; ' . c;f/ ^ ut] u}xG| ofoLs Pjd\ ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfo;Fu d+unaf/ u/]sf] 5 . t];|f]
k|wfgdGqLsf] ts{ 5, d b'O{ ltxfO{sf] ljw] o ssf] lj?4df p7] s f lu/ˆtf/L ul/Psf :yfgx¿ 5nkmnkl5 t];f| ] r/0fsf] cfGbf]ng r / 0 f s f ]
k|wfgdGqL, hgdt k|fKt k|wfgdGqL, hgtfsf] zflGtk"0f{ / a}wflgs ;+3if{df pkTosfsf # lhNnf sf7df8f}+, 3f]if0ff u/]sf] xf] . 5nkmn sfo{qmddf cfGbf]ngsf nflu
d]/f] lj/f]w ug{ ldN5 < To;sf/0f ePsf] bdgsf] lgGbf ub}{ cfGbf]ngdf nlntk'/, eQmk'/, wflbª, af/f, k;f{, cGgk" 0 f{ kf] i 6sf k| w fg;Dkfbs dxf;+3n]
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