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SEWERAGE REPORT

CADANGAN MEMBINA DAN MENYIAPKAN 1 BLOK 16 UNIT


KUARTERS 5 TINGKAT (JENIS F) DI ATAS LOT 11919, JINJANG UTARA
TAMBAHAN, MUKIM BATU, KUALA LUMPUR.

Prepared by

49, JALAN BESTARI 2/4, TAMAN NUSA BESTARI, 81200 JOHOR BAHRU, JOHOR
1.1 Introduction

Sewerage system, network of pipes, pumps, and force mains for the collection of
wastewater, or sewage, from a community. Modern sewerage systems fall under two
categories: domestic and industrial sewers and storm sewers. Sometimes a combined
system provides only one network of pipes, mains, and outfall sewers for all types of
sewage and runoff. The preferred system, however, provides one network of sewers
for domestic and industrial waste, which is generally treated before discharge, and a
separate network for storm runoff, which may be diverted to temporary detention
basins or piped directly to a point of disposal in a stream or river.
Sewerage been constructed are primarily to transport the wastewater of a
community to a point of treatment or to the ultimate disposal. In ensuring public
health, environmental protection and enhancing the standard of living of the general
population, sewerage systems are the most important part to be applied. Pipe
condition, groundwater levels, soil permeability and joints is the terms refer to the
rate of infiltration in sewerage system. Infiltration is that water that leaks into a sewer
through defective joints and cracked sewer pipes or manholes. The problems are
controlled by proper design, pipe selection, limiting infiltration, and closely
supervised construction and this is especially for a new sewer. Other than infiltration
problems, there are two more common problems in wastewater system which is
inflow and leakage. For inflow problem, it is mainly water from surface runoff that
enters the sewer via manholes. Then, leakage is water seepage through cracks and
improperly joints of piping. All the commons problems are effecting the flow in the
sewer.

1.2 Sewerage Treatment in Malaysia

Primary treatment such as communal septic tanks and imhoff tanks and unreliable
low cost secondary system such as oxidation ponds has been made in Malaysia. The
public sewerage treatment is handled by Indah Water Sdn. Bhd., where the company
is responsible in treating and collecting waste from industrial domestic area. In large
urban areas utilize Individual Septic Tanks (IST) and there are over one million
individual septic tanks in Malaysia.
In urban area specifically had potential to create public health and
environmental problems because the tanks are partially treat sewage, discharging an
effluent still rich in organic material. IWK is responsible for planning and
rationalizing the public sewerage facilities to reduce the number of treatment plants
using the ‘multipoint concept. Lastly, sewerage pipeline networks will be lay in
urban areas that currently serviced by IST to convey the domestic sewage to modern
secondary treatment facilities.

1.3 Sewerage Treatment Methods

Preliminary and/or Primary Treatment refers to physical unit operations and is the
first stage of treatment applied to any sewage. Secondary Treatment refers to
biological and chemical unit processes, while Tertiary refers to combinations of all
three treatments.
1) Preliminary Sewage Treatment
2) Primary Sewage Treatment
3) Secondary Sewage Treatment

There is no plan to build tertiary systems in Malaysia. The focus has been
providing a basic standard of preliminary and secondary treatment.
 Pipes
o The proposed sewer reticulation main shall be 225mm
diameter.
 Manhole
o Our choice is to locate manhole of head sewers, change of
diameter, direction and gradient and where sewers meet.

1.4 Manhole

Manhole
There are three most common forms of manhole construction which are:
1) Brick-built
2) Sectional pre-cast concrete
3) Cast in-situ concrete around a plastic liner
For full details of manhole dimensions are given in BS8301:1985 Code of Practice
for Building Drainage.

Manhole Cover

A manhole cover is to prevent anyone or anything from falling in, and to keep out
unauthorized persons and material and it is removable plate forming the lid over the
opening of a manhole. Manholes are usually inexpensive, strong, and heavy, usually
weighing more than 50 kilograms because manholes covers are often made out of
cast iron, concrete or a combination of the two.

1.5 Population Equivalence (PE)

In order to design pipe network, pump stations and sewage treatment plants,
estimates need to be made of the volumetric flow rate which will be expected to be
carried, pumped, and treated. There are many methods for calculating expected flow
rates. One method is to calculate a design parameter called the ”population
equivalent” (PE) of a catchment and convert this to a flow rate. The PE is an estimate
of the usage made of sewage facilities. It is not a measure of population. For
residential areas the population equivalent is calculated as five per dwelling and is a
direct measurement of the population in an area. However for commercial areas it is
calculated from the floor area, which is considered to be proportional to the number
of people using a premise during the day. In this case it does not reflect the
population living in an area.
Sewerage should be design based on building structure operational purpose.
The proposed building is 1 Block 16 Unit Quarters 5 Floors (Type F), on Lot 11919,
Jinjang Utara Tambahan, Mukim Batu, Kuala Lumpur. This project owned by
Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia. Population Equivalent calculation will be conduct
based on this aspect. The design of sewerage value later will be submitted to Indah
Water Konsortium to be approved. Sewerage line will include the manhole to
facilitate future inspection. Gravitational method is used to allow sewerage flow
from constructed building to existing pipeline around the area. This design will be
assist by the guideline of Malaysian Standard MS 1228.

The following assumptions were adopted for preliminary design purposes:


i. The proposed platform level is used to determine depth of
manhole. The minimum depth of manhole is 1.2 meter and the
maximum manhole depth is 5.0 meter.

ii. Manholes will be provided at junction, bends, changes in sewer


gradient and at regular intervals of about 60 m for straight run
sewer lines.

1.6 Design Criteria and Sources of References

Design calculation is made in accordance with criteria issued by Standard &


Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) – “Code od Practice for Design
and Installation of Sewerage System.”; MS 1228: 1991 and Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines (Sewer Network & Pump Station) 3rd Edition Volume III.
1) Discharge and velocity of flow in circular pipe made of High Density Poly
Ethylene ( HDPE) corrugated shall be deisgn according to Manning’s formula
for uniform flow. The formula is as follow:
2 1
R3 S 2
V=
n
Where,
V = velocity (m/sec)
S = Hydraulic gradient
R = Hydraulic radius
n = Manning’s roughness coefficient

2) The average daily design flow = 225 litres per capita


= 0.225 m3 /PE
PE −0.11
3) Peak Factor = 4.7 x ( )
1000
Where PE = assumed population equivalent

4) The minimum size for sewer = 225 mm


The sewer pipe material = Vitrified Clay Pipe (VCP)

5) Manning (‘n’ value) formula used to calculate the flow characteristic,


assumed to be 0.009

6) Minimum design velocity at full flow is greater than 0.8m/sec

7) Maximum design velocity at half full or full flow is less than 4.0m/sec

8) Two types of standard bedding for sewers are

a. Class ‘A’ Bedding – with 1:2:4 concrete backfill


(Required if minimum traffic cover cannot be achieved)
b. Class ‘B’ Bedding – with selected compact backfill material
(Required if minimum traffic cover can be achieved)

Infiltration will inevitably happen in sewerage systems for very rare, if any, is
because that the workmanships so excellent that there are no defects at all after the
installation of the sewerage system. Therefore, as guidance, all sewerage systems
shall take into account as a maximum rate of 50 litres/day/kilometer-
length/millimeter-diameter in their design.

No. Type of Establishment Population Equivalent


1. Residential 5 per unit
2. Commercial (includes offices, 300 per 100 m2 gross area
centers, restaurants, cafeteria,
theaters)
3. Schools Education Institutions; 0.2 per student for non-residential
-Day schools/institutions & 1 per student for residential
-Fully residential student
-Partial residential
4. Hospitals 4 per bed
5. Hotels (with dining & laundry 4 per room
facilities)
6. Factories (excluding process wastes) 0.3 per staff
7. Market (wet type) 3 per stall
8. Petrol kiosks/Service stations 18 per service bay
9. Bus terminal 4 per bus day
PE (MS1228: 1991)
1.7 Design Calculation for Sewerage Reticulation

Design data:

No. Type of construction Unit x PE Unit (House) Total Population


1. Residential:
Level 1 5 per unit 4 20
Level 2 5 per unit 4 20
Level 3 5 per unit 4 20
Level 4 5 per unit 4 20
Total 80

Calculation from MH to MH2


No. of population = 80 PE
Flowrate = 225 litre/day
Average design flow = (80 x 225)/1000
= 18 m3 /day
= 18/86400
= 0.0002083 m3 /sec
PE −0.11
Peak flow factor = Average flow x 4.7 x ( )
1000
80 −0.11
= 0.0002083 m3 /sec x 4.7 x ( )
1000
= 0.001292 m3 /sec
a) Population equivalent = 80 PE
b) Dry weather flow (DWF) = PE x 0.225m3/day
= 80 x (0.225/24 x 60 x 60) m3/s
= 0.00021 m3/s
PE
1000
c) Peak flow factor = 4.7 x ¿
¿
¿
80
1000
= 4.7 x ¿
¿
¿
= 6.205
d) Peak flow = 6.205 x DWF
= 6.205 x 0.00021
= 0.00130
e) Proposed gradient = 1:200
f) Area = π D2 / 4 ÷100000
= π (225)2 /4 ÷ 100000
= 0.03976 m2
g) Manning Equations,
2 1
3 2
Velocity, V = R S
n
where:
V = velocity (m/sec)
S = hydraulic gradient
R = hydraulic radius
N = Manning coefficient (0.009)

(0.1468075)(0.0707107)
V=
0.009
V = 1.1534m/sec

h) Pipe flow, Q = AV
= 0.03976 x 1.1534
= 0.04586 m3/s

Thus, Pipe flow, Q = 0.04586 m3/s > Peak flow capacity = 0.0013
m3/s
(O.K)

i) Manhole depth: GL – IL
: 46.00 - 43.40 = 2.60
PROJECT: Design by:
CADANGAN MEMBINA DAN MENYIAPKAN 1 BLOK FATIN
16 UNIT KUARTERS 5 TINGKAT JENIS F DI ATAS LOT
11919, JINJANG UTARA TAMBAHAN, MUKIM BATU,
KUALA LUMPUR.

CLIENT:
KEMENTERIAN KESIHATAN MALAYSIA

Route:
1 MH 1 TO MH Existing
Sewerage design
N = 0.009
MH PE DIAM GR LEN FA G IL MAH PE PEAK DRY Q ARE P R R2/3 S0.5 VELO 0.8<V Q Q DEP
TO ETER AD GTH LL L HOLE CUMUL FLOW WEAT PEAK A (M) (M) CITY <4.0 PIPE PA TH
MH (MM) (M) DEPT ATIVE FACT HER (M3/S) (M²) (M/S) (M3/ IP
H OR FLOW S) >Q
(M3/S) PE
AK
MH1 1.4 53. 44. 1.40
0 00 100
MH2 80 225 200 26.90 4.5 48. 44. 4.50 80 6.2052 0.0002 0.0012 0.039 0.70 0.05 0.146 0.070 1.1534 OK 0.045 OK OK
0 0 50 000 31084 08 92756 7659 695 625 8075 7107 29 8672
MH2
MH3 0 225 200 75.50 2.4 46. 43. 2.40 80 6.2052 0.0002 0.0012 0.039 0.70 0.05 0.146 0.070 1.1534 OK 0.045 OK OK
0 0 00 600 31084 08 92756 7659 695 625 8075 7107 29 8672
MH3

MH4 0 225 200 13.10 2.5 46. 43. 2.50 80 6.2052 0.0002 0.0012 0.039 0.70 0.05 0.146 0.070 1.1534 OK 0.045 OK OK
0 0 00 500 31084 08 92756 7659 695 625 8075 7107 29 8672
MH4

MH5 0 225 200 11.90 2.5 46. 43. 2.54 80 6.2052 0.0002 0.0012 0.039 0.70 0.05 0.146 0.070 1.1534 OK 0.045 OK OK
0 4 00 460 31084 08 92756 7659 695 625 8075 7107 29 8672
MH5

MH6 0 225 200 9.300 2.6 46. 43. 2.60 80 6.2052 0.0002 0.0012 0.039 0.70 0.05 0.146 0.070 1.1534 OK 0.045 OK OK
0 00 400 31084 08 92756 7659 695 625 8075 7107 29 8672
MH6
MH7 0 225 200 13.30 2.6 46. 43. 2.65 80 6.2052 0.0002 0.0012 0.039 0.70 0.05 0.146 0.070 1.1534 OK 0.045 OK OK
0 5 00 350 31084 08 92756 7659 695 625 8075 7107 29 8672
MH7
MH8 0 225 200 22.70 2.8 46. 43. 2.80 80 6.2052 0.0002 0.0012 0.039 0.70 0.05 0.146 0.070 1.1534 OK 0.045 OK OK
0 0 00 200 31084 08 92756 7659 695 625 8075 7107 29 8672
MH8
MHex 0 225 200 46.87 3.0 46. 43. 3.00 80 6.2052 0.0002 0.0012 0.039 0.70 0.05 0.146 0.070 1.1534 OK 0.045 OK OK
isting 0 0 00 000 31084 08 92756 7659 695 625 8075 7107 29 8672