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ACKNOWLEDMENT

Training has an important role in exposing


the real life situation in an industry. It was a great
experience for me to work on training at 132 kV
substation MPPTCL Balaghat through which I
could learn how to work in a professional
environment.
Now, I would like to thank the people who
guided me and have been a constant source of
inspiration throughout the tenure of my summer
training.
I am sincerely grateful to Mr. D.S. Walkey
(Assistant Engineer) at 132 kV substation MPPTCL
Balaghat who rendered me his valuable
assistance, precious time, constant
encouragement and able guidance which made
this training actually possible.

- Ayush Shukla
INDEX
S.NO. NAME OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION OF 132 KV
SUBSTATION
2. MAIN COMPONENTS OF
SUBSTATION
3. SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF
132 KV S\S
4. NAME PLATE READING OF
EQUIPMENTS
5. PLCC EQUIPMENTS
6. PARTS OF TRANSFORMER
7. TRANSMISSION LINE
PROTECTION
8. BATTERY ROOM & BATTERY
CHARGER
9. CONTROL ROOM
10. PROTECTIVE DEVICES
11. VARIOUS TYPES OF TEST
12. CAPACITOR BANK (12Mvar,
15Mvar )
13. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS.
INTRODUCTION

SUBSTATION
Power substation is a subsidiary station of
an electricity transmission and distribution
system where voltage is transformed from
high or medium to low or the reverse using
transformers. Electric power flows through
several substation between generating
plants and consumer changing the voltage
in several stages.
A substation that has a step up
transformer increases the voltage with
decreasing current, while step down
transformer decreases the voltage with
increasing the current for domestic and
commercial distribution.

132 KV SUBSTATION
The project work assigned to us was to
design 132/33KV substation. We considered
incoming power at 132 KV and the power
was transferred to main bus through
isolators-circuit breaker-isolator
combination. The power from main bus was
fed into the 63 MVA, two 40 MVA
transformer which stepped the voltage down
to 33 KV.

132 KV SUBSTATION BALAGHAT


IN 132 KV substation Balaghat, It consists of
total five feeders in which three feeders are
incoming feeder (Import) and two feeders
are outgoing feeder (Export).
The feeders which feed
energy to substation called as incoming
feeders and the feeder which gives out the
energy called as outgoing feeder. In short a
substation is an indoor and outdoor location
containing transformer, switch gears, bus
bar, protection equipment. It is a location for
transforming the voltage level also having
operating devices for connecting and
disconnecting lines called circuit breaker
along with the protection equipment called
relay. A combination of several important
equipment for voltage transformation and
distribution make an environment which is
called as substation.
 Substation having three incoming feeder
(Import)-
A. IMPORT-1 DONGARGARH 132KV
B. IMPORT-2 KATANGI 132KV
C. IMPORT-3 LALBURRA 132KV

 Substation having two outgoing feeder


(Export)-

A. EXPORT-1 BAIHAR 132KV


B. EXPORT-2 BENEGAON 132KV
MAIN COMPONENTS OF SUBSTATION
The power system is a constituent of power
generation, transmission and distribution
systems. For all the power system
operations, substations are required for their
course of action. Substations are assembly
of electrical equipment through which
consumers get supply of electrical power
from generating stations. By varying the
voltage levels or frequency or any other
aspects, the required electrical quantity can
be altered in substations to provide quality
power to consumers.
Based on the application of substations,
they are classified into different types:
Generation substation, Indoor substation,
Outdoor substation, Pole mounted
substation, Switching substation,
Transmission substation and Distribution
substation.
The substation is an assembly of the
following major electrical equipment
 Electrical Power transformers
 Instrument transformers
 Conductors& Insulators
 Isolators
 Bus bars
 Lightning arresters
 Circuit breakers
 Relays
 Capacitor banks and miscellaneous
equipment.

ELECTRICAL POWER TRANSFORMER


A static electrical machine used for
transforming power from one circuit to
another circuit without changing frequency
is termed as Power transformer. The
transformers are generally used to step
down or step up the voltage levels of a
system for transmission and distribution
purpose. These transformers are classified
into different types based on their design,
utilization purpose, installation methods,
and so on.
INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
The current and voltage transformers are
together called as the Instrument transformers
Current Transformer
Current transformer is used for the measurement
of the alternating current by taking samples of
the higher currents of the system. These reduced
samples are in accurate proportions with the
actual high currents of the system. These are
used for installation and maintenance of the
current relays in substations for protection
purpose which are normally have low-current
ratings for their operation.
Potential Transformer
Potential transformer is quite similar to the
current transformer, but it is used for taking
samples of high voltages of a system for
providing low-voltage to the relays of protection
system and also to the low-rating meters for
voltage measurement. From this low-voltage
measurement, the actual system’s high voltage
can be calculated without measuring high
voltages directly to avoid the cost of the
measurement system.

Conductors
Conductors

The material or object that obeys the electrical


property conductance (mostly made of metals
such as aluminium and copper) and that allows
the flow of electric charge is called conductor.
Conductors permit free movement of the flow of
electrons through them. These are used for the
transmission of power or electrical energy from
one place (generating station) to another place
(consumer point where power is consumed by
the loads) through substations. Conductors are of
different types and mostly aluminium conductors
are preferred in practical power systems.

INSUALTORS

Insulators

The metal which does not allow free movement


of electrons or electric charge is called as an
insulator. Hence, insulators resist electricity with
their high resisting property. There are different
types of insulators such as suspension type,
strain type, stray type, shackle, pin type and so
on. A few types of insulators are shown in the
above figure.
Insulators are used for insulation purpose while
erecting electric poles with conductors to avoid
short circuit and for other insulation
requirements.

ISOLATORS

Isolators

Isolator is a manually operated mechanical


switch that isolates the faulty section or the
section of a conductor or a part of a circuit of
substation meant for repair from a healthy
section in order to avoid occurrence of more
severe faults. Hence, it is also called as a
disconnecting switch. There are different types of
isolators used for different applications such as
single-break isolator, double-break isolator, bus
isolator, line isolator, etc.
BUS BARS

Bus bars

The conductor carrying current and having


multiple numbers of incoming and outgoing
line connections can be called as bus bar,
which is commonly used in substations.
These are classified into different types like
single bus, double bus and ring bus.
LIGHTENING ARRESTERS

Lightening Arresters
The substation equipment such as
conductors, transformers, etc., are always
erected outdoor. Whenever light surges
occur then, a high-voltage pass through
these electrical components causing
damage to them (either temporary or
permanent damage based on the amount of
voltage surge). Therefore, to avoid this
difficulty, lightening arresters are placed to
pass the entire lightening surges to earth.
There are other arresters which are used to
ground the switching surges called as surge
arresters.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Circuit Breakers
For the protection of substation and its
components from the over currents or over load
due to short circuit or any other fault the faulty
section is disconnected from the healthy section
either manually or automatically. If once the fault
is rectified, then again the original circuit can be
rebuilt by manually or automatically. Different
types of circuit breakers are designed based on
different criteria and usage. But in general mostly
used circuit breakers are Oil circuit breaker, Air
circuit breaker, SF6 circuit breaker, Vacuum
Circuit Breaker, and so on.

RELAYS
Relays are used for disconnecting the circuits by
manual or automatic operation. Relay consists of
the coil which is excited or energized and such
that making the contacts of relay closed
activates the relay to break or make the circuit
connection. There are different types of
relays such as over current relays, definite time
over current relays, voltage relays, auxiliary
relays, reclosing relays, solid state relays,
directional relays,inverse time over current
relays, microcontroller relays, etc. The above
figure shows some basic relays and their
operation.
Relays

CAPACITOR BANKS

A Capacitor bank is a set of many identical


capacitors connected in series or parallel within a
enclosure and is used for the power factor
correction and basic protection of substation.
These capacitor banks are acts as a source of
reactive power, and thus, the phase difference
between voltage and current can be reduced by
the capacitor banks. They will increase the ripple
current capacity of the supply. It avoids
undesirable characteristics in the power system.
It is the most economical method for
maintaining power factor and of correction of the
power lag problems.
PLCC EQUIPMENTS
For larger Power System Power Line
Carrier Communication is used for data
transmission as well as protection of
transmission lines. Carrier current is used for
PLCC has a frequency range of 80 to 500
kHz.
PLCC is used for the Carrier Tripping
and Direct Tripping in case of Distance
Protection.
MAIN COMPONENTS OF PLCC
1. Coupling capacitor
2. Wave trap
3. Transmitters and receivers
4. Hybrids and filters
5. Line matching unit LMU
APPLICATION OF PLCC
1. Carrier protection relaying of
transmission line so that Inter trip
command can be issued by relay due to
tripping of circuit breaker at any one
end.
2.Station to station communication b/w
operating personnel.
3. Carrier telemetering, electrical
quantities that are telemetered are kW,
kVA, kVAR, Voltage and Power factor etc.
TRANSFORMER
A transformer is an electrical device that
transfers electrical energy from one
circuit to another by electromagnetic
induction. It is used to step up or step
down AC voltage.
BASIC PARTS OF A TRANSFORMER

1. Laminated core
2. Windings
3. Insulating materials
4. Transformer oil
5. Tap charger
6. Oil conservator
7. Breather
8. Cooling tubes
9. Buchholz Relay
10. Explosion vent
TRANSMISSION LINE PROTECTION
As the length of electrical power
transmission line is generally long enough
and it runs through open atmosphere, the
probability of occurring fault in electrical
power transmission line is much higher than
that of electrical power transformers and
alternators. That is why a transmission line
requires much more protective schemes
than a transformer.
Protection of line should have some
special features, Such as-
 During fault, the only circuit breaker closest to the fault
point should be tripped.
 If the circuit breaker closest to the faulty point, fails to trip,
the circuit breaker just next to this breaker will trip as back
up.
 The operating time of relay associated with protection of
line should be as minimum as possible in order to prevent
unnecessary tripping of circuit breakers associated with
other healthy parts of power system.
These above mentioned requirements cause protection of
transmission line much different from protection of
transformer and other equipment of power systems.
The main three methods of transmission line protection are
-
1. Time graded over current protection.
2. Differential protection.
3. Distance protection
BATTERY ROOM AND BATTERY CHARGER
BATTERY ROOM:-
A battery room is a room in
a facility used to house batteries for backup or
uninterruptible power systems.
There are 24 battery pin and
voltage of every battery is 15.2 V. Battery room
provides 48 volts to connect on conduction and
control that place.
PREACAUTION FOR BATTERY ROOM
1.Keep the battery room well ventilation.
2.Keep the battery and the surrounding dry
and drain.
3.Check and keep the electrical connection
always light and any connection level to
get heated.
4.Always keep the top surface of the battery
clean and dry.
Battery room is the heart of sub-
station. There are 55 batteries of 2 volts each
connected in series with situated and suitable
total capacity of this unit is 110v. D.C is used
in controlled system.
BATTERY CHARGER:-
A battery charger, or
recharger, is a device used to put energy into a
secondary cell or rechargeable battery by forcing
an electric current through it.
SPECIFICATION OF BATTERY
CHARGER

1.Normal voltage - 2 volts per cell


2.No. of cell - 55
3.Discharge capacity at an hour rate at -
27’C 50 AM
4.Discharge capacity at an hour rate at -
27’C 300 AM
5.Normal trickle charger without load - 30
mA
6.Normal charge rate at - 27’C 40A up to
220
7.Normal charging time of complete discharge
- 12H
8.Watt hour efficiency at 20 hours -
76%
Rate of discharge
9.Switching of dilute acid per cell -
9.6%

The charging protocol


(how much voltage or current for how long,
and what to do when charging is complete,
for instance) depends on the size and type of
the battery being charged. Some battery
types have high tolerance for overcharging
(i.e., continued charging after the battery has
been fully charged) and can be recharged by
connection to a constant voltage source or a
constant current source, depending on
battery type.
CONTROL ROOM
The control room is the main part of the
substation. A control room, operations centre,
or operations control centre (OCC) is a room
serving as a central space where a large physical
facility or physically dispersed service can be
monitored and controlled. A control room will
often be part of a larger command centre.
A control room's purpose is production control,
and serves as a central space where a large
physical facility or physically dispersed service
can be monitored and controlled.
VARIOUS TYPES OF TEST
At the time of satisfactory operation of
substation, following type of test is to be done in
transformer:-
1.Oil testing
2.Insulation resistance test
3.Polarity test
4.Primary insulation test

1.Oil testing:-
Transformer oil, a type of
insulating and cooling oil used in
transformer and other electrical
equipment need to be tested
periodically to ensure that it is still fit
for purpose. This is because it tends
to deteriorate over time, testing
sequence and procedure are defined
by various international standards,
many of them set by ASTM. Testing
consist of measuring breakdown and
other physical and chemical
properties of samples of the oil.
2. INSULATION RESISTENCE TESTING:-
Insulation
resistance test of transformer is
performed on the transformer to-
1. Verify insulation integrity due to the
moisture and impurity contents of
insulation.
2. Ensure that no leakage paths b/w
phases or transformer body
3.POLARITY TEST:-
We use dot convention to
identify the voltage polarity of the mutual
inductance of two windings. The two used
conventions are-
1.If a current enters the dotted terminal of
one winding then the voltage induced on
the other winding will be positive at the
dotted terminal of second winding.
2.If a current leaves the dotted terminal of
one winding then the polarity of voltage
induced in the other winding will be
negative at the dotted terminal of the
second winding.
CAPACITOR BANK
A Capacitor bank is a set of many identical
capacitors connected in series or parallel within a
enclosure and is used for the power factor
correction and basic protection of substation.
These capacitor banks are acts as a source of
reactive power, and thus, the phase difference
between voltage and current can be reduced by
the capacitor banks. They will increase the ripple
current capacity of the supply. It avoids
undesirable characteristics in the power system.
It is the most economical method for
maintaining power factor and of correction of the
power lag problems.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
1. Know what you are doing and alert
while doing it.
2. Know what circuit you are handling
and assume that they are alive but you
know they are definitely dead.
3. When connection up then test
instruments or change connecting stand
on insulating material and keep left hand
in your pocket.
4. The isolator bay may be kept in the
board and locked it.
5. When opening or closing any isolator,
wear rubber gloves for protection.
6. The isolator should be close or open
on no load condition.
7. The control panel should be
connected properly.
8. Suitable preventive acessaries are
necessary to minimize the charge due to
inductance in the substation.
9. Earthing should be done at suitable
place.
10. Only the proper equipment should be
used. Take and break poor circuit over
use the disconnection switch on Q.C.B
disconnecting switch can be operated in
parallel.