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Military-ruled Myanmar holds rare elections

posted: 19 MINUTES AGO
YANGON, Myanmar -Voting began in Myanmar's first election in 20 years Sunday ami
d both a barrage of criticism that the balloting was rigged in favor of the ruli
ng military and hope that some change toward democratic reform might nonetheless
About 40,000 polling stations across the Southeast Asian country opened shortly
after 6 a.m. (2330 GMT) and were to close 10 hours later. The regime left everyo
ne guessing as to when results would be announced, saying only they could come "
in time."
However, it was almost certain that through pre-election engineering the junta-b
acked Union Solidarity and Development Party would emerge as the victor despite
widespread popular opposition to 48 years of military rule.
The USDP is fielding 1,112 candidates for the 1,159 seats in the two-house natio
nal parliament and 14 regional parliaments. Its closest rival, the National Unit
y Party with 995 candidates, is backed by supporters of Myanmar's previous milit
ary ruler.
The largest opposition party, the National Democratic Force, is contesting just
164 spots.
Election rules were clearly written to benefit the USDP, and hundreds of potenti
al opposition candidates â including pro-democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi â are under ho
se arrest or in prison. Several parties have complained that voters have been st
rong-armed into voting for the junta's proxy party.
Whatever the results, the constitution sets aside 25 percent of parliamentary se
ats for military appointees.
"These elections are going to be neither free, nor fair, or inclusive. There is
nothing in these elections that could give us grounds for optimism," British Amb
assador Andrew Heyn told The Associated Press on the eve of the balloting, which
he described as a "badly missed opportunity" for democratic change.
Yangon-based diplomats from the European Union â British, French, German, Italian â as
ell as the United States turned down an invitation from the government to take "
exploratory tours" Sunday due to rules applying to the visits. The regime earlie
r banned foreign journalists and international poll monitors from the election.
Despite the storm of criticism, some voters and experts on Myanmar, also known a
s Burma, said the election could herald a modicum of change from the decades of
iron-fisted rule and gross economic mismanagement of the resource-rich nation.
"The elections, for all their farcical elements, have already achieved something
: Burmese people are listening and talking more about politics than they have fo
r a long time," said Monique Skidmore of the Australian National University. "It
seems likely that the very small public political space will be widened and thi
s is probably the best outcome we can hope for from the election."
Democracy advocates are also hopeful that Suu Kyi will be freed from house arres
t sometime after the election, perhaps as early as Nov. 13. Although among the c
ountry's 29 million eligible voters, the Noble Peace Prize laureate said she wou
ld not cast a ballot Sunday.
Suu Kyi's now disbanded National League for Democracy won a landslide victory in
Myanmar's last election in 1990. But the ruling generals ignored the results an
d have kept her locked up in her Yangon villa on-and-off ever since. They also h
old some 2,200 political prisoners in what has been dubbed the "Burmese gulag."
The regime has also been criticized for its brutal treatment of ethnic minoritie
s seeking greater autonomy.
In the wake of rising tension before the election, the junta canceled voting in
3,400 villages in ethnic minority areas and has increased its military presence
in the countryside. About 1.5 million of the country's 59 million people have th
us been disenfranchised.
Some ethnic minority groups, like the Karen, have been fighting the government s
ince the country gained independence from Great Britain in 1948. Others, includi
ng the powerful Wa and Kachin, had forged cease-fire agreements that now appear
in jeopardy amid fears that the constitution activated by the elections would qu
ash their hopes for a federal system.
With ethnic minorities making up about 40 percent of the population, the outbrea
k of a full-scale civil war would have disastrous economic, political and humani
tarian consequences. Some 600,000 ethnic minority people have already sought ref
uge in neighboring countries.
"We fear an increase in violence in many parts of Burma after the election and m
ore refugees fleeing to the border with Thailand. There will be no change, no en
d to suffering, for the people on the ground," said Charm Tong, an exiled activi
st from the Shan minority.