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• Submitted

Priyanka class 12th A
Dept of chemistry
This to certify that the given
project entitled "Coagulation of
colloidal solutions by the help of
different electrolyte "is prepared
by Priyanka Singh under the
supervision of Ms Sabina Riaz for
partial fulfillment AISSCE
chemistry practical.

Project Coordinator
Principal Sabina Riaz
JSBC Ext-Examiner Dept.of chemistry
I feel proud to present my investigatory
project in chemistry on the
“Coagulation of colloidal solutions by
the help of different electrolyte". This
project would not have been feasible
without the proper rigorous guidance of
chemistry teacher Ms.Sabina Riaz who
guided me throughout this project in
every possible way.
I would like to thanks both Ms.Sabina
Riaz and lab assistant Mr.Ashok for
guiding me on a systematic basis and
ensuring that I completed all my
experiments with ease.
I would also like to thank my parents
and friends for their suggestion and
constructive criticism
- Aim
3. Bibliography
Presence of small concentrations of
appropriate electrolytes is necessary to
stabilize the colloidal solutions. However, if
the electrolytes are present in higher
concentrations , then the ions combine with
charged colloidal particles and neutralize
them. Now these colloidal particles may
unite together to form bigger particles which
are then precipitated. The precipitation of a
colloid through induced aggregation by the
addition of some suitable electrolyte is
called coagulation.
• The coagulation of a colloidal
solution by an electrolyte does
not take place until the added
electrolyte has certain minimum
concentration of an electrolyte in
mill moles per litre of mixed
solution. This amount of the
electrolyte required to cause
coagulation of a particular sol is
called the coagulation value of
the electrolyte for the sol.
Different electrolytes have
different coagulation values. The
coagulation behavior of various
electrolytes was studied in detail
by Hardy and Schulze.
Hardy and Schulze observed that:
1. The ions carrying charge
opposite to that of sol
particles are effective in
causing the coagulation of
that sol.
2. coagulation power of an
electrolyte is directly
proportional to the valency of
ions causing coagulation.
Thus, for the coagulation of
sols carrying negative charges
like [ As2S3 ] – S2− sol, Al3+
ions are more effective than
Ba2+ or Na+
Coagulation of a colloidal solutions
can also be achieved by
following methods:
1. By mutual precipitation: when
two oppositely charged sols are
mixed in equimolar
proportions, they neutralize
each other and get coagulated.
2. By electrophoresis: During
electrophoresis , the sols
particles move towards the
oppositely charged, electrodes.
If the process is carried for a
long time , the particles will
touch the electrode, lose their
charges and get coagulated.
3. By heating: The sol may be
coagulated even by simple
• Compare the precipitation
values of sodium chloride,
barium chloride and
aluminium chloride for
arsenious sulphide sol.
• Arsenious sulphide sol consists of
colloidal particles of arsenious
sulphide , As2S3 , dispersed in water. It
is negatively charged sol. It will be
precipitated by positively charged
ions. However , the precipitation
value of the cation will depend upon
the valency of the cation . Thus,
univalent cations such as sodium ion
have much less precipitation power
and therefore , their case large
amount of salt will have to be added
to precipitate the arsenious sulphide
• On the other hand , bivalent cations
such as barium chloride have much
greater precipitation power and a
lesser amount of such salts will be
needed for precipitating the
arsenious sulphide sol. The trivalent
cations such as aluminium ions have
still greater precipitation power and
still lesser amount of aluminium salt
is needed for precipitating arsenious
sulphide sol.
• 3 conical flasks (100 ml), a
burette and a beaker.

Arseniuos sulphide sol,

0.1 M Sodium chloride
0.01M barium chloride
solution ,
0.001M aluminium chloride
1. Take 3 conical flasks and label1,2,3.
2. Add 20 ml of the arsenious sulphide sol to
each conical flask.
3. To the conical flask no.1 add drop wise
0.1 M nacl from the burette . Shake
gently after each drop of addition . Do it
till a yellow precipitate of arsenious
sulphide is just formed. Note down the
volume of nacl required to precipitate
arsenious sulphide sol.
4. Repeat the step 3 with 0.01 M as Bacl2
solution in conical flask no.2 . Note down
the volume required for the precipitation
of As2S3 sol.
5. Repeat the process with sol in conical
flask no.3 with 0.001M AlCl3 solution.
Measure the , As2S3 volume when a
yellow precipitate is formed.
i. The apparatus to be used
should be cleaned thoroughly .
ii. To detect the start of
precipitation , look vertically
down in conical flask.
iii. shake the conical flask gently
after the addition of each drop
of electrolyte .
• Together with
lab manual chemistry
class xii