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Archaea vs.

Bacteria
Diffen › Science › Biology › Microbiology

In the past, archaea were classified as bacteria and were


called archaebacteria. But it was discovered that archaea have a distinct
evolutionary history and biochemistry compared with bacteria.
The similarities are that archaea and eubacteria are single-celled
organisms that do not have a nucleus or organelles.

Comparison chart
Differences — Similarities —

Archaea Bacteria

Ribosomes Present Present

Cell wall Pseudopeptidoglycan Peptidoglycan / Lipopolysaccharide

Introduction The Archaea constitute a domain or Bacteria constitute a large domain of


Archaea Bacteria

(from kingdom of single-celled prokaryotic microorganisms.


Wikipedia) microorganisms. These microbes are Typically a few micrometres in length,
prokaryotes, meaning that they have no bacteria have a number of shapes,
cell nucleus or any other membrane- ranging from spheres to rods and
bound organelles in their cells. spirals.

Growth & Archae reproduce asexually by the Eubacteria reproduce asexually


Reproduction process of binary fission, budding and through binary fission, budding,
fragmentation. fragmentation, but eubacteria have the
unique ability to form spores to
remain dormant over years, a trait that
is not exhibited by Archae.

Habitat extreme and harsh environments like hot ubiquitous and are found in soil, hot
springs, salt lakes, marshlands, oceans, springs, radioactive waste water,
gut of ruminants and humans. Earth's crust, organic matter, bodies of
plants and animals etc.

Contents: Archaea vs Bacteria


 1 Size and shape

 2 Difference in Cell structure

 3 Flagella

 4 Reproduction and growth

 5 Habitat

 6 Video Explaining the Differences

 7 References

Size and shape


Both archaea and eubacteria are similar in shape and size. They are both found
occurring as rods, cocci, spirals, plates, coiled etc.

Difference in Cell structure


The general cell structure of archaea and bacteria are the same but composition
and organization of some structures differ in archaea. Similar to bacteria archaea
do not have interior membranes but both have cell wall and use flagella to
swim. Archaea differ in the fact that their cell wall does not contain
peptidoglycan and cell membrane uses ether linked lipids as opposed to ester
linked lipids in bacteria.

Flagella
Archaea flagella evolved from bacterial type IV pili while bacterial flagella
evolved from type III secretion system. Bacterial flagellum is like a stalk which is
hollow and is assembled by subunits that are free to move up the central pore
adding on to tip of flagella while in archaea flagella subunits are added on to the
base.

Reproduction and growth


Archaea reproduce asexually by the process of binary fission, budding and
fragmentation. Eubacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission, budding,
fragmentation, but eubacteria have the unique ability to form spores to remain
dormant over years, a trait that is not exhibited by Archaea. Bacteria growth
follows in three phases, the lag phase when cells adapt to new environment, log
phase marking exponential growth and stationary phase when nutrients get
depleted.

Habitat
Archaea can survive in extreme and harsh environments like hot springs, salt
lakes, marshlands, oceans, gut of ruminants and humans. Eubacteria are
ubiquitous and are found in soil, hot springs, radioactive waste water, Earth's
crust, organic matter, bodies of plants and animals etc.
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